Timeline of 1960s counterculture

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The following is a chronological capsule history of 1960s counterculture. Influential events and milestones years before and after the 1960s are included for context relevant to the subject period of the early 1960s through the mid 1970s.





  • April 13: Project MKUltra, the CIA's behavior control research program which grew to include testing LSD and extended sensory deprivation on both volunteer and unsuspecting American and Canadian subjects into the 1960s, commences. Secret detention camps in Europe and Asia are also set up for torture and experiments on prisoners.[7]
  • May 4: The "doors of perception" open for author Aldous Huxley as he takes mescaline for the first time. Humphrey Osmond guides the trip, and later correspondence between the two produces the term psychedelic.[8]: 67 
  • December: Marilyn Monroe centerfold: the first issue of Playboy magazine appears, published by Hugh Hefner.[9][10]




  • April 21: "Heartbreak Hotel": Elvis Presley's first number 1 hit tops the charts for eight weeks as Presley creates teenage pandemonium in households in the US and subsequently across the rest of the western world.[26]
  • August: The FBI's COINTELPRO domestic counterintelligence program commences. The surveillance effort is initially directed against stateside communist activities, but grows to include illegal invasions of privacy targeting civil rights and anti-war activists, particularly black activists.[27][28]








  • January: Black is Beautiful: The African Jazz-Art Society stages "Naturally '62," a fashion show in Harlem, popularizing the phrase which would become important to the culture of the civil rights movement.[108]
  • January 12: Operation Chopper: US forces participate in major combat in Vietnam for the first time.[109]
  • January 18: Operation Ranch Hand: The US military begins the use of extremely toxic and carcinogenic defoliants in Vietnam. Use of the dioxin-containing Agent Orange begins in 1965.[110]
  • February 4: Escalation: In another of the first air actions of the deepening conflict, US helicopters assist the South Vietnamese Army in the capture of Hung My.[111]
  • February 26: Soviet Deputy Foreign Minister Valerian Zorin warns the UN that the Americans "are getting bogged down in a very disadvantageous and politically unjustified war (in Vietnam) which will entail very unpleasant consequences for them."[112]
  • March 16: US Defense Secretary Robert McNamara reveals that US troops in Vietnam have engaged in ground combat.
  • March 19: Bob Dylan's self-named first album is released. It reaches #13 in the UK, but does not chart on the Billboard 200 in the US. Dylan's second album, The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan, makes an enormous impact on the US folk and pop music scenes in 1963.[113]
  • March 31: Cesar Chavez begins organizing migrant farm workers in California.[114]
  • June 15: The SDS completes the Port Huron Statement, its manifesto calling for participatory democracy and non-violent civil disobedience as well as outlining its perceived problems with modern society.[115]
  • July–August: The Albany Movement civil rights protest against segregation is active in Albany, GA.
  • August 5: Film star Marilyn Monroe dies of a barbiturate overdose under suspicious circumstances in Los Angeles. Monroe's death is a precursor to an explosion of recreational use of highly addictive prescription drugs (and thousands of accidental pill overdose deaths) during the counterculture era, even as legitimate use of these drugs is already in decline.[116][117]
  • September 12: John F. Kennedy speaks at Rice University: "... we choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard ..."[118]
  • September 27: Silent Spring: Following a growing groundswell of reports on the deleterious effects of DDT use on the ecosystem, Rachel Carson's exposé is published and the modern environmental movement begins.[119][120]
  • October 1: Following a riot which leaves 2 dead and over 300 injured on September 30, James Meredith is the first African-American student to enter "Ole Miss".[121][122]
  • October 5: "Love Me Do": The Beatles' first single is released in the UK. From this modest beginning the group eventually goes on to sell over 600 million records worldwide and remains the best selling musical group of all time. Earlier in the year, Decca Records and others had chosen not to sign the group.[123][124][125]
  • October 16–28: The Cuban Missile Crisis brings the world to the brink of nuclear war after the USSR attempts to station missiles with nuclear warheads in Cuba, thereby directly challenging the longstanding Monroe Doctrine and threatening the US. On October 22, President Kennedy bluntly addresses the nation on the matter of "highest national urgency" and discusses the possibility of global nuclear war, terrifying the nation and world. JFK's generals advise him to invade Cuba, but Kennedy orders a naval blockade instead. The Soviets back down and remove the missiles.[126][127][128]
  • December: The USAF Skybolt air-launched ballistic missile program is canceled by President Kennedy.[129]
  • Inspired by Aldous Huxley's Human Potential Movement, Michael Murphy and Dick Price found the Esalen Institute in Big Sur, California.[130]
  • Sex and the Single Girl: Helen Gurley Brown's post-pill career and dating manual becomes a best-seller. Brown's attempt to have the book "banned" for marketing purposes fails, but early sales top two million copies. Brown goes on to edit influential Cosmopolitan Magazine for over 30 years.[131]
  • The Other America: Michael Harrington's compelling study of the intractable plight of the poor in the US is published. The book is later credited as inspirational to LBJ's "War on poverty."[132]
  • Ken Kesey's One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest is published. The novel draws in part from Kesey's experiences as an MKUltra volunteer. An Oscar-winning adaptation hits theaters in 1975.[133][134]
  • Seven Days in May, a novel depicting a foiled military coup in the US, is published. A film follows in 1964 with an all-star cast.[135]







  • Tom Wolfe's The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test is published.[400]
  • January: Owsley-inspired pioneer Heavy Metal band Blue Cheer release Vincebus Eruptum, as early metal ground-breakers Iron Butterfly release their debut Heavy.[401][402]
  • January 22: Laugh-In: The sketch comedy "phenomenon that both reflected and mocked the era's counterculture", and brought it into "mainstream living rooms", debuts on US TV.[403][404]
  • January 31: The Tet Offensive is launched by the NVA and Vietcong. Western forces are victorious on the battlefield, but not in the press.[405][406]
  • February 1: Following the free-form programming experimentations at KFRC-FM in San Francisco, WABX-FM in Detroit and other stations nationwide begin to officially change format. FM playlists and other content are now chosen by local DJs, not corporate executives or record companies. The Progressive Rock format takes hold.[407]
  • February 4: Beat figure and Merry Prankster Neal Cassady dies in Mexico of unknown causes at age 41.[408]
  • February 8: Orangeburg Massacre: Police fire on and kill three protesting segregation at a South Carolina bowling alley.[409]
  • February 15: The Beatles in India: All four Beatles, along with fellow devotees such as Mike Love, Donovan and Mia Farrow, journey to Rishikesh in India to study Transcendental Meditation under Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. John Lennon and George Harrison are the last of the celebrities to leave; they depart amid unsubstantiated rumors of the Maharishi's sexual impropriety toward some of the female students[410] and the band members' suspicions that he was using their fame for self-promotion.[411]
  • February 27: 1950s teen vocal star Frankie Lymon dies of a heroin overdose in New York City at age 25.[412]
  • February 29: Kerner Report: The Report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders is released after seven months of investigation into US urban rioting, and states that "our nation is moving towards two societies, one black, one white – separate and unequal."[413][414]
  • March 16: My Lai Massacre in Vietnam. Apparent wanton rape and murder of innocents by US GIs creates enormous new anti-war outcry when news leaks in 1969.[415][416][417]
  • March 17: London police stop 10,000 anti-war marchers from violently storming the US Embassy. 200 are arrested. The protest serves as partial inspiration for the Rolling Stones' most notable political foray, "Street Fighting Man".[418][419][420]
  • March 18: RFK In: NY Senator Robert F. Kennedy, a long-time supporter of US policy in Vietnam, speaks out against the war for the first time, and announces his candidacy for President.[421]
  • March 22: 3,000 Yippies take over Grand Central Station in New York City, staging a "Yip-In" that ultimately results in an "extraordinary display of unprovoked police brutality" and 61 arrests.[422][423][424]
  • March 31: LBJ Out: Embattled President Lyndon Johnson addresses the US public about Vietnam on TV, and shocks the nation with his closing remark that he will focus on the war effort and not seek a second elected term as President.[425]
  • Spring: Reggae: "Nanny Goat" by Larry Marshall, and Do the Reggay by Toots and the Maytals mark the arrival of a new musical genre.[426][427] Johnny Nash ("Hold Me Tight"), and Paul McCartney ("Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da") are inspired by the Jamaican sound.[428]
  • March–May: Columbia University protests, New York City. Up Against the Wall Motherfuckers becomes a protest slogan at this time, as well as the name of a radical activist group.[429]
  • April: The US Department of Defense begins calling-up reservists for duty in Vietnam. The US Supreme Court turns down a challenge to the mobilization in October.[430]
  • April 4: MLK Assassinated: The Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated in Memphis, TN. Drifter James Earl Ray is soon arrested for the murder. The King family later expresses complete doubt as to Ray's guilt.[431] Violence erupts in cities across the US, with thousands of Federal guardsman dispatched. Memphis, TN, Chicago, IL, Baltimore, MD, Kansas City, MO, and Washington, DC are hotspots.[432]
  • April 5: A Yippie plot to disrupt the upcoming August Democratic Convention in Chicago is published in Time.[433]
  • April 6: Oakland Shootout: Black Panther Bobby Hutton is killed and Eldridge Cleaver is wounded in a gun battle with police. Cleaver later claims that Hutton was murdered while in police custody.[434]
  • April 8: The US Bureau of Narcotics (from Treasury) and Bureau of Drug Abuse Control (from the Food and Drug Administration) merge into the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, substantially ramping-up anti-drug efforts.[435]
  • April 14: The Easter Sunday "Love-In" is held in Malibu Canyon, CA.[436]
  • April 27: Anti-war protesters march in several US cities, including 87,000 in Central Park, NYC.
  • May: The Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers first appear in The Rag, an Austin TX underground paper.[437][438]
  • May 2: MAI 68: Massive student protests erupt in France which escalate and spread, leading to a general strike and widespread civil unrest during May and June, bringing the country to a virtual standstill.[439]
  • May 10: The Paris Peace Talks commence in France. The war in Southeast Asia is the subject of the negotiations.[440][441][442]
  • May 12: Dr. King's Poor People's Campaign establishes "Resurrection City", a shanty town on the National Mall in Washington D.C., with around 5,000 protesters.
  • May 17: Catonsville Nine: Catholic priests opposed to the war including Daniel Berrigan destroy draft records in a Maryland draft office.[443][444][445]
  • May 24–27: Louisville Riots: After a claim of police brutality, police and thousands of National Guard confront rioting protesters and looters. Two black teens die before order is restored.[446]
  • June 3: Artist Andy Warhol is shot and wounded by a "radical feminist" writer.[447][448][449]
  • June 5: RFK Assassinated: Senator Robert Francis Kennedy, winner of the California primary earlier that day, and the new presumptive Democratic presidential front-runner, is mortally wounded in Los Angeles. RFK dies June 6.[450]
  • June 19: "Solidarity Day" protest at Resurrection City draws 55,000 participants.
  • June 24: Remnants of "Resurrection City", with only about 300 protesters still remaining, razed by riot police.
  • July 17: The Beatles' post-psychedelic, pop-art animated film Yellow Submarine is released in the UK (November 13 in the US).[451][452]
  • July 28–30: University of California, Berkeley campus shut down by protests.
  • August 21: Prague Spring: Communist tanks roll in Czechoslovakia and crush the popular anti-Soviet uprising which began in January.[453]
  • August 25–29: Democratic National Convention in Chicago. The proceedings are overshadowed by massive protests staged by thousands of demonstrators of every stripe.[454] Mayor Daley's desire to enforce order in the city results in egregious police brutality, televised on national airwaves. On the third night, police indiscriminately attack protesters and bystanders, including journalists Mike Wallace, Dan Rather and Hugh Hefner. The spectacle is a turning point for both supporters and critics of the larger movement.
  • August 26: Revolution?: Lennon's B-side to McCartney's smash "Hey Jude" is released. Its eschewing of violent protest is seen as a betrayal by some on the left. A version recorded earlier is released in November and suggests indecision as to Lennon's stance on violence.[455]
  • August 31: First Isle of Wight Festival featuring Jefferson Airplane, Arthur Brown, The Move, T-Rex and The Pretty Things.
  • September 7: Miss America Protest: Feminists demonstrate against what they call "The Degrading Mindless-Boob-Girlie Symbol," filling a "freedom trash can" with items including mops, pots and pans, Cosmopolitan and Playboy magazines, false eyelashes, high-heeled shoes, curlers, hairspray, makeup, girdles, corsets, and bras. The widely reported "burning of bras" is, however, a myth.[456][457]
  • September 24: The Mod Squad: "One Black, One White, One Blonde" is the tagline for the hip, troubled-kids-turned-cops TV police drama which debuts on ABC.[458]
  • September 28: 10,000 in Chicago protest on one-month anniversary of the convention violence.
  • Fall: Stewart Brand begins publication of The Whole Earth Catalog.[459][460]
  • October 2: Tlatelolco massacre: Students and police violently clash in Mexico City.[461]
  • October 16: Mexico '68: Medal-winning American sprinters Tommie Smith and John Carlos raise their gloved hands on the Olympic award podium to protest global human rights shortcomings. Their demonstration is met with both international praise and death threats alike.[462][463]
  • October 18: John Lennon and Yoko Ono are arrested for drug possession in London. Lennon is only fined for his first offence, and more serious obstruction charges against the pair are dropped, but the arrest will later serve as the pretext for the politically motivated attempted deportation of Lennon from the US in the 1970s.[464]
  • October 25: Emile de Antonio's highly controversial and Oscar nominated anti-war documentary In the Year of the Pig (per the Chinese "Year of the Pig") is released. Although it is otherwise reported, and de Antonio aspires to the leftist badge of honor, de Antonio technically never appears on President Nixon's Enemies List.[465][466][467]
  • October 27: 25,000 march in London against the Vietnam war.[468]
  • October 31: President Johnson orders a halt to the aerial bombing of North Vietnam.[469][470]
  • November 5: Former Vice President Richard M. Nixon defeats sitting VP Hubert Humphrey, and the George Wallace/Curtis Lemay ticket in a close race. Nixon in January becomes the 37th President of the US, ending eight years of Democratic Party control of the White House.[471][472]
  • November 6: Head: The Monkees delve into psychedelia in an ambitious but unpromoted and little seen film co-written and co-produced by Jack Nicholson.[473][474]
  • November 6: Students demanding minority studies courses begin a strike at San Francisco State College, where demonstrations and clashes occur into March 1969, making it the longest student strike in US history.[475][476][477]
  • November 11: Two Virgins: John Lennon and Yoko Ono's experimental album is released. Beatles distributors EMI (for Parlophone/Gramophone labels) and Capitol (for Apple label) refuse distribution, as the cover features the couple in shocking full frontal nudity. Lennon later describes the cover as a depiction of two slightly overweight ex-junkies.[478][479][480]
  • November 22: The Beatles' self-titled double album, also known as the "White Album", is released. The band's hair is very long, and the musical content is not psychedelic.[481]
  • December 24: Earthrise: A striking photograph of the Earth taken from lunar orbit is called "the most influential environmental photograph ever taken."[482]


  • January 8–18: Students at Brandeis University take over Ford and Sydeman Halls, demanding creation of an Afro-American Dept., which is approved by the University on April 24.[483]
  • January 28: Santa Barbara Oil Spill: The environmental movement moves into high gear after an offshore oil well blows out and dumps 100,000 barrels of crude oil onto the California coast, killing wildlife and fouling beaches for years to come.[484]
  • January 29: Sir George Williams Computer Riot: the largest student campus occupation in Canadian history results in millions in damage in Montreal.[485]
  • January 30: Let it Be: The Beatles plus Billy Preston perform in public as a group for the last time on the roof atop their offices in London. Footage of the performance appears on the film documenting the sessions for the album.[486]
  • January 30 – February 15: Administration building of University of Chicago taken over by around 400 student protesters in a "sit-in".
  • February: Esquire Magazine features a cover story declaring: "Chicks Up Front! How Troublemakers Use Girls to Put Down the Cops" and other tactics of the radical left.[487]
  • February 13: National Guard with tear gas and riot sticks crush demonstrations at the University of Wisconsin, Madison.[488]
  • February 16: After three days of clashes between police and Duke University students, the school agrees to establish a Black Studies program.
  • February 24: Tinker v. Des Moines: The US Supreme court affirms public school students' First Amendment rights to protest the war.[489]
  • March 1: Do You Want to See My Cock?: Arrest warrants are issued for Doors frontman Jim Morrison after he allegedly exposes himself and simulates masturbation and fellatio at a concert in Miami, FL. In 2010, Morrison is posthumously pardoned by Florida's Clemency Board.[490][491]
  • March 12: George Harrison and Pattie Boyd are arrested for pot possession in London.[492]
  • March 22: President Nixon condemns trend of campus takeovers and violence.
  • March 25–31: Following their wedding at Gibraltar, John Lennon and Yoko Ono hold a "Bed-In" peace event in Amsterdam.[493]
  • April: US troop strength in Vietnam peaks at over 543,000.[494][495]
  • April 3–4: National Guard called into Chicago, and Memphis placed on curfew on anniversary of Dr. King's assassination.
  • April 4: After a decline in ratings, and ongoing pressure over highly controversial content, CBS cancels the Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour. Writers including Mason Williams, Carl Gottlieb, Bob Einstein, Rob Reiner, Steve Martin, and Pat Paulsen move on to other projects.[496][497]
  • April 9: 300 students "sit-in" at offices of Harvard protesting the ROTC. 400 police restore order April 10. The college makes ROTC extracurricular April 19.
  • April 19: Armed black students take over Willard Straight Hall at Cornell. The University accedes to their demands the following day, promising an Afro-American studies program.
  • April 25–28: Activist students takeover Merrill House at Colgate University demanding Afro-American studies programs.
  • May 7: Students at Howard University occupy eight buildings. They are cleared by US Marshals May 9.
  • May 8: City College of New York closes following a 14-day-long student takeover demanding minority studies; riots among students break out when CCNY tries to reopen.
  • May 9–11: Zip to Zap: Several thousand college students flock to a party event in rural North Dakota, which degenerates into a "riot" later dispersed by the National Guard.[498]
  • May 15: Bloody Thursday: Alameda County Sheriffs and National Guardsman authorized by governor Ronald Reagan move to eject unlawful protestors from People's Park at Berkeley. They open fire with buckshot-loaded shotguns, mortally wounding student James Rector, permanently blinding carpenter Alan Blanchard, and inflicting lesser wounds on several others.[499]
  • May 21–25: 1969 Greensboro uprising: student protesters battle police for five days on campus of North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University; one student killed May 22. National Guard assault the campus using tear gas, even dropping it by helicopter.
  • May 23: Tommy: The Who's Rock Opera is a smash.[500]
  • May 26 – June 2: Give Peace a Chance: Celebrities gather as John and Yoko conduct their second Bed-In in Montreal, where the anti-war anthem is recorded live.[501]
  • June: Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Sex* (*But Were Afraid to Ask) is published and becomes a bestseller.[502]
  • June 18: SDS convenes in Chicago; they oust the Progressive Labor Party faction June 28, which sets up its own rival convention.
  • June 22: Judy Garland, superstar of stage, screen, TV, and song, and early icon for the LGBT community, dies of an accidental barbiturate overdose, Chelsea, London.[503][504]
  • June 28: The Stonewall Riots in New York City are the first major gay-rights uprisings in the US.[505]
  • July 3: Brian Jones, founder of the Rolling Stones, dies "by misadventure" in his swimming pool in East Sussex, UK, under mysterious circumstances at age 27.[506]
  • July 5: The Stones in the Park: Shocked by the overdose death of former bandmate Brian Jones, the grieving Rolling Stones continue with their much-anticipated free concert before a massive crowd at Hyde Park, London.[507][508]
  • July 14: Easy Rider: The low-budget, cocaine-dealing biker road movie is released and becomes a de facto cultural landmark. The film's success helps open doors for independent film makers of the 1970s. The soundtrack includes Steppenwolf's seminal ode to bikers "Born to be Wild," and the early anti-drug dirge "The Pusher."[509][510][511]
  • July 15: Cover story on LOOK: "How Hippies Raise their Children"[512]
  • July 18: Cover story on Life: "The Youth Communes – New Way of Living Confronts the U.S."[513]
  • July 20: Apollo 11's Apollo Lunar Module lands. Humans walk on the Moon. A plaque with the inscription "We Came in Peace for All Mankind" is left on the lunar surface.[514]
  • July 21: Andy Warhol's Blue Movie premieres at the New Andy Warhol Garrick Theatre. The movie is a seminal film in the Golden Age of Porn and helps inaugurate the "porno chic"[515][516] phenomenon in modern American culture, and later, in many other countries throughout the world.[517][518]
  • July 25: Vietnamization: RMN's Nixon Doctrine calls on Asian regional allies formerly guaranteed protection under treaty to fend for themselves in non-nuclear conflicts.
  • August 9–10: Helter Skelter: Actress Sharon Tate, Tate's unborn baby, and five others are viciously murdered at knifepoint by cult members acting under the direction of psychopath Charles Manson during a two-day killing spree in California. The events shock the nation. For many, the crimes and Manson's "family" are seen as products of the counterculture.[519][520][521][522]
  • August 15–18: Woodstock: An estimated 300,000–500,000 people gather in upstate New York for "3 Days of Peace & Music" at the watershed event in counterculture history.[523][524]
  • August 19: Immediately following Woodstock, David Crosby, Stephen Stills, Joni Mitchell and Jefferson Airplane appear on the Dick Cavett Show. The Airplane's lyric "Up against the wall, motherfuckers!" in the performance of "We Can Be Together" slips past the censors and airs on national television.[525]
  • August 30–31: Second Isle of Wight Festival attracts 150,000 people to see acts including Bob Dylan and The Band, The Who, Free, Joe Cocker, and the Moody Blues.
  • September: Penthouse: The first US issue of Robert Guccione's explicit monthly hits newsstands, and is later called "the adult magazine that wormed its way into the kinkier recesses of the libidinal subconscious and, arguably, did more to liberate puritan America from its deepest sexual taboos than any magazine before or since."[526]
  • September 1–2: Race rioting in Hartford, CT and Camden, NJ.
  • September 2: Ho Chi Minh, President of communist North Vietnam, aggressor and prime mover of the Vietnam War, dies. Ho's war rages on after his death.[527]
  • September 6: H.R. Pufnstuf: the highly novel, surreal Saturday morning children's show debuts on US TV.[528]
  • September 24: The Chicago Eight trial commences. Tom Hayden, Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, et al., face charges including conspiracy to incite riots during the 1968 Democratic National Convention. They become the Chicago Seven November 5 after defendant Bobby Seale is bound, gagged, and severed from the proceedings.
  • September 29: "Okie from Muskogee": Country legend Merle Haggard's song is a huge hit with those opposed to drug use and the protest activities of the counterculture.[529][530]
  • October 4: TV star Art Linkletter's daughter Diane, 20, jumps to her death from her 6th story apartment. The elder Linkletter claims Timothy Leary and LSD are responsible.[531]
  • October 8–11: Days of Rage: Elements of the SDS and the Weather Underground faction continue radical efforts to "bring the war home" in Chicago, and exchange brutalities with Chicago Police.[532]
  • October 15: Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam: Massive anti-war demonstrations across the US and world.
  • October 21: Jack Kerouac dies from complications of alcoholism in Florida at age 47.[533]
  • October 29: "login": The first message on the ARPANET – precursor to the internet and WWW – is sent by UCLA student programmer Charley Kline.[534]
  • November 13: Vice President Spiro T. Agnew publicly criticizes the three mainstream television networks for their lack of favorable coverage.
  • November 15: Moratorium redux: over 500,000 march in Washington, DC. It is the largest anti-war demonstration in US history.[535]
  • November 20: Native American protesters begin the Occupation of Alcatraz, which continues for 19 months.[536]
  • December: Total US casualties (dead and seriously wounded) in Vietnam total 100,000.
  • December 1: The first draft lottery in the US since World War II is held in New York City and broadcast live on CBS. Later statistical analysis indicates the lottery method (birthdates in capsules pulled from a hand-rotated drum) is flawed, leaving certain birthdates more likely to be drawn than others.[537][538]
  • December 4: Black Panther Fred Hampton is killed by combined elements of Federal, Illinois State, and Chicago law enforcement under circumstances which to some suggest political assassination.[539]
  • December 6: Altamont: The Rolling Stones help organize and headline at a free concert attended by 300,000. The event, intended as a "Woodstock West," devolves into chaos and violent death at a speedway between Tracy and Livermore, CA.[540][541]
  • December 27–31: Flint War Council, Michigan. SDS is abolished, the Weathermen break off, and one of the most significant seditious revolts since the US Civil War emerges.[542]
  • Wavy Gravy's Hog Farm Hippie commune is established near Llano, NM.
  • Friends of the Earth is founded in the US. It becomes an international network in 1971.
  • Making of a Counter Culture: Theodore Roszak's Reflections on the Technocratic Society is published. Roszak is later credited with coining the term "counterculture" in print.[543]



  • President Nixon establishes the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The agency is activated in December 1970.
  • January 1: Voting age in Britain lowered from 21 to 18.
  • January 10: Musician, hippie, and philanthropic margarine heir Michael J. Brody, Jr. announces he will give away his fortune, which he reports to be $25–50 million.[544][545][546]
  • January 31: Set Up, Like a Bowling Pin: 19 people including members of the Grateful Dead and Owsley Stanley are busted for drugs in New Orleans. The episode makes the cover of Rolling Stone in March, and is later mentioned in the Dead song "Truckin' ".[547][548]
  • February: Weather Underground bombings and arsons in US states of NY, CA, WA, MD, & MI.
  • February 18: Chicago 7 verdicts are handed down: two are exonerated, five are soon sentenced for "crossing state lines with intent to incite a riot", but all the convictions and sentences are later reversed.
  • February 23–26: Students riot at University of California-Santa Barbara.
  • February 25–28: Students riot, occupy campus buildings, etc. at SUNY Buffalo, NY.
  • March 6: Greenwich Village townhouse explosion: Three members of the Weather Underground are killed while assembling a bomb in New York City.[549]
  • March 26: The documentary film Woodstock is released.
  • Late March: Fleetwood Mac founder Peter Green and bandmate Danny Kirwan get waylaid at a bizarre party at the Highfisch-Kommune cult/commune, Munich. After apparently taking LSD, both Green and Kirwan thereafter reportedly suffer from lifelong mental illness.[550][551]
  • April 1: Jerry Rubin guest appears the Phil Donahue Show and lambastes Donahue for his conservative appearance.
  • April 7: California Governor Ronald Reagan is quoted on college campus student unrest: "If it takes a blood bath, let's get it over with."[552]
  • April 7: X-Rated Midnight Cowboy wins three Oscars including Best Picture in Hollywood.[553][554]
  • April 10: Paul McCartney, when promoting his first solo album, announces that the Beatles have disbanded.
  • April 15: 100,000 gather on Boston Common to protest the Vietnam War; about 500 radicals attempt to seize microphone, disrupting meeting.
  • April 22: Earth Day: The first event recognizing the precarious environmental state of planet earth is held.[555][556]
  • April 30: President Nixon reveals secret US military operations in Cambodia.
  • May 1–3: 13,000 people take part in peaceful demonstrations at Yale University in support of defendants in the New Haven Black Panther trials.
  • May 2: Radicals among the students at Kent State University protesting the spread of the war into Cambodia burn the ROTC building to the ground. Ohio Governor Jim Rhodes calls in the National Guard at the request of Kent's Mayor.[557]
  • May 4: In what is perhaps the greatest tragedy of the stateside anti-war protest movement, poorly trained soldiers of the Ohio National Guard are set loose into confrontation with – and open fire on – unarmed students at Kent State University leaving four dead and nine wounded, including Dean Kahler, who was paralyzed.[558]
  • May 4: Holding Together: A benefit for Timothy Leary is held at the Village Gate in NYC. Jimi Hendrix and Johnny Winter perform.[559][560]
  • May 5: The International Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty takes effect.
  • May 6: Student Strike of 1970: Many colleges across the US shut down in protest of the war and the Kent State events.
  • May 8: Hard Hat Riot: Construction workers confront anti-war demonstrators, Wall St., New York City. They march again May 11. On May 20, 100,000 construction workers and longshoremen demonstrate in favor of administration war policy at New York City Hall.[561]
  • May 8: Attempting to "rescue" his child from what he believes to be a hippie commune, father Arville Garland murders his daughter Sandra and three others as they sleep in Detroit. The events are eerily similar to those depicted in the hippie-bashing film Joe, which was filmed prior to – but released after – the murders.[562][563]
  • May 9: 100,000 rally against war in Washington, DC. At 4:15am, President Nixon defies Secret Service security, and leaves the White House to meet and chat with surprised protesters camping out at the Lincoln Memorial.[564][565][566]
  • May 14: Jackson State killings: Police kill two and injure 11 during violent student demonstrations at Jackson State College, MS. This is two days after six African-American men were fatally shot in the back for violating curfew in Augusta by the Georgia National Guard.
  • May 19: Student riot at Fresno State University.
  • May 21: 5,000 National Guard troops occupy Ohio State University following violence.
  • June 11: Daniel Berrigan is arrested by the FBI for kidnapping/bombing conspiracy.
  • June 12: Major League Baseball pitcher Dock Ellis takes LSD on what he mistakenly believes is an off day, and throws a no-hitter. Ellis later quits drugs, becomes a recovery counselor, and expresses regret over drug abuse during his playing career.[567][568]
  • June 13: President Nixon appoints the President's Commission on Campus Unrest. The report issued in September finds a direct correlation between the unrest and the level of US military involvement in Indochina.
  • June 15: The US Supreme Court confirms conscientious objector protection on moral grounds.
  • June 22: The US voting age is lowered to 18. This is soon challenged and overturned in the Supreme Court, leading to the swift adoption of the 26th Amendment on June 1, 1971 guaranteeing suffrage at 18.
  • June 27–28: Bath Festival of Blues and Progressive Music, Shepton Mallet, Somerset, UK, featuring Hot Tuna, Fleetwood Mac, Led Zeppelin, Pink Floyd and many more.
  • July: Huston Plan: A broad, cross-agency scheme for illegal domestic surveillance of anti-war figures is concocted by a White House staffer, and accepted but then quickly quashed by President Nixon. Elements of the plan were, however, allegedly implemented in any event.[569][570][571]
  • August 6: Riot police evacuate Disneyland in Anaheim, CA after a few hundred Yippies stage a protest.
  • August 17: Communist activist Angela Davis appears on the FBI's Ten Most Wanted list after a firearm purchased in her name is linked to a murder plot involving a judge.[572]
  • August 24: The Sterling Hall Bombing at the University of Wisconsin in Madison by anti-war activists kills physics researcher Robert Fassnacht. Four others are severely injured, and millions of dollars in damages occur.[573]
  • August 26: Women's Strike for Equality: 50 years after US women's suffrage, 20,000 celebrate and march in New York City, demanding true equality for women in American life.[574]
  • August 26–31: 600,000+ attend Third Isle of Wight Festival. Over fifty acts including The Who, Hendrix, Miles Davis, The Doors, Ten Years After, ELP, Joni Mitchell, and Jethro Tull.
  • August 29–30: Rioting and violence erupts at Chicano Moratorium anti-war rally in Los Angeles; reporter Rubén Salazar is killed by a tear gas shell.
  • September: Jesus Christ Superstar, the Christian Rock Opera, debuts as an album. It later becomes a smash on Broadway and on film.[575]
  • September: Alan "Blind Owl" Wilson, acclaimed musician and co-founder of Canned Heat, dies of a prescription barbiturate overdose at Topanga Canyon, CA, at age 27.[576]
  • September 12: Timothy Leary escapes prison with help from the Weather Underground, and joins Eldridge Cleaver in Algiers.
  • September 16: London: Apolitical hard rock act Led Zeppelin end the Beatles' 8-year run as Melody Maker's world #1 group of the year.
  • September 18: Influential musician Jimi Hendrix dies from complications of a probable drug overdose at age 27 in London.
  • September 19: Pilton Pop, Blues & Folk Festival, the first ever Glastonbury Festival, features T-Rex and is attended by 1,500 people.
  • October: The Female Eunuch: Germaine Greer's pro-feminist bestseller is published.[577]
  • October: Keith Stroup founds NORML, a group working to end marijuana prohibition, in Washington, DC.
  • October 4: Janis Joplin, rock's first solo female superstar, dies as the result of an apparent accidental heroin overdose at age 27 in Los Angeles.
  • October 13: Political activist Angela Davis is arrested on kidnapping, murder, and conspiracy charges.
  • October 26: Doonesbury debuts as a syndicated comic strip, acknowledges the counterculture, and continues to chronicle events into the 21st century.[578]
  • October 29: President Nixon is pelted with eggs by an unfriendly crowd of 2000 after giving a speech in San Jose, CA.
  • November 7: Jerry Rubin appears live on The David Frost Show and tries to pass a joint to the talkshow host, the signal for Yippies in the audience to rush the stage and protest.
  • December 6: The Maysles Brothers release their film documentary of Altamont: Gimme Shelter.
  • December 21: Elvis Presley arrives unannounced at the White House. The King meets and is photographed with President Nixon. They discuss patriotism, hippies, and the war on drugs.[579][580][581]
  • December 25: Laguna Beach Christmas Happening: Thousands gather for an extended hippie festival, featuring an airdrop of hundreds of Christmas cards, each containing a dose of "Orange Sunshine" LSD courtesy of The Brotherhood of Eternal Love, or the "Hippie Mafia," an acid-manufacturing and hash-smuggling organization bent on "psychedelic revolution."[582][583]
  • December: Paul McCartney sues to dissolve the Beatles.
  • The violent Black Liberation Army is formed in the US. A series of bombings, murders, robberies, prison breaks, and an airline hijacking ensue before the group fades from view in the early 1980s.[584]


  • January 2: The ban on cigarette advertising on US TV and radio takes effect.[585]
  • January 12: Styled after the UK TV hit Till Death Us Do Part, the long-running US smash All in the Family debuts with Rob Reiner as Michael Stivic, the counterculture's college-educated answer to the working-class Archie Bunker.[586][587]
  • January 31: Police fire on a peace march in Los Angeles, killing one.
  • February 4: A military induction center in Oakland, CA is bombed.
  • February 4–8: Rioting in Wilmington, NC leaves 2 dead.
  • February 13: An induction center in Atlanta, GA is bombed.
  • February 21: The UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances is signed in Vienna, with the intention of controlling psychoactive drugs such as amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and psychedelics at the international level.[89]
  • March 1: The US Capitol building is bombed by war protesters; no injuries, but extensive damage results.
  • March 5: The FCC says that it can penalize radio stations for playing music that seems to glorify or promote illegal drug usage.
  • March 8: The Fight of the Century: Conscientious Objector and counterculture hero Muhammad Ali loses to default symbol of the pro-war right Joe Frazier at Madison Square Garden, NYC, in what is widely considered to be the greatest heavyweight fight in boxing history.[588][589][590]
  • March 11: Rioting at University of Puerto Rico leaves 3 dead.
  • April 23: Vietnam veterans protest against the war at the US Capitol in Washington, DC, throw their medals on the steps, and testify to US war crimes.
  • April 24: 500,000 protesters rally at US Capitol to petition for an end to the war; 200,000 rally against the war in San Francisco.
  • May 3: Over 12,000 anti-war protesters are arrested on the third day of the 1971 May Day Protests in Washington, DC.
  • May 10: Attorney General John N. Mitchell compares the anti-war protesters to Nazis, and on May 13, calls them Communists.
  • May 12: The wedding of Mick Jagger and Nicaraguan beauty Bianca Pérez-Mora Macias is celebrated by hippies and jet-setters alike, but is marred by a media circus with fisticuffs at Saint-Tropez on the French Riviera. The couple splits in 1977.[591][592][593]
  • May 17: The play Godspell opens in New York, depicting Jesus and his disciples in a contemporary, countercultural milieu.
  • May 21: Marvin Gaye releases the socially conscious album What's Going On.[594][595]
  • May 31: US military personnel in London petition at US Embassy against the Vietnam War.
  • June 13: Pentagon Papers: The New York Times publishes the first excerpt of illegally leaked secret US military documents detailing US intervention in Indochina since 1945. A Federal Court injunction on June 15 temporarily stops the releases.[596]
  • June 18: The Washington Post publishes excerpts from the Pentagon Papers, halted by court order the following day.
  • June 20–24 : 'Glastonbury Fayre', the second Glastonbury Festival, features David Bowie, Traffic, Fairport Convention, and the first incarnation of the "Pyramid Stage".
  • June 22: The Boston Globe publishes Pentagon Papers excerpts; this is halted by injunction on the 23rd and the newspapers are impounded.
  • June 28: Muhammad Ali's conviction for draft resistance is unanimously overturned by the US Supreme Court in Washington, DC.
  • June 28: President Nixon releases all 47 volumes of Pentagon Papers to Congress.
  • June 30: Supreme Court rules 6–3 that newspapers have a right to publish the Pentagon Papers. The Times and Post resume publication the following day.
  • July 3: Jim Morrison, founding member of The Doors, dies of a probable heroin overdose at age 27 in Paris.[597]
  • July 7: Two-Lane Blacktop: The cult classic starring Dennis Wilson and James Taylor premieres.[598]
  • August 1: Concert for Bangladesh: George Harrison and Ravi Shankar, and friends including Ringo Starr, Eric Clapton, Leon Russell, Billy Preston and Bob Dylan, stage a landmark charity event in New York City. Popular albums and a film follow, and the shows become a model for huge rock benefits such as Live Aid.[599]
  • August 18: Attorney General Mitchell announces there will be no Federal investigation of the 1970 Kent State shootings.
  • August: Cheech & Chong's eponymous first album is released.[600]
  • September 3: Burglars operating under the direction of White House officials break into the office of Daniel Ellsburg's psychiatrist in a botched attempt to find files to discredit the Pentagon Papers leaker.[601]
  • September 9: Attica: Prisoners take control, hold hostages, and riot over rights and living conditions at Attica State Prison, NY. 39 die (including 10 corrections officers) before most prisoner demands are met and order is restored.[602]
  • September 15: Greenpeace is founded in Vancouver, BC and soon becomes the most prominent, and most controversial, international activist environmental organization.[603][604]
  • October: est, the controversial self-improvement training program holds its first conference in San Francisco.[605]
  • October 8: Three FBI informants reveal on PBS that they were paid to infiltrate anti-war groups and instigate them to commit violent acts which could be prosecuted.
  • October 19–23: Rioting in Memphis leaves one dead.
  • October 29: Guitar phenomenon Duane Allman of the Allman Brothers Band is killed in a motorcycle accident in Macon, GA at age 24. Allman bassist Berry Oakley dies, also in a motorcycle crash, only blocks away the following year.[606]
  • November 10: Berkeley, CA City Council votes to provide sanctuary to all military deserters.
  • November 10: Ringo Starr and Keith Moon co-star with Frank Zappa and the Mothers of Invention in Zappa's "surrealistic documentary" 200 Motels.[607]
  • November 16: Socialite, early supermodel, and Andy Warhol "Superstar" Edie Sedgwick dies at 28 after an overdose of alcohol and barbiturates, Santa Barbara, CA.[608]
  • November: Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas, Hunter S. Thompson's drug-drenched indictment of 1960s counterculture, is published in Rolling Stone in 2 parts.
  • December 4: Smoke on the Water: Rockers Deep Purple are disrupted in the process of recording Machine Head when the hall they intend to use for recording is burned down by a fan during a Frank Zappa concert, Montreux, Switzerland.[609][610][611]
  • December 10: John Sinclair Freedom Rally: John Lennon and other notables including Stevie Wonder and Bob Seger perform, and Bobby Seale, Jerry Rubin, Allen Ginsberg, Rennie Davis, Ed Sanders and others speak at Crisler Arena in Ann Arbor to protest the treatment of Sinclair, who gave two pot joints to an undercover cop and was sentenced to 10 years in prison.[612][613]
  • December 26–28: 15 Vietnam veterans occupy the Statue of Liberty to protest the war.
  • December 28: Anti-war veterans attempt takeover of Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. 80 are arrested.
  • December 29: Boys in the Sand, a milestone[614] American gay pornographic film, presented at the beginnings of the Golden Age of Porn, premiers at the 55th Street Playhouse, NYC. Boys in the Sand was the first such film to be reviewed by Variety Magazine,[615] and one of the earliest porn films, after 1969's Blue Movie[616][617][618][619] by Andy Warhol, to gain mainstream validity.
  • December: Feminism comes of age: Gloria Steinem's Ms. magazine is first published as an insert in New York magazine. The first standalone issue arrives the following month.
  • Stephen Gaskin establishes "The Farm" hippie commune in Tennessee.[620]
  • Saul Alinsky's Rules for Radicals is published.[621]
  • Abbie Hoffman's Steal This Book is published.
  • The Anarchist Cookbook is published.
  • Our Bodies, Ourselves is published.[622]
  • Rainbow Bridge, Chuck Wein's film depicting the counterculture on Maui, and featuring the second-to-last live performance by Jimi Hendrix, is released.[623]


  • February 1: The Needle and the Damage Done: Neil Young releases a moving musical testimonial of friends lost to deadly narcotics during the era. Growth of heroin use flattens out in the 1970s, but the drug is considered "hip" and use explodes again within unindoctrinated generations in the 1990s and beyond.[624][625][626]
  • March: The Nixon administration begins deportation proceedings against John Lennon, on the pretext of his 1968 hashish charge in London.[627][628]
  • March 22: The National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse, appointed by President Nixon, finds "little danger" in cannabis, recommending abolition of all criminal penalties for possession.
  • April 1: The first Hash Bash is held on the campus of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.[629]
  • April 16: Facing heavy ground losses, US forces resume the bombing of Northern Vietnam.
  • April 17–18: Students at University of Maryland protesting the bombing battle with police and National Guard are sent in.
  • April 22: Large anti-war marches in New York, San Francisco, and Los Angeles.
  • May 2: US FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover dies at 77 after nearly 50 years of virtually unchallenged control over the principal federal law enforcement agency.[630]
  • May 15: Wallace Shot: Disavowed segregationist and Alabama Governor George Wallace is shot and paralyzed at a presidential primary campaign event in Laurel, MD.[631]
  • May 19: Weather Underground bomb at the Pentagon causes damage but no injuries.
  • May 21–22: 15,000 demonstrate in Washington against the war.
  • June 4: Angela Davis is acquitted on all counts in her weapons trial.
  • June 12: John Lennon's Plastic Ono Band releases the politically charged double album Some Time in New York City.
  • June 17: The Watergate burglars are arrested in Washington, DC.
  • June 23: U.S. public schools can no longer require girls to wear dresses and must allow them to wear pants, with the Education Amendments of 1972.
  • July 28: Actress Jane Fonda visits North Vietnam. Fonda's return incites outrage when a photograph[632] of her seated on an enemy anti-aircraft gun is published, and she insists that POWs held captive have not been tortured or brainwashed by the communists. Fonda continues to apologize for aspects of the episode.[633][634]
  • July: The first Rainbow Gathering of the Tribes is held over 4 days in Colorado, US.
  • October 26: October Surprise?: US National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger tells a White House press conference that "we believe that peace is at hand."[635]
  • November 2–8: About 500 protesters from the American Indian Movement take over the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Washington.
  • November 7: Republican Richard Nixon is re-elected in a landslide over progressive Democratic Senator George McGovern.
  • November 16: Police kill 2 students during campus rioting at Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
  • November 21: A Federal Appeals Court overturns the conviction of the "Chicago 7" members.
  • December 18–29: US Operation Linebacker II becomes most intensive bombing campaign of the war.
  • The Joy of Sex: Unthinkable a decade earlier, the widely read sex manual for the liberated 1970s is published and openly displayed in mainstream bookstores.
  • Michael X, a self-styled black revolutionary and civil rights activist in 1960s London, is convicted of murder. He is executed by hanging in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago in 1975.[636]


  • January 1: Bangladeshis burn down the US Information Service in Dacca in protest of the bombing of North Vietnam.
  • January 2: Aerial bombing of North Vietnam resumes after a 36-hour New Year's truce.
  • January 4: Forty neutral member nations of the UN formally protest the US bombing campaign.
  • January 5: Canada's Parliament votes unanimously to condemn US bombing actions and calls for them to cease.
  • January 10: Anti-war demonstrators attack US consulate in Lyons, France, and burn down the library of America House in Frankfurt, West Germany.
  • January 10: The US EPA is sued to make them take action to begin reducing tetraethly lead in gasoline; David Schoenbrod of the Natural Resources Defense Council successfully wins on appeal.[637][638][639]
  • January 15: Anti-war protesters occupy US consulate in Amsterdam.
  • January 15: President Nixon suspends the bombing, citing progress in the Peace talks with Hanoi. West German Chancellor Willy Brandt warns Nixon that US relations with Western Europe are at risk.[640]
  • January 22: Former US President Lyndon B. Johnson dies at 64 after a heart attack at his Texas ranch.[641]
  • January 22: The US Supreme Court rules on Roe v. Wade, effectively legalizing abortion.[642][643]
  • January 28: US combat military involvement in Vietnam ends with a ceasefire, and commencement of withdrawal as called for under the Paris Peace Accords.[644]
  • February 27 – May 8: Wounded Knee incident: Native American activists occupy the town of Wounded Knee, SD; 2 protesters and 1 US Marshal are killed during a lengthy standoff.[645]
  • March: The first military draftees who are not subsequently called to service are selected, unceremoniously ending the Vietnam era of conscription in the US.
  • March 8: Ron "Pigpen" McKernan, a founding member of the Grateful Dead, dies of a gastrointestinal hemorrhage at age 27 in Corte Madera, CA.[646]
  • March 29: War Ends: President Nixon announces that the last US combat troops have left Vietnam as US POWs have been released.[647]
  • May 17: The Senate Watergate Committee begins televised hearings on the ever-growing Watergate scandal implicating the President for gross abuses of power.
  • July 1: The Drug Enforcement Administration supplants the BNDD.[648]
  • July 10: John Paul Getty III, 16, grandson of miserly oil billionaire and world's richest man Jean Paul Getty, is kidnapped for ransom in Rome. The negotiated payment of about $3 million is only made after the junior Getty's ear is excised and mailed back to a newspaper. The youth survives, but becomes a drug addict and stroke victim, and dies in 2011 at 54.[649]
  • July 28: Summer Jam at Watkins Glen, NY draws 600,000 to see the Grateful Dead, the Band, and the Allman Brothers – the largest such gathering in the US since Woodstock.[650]
  • August 15: All US military involvement in Indochina conflict officially ends under the Case–Church Amendment.
  • September 19: In one of the most bizarre series of events of the era, celebrated journeyman country rock musician Gram Parsons dies of a morphine overdose after visiting Joshua Tree National Monument; his body is "stolen" by well-meaning friends attempting to fulfill Parson's funerary wishes and set afire at Joshua Tree. A film account of the misadventures is released in 2003.[651]
  • September 20: Folk singer-songwriters Jim Croce and Maury Muehleisen are killed along with 5 others after their chartered tour plane crashes on takeoff in Louisiana.[652]
  • September 20: The Battle of the Sexes: In a heavily hyped match promoted as a sports battle between male and female, tennis champs Billie Jean King and Bobby Riggs compete at the Astrodome. King defeats Riggs in three straight sets.[653][654]
  • October 10: Vice President Spiro Agnew resigns. President Nixon names Congressman Gerald R. Ford of Michigan to replace Agnew on October 12.[655]
  • October 23: Congress begins to consider articles of impeachment against Nixon.
  • November 14: Greece: Students at Athens Polytechnic strike against the military junta. Tanks roll the 17th and at least 24 die.[656]
  • November 17: At a session with 400 AP editors, President Nixon states, "People have got to know whether or not their President is a crook. Well, I'm not a crook. I've earned everything I've got."[657]


  • Saddled by a decade of drug-related legal problems, Timothy Leary reportedly becomes an informant for the FBI.[658]
  • January 3: A Federal judge dismisses charges against 12 members of the Weathermen involved in the October 1969 "Days of Rage".
  • February 5: Patty Hearst is kidnapped by extremist group the Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA) and joins them, possibly after becoming a victim of Stockholm syndrome.
  • March–April: Short-lived fad of "streaking" is at its height in the US.[659][660]
  • April 20: Disco music, following the success of "Love Train" a year earlier, again hits number one on the Billboard charts with "TSOP", a clear sign that the post-"sixties counterculture" era is now at hand. The punk rock subculture also traces its genesis to around this time, with groups like Ramones and Television playing the CBGB club in NYC.
  • May 17: Five SLA members including their leader are killed fighting police during a standoff in Los Angeles.[661]
  • Summer: First issue of High Times is published.
  • July 29: Singing star "Mama" Cass Elliot, 32, dies after a heart attack in the London flat of Harry Nilsson. Who drummer Keith Moon, also 32, dies of an overdose of an anti-alcoholism drug in the same home in 1978.[662][663]
  • August 8: Facing imminent impeachment, Richard Nixon announces he will resign as President of the United States. Vice President Gerald Ford is sworn in as president on August 9 and declares "our long national nightmare is over."
  • September–December: Police repeatedly quell unrest as desegregation comes to Boston high schools.
  • September 8: President Ford fully pardons former president Nixon.
  • September 16: President Ford offers conditional amnesty to military deserters and evaders of the Vietnam era draft, creating a path for re-entry into the US.[664]
  • December 13: President Ford invites George Harrison to luncheon at the White House.[665] Peter Frampton visits in 1976.
  • December 21: The New York Times reports that the CIA illegally spied on 10,000 anti-war dissidents under Nixon's presidency.[666][667]


  • January 1: John Mitchell and three other Watergate conspirators are found guilty and sentenced to prison Feb. 21.
  • January 27: Church Committee: The US Senate votes to begin unprecedented investigation into US intelligence activities, including illegal spying on domestic radicals.[668]
  • January 29: Weather Underground bomb at the US State Department, none injured.
  • April 30: Operation Frequent Wind: The last remaining US military and intelligence personnel escape Saigon as South Vietnam is invaded and annexed by communist forces, in direct violation of the so-called "Peace" Accords.[669]
  • September 5 & 22: US President Ford survives assassination attempts by two women, including a failed attempt by Manson "family" member Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme, in one month.[670][671]
  • September 18: Patty Hearst is arrested by the FBI.[672]
  • October 7: A New York State Supreme Court judge reverses the deportation order against John Lennon, allowing Lennon to legally remain in the US.[673]
  • October 11: Saturday Night Live: The counterculture comes of age as George Carlin hosts the first episode of the mainstream TV revue. The long-running series soon features many notable American TV firsts, including open depiction of marijuana use in comedy sketches.[674][675][676]


  • January 21: Newly inaugurated US President Jimmy Carter unconditionally pardons thousands of Vietnam draft evaders, allowing them to re-enter the US, mostly from Canada.[677]
  • August 16: Elvis Presley, the most significant progenitor of the rock era, early critic of the counterculture, and biggest selling individual recording artist of all time dies at age 42 from complications of prescription drug abuse in Memphis, Tennessee.[678][679]



  • December 8: John Lennon, 40, founding member of the Beatles and standard-bearer of the counterculture generation, is murdered in New York, triggering an outpouring of grief around the world.[680]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Hoffer, Eric (1951). The True Believer: Thoughts on the Nature of Mass Movements. New York: Harper & Brothers. ISBN 0-060-50591-5.
  2. ^ Dirda, Michael (May 9, 2012). "Book World: Blue-collar Intellectual by 'Eric Hoffer: The Longshoreman Philosopher'". The Washington Post. Washington Post. Retrieved June 23, 2014.
  3. ^ Rothstein, Edward (April 13, 2009). "MAD Magazine". The New York Times. Retrieved July 7, 2014. Adapted from Is It Still a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World?" by Edward Rothstein, The Times, Sept. 18, 1999, and other Times articles
  4. ^ Larry E. Sullivan (August 31, 2009). The SAGE Glossary of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. SAGE Publications. p. 156. ISBN 978-1-4522-6151-5.
  5. ^ "National Book Awards – 1953". nationalbook.org. National Book Foundation. Retrieved June 27, 2014. Winner: Ralph Ellison, Invisible Man
  6. ^ Kurt Hemmer (1 January 2009). Encyclopedia of Beat Literature. Infobase Publishing. p. 114. ISBN 978-1-4381-0908-4.
  7. ^ US Senate (August 3, 1977). Project MKULTRA, The CIA's Program of Research in Behavioral Modification: Joint Hearing Before the Select Committee on Intelligence and the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-fifth Congress, First Session, August 3, 1977. Washington, DC: US Senate. p. 70.
  8. ^ a b c d e Andy Roberts (September 30, 2008). Albion Dreaming: A popular history of LSD in Britain (Revised Edition with a new foreword by Sue Blackmore). Marshall Cavendish International Asia Pte Ltd. ISBN 978-981-4328-97-5.
  9. ^ "Playboy re-releases iconic Marilyn Monroe first issue 60 years later (Text & Photos)". nydailynews.com. The New York Daily News. April 16, 2014. Retrieved June 23, 2014.
  10. ^ Douglas Brode (January 27, 2009). Multiculturalism and the Mouse: Race and Sex in Disney Entertainment. University of Texas Press. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-292-78330-0.
  11. ^ "Brown v. Board of Education (1954)". ourdocuments.gov. The National Archives and Records Administration, et al (US). Retrieved June 4, 2014.
  12. ^ "Brown v. Board of Education". civilrights.org. The Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights/The Leadership Conference Education Fund. 2014. Archived from the original on October 24, 2014. Retrieved October 18, 2014. On May 17, 1954, the Court unanimously ruled that "separate but equal" public schools for blacks and whites were unconstitutional. The Brown case served as a catalyst for the modern civil rights movement, inspiring education reform everywhere and forming the legal means of challenging segregation in all areas of society. After Brown, the nation made great strides toward opening the doors of education to all students. With court orders and active enforcement of federal civil rights laws, progress toward integrated schools continued through the late 1980s. Since then, many states have been resegregating and educational achievement and opportunity have been falling for minorities.
  13. ^ Krock, Arthur (1968). Memoirs: Sixty Years on the Firing Line. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. p. 411. ISBN 978-1122260817. Arthur Krock, three-time Pulitzer Prize winner, was for more than 30 years Washington Correspondent at the New York Times
  14. ^ Bronson, Fred (1988). The Billboard Book of Number One Hits (2 ed.). New York: Billboard Publications. p. 1. ISBN 0-8230-7545-1.
  15. ^ Jim Dawson (2005). Rock Around the Clock: The Record that Started the Rock Revolution!. Backbeat books. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-87930-829-2.
  16. ^ Callard, Abby (November 1, 2009). "Emmett Till's Casket Goes to the Smithsonian: Simeon Wright recalls the events surrounding his cousin's murder and the importance of having the casket on public display". In 1955, Emmett Till – a 14-year-old African-American visiting Mississippi from Chicago – was murdered after whistling at a white woman. His mother insisted that her son be displayed in a glass-topped casket, so the world could see his beaten body. Till's murder became a rallying point for the civil rights movement, and his family recently donated the casket in which he was buried to the Smithsonian's National Museum of African American History and Culture.
  17. ^ Italie, Hillel (2017-01-28). "Emmett Till accuser admits fabricated testimony". AP via The Detroit News. Retrieved 2017-02-04. The woman at the center of the trial of Emmett Till's alleged killers has acknowledged that she falsely testified he made physical and verbal threats, according to a new book
  18. ^ "James Dean dies in car accident". history.com. A&E Networks. Retrieved 2015-11-18.
  19. ^ Berman, Eliza (2015-10-20). "See Photos of James Dean on the Cusp of Stardom". time.com. Time Inc. Archived from the original on October 21, 2015. Retrieved 2015-11-18.
  20. ^ Cosgrove, Ben (2013-06-20). "Beautiful Enigma: LIFE With James Dean". time.com. Life via Time Inc. Archived from the original on November 12, 2014. Retrieved 2015-11-18.
  21. ^ Raskin, Jonah (30 September 2005). "'Six at the Six' at 50 – Return of S.F.'s poetic beat". San Francisco Chronicle/Hearst. Retrieved 2 February 2016. In cocky, competitive San Francisco, where poetry slams outdraw Sunday sermons, the Six Gallery poetry reading that took place Oct. 7, 1955 has become nearly as much a part of the city's mystique as the 1849 Gold Rush or the 1906 earthquake.
  22. ^ Allen Ginsberg (10 October 2006). Howl: Original Draft Facsimile, Transcript, and Variant Versions, Fully Annotated by Author, with Contemporaneous Correspondence, Account of First Public Reading, Legal Skirmishes, Presursor Texts, and Bibliography. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-113745-7.
  23. ^ Walljasper, Jay (September–October 1996). "The Father of Alternative Journalism Remembering Dan Wolf, the cofounder and original editor of The Village Voice". utne.com. Ogden Publications, Inc. Retrieved May 22, 2014.
  24. ^ Italiano, Laura (2018-08-31). "The Village Voice is no more". nypost.com. New York Post. Retrieved 2018-09-16. The storied New York tabloid the Village Voice – already down to around two dozen employees – is now officially dead, its owner announced Friday. Half of the staff will be fired, with the other half hanging on briefly to work on an online archive, owner Peter Barbey told them, according to the Gothamist website. The publication has stopped publishing new material.
  25. ^ Corley, Cheryl (October 25, 2005). "Audio: Civil Rights Icon Rosa Parks Dies, A Remembrance". npr.org. National Public Radio. Archived from the original on October 28, 2014. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
  26. ^ Max Décharné (December 9, 2010). A Rocket in My Pocket: The Hipster's Guide to Rockabilly Music. Profile Books. p. 56. ISBN 978-1-84765-241-6.
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  28. ^ Churchill, Ward; Vander Wall, Jim (1990), The COINTELPRO Papers: Documents from the FBI's Secret Wars Against Domestic Dissent, Boston: South End Press.
  29. ^ Hess, Amanda (2013-07-25). "RIP Virginia Johnson, Pioneering Femalesplainer". Slate. Retrieved 2021-01-09.
  30. ^ "SCLC:Our History". sclcnational.org. Southern Christian Leadership Council. Archived from the original on February 6, 2015. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
  31. ^ Andito (September 5, 2012). ""On the Road" Published 55 Years Ago Today". gvshp.org. Greenwich Village Society for Historical Preservation. Retrieved July 15, 2014. Reference contains: Blog Text, Links, & Photos
  32. ^ Jack Kerouac (August 16, 2007). On the Road: The Original Scroll (Penguin Classics Deluxe ed.). Penguin Group US. ISBN 978-1-101-20157-2.
  33. ^ "Executive Order 10730: Desegregation of Central High School (1957)". ourdocuments.gov. The National Archives and Records Administration, et al (US). Retrieved June 5, 2014.
  34. ^ Garber, Steve (October 10, 2007). "Sputnik and The Dawn of the Space Age". nasa.gov. US National Aeronautics & Space Administration. Retrieved May 26, 2014.
  35. ^ Bergaust, Erik; Beller, William (1957). Satellite! (Bantam, 1957-11 ed.). New York: Doubleday.
  36. ^ Paul Dickson (26 May 2009). Sputnik: The Shock of the Century. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 269. ISBN 978-0-8027-1804-4.
  37. ^ Ferreira, Becky (2015-12-06). "Watch the Spectacular Inferno of America's First Satellite Attempt". motherboard.vice.com. Vice Media. Retrieved 2016-03-02. When Sputnik was launched into orbit on October 4, 1957, people around the world understandably flipped out. Even today, Sputnik is remembered less as a scientific experiment than as a cultural sea change, and the spectacular cold open of the Space Race.
  38. ^ "History". Peace Action.
  39. ^ Abbe A. Debolt; James S. Baugess (December 12, 2011). Encyclopedia of the Sixties: A Decade of Culture and Counterculture [2 volumes]: A Decade of Culture and Counterculture. ABC-CLIO. p. 504. ISBN 978-1-4408-0102-0.
  40. ^ "Elvis Presley is inducted into the U.S. Army". History.com. History Channel/A&E Networks. Archived from the original on March 11, 2014. Retrieved May 3, 2014.
  41. ^ Hamlin, Jesse (November 26, 1995). "How Herb Caen Named a Generation". sfgate.com. San Fransciso Chronicle/Hearst. Retrieved July 31, 2014. Chronicle columnist Herb Caen coined the word "beatnik" on April 2, 1958, six months after the Soviets launched the Sputnik satellite into space.
  42. ^ John Hostettler (2012). Dissenters, Radicals, Heretics and Blasphemers: The Flame of Revolt that Shines Through English History. Waterside Press. p. 239. ISBN 978-1-904380-82-5.
  43. ^ "Early defections in march to Aldermaston". theguardian.com. April 5, 1958. Retrieved July 31, 2014. The march bore the signs of careful planning. The column with its banners – "Which is to be banned, the H-bomb or the human race?" – got off on time, and the long snake that slid down Piccadilly, Kensington High Street, and Chiswick High Road, managed with only discreet help from the police, not to obstruct what little traffic there was.
  44. ^ "Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Global Freedom Struggle: National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy (SANE)". stanford.edu. The Martin Luther King Jr. Research and Education Institute. Retrieved December 4, 2019. On 15 November 1957, SANE ran a full-page advertisement in the New York Times warning Americans: We are facing a danger unlike any danger that has ever existed. Inspired by the enthusiastic response to its Times advertisement, SANE redefined itself as a mass membership organization, gaining 130 chapters and 25,000 members by the following summer.
  45. ^ "SLATE Digital Archives". SLATE Archives Committee. Retrieved July 31, 2014. SLATE officially organizes. Temporary SLATE Coordinating Committee includes Charleen Rains, Owen Hill Pat Hallinan, Peter Franck, Fritjof Thygeson and Mike Miller.
  46. ^ W.J. Rorabaugh Professor of History University of Washington (May 4, 1989). Berkeley at War : The 1960s: The 1960s. Oxford University Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-19-802252-7.
  47. ^ Randall Balmer (May 13, 2014). Redeemer: The Life of Jimmy Carter. Basic Books. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-465-02958-7.
  48. ^ Robert B. Ekelund, Jr.; Robert F. Hébert (August 30, 2013). A History of Economic Theory and Method: Sixth Edition. Waveland Press. p. 499. ISBN 978-1-4786-1106-6.
  49. ^ "Fidel Castro- Fulgencio Batista (1901–1973)". pbs.org. PBS Online/WGBH/The American Experience. December 21, 2004. Retrieved July 9, 2014. He was called El Hombre, "the Man," and for three decades he was one of Cuba's most controversial leaders. It would take Fidel Castro and the Cuban revolution to unseat him.
  50. ^ CUBA'S REPRESSIVE MACHINERY: Human Rights Forty Years After the Revolution. hrw.org. Human Rights Watch. 1999. ISBN 1-56432-234-3. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 99-63561. Retrieved July 9, 2014.
  51. ^ Kemp, Susan. "Human Rights in Cuba" (PDF). Human Rights & Human Welfare (University of Denver). Retrieved July 9, 2014. This section provides General Background information on the recent human rights situation in Cuba. The subcategory of Spanish Resources includes eight books on human rights in Cuba. The Socialism subcategory includes sources discussing the changing political environment in Cuba since the Cold War and the impact of the instability of Cuba's socialist system.
  52. ^ Suddath, Claire (February 3, 2009). "The Day the Music Died (A Brief History)". content.time.com. Time Inc. Retrieved May 28, 2014.
  53. ^ "Guitarist who avoided Buddy Holly plane crash dies at 85". Fox News. 2017-01-13. Retrieved 2017-01-13. Tommy Allsup was part of Holly's band when the Lubbock, Texas, singer died in the Feb. 3, 1959, plane crash near Clear Lake, Iowa. Allsup flipped a coin to see who between him and Valens would get a seat on the plane and who would have to take the bus to the next stop on the tour.
  54. ^ Moyer, Justin Wm. (2015-04-08). "Gloomy Don McLean reveals meaning of 'American Pie' – and sells lyrics for $1.2 million". Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-01-17. Shoved into unheated buses on a "Winter Dance Party" tour in 1959, Holly – tired of rattling through the Midwest with dirty clothes – chartered a plane on Feb. 3 to fly from Clear Lake, Iowa, to Fargo, N.D., where he hoped he could make an appointment with a washing machine. Joining him on the plane were Ritchie Valens and, after future country star Waylon Jennings gave up his seat, J.P. Richardson, a.k.a. "the Big Bopper." Taking off in bad weather with a pilot not certified to do so, the plane crashed, killing everyone aboard. The toll was incalculable: The singers of "Peggy Sue" and "Come On Let's Go" and "Donna" and "La Bamba" were dead. Holly was just 22; incredibly, Valens was just 17. Rock and roll would never be the same.
  55. ^ Hal Erickson (2014). "George Reeves Biography". Movies & TV Dept. The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 2, 2014. Retrieved June 2, 2014.
  56. ^ Patterson, John (November 17, 2006). "Who killed Superman?". theguardian.com. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved June 2, 2014.
  57. ^ Riedel, Michael (2016-02-01). "Meet the sleezebag agent who inspired the new Coen Bros movie". nypost.com. The New York Post. Retrieved 2016-02-01. The real Eddie Mannix was a thug from New Jersey who bribed cops, bedded hundreds of would-be actresses, ran with the mob and may have ordered the killing of "Superman" George Reeves.
  58. ^ Reid, Jefferson (September–October 2002). "The Revolution Will Be Televised: The top 10 counterculture characters in TV history". utne.com. Ogden Publications, Inc. Retrieved May 23, 2014.
  59. ^ Kim Howard Johnson (April 1, 2008). The Funniest One in the Room: The Lives and Legends of Del Close. Chicago Review Press. p. 262. ISBN 978-1-56976-436-7.
  60. ^ Woo, Elaine (1999-03-08). "Del Close – Improvisational Comedy Pioneer". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2015-11-30. Much of Close's own humor on stage was morbidly satirical. A gypsy of the counterculture – he hung out with Ken Kesey and Timothy Leary, was a prolific and proud abuser of drugs, and ran light shows for the Grateful Dead – Close said his comic sensibility was fueled by "social rage."
  61. ^ Drury, Jeffrey P. (2006). "Paul Potter, "The Incredible War" (17 April 1965)". Archived from the original on 9 October 2014. Retrieved September 22, 2014. Although the beginnings of the 1965 March on Washington can be located in a number of places, it is perhaps best to begin with the origins of the chief organization behind the march: the Students for a Democratic Society. As a social movement organization, the SDS grew out of a parent group founded in 1905 called the League for Industrial Democracy (LID). The LID embraced a largely socialist orientation toward democratic governance; the organization was initially called the Intercollegiate Socialist Society before changing its name in 1921. Many prominent political thinkers were members of the LID, including Upton Sinclair, Walter Lippmann, Michael Harrington, and John Dewey (who was president for a short time). Growing out of the larger organization, the student section of the LID – aptly titled the Student League for Industrial Democracy, or SLID – existed in early 1960 on only three campuses: Yale, Columbia, and the University of Michigan.
  62. ^ Walker, Jack (June 1983). "The Origins and Maintenance of Interest Groups in America" (PDF). The American Political Science Review. American Political Science Association. 77 (2): 390–406. doi:10.2307/1958924. JSTOR 1958924. Retrieved January 14, 2015. From: The American Political Science Review, Vol. 77, No. 2, (Jun., 1983), pp. 390–406
  63. ^ Whicker, Alan; Jones, Wizz; et al. (1960). "(Nominal) BBC Interview". youtube.com. BBC. Retrieved September 22, 2014. The original broadcast air date of the report has not been verified.
  64. ^ Thompson, Nathan (June 8, 2014). "True secrets of psychedelics: Are they everything they're cracked up to be?". salon.com. Salon Media Group. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
  65. ^ Sigel, Efrem (December 12, 1962). "Psilocybin Expert Raps Leary, Alpert on Drugs". thecrimson.com. The Harvard Crimson, Inc. Retrieved July 1, 2014. Original article was updated on 2014-01-27
  66. ^ "Freedom Struggle – Sitting for Justice: Woolworth's Lunch Counter". A collective effort of the staff of the National Museum of American History, Behring Center via Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved September 22, 2014. On February 1, 1960, four African American college students sat down at a lunch counter at Woolworth's in Greensboro, North Carolina, and politely asked for service. Their request was refused. When asked to leave, they remained in their seats. Their passive resistance and peaceful sit-down demand helped ignite a youth-led movement to challenge racial inequality throughout the South. (text and photos)
  67. ^ "Investigation is Ordered in Sit-In Demonstration" (PDF). March 26, 1960. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 3, 2015. Governor Buford Ellington ordered today a full investigation into the activities of a television network camera crew...
  68. ^ "SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee)". northcarolinahistory.org. North Carolina History Project via John Locke Foundation. Retrieved September 22, 2014. SNCC evolved out of that Easter weekend at Shaw University. Students in the SCLC had wished, for some time, for a student-led organization. (There were student chapters within the SCLC, but Martin Luther King Jr. had not been pushing for an official student organization). Students wanted leadership opportunities and had different strategies than the SCLC leadership, which they believed moved toward progress at a glacial speed. At the 1960 Shaw meeting, students also expressed a fear that a strong centralized organization (even if student-led) would be a foe of democracy. Therefore, Baker and others established SNCC as a decentralized organization, with the national headquarters providing support and literature, including a newspaper, but not the strategy and leadership.
  69. ^ "Foreign Relations of the United States, 1958–1960, Volume X, Part 1, Eastern Europe Region, Soviet Union, Cyprus May–July 1960: The U–2 Airplane Incident". history.state.gov. US Department of State. Retrieved June 23, 2014.
  70. ^ Wise, David; Ross, Thomas (1962). The U-2 Affair (Bantam, 1962-11 ed.). New York: Random House / Bantam. Here, told for the first time, is the remarkable story behind the most explosive espionage case of the 20th century...
  71. ^ "FDA Approves the Pill". History Channel.
  72. ^ Fink, Brenda (September 29, 2011). "The pill and the marriage revolution". gender.stanford.edu. Clayman Institute / Stanford University. Archived from the original on 2017-12-12. Retrieved November 26, 2014. The birth control pill arrived on the market in 1960. Within two years, 1.2 million American women were "on the pill." By 1964, it was the most popular contraceptive in the country. Looking back, Americans credit – or blame – the pill with unleashing the sexual revolution of the 1960s and 1970s. The pill is widely believed to have loosened sexual mores, including the double standard that sanctioned premarital sex for men but not for women. But, according to historian Elaine Tyler May, this idea is largely a myth. As May explained to a Stanford audience, the pill's impact on the sexual revolution is unclear. What is clear is that the drug had a far greater impact within marriage itself.
  73. ^ "The Sixties: House Un-American Activities Committee" at PBS.org
  74. ^ Carl Nolte (May 13, 2010). "'Black Friday,' birth of U.S. protest movement". San Francisco Chronicle.
  75. ^ Stack, Barbara. "HUAC Black Friday Police Riot – May 13, 1960 (Archival Material: Free Speech Movement)". btstack.com. Barbara Toby Stack. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
  76. ^ "Timeline". Peace Action.
  77. ^ Mejia, Paula (2016-02-19). "Harper Lee, Author of 'To Kill a Mockingbird,' Dies at 89". newsweek.com. Newsweek. Retrieved 2016-02-20. Lee became a literary phenomenon upon the publication of Mockingbird on July 11, 1960. It was a best-seller and earned the author the Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 1961 – an astonishing feat for a debut novel. "No book in years has commanded the kind of volunteer claque which is now pushing an unassuming first novel toward the best-seller list's summit," wrote Newsweek in its profile of Lee that same year. The following year the Mockingbird film adaptation, starring Gregory Peck as the white lawyer Atticus Finch who defends a black man wrongfully accused of rape, was released. The film was also hailed an instant classic.
  78. ^ Wooley, John; Peters, Gerhard. "Election of 1960". presidency.ucsb.edu. Gerhard Peters – The American Presidency Project via University of California-Santa Barbara. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
  79. ^ "Key Counties May Indicate Closest Election Since 1916". AP via The Milwaukee Journal (Google capture). October 20, 1960. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
  80. ^ Shribman, David (October 24, 2010). "Nixon v. Kennedy: 50 years ago America chose between two men who were dramatically different – and eerily similar". post-gazette.com. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette/PG Publishing Co. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
  81. ^ White, Theodore H. (1961). The Making of the President 1960 (First ed.). New York: Atheneum House. p. 386. ISBN 9780689708039.
  82. ^ Jones, Carolyn (January 7, 2010). "Human potential pioneer George Leonard dies". sfgate.com. San Francisco Chronicle/Hearst. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
  83. ^ Martin, Douglas (January 18, 2010). "George Leonard, Voice of '60s Counterculture, Dies at 86". nytimes.com. The New York Times Co. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
  84. ^ "President Dwight D. Eisenhower's Farewell Address (1961): On January 17, 1961, in this farewell address, President Dwight Eisenhower warned against the establishment of a "military-industrial complex."". ourdocuments.gov. The National Archives and Records Administration, et al (US). Retrieved June 4, 2014.
  85. ^ "President John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address (1961)". ourdocuments.gov. The National Archives and Records Administration, et al (US). Retrieved June 4, 2014.
  86. ^ Kennedy, John. "John F. Kennedy Inaugural Address". Transcription as posted by University of California, Santa Barbara.
  87. ^ "Executive Order 10924: Establishment of the Peace Corps. (1961)". Ourdocuments.gov. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  88. ^ Gunston, Bill (1973). Bombers of the West. New York: Scribner. p. 254. ISBN 978-0684136233.
  89. ^ a b "International Drug Control Conventions". unodc.org. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
  90. ^ Glines, Jr., Carroll V (1963). The Compact History of the United States Air Force (New & Revised, May 1973 ed.). New York: Hawthorn Books. pp. 319–320. ISBN 0-405-12169-5.
  91. ^ "The Bay of Pigs". jfklibrary.org. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum. Retrieved September 22, 2014. Before his inauguration, John F. Kennedy was briefed on a plan by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) developed during the Eisenhower administration to train Cuban exiles for an invasion of their homeland. The plan anticipated that the Cuban people and elements of the Cuban military would support the invasion. The ultimate goal was the overthrow of Castro and the establishment of a non-communist government friendly to the United States.
  92. ^ Cia History Office Staff; Jack B. Pfeiffer (September 2011). CIA Official History of the Bay of Pigs Invasion, Volume IV: The Taylor Committee Investigation of the Bay of Pigs. Military Bookshop. ISBN 978-1-78039-476-3.
  93. ^ "The Freedom Rides: CORE Volunteers Put Their Lives on the Road". core-online.org. Congress of Racial Equality. Retrieved September 22, 2014. In 1961 CORE undertook a new tactic aimed at desegregating public transportation throughout the south. These tactics became known as the "Freedom Rides". The first Freedom Ride took place on May 4, 1961 when seven blacks and six whites left Washington, D.C., on two public buses bound for the Deep South. They intended to test the Supreme Court's ruling in Boynton v. Virginia (1960), which declared segregation in interstate bus and rail stations unconstitutional. In the first few days, the riders encountered only minor hostility, but in the second week the riders were severely beaten. Outside Anniston, Alabama, one of their buses was burned, and in Birmingham several dozen whites attacked the riders only two blocks from the sheriff's office. With the intervention of the U.S. Justice Department, most of CORE's Freedom Riders were evacuated from Birmingham, Alabama to New Orleans. John Lewis, a former seminary student who would later lead SNCC and become a US congressman, stayed in Birmingham. CORE Leaders decided that letting violence end the trip would send the wrong signal to the country. They reinforced the pair of remaining riders with volunteers, and the trip continued. The group traveled from Birmingham to Montgomery without incident, but on their arrival in Montgomery they were savagely attacked by a mob of more than 1000 whites. The extreme violence and the indifference of local police prompted a national outcry of support for the riders, putting pressure on President Kennedy to end the violence. The riders continued to Mississippi, where they endured further brutality and jail terms but generated more publicity and inspired dozens more Freedom Rides. By the end of the summer, the protests had spread to train stations and airports across the South, and in November, the Interstate Commerce Commission issued rules prohibiting segregated transportation facilities.
  94. ^ "Berlin Crises". Archived from the original on December 3, 2014. Retrieved September 22, 2014. At the Vienna Summit in June 1961, Khrushchev reiterated his threat to sign a separate peace treaty with East Germany if the West did not come to terms over Berlin by the end of the year. Rather than submit to such pressure, President John F. Kennedy replied that it would be a "cold winter." When he returned to the United States, Kennedy faced instead a summer of decision. On July 25 he announced plans to meet the Soviet challenge in Berlin, including a dramatic buildup of American conventional forces and drawing the line on interference with Allied access to West Berlin. This warning, in fact, contained the basis for resolving the crisis. On August 13 the East German Government, supported by Khrushchev, finally closed the border between East and West Berlin by erecting what eventually became the most concrete symbol of the Cold War: the Berlin Wall. Although the citizens of Berlin reacted to the wall with outrage, many in the West – certainly within the Kennedy administration – reacted with relief. The wall interfered with the personal lives of the people but not with the political position of the Allies in Berlin. The result was a "satisfactory" stalemate – the Soviets did not challenge the legality of Allied rights, and the Allies did not challenge the reality of Soviet power.
  95. ^ Kennedy, John F. "Report on the Berlin Crisis (July 25, 1961) by John F. Kennedy". millercenter.org. Miller Center / University of Virginia. Archived from the original on March 15, 2015. Retrieved September 22, 2014. So long as the Communists insist that they are preparing to end by themselves unilaterally our rights in West Berlin and our commitments to its people, we must be prepared to defend those rights and those commitments. We will at all times be ready to talk, if talk will help. But we must also be ready to resist with force, if force is used upon us. Either alone would fail. Together, they can serve the cause of freedom and peace.
  96. ^ "Amnesty International: Where it All Began". amnesty.org. Amnesty International. Retrieved 2016-04-29. In 1961, British lawyer Peter Benenson was outraged when two Portuguese students were jailed just for raising a toast to freedom. He wrote an article in The Observer newspaper and launched a campaign that provoked an incredible response. Reprinted in newspapers across the world, his call to action sparked the idea that people everywhere can unite in solidarity for justice and freedom. This inspiring moment didn't just give birth to an extraordinary movement, it was the start of extraordinary social change.
  97. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1977 Amnesty International". nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB. Retrieved 2016-04-30. Amnesty International was founded in 1961 by Peter Benenson, a British lawyer. It was originally his intention to launch an appeal in Britain with the aim of obtaining an amnesty for prisoners of conscience all over the world. The committee working for this cause soon found that a detailed documentation of this category of prisoners would be needed. Gradually they realized that the work would have to be carried out on a more permanent basis; the number of prisoners of conscience was enormous and they were to be found in every part of the world.
  98. ^ "The construction of the Berlin Wall". berlion.de. Governing Mayor of Berlin – Senate Chancellery. Retrieved 2017-01-12. Around 2.7 million people left the GDR and East Berlin between 1949 and 1961, causing increasing difficulties for the leadership of the East German communist party, the SED. Around half of this steady stream of refugees were young people under the age of 25. Roughly half a million people crossed the sector borders in Berlin each day in both directions, enabling them to compare living conditions on both sides. In 1960 alone, around 200,000 people made a permanent move to the West. The GDR was on the brink of social and economic collapse.
  99. ^ Brian J. Collins (January 2011). NATO: A Guide to the Issues. ABC-CLIO. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-313-35491-5.
  100. ^ File:EUCOM Checkpoint Charlie Standoff 1961.jpg
  101. ^ "Women Strike for Peace". jwa.org. Jewish Women's Archive. Retrieved September 22, 2014. On November 1, 1961, Women Strike For Peace (WSP) was inaugurated with a day-long strike by an estimated 50,000 women in 60 cities, all pressing for nuclear disarmament. The organization was composed primarily of mothers who feared the effects of nuclear proliferation on the short- and long-term health of their children. They were particularly concerned with levels of irradiation in milk and the increase in nuclear testing. WSP had the slogan "End the Arms Race – Not the Human Race," as well as "Pure Milk, Not Poison." Bella Abzug joined the group in its early organizational stages as an active participant in the New York contingent and as creator and chairperson of WSP's legislative committee. By pushing the organization to incorporate legislative lobbying into its efforts, she helped it to become an effective political force. By 1964, the emphasis of Women Strike for Peace had shifted to focus as much on the Vietnam War as on disarmament, protesting against the draft and the war's effects on Vietnamese children. Abzug remained active in WSP until she was elected to Congress in 1970.
  102. ^ Marder, Dorothy. "Photographs of Dorothy Marder – Women Strike for Peace, 1961–1975". swarthmore.edu. Elizabeth Matlock and Wendy Chmielewski via Swarthmore College (Swarthmore College Peace Collection). Retrieved September 22, 2014. Women Strike for Peace (WSP) was formed in 1961 after over 50,000 women across the country marched for peace and against above ground testing of nuclear weapons. By the mid 1960s the focus of the organization shifted to working against the Vietnam war. Dorothy Marder took photographs at many WSP demonstrations on the East Coast and her images appeared in WSP publications. Her photographs show the women behind WSP who wanted to protect their families from nuclear testing and a male-dominated militarism. Leaders of the organization include Dagmar Wilson, Bella Abzug, Amy Swerdlow, Cora Weiss, and many more are featured in Dorothy Marder's photography.
  103. ^ "Inspector General's Survey of the Cuban Operation and Associated Documents" (PDF). February 16, 1962. Retrieved November 26, 2014.
  104. ^ Lansdale (February 20, 1962). "[Internal Memo] The Cuba Project". p. 1. Retrieved November 26, 2014.
  105. ^ Weiner, Tim (1997-11-23). "Stupid Dirty Tricks ; The Trouble With Assassinations". New York Times. Retrieved 2015-11-30. Editor's Note: October 30, 1998, Friday An article on Sept. 29 discussed the release of 60,000 secret documents on the killing of President John F. Kennedy. Their declassification occurred over a period, leading up to the final report of a citizens' commission created by Congress six years ago to dispel lingering suspicions that the truth had been hidden. Discussing criticism of the Warren Commission, which investigated the assassination at the time, the article said that one member, Allen W. Dulles, a former Director of Central Intelligence, had failed to tell fellow members that Kennedy had ordered the C.I.A. to assassinate Castro. The article did not cite evidence or authority for the assertion about the President. Earlier articles, on July 20, 1997, and Nov. 23, 1997, also declared without qualification that Kennedy ordered Fidel Castro's assassination. A number of prominent historians and officials with knowledge of intelligence matters in that era have asserted in interviews that President Kennedy gave such an order. But others, also close to the President, dispute their account. The Times's practice is to attribute or qualify information that it is unable to report firsthand. That should have been done in these cases.
  106. ^ "Betty Friedan and the Presidential Commission on the Status of Women". Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study / Harvard University. November 20, 2013. Retrieved November 26, 2014. Text & Video
  107. ^ "American Women: Report of The President's Commission on the Status of Women. 1963" (PDF). US Government via University of Michigan via Hathitrust.org. 1963. Retrieved November 26, 2014. Google digitized pdf from U-M library
  108. ^ Laneri, Raquel (2018-02-05). "How a Harlem fashion show started the 'Black is Beautiful' movement". New York Post. Retrieved 2018-02-06. The event, held in the basement of the Harlem Purple Manor, a popular nightclub on East 125th Street, was called "Naturally '62" and was intended to promote African culture and fashion. What made the show revolutionary were the models: a group of nonprofessionals with unabashedly dark skin and natural, unprocessed, curly hair. They were part of the newly formed Grandassa Models, and they were as unlike any fashion plates as the crowd had ever seen. "It was a pioneering concept, women coming out on stage wearing their hair in a natural state," former AJASS member Robert Gumbs told The Post. "We didn't know how the community would respond. I think a number of people came to laugh." Yet by the end of the evening, audience members were cheering the models. And the show's slogan, "Black Is Beautiful" – printed on fliers and posters announcing the event – would become a rallying cry and movement celebrating natural hair, darker skin and African heritage.
  109. ^ "Battlefield: Timeline". PBS. Retrieved 2016-02-11. In Operation Chopper, helicopters flown by U.S. Army pilots ferry 1,000 South Vietnamese soldiers to sweep a NLF stronghold near Saigon. It marks America's first combat missions against the Vietcong.
  110. ^ Buckingham, Jr., William (1983). "Operation Ranch Hand: Herbicides In Southeast Asia". Air University Review (United States Edition). Air University Review. 34 (5): 42–53. PMID 12879499. Archived from the original on February 22, 2013. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  111. ^ Essoyan, Roy (1962-02-05). "U.S. Copter Shot Down in Viet Nam". The Chicago Tribune (Volume CXXI- No. 31). Retrieved 2015-12-24.
  112. ^ "UN Session Seen as Help to U.S., Red Space Ties". news.google.com/newspapers. AP via Schenectady Gazette. February 27, 1962. Retrieved June 3, 2014.
  113. ^ "Bob Dylan". Billboard. Retrieved 2016-02-09.
  114. ^ "The Official Web Page of the United Farm Workers of America". UFW. Archived from the original on September 6, 2013. Retrieved August 31, 2013.
  115. ^ "The Statement". University of Michigan Department of History. 2012. Archived from the original on November 29, 2014. Retrieved November 21, 2014. The Port Huron Statement was the declaration of principles issued June 15, 1962, by Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), a major radical student organization in the United States during the 1960s. Having only a few hundred members across the country at the time the Statement was drafted, SDS drew tens of thousands of students into its ranks as the movement against the Vietnam War grew – before a deep factional split destroyed the organization in 1969. During SDS's history of activism, 60,000 copies of the Statement were distributed. It has become a historical landmark of American leftwing radicalism and a widely influential discourse on the meaning of democracy in modern society.
  116. ^ Lopez-Munoz, Francisco; Ucha-Udabe, Ronaldo; Alamo, Cecilio (December 2005). "The History of Barbiturates a Century after their Clinical Introduction". Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. Dove Press via US National Institutes of Health. 1 (4): 329–343. PMC 2424120. PMID 18568113. In relation to the frequent cases of death by overdose, given the small therapeutic margin of these substances, it should be pointed out that this was a common method in suicide attempts. It suffices to recall, in this regard, the famous case of Marilyn Monroe, on whose death certificate it clearly states "acute poisoning by overdose of barbiturates" (Figure 7). The lethal effect of these compounds was such that a mixture of barbiturates with other substances was even employed in some USA states for the execution of prisoners sentenced to death. Furthermore, there are classic reports of fatal overdose due to the "automatism phenomenon", whereby the patient would take his or her dose, only to forget that he or she had already taken it, given the amnesic effect of the drug, and take it again, this process being repeated several times (Richards 1934). Figure 8 shows the evolution of number of deaths (accidental or suicide) by barbiturate overdose in England and Wales for the period 1905–1960. In this regard, and in the city of New York alone, in the period 1957–1963, there were 8469 cases of barbiturate overdose, with 1165 deaths (Sharpless 1970), whilst in the United Kingdom, between 1965 and 1970, there were 12 354 deaths attributed directly to barbiturates (Barraclough 1974). These data should not surprise us, since in a period of just one year (1968), 24.7 million prescriptions for barbiturates were issued in the United Kingdom (Plant 1981). In view of these data, the Advisory Council Campaign in Britain took measures restricting the prescription of these drugs. Meanwhile, the prescription of prolonged-acting sedative barbiturates was strongly opposed through citizens' action campaigns such as CURB (Campaign on the Use and Restrictions of Barbiturates), especially active during the 1970s.
  117. ^ "Top 10 Mistresses: #4, Marilyn Monroe". content.time.com. Time, Inc. July 1, 2009. Retrieved September 25, 2014. Monroe died later in 1962 of a drug overdose, but tales about her alleged fling with the President grew increasingly tall. FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover tried to prove that the man on a secret FBI sex tape of Monroe was Kennedy, but he lacked definitive proof. Others claim Kennedy was involved in her death. Needless to say, the rumors are even less substantiated than the affair itself.
  118. ^ Kennedy, John. "John F. Kennedy Moon Speech – Rice Stadium". US National Aeronautical & Space Administration.
  119. ^ Griswold, Eliza (September 21, 2012). "How 'Silent Spring' Ignited the Environmental Movement". nytimes.com. The New York Times Co. Retrieved June 3, 2014.
  120. ^ Meyer, Michal; Kenworthy, Bob (2016-02-02). "DDT: The Britney Spears of Chemicals (Audio Podcast)". Science History Institute. Retrieved 20 March 2018. Americans have had a long, complicated relationship with the pesticide DDT, or dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane, if you want to get fancy. First we loved it, then we hated it, then we realized it might not be as bad as we thought. But we'll never restore it to its former glory. And couldn't you say the same about America's once-favorite pop star?
  121. ^ James Meredith (August 7, 2012). A Mission from God: A Memoir and Challenge for America. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4516-7474-3.
  122. ^ "The Integration of Ole Miss (Historical video and text resources)". history.com. A&E Television Networks, LLC. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
  123. ^ "The Beatles' 'Love Me Do' Hits the Public Domain in Europe". Rolling Stone. January 12, 2013.
  124. ^ Hotten, Russell (2012-10-04). "The Beatles at 50: From Fab Four to fabulously wealthy". BBC. Retrieved 2015-11-18.
  125. ^ Viner, Brian (2012-02-11). "The man who rejected the Beatles". independent.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-02-09. Exactly 50 years ago, Decca's Dick Rowe turned down the Fab Four, so heading an unenviable club of talent-spotters who passed up their biggest chance. But is it all an urban myth? A new book suggests so
  126. ^ Dobbs, Michael; Dobbs, Rachel (2012-10-08). "Thirteen Days in October (Annotated Slideshow)". Foreignpolicy.com. Foreign Policy. Retrieved 2016-06-28.
  127. ^ "Aerial Photograph of Missiles in Cuba (1962)". ourdocuments.gov. The National Archives and Records Administration, et al (US). Retrieved June 4, 2014.
  128. ^ Kennedy, John (1962-10-22). "JFK Addresses Nation". youtube.com. US Government (original). Retrieved 2017-02-15. Complete and uncut footage of speech.
  129. ^ Schwartz, Stephen (August 1998). "Skybolt Air-Launched Ballistic Missile (AGM-48A) (Archive Document)". brookings.edu. The Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
  130. ^ Anderson, Walter Truett. The Upstart Spring: Esalen and the American Awakening, Addison Wesley Publishing Company (1983, 2004) p. 64
  131. ^ Fox, Margalit (2012-08-13). "Helen Gurley Brown, Who Gave 'Single Girl' a Life in Full, Dies at 90". New York Times. Retrieved 2015-11-30. As Cosmopolitan's editor from 1965 until 1997, Ms. Brown was widely credited with being the first to introduce frank discussions of sex into magazines for women. The look of women's magazines today – a sea of voluptuous models and titillating cover lines – is due in no small part to her influence.
  132. ^ Isserman, Maurice (June 19, 2009). "Essay Michael Harrington: Warrior on Poverty". The New York Times. Retrieved July 13, 2014. Among the book's readers, reputedly, was John F. Kennedy, who in the fall of 1963 began thinking about proposing antipoverty legislation. After Kennedy's assassination, Lyndon Johnson took up the issue, calling in his 1964 State of the Union address for an "unconditional war on poverty." Sargent Shriver headed the task force charged with drawing up the legislation, and invited Harrington to Washington as a consultant.
  133. ^ Lehmann-Haupt, Christopher (November 11, 2001). "Ken Kesey, Author of 'Cuckoo's Nest,' Who Defined the Psychedelic Era, Dies at 66". The New York Times. Retrieved July 7, 2014. Ken Kesey, the Pied Piper of the psychedelic era, who was best known as the author of the novel One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, died yesterday in a hospital in Eugene, Ore., said his wife, Faye. He was 66 and lived in Pleasant Hill, Ore.
  134. ^ Hoffman, Jordan (2015-11-19). "'One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest' Still Resonates 40 Years Later". biography.com. A&E Television Networks, LLC. Retrieved 2016-06-20. Milos Forman's adaptation of Ken Kesey's novel 'One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest' is, in some ways, the essential film document about the 1960s counter-culture.
  135. ^ Dunlap, David (January 4, 2012). "Charles W. Bailey, Journalist and Political Novelist, Dies at 82". The New York Times. Retrieved February 7, 2015. Written with Fletcher Knebel and published in 1962, Seven Days in May tells of an attempted coup by the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in May 1974 after the president negotiates a disarmament treaty with Russia. It was at the top of The New York Times's best-seller list in early 1963 and was made into a movie, with Burt Lancaster, Kirk Douglas and Fredric March, in 1964.
  136. ^ Jesse Walker (June 1, 2004). Rebels on the Air: An Alternative History of Radio in America. NYU Press. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-8147-8477-8.
  137. ^ Hinckley, David (September 20, 2012). "Documentary 'Radio Unnameable' captures the wee-hour WBAI broadcasts of Bob Fass". nydailynews.com. The New York Daily News. Retrieved July 24, 2014. Legendary jock entertained and informed New Yorkers in the '60s and '70s by bringing on guests like Bob Dylan and Abbie Hoffman.
  138. ^ Paul Lovelace & Jessica Wolfson (2012). Radio Unnameable (Film Documentary). New York: Lost Footage Films.
  139. ^ a b Cochrane, Kira (May 6, 2013). "1963: the beginning of the feminist movement – Fifty years on, we look back at the year that signalled the beginning of the modern era". theguardian.com. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved June 3, 2014.
  140. ^ "Louie Louie (The Song)". fbi.gov. US Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved 2016-05-12. In 1963, a rock group named the Kingsmen recorded the song "Louie, Louie." The popularity of the song and difficulty in discerning the lyrics led some people to suspect the song was obscene. The FBI was asked to investigate whether or not those involved with the song violated laws against the interstate transportation of obscene material. The limited investigation lasted from February to May 1964 and discovered no evidence of obscenity.
  141. ^ McArdle, Terence (2015-04-29). "Jack Ely, whose garbled version of 'Louie Louie' became a sensation, dies". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2016-05-13. According to rock music historian Peter Blecha, advances in recording technology have revealed an actual obscenity on the Kingsmen's recording of "Louie Louie." About 54 seconds in, Blecha said, Easton uses a barely audible profanity after fumbling with a drumstick.
  142. ^ File:President Kennedy American University Commencement Address June 10, 1963.jpg
  143. ^ "The Burning Monk: A defining moment photographed by AP's Malcolm Browne". ap.org. Associated Press. 2013. Retrieved March 1, 2015. Nevertheless, it was that picture which shocked President John F. Kennedy, who immediately ordered a review of his administration's Vietnam policy. The review led to more troops, not fewer.
  144. ^ Schudel, Matt (August 28, 2012). "Malcolm W. Browne, Pulitzer-winning journalist who captured indelible Vietnam image, dies at 81". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 1, 2015. He chronicled the regime of South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem and the homegrown opposition led by Buddhist monks. On June 11, 1963, Mr. Browne was present when an elderly monk named Thich Quang Duc, wearing sandals and a robe, calmly sat cross-legged on a cushion in the center of an intersection in Saigon. Other monks poured fuel over him, and the monk struck a match and was immediately engulfed in flames. Mr. Browne shot roll after roll of film, documenting the self-immolation.
  145. ^ Cosgrove, Ben; Loengard, John (June 11, 2013). "Behind the Picture: Medgar Evers' Funeral, June 1963 (Story and Photos)". life.time.com. Time, Inc. Archived from the original on July 28, 2014. Retrieved June 25, 2014. In its June 28, 1963, issue, LIFE confronted the assassination with a combination of scorn (for the Klan and for white supremacists in general), anger (at the waste of such a life as Evers') and an occasionally sardonic venom.
  146. ^ "School District of Abington Township, Pennsylvania v. Schempp". Cornell University Law School / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved February 27, 2015. Syllabus: Because of the prohibition of the First Amendment against the enactment by Congress of any law "respecting an establishment of religion," which is made applicable to the States by the Fourteenth Amendment, no state law or school board may require that passages from the Bible be read or that the Lord's Prayer be recited in the public schools of a State at the beginning of each school day – even if individual students may be excused from attending or participating in such exercises upon written request of their parents.
  147. ^ "God in America – People & Ideas: Madalyn Murray O'Hair". US PBS. Retrieved February 27, 2015. Madalyn Murray O'Hair was an outspoken advocate of atheism and the founder of the organization American Atheists. In 1960 O'Hair gained notoriety when she sued Baltimore public schools for requiring students to read from the Bible and to recite the Lord's Prayer at school exercises.
  148. ^ Scherman, Rowland (July 31, 2009). "Dylan In Pictures: Newport 1963". npr.org. US National Public Radio. Retrieved February 27, 2015. That seminal moment at the 1963 Newport Folk Festival, Dylan went from zero to hero in the course of a weekend.
  149. ^ Ulrich Adelt (2010). Blues Music in the Sixties: A Story in Black and White. Rutgers University Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-8135-4750-3.
  150. ^ Suarez, Ray. "Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" Remembered". pbs.org. Public Broadcasting Service (US). Retrieved May 16, 2014.
  151. ^ "Test Ban Treaty (1963):On August 5, 1963, the Limited Test Ban Treaty was signed by the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union. After Senate approval, the treaty that went into effect on October 10, 1963, banned nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere, in outer space, and under water". ourdocuments.gov. The National Archives and Records Administration, et al (US). Retrieved June 4, 2014.
  152. ^ Richard A. Reuss (2000). American Folk Music and Left-wing Politics, 1927–1957. Scarecrow Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-8108-3684-6.
  153. ^ "Harvard Sex Orgies Disclosed by Dean". The Chicago Tribune. UPI. 1963-11-01. Retrieved 2015-11-14.
  154. ^ Robert S. McNamara; James Blight; Robert K. Brigham; Thomas J. Biersteker; Col. Herbert Schandler (2 November 2007). Argument Without End: In Search of Answers to the Vietnam Tragedy. PublicAffairs. p. 328. ISBN 978-1-58648-621-1.
  155. ^ Lane, Mark (1966). Rush to Judgment (Paperback, 1992 ed.). New York: Thunder's Mouth Press. p. 7. ISBN 1-56025-043-7.
  156. ^ Marrs, Jim (1989). "Preface". Crossfire: The Plot That Killed Kennedy (1st Paperback, 1990 ed.). New York: Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0-88184-648-1.
  157. ^ Jeanette Leech (2010). Seasons They Change: The Story of Acid and Psychedelic Folk. Jawbone Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-1-906002-32-9.
  158. ^ Johnson, Lyndon Baines. "Annual Message to the Congress on the State of the Union. January 8, 1964". .presidency.ucsb.edu. Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley – The American Presidency Project via UCSB. Retrieved February 12, 2015. Let this session of Congress be known as the session which did more for civil rights than the last hundred sessions combined; as the session which enacted the most far-reaching tax cut of our time; as the session which declared all-out war on human poverty and unemployment in these United States; as the session which finally recognized the health needs of all our older citizens; as the session which reformed our tangled transportation and transit policies; as the session which achieved the most effective, efficient foreign aid program ever; and as the session which helped to build more homes, more schools, more libraries, and more hospitals than any single session of Congress in the history of our Republic.
  159. ^ "For LBJ, The War On Poverty Was Personal". npr.org. NPR. January 8, 2014. Retrieved February 12, 2015. President Lyndon Johnson stood in the Capitol on Jan. 8, 1964, and, in his first State of the Union address, committed the nation to a war on poverty. "We shall not rest until that war is won," Johnson said. "The richest nation on Earth can afford to win it. We cannot afford to lose it." It was an effort that had been explored under President Kennedy, but it firmly – and quickly – took shape under Johnson.
  160. ^ Sanburn, Josh (2011-05-09). "The 10 Best Bob Dylan Songs: 'The Times They Are A-Changin'". Time, Inc. Retrieved 2015-11-07.
  161. ^ "500 Greatest Songs of All Time: 59 Bob Dylan, 'The Times They Are A-Changin'". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2015-11-07.
  162. ^ "Historical Highlights: The 24th Amendment". history.house.gov. U.S. House of Representatives (History, Art & Archives). Retrieved March 1, 2015. On this date in 1962, the House passed the 24th Amendment, outlawing the poll tax as a voting requirement in federal elections, by a vote of 295 to 86. At the time, five states maintained poll taxes which disproportionately affected African-American voters: Virginia, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Texas. The poll tax exemplified "Jim Crow" laws, developed in the post-Reconstruction South, which aimed to disenfranchise black voters and institute segregation.
  163. ^ "Beatlemania Comes to the United States". rockhall.com. Rock & Roll Hall of Fame. February 3, 2015. Retrieved March 1, 2015. In Britain, "I Want to Hold Your Hand" saw its official release on December 5, 1963, reaching Number One the following week. It held the position for five weeks. Soon thereafter, American DJs began spinning the import single and the immediate, positive response prompted Capitol to not only bump up the release date to December 26, but also increase the press run from 200,000 copies to one million. A media blitz followed, as reporters from the Associated Press, CBS, Life, New York Times and more were assigned to cover the Beatles. "I Want to Hold Your Hand" reached Number One on the Billboard charts on February 1, 1964, and remained on the Billboard Hot 100 for seven weeks.
  164. ^ Barry Miles (2009). The British Invasion. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. ISBN 978-1-4027-6976-4.
  165. ^ "New York School Boycott". crdl.usg.org. Civil Rights Digital Library/Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved 2017-03-17.
  166. ^ Khan, Yasmeen (2016-02-03). "Demand for School Integration Leads to Massive 1964 Boycott – In New York City". wnyc.org. Retrieved 2017-03-17. After hearing too many "vague promises" from the New York City Board of Education to integrate the schools, civil rights activists in 1964 called for swift action: desegregate the city's schools and improve the inferior conditions of many that enrolled black and Latino students. To force the issue, they staged a one-day school boycott on Feb. 3, when approximately 460,000 students refused to go to school.
  167. ^ "The Beatles". edsullivan.com. SOFA Entertainment. 2010. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
  168. ^ Harding, Barrie (1964-02-08). "5,000 scream 'welcome' to the Beatles". Daily Mirror (18,704). Retrieved 2015-12-24.
  169. ^ Trust, Gary (2013-04-04). "April 4, 1964: The Beatles Control Entire Top Five On Billboard Hot 100". billboard.com. Billboard. Retrieved 2016-08-11. On the Billboard Hot 100 dated April 4, 1964, 49 years ago today, the Beatles made history as the only act ever to occupy the chart's top five positions in a week. With a 27–1 second-week blast to the top for "Can't Buy Me Love," the Fab Four locked up the chart's entire top five: No. 1, "Can't Buy Me Love" No. 2, "Twist and Shout" No. 3, "She Loves You" No. 4, "I Want to Hold Your Hand" No. 5, "Please Please Me"
  170. ^ Bronson, p. 145.
  171. ^ The New York Times (10 June 2014). New York Times The Times of the Sixties: The Culture, Politics, and Personalities that Shaped the Decade. Running Press. p. 1136. ISBN 978-1-60376-366-0.
  172. ^ France, Lisa Respers (2018-03-01). "All the best actor Oscar winners through the years". cnn.com. CNN. Retrieved 2018-06-03.
  173. ^ "The 1964 Cleveland schools' boycott to protest segregation: Black History Month". 2013-02-24.
  174. ^ Winner, David (19 May 2009). "Robert Jasper Grootveld: Artist and activist who helped found the Dutch Provos in the 1960s". www.independent.co.uk. The Independent. Retrieved 3 December 2016. No single person can be said to have created the worldwide cultural phenomenon we call "the Sixties". But the Dutch anti-smoking "magician" and voodoo showman Robert Jasper Grootveld has a better claim than most. In the early Sixties, his surreal, dadaist "happenings" in Amsterdam electrified the city's bored youth and led to the creation of the playful Provo movement (short for "provocation"). With the charismatic, flamboyantly transvestite Grootveld as a spokesman, Provo was a catalyst for cultural revolution. The group provided free bicycles, subverted a royal wedding and humiliated the stiff-necked Dutch establishment and Amsterdam police force so effectively that both groups – and the country – underwent a near-total personality change. Provo lasted only from 1965 to 1967 but the spirit of what Grootveld dubbed "International Magic Centre Amsterdam" broke old Holland, inspired hippies in San Francisco and musicians and artists in London and paved the way, among other things, for the summer of love, Dutch total football and the green movement.
  175. ^ International Institute of Social History – Grootveld flyers
  176. ^ Enfield, Robert. "Photographs:Sheraton Palace Demonstration, May 1964". cdlib.org. University of California. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
  177. ^ James J. Farrell (January 1997). The Spirit of the Sixties: Making Postwar Radicalism. Psychology Press. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-415-91385-0.
  178. ^ Peter Bacon Hales (11 April 2014). Outside the Gates of Eden: The Dream of America from Hiroshima to Now. University of Chicago Press. p. 317. ISBN 978-0-226-12861-0.
  179. ^ Green; Nicholas J. Karolides (January 1, 2009). Encyclopedia of Censorship. Infobase Publishing. p. 301. ISBN 978-1-4381-1001-1.
  180. ^ "Jacobellis v. Ohio – 378 U.S. 184 (1964)". supreme.justia.com. justia.com. Retrieved July 9, 2014.
  181. ^ "Landmark Legislation: The Civil Rights Act of 1964". senate.gov. Retrieved 2016-08-11.
  182. ^ Krock, p. 411
  183. ^ The Beatles (1 September 2000). The Beatles Anthology. Chronicle Books. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-8118-2684-6.
  184. ^ Cusick, Rick (2014-08-28). "Bob Dylan Smoked Out The Beatles 50 Years Ago Today". hightimes.com. High Times. Retrieved 2016-10-04. Perhaps the mostly influential sesh in history happened on August 28, 1964 when Bob Dylan got The Beatles high at The Delmonico Hotel in New York City. While this was not technically The Moptops first-time toking – they shared a joint in Hamburg but couldn't agree whether or not they got high – they definitely copped a buzz with Dylan in New York.
  185. ^ NFO PROTEST CANCELLED Truck Crushes Two to Death
  186. ^ "Visual History: Free Speech Movement, 1964-Mario Savio addresses the crowd". Retrieved March 1, 2015. Mario Savio addresses the crowd Mario Savio climbs on top of the police car containing Jack Weinberg to address the crowd of demonstrators. Savio demands Weinberg's release and the lifting of University prohibitions against political activity on campus.
  187. ^ Robert Cohen (30 July 2009). Freedom's Orator: Mario Savio and the Radical Legacy of the 1960s. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-976634-5.
  188. ^ Seth Rosenfeld (21 August 2012). Subversives: The FBI's War on Student Radicals, and Reagan's Rise to Power. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-1-4299-6932-1.
  189. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1964". nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB. Retrieved March 1, 2015. He is the first person in the Western world to have shown us that a struggle can be waged without violence. He is the first to make the message of brotherly love a reality in the course of his struggle, and he has brought this message to all men, to all nations and races. Today we pay tribute to Martin Luther King, the man who has never abandoned his faith in the unarmed struggle he is waging, who has suffered for his faith, who has been imprisoned on many occasions, whose home has been subject to bomb attacks, whose life and the lives of his family have been threatened, and who nevertheless has never faltered.
  190. ^ Barry Miles (2009). The British Invasion. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. p. 129. ISBN 978-1-4027-6976-4.
  191. ^ "Election of 1964". University of California, Santa Barbara / American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on 2015-03-13. Retrieved March 1, 2015.
  192. ^ Moylan, Brian (December 22, 2014). "'Offensive' Is the New 'Obscene'". time.com. Time, Inc. Retrieved March 1, 2015. On Dec. 21, 1964, Bruce was sentenced to four months in a workhouse for a set he did in a New York comedy club that included a bit about Eleanor Roosevelt's "nice tits..."
  193. ^ Robert Cohen; Reginald E. Zelnik (2002). The Free Speech Movement: Reflections on Berkeley in the 1960s. University of California Press. p. 534. ISBN 978-0-520-23354-6.
  194. ^ Jackman, Michael (December 1, 2014). "Mario Savio's 'bodies upon the gears' speech – 50 years later". metrotimes.com. Detroit Metro Times. Retrieved March 1, 2015. It's a short but bold and defiant oration that says free human beings aren't going to be pushed around by anybody, from lawmakers and police to liberals and labor leaders. Standing in front of a crowd of 4,000 people, Savio described his meeting with university officials, who compared the president of the university to the president of a corporation.
  195. ^ Drash, Wayne (2010-04-28). "Malcolm X killer freed after 44 years". CNN. Retrieved 2016-10-04. Malcolm X is best known as the fiery leader of the Nation of Islam who denounced whites as "blue-eyed devils." But at the end of his life, Malcolm X changed his views toward whites and discarded the Nation of Islam's ideology in favor of orthodox Islam. In doing so, he feared for his own life from within the Nation.
  196. ^ W.J. Rorabaugh Professor of History University of Washington (May 4, 1989). Berkeley at War : The 1960s: The 1960s. Oxford University Press. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-19-802252-7.
  197. ^ Enfield, Robert. "Photographs:Filthy Speech Rally, Spring, 1965". cdlib.org. University of California. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
  198. ^ Spencer C. Tucker (May 20, 2011). The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History [4 volumes]: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 775. ISBN 978-1-85109-961-0.
  199. ^ Barry Miles (2009). The British Invasion. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. p. 133. ISBN 978-1-4027-6976-4.
  200. ^ "The Yardbirds Announce New Lineup – Including Pre-Eric Clapton Guitarist Top Topham – and 2015 Tour Dates". guitarworld.com. NewBay Media. February 10, 2015. Retrieved November 13, 2015.
  201. ^ Raasch, Chuck (May 16, 2014). "Never trust anyone over 30? A second thought". stltoday.com. St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved May 26, 2014.
  202. ^ Matthew Greenwald (30 April 2002). Go Where You Wanna Go: The Oral History of The Mamas and The Papas. Cooper Square Press. p. 212. ISBN 978-1-4616-2290-1.
  203. ^ Herbert, Ian (2006-09-08). "Revealed: Dentist who introduced Beatles to LSD". The Independent. Retrieved 2016-01-07.
  204. ^ Cromelin, Richard (2011-10-06). "Bert Jansch dies at 67; Scottish singer-guitarist influenced rock, folk greats". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2018-06-06.
  205. ^ Martin Charles Strong (2002). The Great Scots Musicography: The Complete Guide to Scotland's Music Makers. Birlinn, Limited. ISBN 978-1-84183-041-4.
  206. ^ Roger Chapman (2010). Culture Wars: An Encyclopedia of Issues, Viewpoints, and Voices. M.E. Sharpe. p. 545. ISBN 978-0-7656-2250-1.
  207. ^ Greenfield, Robert (March 14, 2011). "Owsley Stanley: The King of LSD". Rolling Stone. Retrieved February 6, 2015. By May 1965, he was back in the Bay Area with 3,600 capsules of extraordinarily pure LSD, dubbed "Owsley" by a pot-dealing folk guitarist friend. "I never set out to 'turn on the world,' as has been claimed by many," Owsley says.
  208. ^ McGee, Rosie (1969). "Owsley Stanley, left, with Jerry Garcia of the Grateful Dead in a 1969 publicity photograph". nytimes.com. Reuters via New York Times. Retrieved February 6, 2015.
  209. ^ a b c "The Pacifica Radio/UC Berkeley Social Activism Sound Recording Project:Anti-Vietnam War Protests in the San Francisco Bay Area & Beyond". University of California Berkeley Library. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  210. ^ Thompson, Hunter (2005-03-02). "The Motorcycle Gangs: A portrait of an outsider underground". The Nation. The Nation Company, LLC. Retrieved 2018-07-06. This article first appeared in the May 17, 1965 issue.
  211. ^ "Unforgettable Change: 1960s: 1960s in Vietnam and in Berkeley (Text and Audio Content)". museumca.org. Oakland Museum of California. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
  212. ^ Enfield, Robert. "Photographs:Vietnam Day, Spring, 1965". cdlib.org. University of California. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
  213. ^ Knopper, Steve (2015-09-01). "Colorado's Famous Historic Artist Commune". 5280.com. 5280 The Denver Magazine. Retrieved 2015-12-30. At the time, the idea of a commune – a place where young artists would live off sales of their work and share a bank account to buy food and supplies – was new and exciting. The concept attracted those who identified with the blossoming '60s counterculture. Prominent figures in the movement, including eventual Woodstock Nation members such as LSD guru Timothy Leary and the Doors' Jim Morrison, ventured to this plot of land in Trinidad. What they found when they arrived was a utopia born from the zeitgeist of 1960s America – a place unlike anywhere else in Colorado.
  214. ^ "America and the Utopian Dream – Utopian Communities". brbl-archive.library.yale.edu.
  215. ^ William E. Hudson (December 28, 2007). The Libertarian Illusion: Ideology, Public Policy and the Assault on the Common Good. SAGE Publications. p. 191. ISBN 978-1-4833-0122-8.
  216. ^ "Margaret Sanger (1879–1966)". ocp.hul.harvard.edu. Harvard University Library. Retrieved August 13, 2014. In 1965, the Supreme Court decision in Griswold v. Connecticut legalized contraception for married couples.
  217. ^ CNN (August 7, 2014). "The Times they are a Changin'". The Sixties (Documentary Series). CNN.
  218. ^ Hodgkinson, Will (June 13, 2005). "Snapshot: Allen Ginsberg at the Albert Hall". theguardian.com. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
  219. ^ Gary Graff; Daniel Durchholz (12 June 2012). Rock 'n' Roll Myths: The True Stories Behind the Most Infamous Legends. Voyageur Press. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-7603-4230-5.
  220. ^ Righthand, Jess (2010-07-23). "July 25, 1965: Dylan Goes Electric at the Newport Folk Festival". smithsonian.com. Retrieved 2015-02-14. It was during that concert, 45 years ago today, that Bob Dylan plugged in his electric guitar, an action that would alter the landscape of American popular music for generations to come. On that day, as boos, shouts and cries for "the old Dylan" rose above the music, Dylan departed from his acoustic roots and ventured into the realm of rock 'n' roll, a genre generally disdained as commercial and mainstream by Dylan's bohemian peers of the 1960s American folk music revival. In doing this, the artist forged the way for the folk-rock genre, merging his lyrical songwriting style with the hard-driving sounds of rock.
  221. ^ "I Ain't Marching Anymore by Phil Ochs".
  222. ^ "Watts Riots". crdl.usg.edu. Civil Rights Digital Library/Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved 2018-04-28. The Watts Riot, which raged for six days and resulted in more than forty million dollars worth of property damage, was both the largest and costliest urban rebellion of the Civil Rights era. The riot spurred from an incident on August 11, 1965 when Marquette Frye, a young African American motorist, was pulled over and arrested by Lee W. Minikus, a white California Highway Patrolman, for suspicion of driving while intoxicated. As a crowd on onlookers gathered at the scene of Frye's arrest, strained tensions between police officers and the crowd erupted in a violent exchange. The outbreak of violence that followed Frye's arrest immediately touched off a large-scale riot centered in the commercial section of Watts, a deeply impoverished African American neighborhood in South Central Los Angeles. For several days, rioters overturned and burned automobiles and looted and damaged grocery stores, liquor stores, department stores, and pawnshops. Over the course of the six-day riot, over 14,000 California National Guard troops were mobilized in South Los Angeles and a curfew zone encompassing over forty-five miles was established in an attempt to restore public order. All told, the rioting claimed the lives of thirty-four people, resulted in more than one thousand reported injuries, and almost four thousand arrests before order was restored on August 17. Throughout the crisis, public officials advanced the argument that the riot was the work outside agitators; however, an official investigation, prompted by Governor Pat Brown, found that the riot was a result of the Watts community's longstanding grievances and growing discontentment with high unemployment rates, substandard housing, and inadequate schools. Despite the reported findings of the gubernatorial commission, following the riot, city leaders and state officials failed to implement measures to improve the social and economic conditions of African Americans living in the Watts neighborhood.
  223. ^ Miles, Barry (1998). The Beatles: A Diary. Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0-7119-9196-5.
  224. ^ Montagne, Renee (2012-12-12). "Music and Mayhem in 'Laurel Canyon'". NPR. Retrieved 2015-11-25.
  225. ^ Robinson, Lisa (2015-02-28). "An Oral History of Laurel Canyon, the 60s and 70s Music Mecca". Vanity Fair/Conde Nast. Retrieved 2015-11-25.
  226. ^ Reed, Ryan (2015-09-15). "Paul on Drums, George on Bass: 10 Great Beatles Instrument Swaps". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2018-05-19. McCartney's melodic bass work is a signature of the Beatles' oeuvre, but Harrison did a great job approximating it on the psychedelic Revolver meditation "She Said She Said" – one of the band's only tracks not to feature Sir Paul. "I think we'd had a barney or something, and I said, 'Oh, fuck you!' and they said, 'Well, we'll do it,'" McCartney told Barry Miles in the 1998 biography Many Years From Now. The song was inspired by Lennon's 1965 LSD trip with Byrds members Roger McGuinn and David Crosby, during which actor Peter Fonda told a frightened Harrison that he knew "what it's like to be dead." And the result plays like both a celebration and a mockery of the acid movement, driven by Harrison's stoned guitar shrapnel and dextrous, Macca-styled bass runs.
  227. ^ Cornish, Audie (2015-08-28). "A New Ride Down Dylan's 'Highway': What Do Millennials Think Of The Album?". npr.org. US National Public Radio. Retrieved 2017-01-12.
  228. ^ Rothman, Lily (2015-10-15). "This Photo Shows the Vietnam Draft-Card Burning That Started a Movement". time.com. Time Inc. Retrieved 2018-04-28. David Miller was not the first person to destroy a draft card. As protests against the Vietnam War increased in the 1960s, the destruction of Selective Service registration certificates became common enough that in August of 1965 President Johnson signed a law making it a federal crime to destroy or mutilate the cards. But after Miller publicly burned his draft card on Oct. 15, 1965 – exactly 50 years ago – he became the first person to be prosecuted under that law and a symbol of the growing movement against the war.
  229. ^ Howard Smead (November 1, 2000). Don't Trust Anyone Over Thirty: The First Four Decades of the Baby Boom. iUniverse. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-595-12393-3.
  230. ^ Kilgallen, Dorothy (June 11, 1963). "Dorothy Kilgallen's Voice of Broadway". Syndicated column via The Montreal Gazette. Retrieved July 10, 2014. New York hippies have a new kick – baking marijuana in cookies...
  231. ^ "Dandridge death caused by drugs". UPI via Baltimore Afro-American. 1965-11-20. Retrieved 2016-06-19.
  232. ^ "Starring Dorothy Dandridge". tcm.com. Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved 2016-06-19. She was beautiful, she could dance, she could sing, and she could act. Most importantly, she had that indefinable magnetism that attracts an audience and holds their attention. In short, she had everything it took to be a major star in the 1950s. Everything, that is, except white skin.
  233. ^ Kathleen Fearn-Banks (November 15, 2005). Historical Dictionary of African-American Television. Scarecrow Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-8108-6522-8.
  234. ^ Fleming, Colin (2015-09-25). "Revisiting Beatles' Wonderfully Wacky Cartoon Series, 50 Years Later". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2018-04-28. Even Beatles completists sometimes have a blind spot when it comes to the band's eponymous cartoon, which ran on ABC for four years – starting exactly 50 years ago, on September 25th, 1965. If you like your Beatles animated, chances are your thing is for the 1968 film Yellow Submarine, the rare cinematic venture that works just as well for the kiddies as the adults.
  235. ^ Staff Report. "Hot 100 55th Anniversary: Every No. 1 Song (1958–2013)". billboard.com. Billboard. Retrieved 2015-12-07. Eve Of Destruction, Barry McGuire, 9/25/1965
  236. ^ Chawkins, Steve (2015-11-17). "P.F. Sloan dies at 70; wrote '60s protest song 'Eve of Destruction'". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2015-12-07.
  237. ^ Unterberger, Richie. "The Yardbirds – Biography". AllMusic. Rovi Corp. Retrieved 2015-12-07.
  238. ^ Rosenkranz, Patrick. "The East Village Other: The Rise of Underground Comix and the Alternative Press". eastvillageother.org. The Local East Village, NYU Arthur L. Carter Journalism Institute, Fales Library and Special Collections, et al. Retrieved 2015-12-30.
  239. ^ Wiegand, David (2016-02-06). "Dan Hicks, a true original of S.F. music scene, dies at 74". San Francisco Chronicle via sfgate.com. Retrieved 2016-07-04. Today the band is little recalled by those who weren't there, but the Charlatans were the first important new rock band in San Francisco when LSD first rolled through town and things started getting weird. When the five-man band of Edwardian dandies in immaculate vintage wear returned from playing all summer 1965 at the Red Dog Saloon in Virginia City, the Charlatans were the headline attraction at A Tribute to Dr. Strange, the Longshoreman's Hall dance/concert that was ground zero for the '60s San Francisco rock scene. ...Farther down the program that evening was another new band just starting out at a former pizza parlor in the Marina with the peculiar name of Jefferson Airplane.
  240. ^ Jones, Kevin (2016-02-06). "Dan Hicks, San Francisco Folk Jazz Pioneer, Dead at 74". kqed.org. KQED. Retrieved 2017-03-03. In 1965, Hicks would become the drummer for The Charlatans, who, along with groups such as the Jefferson Airplane and the Grateful Dead, would help define the city's psychedelic sound. Later, rock historians would cite the group's extended residency at the Red Dog Saloon in Nevada in the summer of '65 as being the precursor to San Francisco's LSD-focused rock shows of the later '60s because of the trippy rock posters used to advertise the residency, and the fact that the band would ingest psychedelic drugs while playing.
  241. ^ Gray, Madison (August 11, 2011). "All-TIME 100 Nonfiction Books: #13, The Autobiography of Malcolm X". entertainment.time.com. Time, Inc. Retrieved September 21, 2014. Malcolm X predicted that he would not live to see its publication, a prophecy fulfilled as friction between himself and the Nation of Islam, and a subsequent falling-out culminated in his 1965 assassination. But the pages chronicling the years leading up to it reveal the world of a man who had gone from being a hustler to being one of history's most controversial civil rights icons.
  242. ^ Manning, Marable; Goodman, Amy (May 21, 2007). "Manning Marable on "Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention" (transcribed from radio program)". democracynow.org. Retrieved September 21, 2014. But what we do know that is true is that when Malcolm is assassinated on February 21, 1965, within two-and-a-half weeks the original publisher, Doubleday, exes the deal on the book. And in early March '65, they cancel the contract. That's why the book is published at the end of the year by Grove, not Doubleday. It was the most disastrous decision in corporate publishing history. They lost millions of dollars on this.
  243. ^ "The Autobiography of Malcolm X: Epilogue By Alex Haley – Minister Malcolm X – The Honorable Elijah Muhammad". www.alex-haley.com.
  244. ^ Mitchell, Greg (2010-11-13). "When Antiwar Protest Turned Fatal: The Ballad of Norman Morrison". The Nation.
  245. ^ Ruane, Michael (2015-11-01). "Vietnam critic's end was the start of family's pain". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2016-04-07. Morrison had set himself ablaze 40 feet from the Pentagon office window of then-Defense Secretary Robert S. McNamara, one of the chief organizers of the U.S. involvement in the war. Years later, a contrite McNamara wrote that Morrison's death was a tragedy "for me and the country."
  246. ^ Donna E. Alvermann (2002). Adolescents and Literacies in a Digital World. Peter Lang. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-8204-5573-0.
  247. ^ "The Who and the New Generation". historyengine.richmond.edu. University of Richmond (Digital Scholarship Lab). Retrieved July 26, 2014. "Things they do look awful c-cold," Daltry continued stuttering, "Hope I die before I get old." Daltry then screamed, drilling the purpose of the song into everyone's heads, "This is my generation!" And this truly was the youths' generation. All the years of old men from bygone eras had to pave way to Roger Daltry's generation, for the young men and women of the Western world were finally speaking up and letting their voices be heard. "It's my generation, baby," Daltry repeated his mantra.
  248. ^ Reinholz, Mary (2015-11-26). "Sixties draft-card burners recall inflammatory time at Maryhouse panel talk". The Villager/NYC Community Media. Retrieved 2015-12-30.
  249. ^ "We Look Back at Detroit's Alternative Paper 'The Fifth Estate', Founded 50 years Ago". wdet.org. WDET 101.9 and Wayne State University. 2015-09-04. Retrieved 2016-01-31. Text and Link to Audio Program
  250. ^ Jarnow, Jesse (2015-11-30). "Acid Tests Turn 50: Wavy Gravy, Merry Prankster Ken Babbs Look Back". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2018-04-28. This week in Santa Cruz, California, a concert, reading and site dedication will commemorate the 50th anniversary of Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters' first LSD-fueled Acid Test, held in the small neighborhood of Soquel on November 27th, 1965.
  251. ^ Hyde, Justin. "June 24: Ralph Nader wins Senate passage of Highway Safety Act on this date in 1966". autos.yahoo.com. Yahoo News / Motoramic. Retrieved June 25, 2014. Article includes video of Nader reflecting on auto safety legislation.
  252. ^ Nader, Ralph (1965). Unsafe at Any Speed. New York: Grossman Publishers. ISBN 978-1561290505.
  253. ^ US NHTSA. "Highway Safety Act of 1966, 23 USC Chapter 4, As Amended by SAFETEA-LU Technical Corrections Act of 2008, Revision June 2008". nhtsa.gov. US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Retrieved June 25, 2014.
  254. ^ "The Mamas and the Papas, 'California Dreamin". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone Magazine. 2011-04-07. Retrieved July 11, 2014. #89 of the 500 Greatest Songs of All Time
  255. ^ Alan Clayson (2002). The Yardbirds: The Band that Launched Eric Clapton, Jeff Beck, Jimmy Page. Backbeat Books. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-87930-724-0.
  256. ^ Myers, Marc (2015-12-02). "The Beatles' 'Rubber Soul' Turns 50". The New York Times. Retrieved 2016-02-07. For most American teens, the arrival of the Beatles' "Rubber Soul" 50 years ago was unsettling. Instead of cheerleading for love, the album's songs held cryptic messages about thinking for yourself, the hypnotic power of women, something called "getting high" and bedding down with the opposite sex. Clearly, growing up wasn't going to be easy.
  257. ^ Lavezzoli, Peter (2006). The Dawn of Indian Music in the West. New York, NY: Continuum. pp. 171–72. ISBN 0-8264-2819-3.
  258. ^ "Leary Arrested On Drug Charge". thecrimson.com. The Harvard Crimson, Inc. 1966-01-03. Retrieved 2018-04-28. Timothy Leary, former lecturer in Clinical Psychology, was arrested at the Mexican border Dec. 23 and charged by U.S. customs officials with the illegal possession of marijuana. The agents seized five ounces of the drug. Leary, his two children, and two associates posted $2500 bond in Laredo, Tex., and were released pending action on the charge. In a telephone interview last night from his home in Millbrook, N.Y., Leary said he was unsure whether he would be indicted before a Texas grand jury and was awaiting word from his lawyer. Leary was dismissed from his Harvard lectureship in 1962 for absenting himself from classes without University permission. He and Richard Alpert, assistant professor of Clinical Psychology, who was dismissed at the same time, had been conducting experiments with psychedelic drugs. Alpert was fired because he violated an agreement with the University and administered drugs to an undergraduate.
  259. ^ William S. McConnell (May 14, 2004). The Counterculture Movement of the 1960s. Greenhaven Press. ISBN 978-0-7377-1819-5.
  260. ^ "Archived: Grateful Dead Live at Fillmore Auditorium on 1966-01-08". archive.org. 1967. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
  261. ^ Tom Wolfe (August 19, 2008). The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 353. ISBN 978-1-4299-6114-1.
  262. ^ William McKeen (2000). Rock and Roll is Here to Stay: An Anthology. Norton. p. 173. ISBN 978-0-393-04700-4.
  263. ^ R. Serge Denisoff (January 1, 1975). Solid Gold: The Popular Record Industry. Transaction Publishers. p. 339. ISBN 978-1-4128-3479-7.
  264. ^ Getlen, Larry (2016-11-19). "This guy made the best LSD of the '60s". New York Post. Retrieved 2016-11-19. For many, the psychedelic Sixties began at an event called the Trips Festival that took place in San Francisco the third weekend of January 1966. At the three-day blowout, between 3,000 and 5,000 people tripping on LSD – more than had ever experienced the drug together – let loose. Grateful Dead guitarist Jerry Garcia called it "total, wall-to-wall gonzo lunacy", noting there were "people jumping off balconies onto blankets and then bouncing up and down". Hell's Angels fought with other biker gangs while a member of the Merry Pranksters, the experimental LSD crew of author Ken Kesey – who attended the event in a "silver space suit with a helmet" – tried to pull Janis Joplin and her band off stage after just one song.
  265. ^ Symonds, Alexandria (2016-02-09). "'Valley of the Dolls,' by the Numbers". The New York Times. Retrieved 2016-06-18. When the actress Jacqueline Susann was diagnosed with breast cancer in 1962, she made a deal with God: She would settle for 10 more years of life. . . if she could become the world's most popular writer. In the 12 years that followed, she became just that: the first novelist to achieve three consecutive New York Times No. 1 best sellers, and one of the richest self-made women in America. Her first novel, Valley of the Dolls, remains a pop-culture touchstone: a gleefully salacious story of friendship, sex, backstabbing and pills (or dolls) that won famous fans and detractors alike. (Susann, who died in 1974, made hundreds of appearances to support the novel and is credited with inventing the modern book tour.) Now celebrating its 50th anniversary, the tawdry tale of Anne Welles, Jennifer North and Neely O'Hara hasn't lost its punch. Here, a look at the vital stats behind one of the most talked-about books of all time.
  266. ^ Meltzer, Marisa (2016-03-12). "'Valley of the Dolls,' Pitched to a New Generation". The New York Times. Retrieved 2016-06-18.
  267. ^ a b Barry Miles (March 1, 2010). London Calling: A Countercultural History of London since 1945. Atlantic Books, Limited. p. 142. ISBN 978-1-84887-554-8.
  268. ^ Weil, Andrew (1966-03-14). "Leary Plans Drug Conviction Appeal, Urges Test Case of Marijuana Laws". thecrimson.com. Harvard Crimson. Retrieved 2016-02-25. Timothy F. Leary, convicted Friday on marijuana charges, told the Boston CRIMSON yesterday that a "battery of lawyers" would appeal his sentence of 30 years imprisonment and a $30,000 fine. The former Harvard lecturer on Psychology said he would also try to make his case a legal test of current laws on marijuana.
  269. ^ "Song Stories: Eight Miles High". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on March 15, 2014. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
  270. ^ Richie Unterberger (2003). Eight Miles High: Folk-rock's Flight from Haight-Ashbury to Woodstock. Backbeat Books. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-87930-743-1.
  271. ^ Fong-Torres, Ben (1970-07-23). "David Crosby: The Rolling Stone Interview". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone Magazine. Retrieved 2015-11-08.
  272. ^ Shirleene Robinson; Julie Ustinoff (17 January 2012). The 1960s in Australia: People, Power and Politics. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 207. ISBN 978-1-4438-3676-0.
  273. ^ "Australian women protest conscription during Vietnam War [Save Our Sons (SOS)], 1965–1972". nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu. Swarthmore College, etal. Retrieved 2016-03-01.
  274. ^ David Luhrssen; Michael Larson (28 February 2017). Encyclopedia of Classic Rock. ABC-CLIO. p. 305. ISBN 978-1-4408-3514-8.
  275. ^ McCormack, Ed (2014-01-13). "A Last Waltz on the Wild Side". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 2017-03-16. The doctor turned out to be the notorious society and show-business croaker Robert Freymann, supposedly the original "Dr. Feelgood." His past patients were rumored to range from J.F.K. to the Beatles, and a veritable Who's Who of prominent speed freaks still gathered in his office at an ungodly hour for his magic vitamins. ("Day or night he'll be there, any time at all," the Beatles sang in their musical tribute "Doctor Robert," which Paul McCartney admitted was inspired by the doctor "who kept New York high.")
  276. ^ Erika Dyck (1 October 2010). Psychedelic Psychiatry: LSD from Clinic to Campus. JHU Press. p. 131. ISBN 978-1-4214-0075-4.
  277. ^ John Bassett Mccleary (22 May 2013). Hippie Dictionary: A Cultural Encyclopedia of the 1960s and 1970s. Potter/TenSpeed/Harmony. p. 315. ISBN 978-0-307-81433-3.
  278. ^ "Timothy Leary: An Inventory of His Collection at the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center". lib.utexas.edu. University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved 2016-02-25. From as early as 1962 until 1970, Leary had been arrested and incarcerated on drug-related charges in Mexico, British West Indies, Texas, New York, Michigan, and California. In April 1966, the Millbrook estate was raided by local police, led by G. Gordon Liddy then of the Dutchess County Sheriff's Department, and four people, including Leary, were arrested for possession of drugs. Following his arrest, Leary, to avoid constant harassment, founded the League for Spiritual Discovery which was a religious movement that sought constitutional protection for the right to take LSD as a sacramental substance.
  279. ^ Simmons, Bob (2012-02-19). "Bob Simmons on Timothy Leary and the Raid on Millbrook". nytimes.com. East Village Other via New York Times. Retrieved 2016-02-25. Images of original EVO pages included.
  280. ^ "Neal Cassady at Timothy Leary's Millbrook Estate". corbisimages.com. Corbis. Neal Cassady at Millbrook
  281. ^ Christopher Partridge (20 June 2006). The Re-Enchantment of the West, Vol 2: Alternative Spiritualities, Sacralization, Popular Culture and Occulture. A&C Black. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-567-04123-4.
  282. ^ Jim DeRogatis (1 January 2003). Turn on Your Mind: Four Decades of Great Psychedelic Rock. Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-634-05548-5.
  283. ^ "Students Keep Up Anti-Draft Sit-in at U.C." The Chicago Tribune. 1966-05-16. Retrieved 2016-04-07.
  284. ^ Charles L. Granata; Tony Asher (1 October 2016). Wouldn't It Be Nice: Brian Wilson and the Making of the Beach Boys' Pet Sounds. Chicago Review Press. ISBN 978-1-61373-840-5.
  285. ^ Guriel, Jason (2016-05-16). "How Pet Sounds Invented the Modern Pop Album". theatlantic.com. The Atlantic Monthly Group. Retrieved 2018-06-03. It was a record of a great artist's mind, popular music's first long-form investigation into the psyche of an auteur.
  286. ^ Shapiro, Fred (2006). Yale Book of Quotations. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10798-2.
  287. ^ Bronson, p. 201
  288. ^ E .F. Schumacher: His Life and Thought by Barbara Wood. Harper & Row, 1984. ISBN 0-06-015356-3, (pp. 348–349).
  289. ^ "Resurgence • Magazine issues 1966–1969". www.resurgence.org.
  290. ^ Howard Friel (21 September 2013). Chomsky and Dershowitz: On Endless War and the End of Civil Liberties. Interlink Publishing Group, Incorporated. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-62371-035-4.
  291. ^ Peter Hitchens (6 December 2012). The War We Never Fought: The British Establishment's Surrender to Drugs. A&C Black. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-4411-7206-8.
  292. ^ Simon Wells (19 January 2012). The Great Rolling Stones Drugs Bust. Music Sales Group. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-85712-711-2.
  293. ^ "Miranda v. Arizona; et al, Facts and Case Summary". uscourts.gov. Administrative Office of the US Courts. Retrieved May 23, 2014.
  294. ^ Dave Marsh; James Bernard (1 November 1994). New Book of Rock Lists. Simon and Schuster. p. 398. ISBN 978-0-671-78700-4.
  295. ^ Chris Woodstra; John Bush; Stephen Thomas Erlewine (2007). All Music Guide Required Listening: Classic Rock. Backbeat Books. p. 251. ISBN 978-0-87930-917-6.
  296. ^ Anna L. Harvey (13 July 1998). Votes Without Leverage: Women in American Electoral Politics, 1920–1970. Cambridge University Press. p. 228. ISBN 978-0-521-59743-2.
  297. ^ Turner, Steve (2016). Beatles '66: The Revolutionary Year. New York, NY: HarperLuxe. p. 353. ISBN 978-0-06-249713-0.
  298. ^ Stuart Shea; Robert Rodriguez (2007). Fab Four FAQ: Everything Left to Know about the Beatles-- and More!. Hal Leonard. p. 75. ISBN 978-1-4234-2138-2.
  299. ^ Wolcott, James (2016-02-05). "Why the Cinema of Swinging London Matters, 50 Years Later". Vanity Fair. Conde Nast. Retrieved 2016-02-25. A heavy whiff of fascism attended the rise to cultural power of teenyboppers and twentysomethings and the emergence of the pop messiah. "We're more popular than Jesus now," John Lennon infamously told London's Evening Standard in 1966, a comment that caused little stir in England but set off a fury here in the States, especially in the Bible Belt, where Beatles records and souvenirs were fed to bonfires, much as disco albums would be a decade later.
  300. ^ Richie Unterberger (2002). Turn! Turn! Turn!: The '60s Folk-rock Revolution. Backbeat Books. p. 234. ISBN 978-0-87930-703-5.
  301. ^ "Beatles to avoid Philippines" (64th Year–No. 221). AP via Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. 1966-07-08. Retrieved 2015-12-29.
  302. ^ Skirboll, Aaron. "How a Psychedelic Concert Poster Rocked the World". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 2020-02-09.
  303. ^ Thomson, Elizabeth (2014-02-14). "Five myths about Bob Dylan". Washington Post. Retrieved 2015-11-07.
  304. ^ "Lenny Bruce, Uninhibited Comic, Found Dead in Hollywood Home". nytimes.com. AP via New York Times Co. August 3, 1966. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  305. ^ Larkin, Colin (2006). Encyclopedia of Popular Music. 1. Muze. p. 489. ISBN 0-19-531373-9.
  306. ^ Lavezzoli, Peter (2006). The Dawn of Indian Music in the West. New York, NY: Continuum. p. 175. ISBN 0-8264-2819-3.
  307. ^ David Scott Kastan (2006). The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature. Oxford University Press. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-19-516921-8.
  308. ^ Ghosh, Palash (August 29, 2012). "Beatles Last Concert At Candlestick Park: The Dream Is Over (Analysis)". ibtimes.com. International Business Times/IBT Media. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  309. ^ "The Monkees – 1967". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. 2012-05-11. Retrieved 2016-02-07. In 1967 the Monkees sold more records than the Beatles and Rolling Stones combined...
  310. ^ J. Harold Ellens; Thomas B. Roberts Ph.D. (18 August 2015). The Psychedelic Policy Quagmire: Health, Law, Freedom, and Society: Health, Law, Freedom, and Society. ABC-CLIO. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-4408-3971-9.
  311. ^ "Love Pageant". pbs.org. American Experience/PBS. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  312. ^ Unknown (1966). "Love Pageant Rally". centerforhomemovies.org. Retrieved 2016-03-24. About the Film On October 6, 1966, the day LSD was made illegal in California a group of hippies, said to fall somewhere around 1,000 in number, gathered on San Francisco's Panhandle for the Love Pageant Rally. The organizers, Allen Cohen and Michael Bowen, were key figures with the San Francisco Oracle (12 issues between September 1966 and February 1968), an underground publication credited for shaping Haight-Ashbury's burgeoning counterculture. Cohen and Bowen framed the event not as a protest, but as a celebration of "transcendental consciousness" and the "beauty of being." While less known than events that followed, this gathering marked a seminal moment in the counterculture revolution of the 1960s. This short document of the Love Pageant Rally features several notable figures from the Haight-Ashbury scene at the time. Striking in the film is how clearly the movement is on the cusp of both of breaking through and falling, if not apart, at least away from its idyllic core. There are two primary focuses in its three minutes: Ken Kesey's Merry Pranksters and a performance by Big Brother and the Holding Company featuring Janis Joplin. Some groovy dancing does receive significant screen time, but for the sake of this brief essay, lets imagine they're grooving to Big Brother. The differences between where each stood in regards to their participation in hippie culture presents an interesting glimpse at the seismic shift the countercultural revolution rested at the edge of.
  313. ^ Domenic Priore; Brian Wilson; Van Dyke Parks (2005-03-07). Smile: The Story of Brian Wilson's Lost Masterpiece. Music Sales Limited. p. 115. ISBN 978-1-78323-198-0.
  314. ^ Caswell, Tasha (September 14, 2014). ""Free Bobby, Free Ericka": The New Haven Black Panther Trials". wnpr.org. WNPR / Connecticut Public Broadcasting. Retrieved October 6, 2014. The Black Panther Party, formed in 1966 in Oakland, California by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale, was a revolutionary socialist organization that strove to end the oppression of black people in the United States. It adopted a ten-point plan that called for autonomy, employment, free healthcare, decent housing, financial reparations for slavery, the end of police brutality against black people, the release of black prisoners from jails, fair trials, and black nationalism. In practice, the Panthers focused much of their attention on policing the police, often resorting to violence. The FBI had taken notice. J. Edgar Hoover said in 1968 that the Black Panther Party was "the greatest threat to the internal security of the country." By 1969, the Black Panther Party was well known nationally and had spread across the country.
  315. ^ United States. Congress. House. Committee on Internal Security (1970). The Black Panther Party, its origin and development as reflected in its official weekly newspaper, the Black panther: black community news service; staff study, Ninety-first Congress, second session. U.S. Government Printing Office.
  316. ^ "The Black Panther". The British Library Board. Retrieved 2016-02-06. The Black Panther: The Black Panther Party was a radical, revolutionary political group formed in October 1966 by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale. The Black Panther symbol had been used previously by the Lowndes County Freedom Organization which fought for black voting rights in Alabama.
  317. ^ "On this day in 1966: John meets Yoko". pbs.org/newshour. MacNeil / Lehrer Productions. 2013-11-09. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
  318. ^ Rasmussen, Cecilia (August 5, 2007). "Closing of club ignited the 'Sunset Strip riots'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 6, 2014. Young rock fans take to the streets after the shuttering of Pandora's Box in 1966. The unrest inspired Stephen Stills' landmark anthem.
  319. ^ John Einarson (January 1, 2004). For What It's Worth: The Story of Buffalo Springfield. Cooper Square Press. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-8154-1281-6.
  320. ^ Lopez, Steve (2016-11-16). "50 years ago, the Sunset Strip riots made L.A. the 'magical' epicenter of a revolution". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2016-11-16. Los Angeles was the epicenter of rupture in the '60s – a civil rights uprising, a growing antiwar movement and a cultural revolution that was built in large part around the rock, folk and psychedelic music scene on Sunset Boulevard, which had quickly evolved from Frank Sinatra to Frank Zappa. For several years, the Strip was the international center of a movement that John Densmore, the Doors drummer, refers to as magical. "So we're the house band at the Whiskey a Go Go, and I'm sitting upstairs looking out the window," Densmore said. "It's like a Tuesday night, and it's complete gridlock and thousands of hippies on the street and I said, 'Wow, we're taking over.'" But the nightly throngs rattled the nerves of homeowners and some merchants. Local officials ordered a curfew and a crackdown. Pandora's Box, a popular club at Sunset and Crescent Heights Boulevard, had been scheduled for demolition, and rebels rallied Nov. 12, 1966, in an effort to save it. The Times reported that Sonny and Cher, Jack Nicholson and Peter Fonda were among the demonstrators, and that Fonda was carted away in handcuffs.
  321. ^ "Film Censorship: Noteworthy Moments in History". aclu.org. American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved August 11, 2014. Rather than cut nude scenes from Blow-Up, Michelangelo Antonioni chooses to release it without an MPAA seal.
  322. ^ Mikulecky, Don (8 June 2015). "Does anyone remember the Diggers?". Daily Kos. Retrieved 30 November 2016. On December 17, 1966, the Diggers held a happening called "The Death of Money" in which they dressed in animal masks and carried a large coffin full of fake money down Haight Street, singing "Get out my life, why don't you babe?" to the tune of Chopin's "Death March."
  323. ^ "Gene Anthony Gallery of Digger Photographs". The Digger Archives. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  324. ^ "Comprehensive information about Richard Brautigan, his life, and writings – 1960s Chronology". BRAUTIGAN.net. John F. Barber, Curator and Archivist. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  325. ^ "IT – International Times Archive". www.internationaltimes.it.
  326. ^ Miles, Barry (2002). In the Sixties. Jonathon Cape. ISBN 9780224062404. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  327. ^ David Marc (January 1, 2011). Demographic Vistas: Television in American Culture. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-8122-0271-7.
  328. ^ Sanking, Aaron (September 11, 2012). "Human Be-In Planned In Golden Gate Park This Weekend (PHOTOS)". huffingtonpost.com. TheHuffingtonPost.com, Inc. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  329. ^ Mark Brend (6 December 2012). The Sound of Tomorrow: How Electronic Music Was Smuggled into the Mainstream. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-62356-529-9.
  330. ^ Haripada Adhikary (2012). Unifying Force of Hinduism: The Harekrsna Movement. AuthorHouse. p. 213. ISBN 978-1-4685-0393-7.
  331. ^ File:1967 Mantra-Rock Dance Avalon poster.jpg
  332. ^ "Paul Kantner: Leader of Jefferson Airplane whose psychedelic harmonies became the soundtrack to the counter-culture". The Telegraph. 29 Jan 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  333. ^ Chomsky, Noam (February 23, 1967). "A Special Supplement: The Responsibility of Intellectuals". The New York Review of Books. NYREV, Inc. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  334. ^ Bodroghkozy, Aniko. "The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour". museum.tv. The Museum of Broadcast Communications. Retrieved May 17, 2014.
  335. ^ Robinson, Will. "Watch the never-before-seen Beatles video for 'A Day in the Life'". ew.com. Entertainment Weekly, Inc. Retrieved 2015-12-27.
  336. ^ Jeff Land (1999). Active Radio: Pacifica's Brash Experiment. University of Minnesota Press. p. 118. ISBN 978-1-4529-0372-9.
  337. ^ Scott, A.O. (September 18, 2012). "Rekindling the Spirit of the '60s, Even for Those Who Can't Remember". The New York Times. Retrieved July 26, 2014. On the night of Feb. 11, 1967, hundreds – maybe thousands – of people congregated in the international terminal of Kennedy Airport, not to embark on flights to far-flung places but rather, well, it isn't entirely clear or relevant. The gathering was an impromptu party, a nonpolitical demonstration, a happening named, in the spirit of the times, a fly-in. Now we might be inclined to see it as a prehistoric flash mob, an example of the power of communication technology to create instantaneous, ephemeral but nonetheless meaningful communities.
  338. ^ Sheila Whiteley (September 2, 2003). The Space Between the Notes: Rock and the Counter-Culture. Routledge. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-134-91662-7.
  339. ^ Green, Jonathon (1988). Days In The Life: Voices from the English Underground 1961–1971. Heinemann. ISBN 978-1-448-10444-4. I remember Christopher Hills, who ran the Centre House, calling down one day, 'Can you please not smoke marijuana – we can smell it on the third floor.' After that we put in a guest book which said, 'I am not in possession of any kind of drugs,' and everyone signed it including Yoko Ono
  340. ^ Ratliff, Ben (January 11, 2012). "Present at the Counterculture's Creation". nytimes.com. The New York Times Co. Retrieved May 6, 2014.
  341. ^ Horwitz, Jane (September 5, 2006). "Backstage: She Hopes 'MacBird' Flies in a New Era". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 17, 2014.
  342. ^ McNeill, Don (March 30, 1967). "The 1967 Central Park Be-In: A 'Medieval Pageant'". villagevoice.com. Village Voice. Archived from the original on April 17, 2014. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  343. ^ "Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Global Freedom Struggle (sourced)". stanford.edu. Martin Luther King, Jr. Research & Education Center. Retrieved December 4, 2019.
  344. ^ "Photos: Nashville race riots 1967". tennessean.com. Gannett (archive.tennessean.com). February 29, 2008. Archived from the original on May 17, 2014. Retrieved May 17, 2014.
  345. ^ "The MOBE: "What are we waiting for?"". pbs.org. PBS / Independent Television Service (ITVS). Retrieved August 11, 2014. After the elections, the committee became the Spring Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, which organized major anti-war demonstrations that took place in April 1967. In New York City, 400,000 protesters marched from Central Park to the United Nations, with speakers including Martin Luther King Jr., and Stokely Carmichael. 75,000 gathered for a similar rally in San Francisco.
  346. ^ Hlavaty, Craig (April 28, 2014). "47 years ago today, Muhammad Ali refused the draft in Houston". chron.com. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved October 5, 2014. (Report with photos) Forty-seven years ago today, Muhammad Ali made headlines for refusing to be drafted into the U.S. Army on the grounds of being a conscientious objector, and it all happened here in Houston. It would set off a chain of events that wouldn't cease until a 1971 Supreme Court decision reversed his conviction.
  347. ^ "Pink Floyd – John Lennon & The 14 Hour Technicolour Dream". youtube.com. Retrieved 2018-08-08. Footage from the 14 Hour Technicolor dream
  348. ^ Walt Crowley (1995). Rites of Passage: A Memoir of the Sixties in Seattle. University of Washington Press. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-295-97492-7.
  349. ^ Winkler, Adam (July 24, 2011). "The Secret History of Guns". theatlantic.com. The Atlantic Monthly Group. Retrieved October 10, 2014. It was May 2, 1967, and the Black Panthers' invasion of the California statehouse launched the modern gun-rights movement.
  350. ^ "Yarrowstalks Archives". library.temple.edu. Temple University. 1977. Retrieved October 14, 2014. Twelve issues of Yarrowstalks were published in Philadelphia from 1967 until 1975. Most of the activity was concentrated at the beginning of the period, in the heyday of underground press activity. The "summer of love" in 1967 saw the birth of about 100 underground publications nationwide, and Yarrowstalks was one of the first. It was the most physically appealing of the first wave in its creative use of color and artwork. In contrast to the other Philadelphia papers, Yarrowstalks leaned away from the politics. Like New York's East Village Other and the San Francisco Oracle, Yarrowstalks was among the first underground paper to explore the graphic possibilities of cold-type offset printing. Color was splashed over pages with sketches and text. The Oracle, particularly, was responsible for making newspaper graphics an art form, and it published some of the most beautiful and trend-setting psychedelic art of the 1960s. Yarrowstalks was Philadelphia's Oracle, and it was the first of the undergrounds to publish the cartoons of Robert Crumb, an ex-Hallmark illustrator who has become the leading artist of underground "commix." In his character, Mr. Natural, he captured the feeling of the movement. Mr. Natural graced Yarrowstalks that summer and subsequently appeared in most of the alternative publications in the country.
  351. ^ Peter Hitchens (January 3, 2013). The War We Never Fought: The British Establishment's Surrender to Drugs. A&C Black. p. 107. ISBN 978-1-4411-7331-7.
  352. ^ Bryson, William (May 22, 1967). "Texas Southern University: Born in Sin, A College Finally Makes Houston Listen". thecrimson.com. The Harvard Crimson, Inc. Retrieved October 15, 2014. Since this article was written, the situation at Texas Southern has become even worse. A policeman was killed in rioting last week, and 488 people were arrested.
  353. ^ Crane, Ralph (April 1967). "1967: Pictures from a Pivotal Year". life.time.com. Time, Inc. Archived from the original on March 26, 2012. Retrieved January 14, 2015.
  354. ^ "VVAW / FAQ / Who founded Vietnam Veterans Against the War?". vvaw.org. Vietnam Veterans Against the War. Retrieved October 15, 2014. On June 1, 1967, six Vietnam veterans gathered in Barry's apartment to form VVAW. Another vet associated with the early days of VVAW is Carl Rogers. Rogers held a press conference upon his return from his Vietnam service as a chaplain's assistant announcing his opposition to the war. Barry recruited him and at some point he became "vice president" of VVAW. Other early influential members who are mentioned are David Braum, John Talbot, and Art Blank. Jan Barry also lists Steve Greene and Frank (Rocky) Rocks
  355. ^ Walter C. Rucker; James N. Upton (2007). Encyclopedia of American Race Riots. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-33302-6.
  356. ^ Light, Alan (2007-07-12). "Summer of Love: London – Tightly knit, decadent and explosively creative, the scene was too good to last". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2016-02-08.
  357. ^ "500 Greatest Albums of All Time: #1- The Beatles, 'Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band'". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. 2012-05-31. Retrieved October 18, 2014. At the same time, Sgt. Pepper formally ushered in an unforgettable season of hope, upheaval and achievement: the late 1960s and, in particular, 1967's Summer of Love. In its iridescent instrumentation, lyric fantasias and eye-popping packaging, Sgt. Pepper defined the opulent revolutionary optimism of psychedelia and instantly spread the gospel of love, acid, Eastern spirituality and electric guitars around the globe. No other pop record of that era, or since, has had such an immediate, titanic impact. This music documents the world's biggest rock band at the very height of its influence and ambition.
  358. ^ The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature. Oxford University Press. 2006. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-19-516921-8.
  359. ^ Paul Hegarty; Martin Halliwell (June 23, 2011). Beyond and Before: Progressive Rock since the 1960s. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-4411-1480-8.
  360. ^ Newman, Jason (2014-06-14). "The Untold and Deeply Stoned Story of the First U.S. Rock Festival: How the Doors, Byrds and nearly 30 other bands, a pack of Hells Angels and a lot of drugs made history at Fantasy Fair & Magic Mountain". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2018-03-20. On June 10th and 11th, 1967 – one week before the Monterey Pop Festival and two years before Woodstock – tens of thousands of Bay Area music fans converged on the Sydney B. Cushing Memorial Amphitheatre on Mount Tamalpais in Marin County, California, for the first U.S. rock festival. Conceived as a promotion for the KFRC 610 AM radio station, the Fantasy Fair and Magic Mountain Music Festival featured more than 30 acts, including the Doors, Jefferson Airplane, the Byrds and Captain Beefheart & the Magic Band, as well as a group of Hells Angels and an "acid doctor" to mitigate bad trips. Arguably, the festival was the true start of the Summer of Love, and this is its previously untold story.
  361. ^ Coleman, Arica (2016-06-10). "What You Didn't Know About Loving v. Virginia". Time. Retrieved 2016-08-10. The landmark civil rights Supreme Court case – which made it illegal to ban interracial marriage – was about more than black and white
  362. ^ "Paul McCartney admits taking LSD". 94.7 WCSX-Greater Media. Archived from the original on 2016-10-09. Retrieved 2016-10-06. Video of McCartney Interview
  363. ^ Thompson, Thomas (16 June 1967). "Life – New Far-Out Beatles". Time Inc.
  364. ^ Barney Hoskyns (December 9, 2010). Hotel California: The True-Life Adventures of Crosby, Stills, Nash, Young, Mitchell, Taylor, Browne, Ronstadt, Geffen, the Eagles, and Their Many Friends. John Wiley & Sons. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-118-04050-8.
  365. ^ "The Monterey Pop Festival reaches its climax". history.com. A&E Television Network. Retrieved 2018-05-29. Some 200,000 people attended the Monterey Pop Festival over its three-day schedule, many of whom had descended upon the west coast inspired by the same spirit expressed in the Scott McKenzie song "San Francisco (Be Sure To Wear Flowers In Your Hair)," written by festival organizer John Phillips of the Mamas and the Papas expressly as a promotional tune for the festival. The Summer of Love that followed Monterey may have failed to usher in a lasting era of peace and love, but the festival introduced much of the music that has come to define that particular place and time.
  366. ^ Roger Beebe; Jason Middleton (September 5, 2007). Medium Cool: Music Videos from Soundies to Cellphones. Duke University Press. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-8223-9020-6.
  367. ^ George Martin (October 15, 1994). All You Need Is Ears: The Inside Personal Story of the Genius who Created The Beatles. St. Martin's Press. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-312-11482-4.
  368. ^ "The Hippies: The Philosophy of a Subculture". Time Magazine. 1967-07-07. Retrieved 2015-11-16. Article Summary: One sociologist calls them "the Freudian proletariat." Another observer sees them as "expatriates living on our shores but beyond our society." Historian Arnold Toynbee describes them as "a red warning light for the American way of life." For California's Bishop James Pike, they evoke the early Christians: "There is something about the temper and quality of these people, a gentleness, a quietness, an interest – something good." To their deeply worried parents throughout the country, they seem more like dangerously deluded dropouts, candidates for a very sound spanking and a cram course in civics – if only they would return...
  369. ^ Preston, John (2010-03-07). "London Calling by Barry Miles: review – The louche, the drunk, the ridiculously avant garde... London Calling by Barry Miles offers an entertaining tour of the capital's counterculture". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2016-06-17. That said, it's worth ploughing through almost any amount of detail to get to the story of Emmett Grogan, who in 1967 was one of the speakers who addressed the deeply unalluringly titled Dialectics of Liberation Congress at the Roundhouse in Chalk Farm. Grogan delivered a 10-minute speech all about 'effecting a real inner transformation' that was rapturously received by the assembled hippies. After the applause had died down, Grogan thanked the audience for their generosity, but pointed out that he was not, in fact, the first person to make this speech: it had originally been delivered by Adolf Hitler at the Reichstag in 1937. Whereupon the rapturous audience immediately turned into a baying lynch-mob.
  370. ^ Simons, Terry (2015-06-26). "A Brief History of the Counterculture". counterpunch.org. CounterPunch. Retrieved 2016-06-17.
  371. ^ Cullen, Tom A. (September 14, 1967). "Americans in London – England is Hippie Heaven". news.google.com/newspapers. Retrieved October 18, 2014.
  372. ^ "Photos: Pot Rally at Hyde Park, London (July 16th, 1967)". herbmuseum.ca. The Herb Museum. Retrieved October 18, 2014. "July 1967: A 'Legalise Pot' rally is held in London's Hyde Park; an advertisement in The Times, sponsored by SOMA, a drug research organisation, states: 'The law against marijuana is immoral in principle and unworkable in practice.' Signatories include the Beatles, RD Laing and Graham Greene." – from 100 Years of Altered States, The Guardian Newspaper (July 21, 2002)
  373. ^ "Photos and Detroit News page image captures". detroitnews.mycapture.com. The Detroit News. July 1967. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
  374. ^ "Beatles' manager Epstein dies". bbc.co.uk. BBC. August 27, 1967. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  375. ^ File:The_Daily_Mirror,_Brian_Epstein_death.jpg
  376. ^ Greil Marcus (9 April 2013). The Doors: A Lifetime of Listening to Five Mean Years. PublicAffairs. p. 87. ISBN 978-1-61039-236-5.
  377. ^ Tony Currie (2001). The Radio Times Story. Kelly. p. 118. ISBN 978-1-903053-09-6.
  378. ^ Deborah Cartmell (3 August 2012). A Companion to Literature, Film and Adaptation. John Wiley & Sons. p. 448. ISBN 978-1-118-31204-9.
  379. ^ Hartlaub, Peter (2013-07-25). "Grateful Dead and the 710 Ashbury St. drug bust of 1967". sfgate.com. Hearst. Retrieved 2016-02-27. SF Chronicle excerpts and photos."
  380. ^ Bourne, Richard (October 10, 1967). "Che Guevara, Marxist architect of revolution". guardian.com. Guardian News and Media. Retrieved October 18, 2014. Rumours of disagreements with Castro grew. After months of mystery Castro announced that Guevara, who was known to have a garibaldian yearning to liberate the entire Latin American land mass, had resigned Cuban citizenship and left for "a new field of battle in the struggle against imperialism". [web story is reprint of original article]
  381. ^ W.J. Rorabaugh Professor of History University of Washington (May 4, 1989). Berkeley at War : The 1960s: The 1960s. Oxford University Press. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-19-802252-7.
  382. ^ Richards, Harvey; Richards, Paul (2013-02-18). "Stop the Draft, December, 1967 – Draft Cards Burning, Sit ins, Stop the Draft Week". hrmediaarchive.estuarypress.com. Harvey Richards Media Archive / Paul Richards. Retrieved October 18, 2014. Photos & Text: top the Draft Week in December, 1967 at the Oakland Army Induction Center on Clay Street in downtown Oakland, California had many of the same actions that happened in October, 1967, just two months earlier. There was civil disobedience. Protesters blocked the doorway of the Center and were arrested. This time, protesters also sat down in front of the buses full of draftees. Draft eligible protesters publicly burned their draft cards in an open show of defiance against the draft and the laws that made it illegal to burn your draft card. Noticeably different in these photos is moderation of the police response. The streets were not cleared of protesters. Police did not stand with billy clubs at the ready. In the end, the draftees went into the center and the war machine continued.
  383. ^ "1967: Joan Baez arrested in Vietnam protest". news.bbc.co.uk. BBC. October 16, 1967. Retrieved October 18, 2014. Rallies across America have taken place in 30 US cities, from Boston to Atlanta, to protest against the continuing war in Vietnam. In Oakland, California, at least 40 anti-war protesters, including the folk singer Joan Baez, were arrested for taking part in a sit-in at a military induction centre. As many as 250 demonstrators had gathered to try and prevent conscripts from entering the building when the arrests were made. The 'Stop the Draft Week' protests are forming part of a nationwide initiative organised by a group calling itself 'the Resistance'. Accompanied by singing from Baez and others, the sitting protesters forced draftees to climb over them in order to get inside the building. As they entered they were handed leaflets asking them to change their minds, refuse induction and join the protests. Human barricade Police formed a human barricade to enable inductees to pass and then made their arrests. In New York, around 500 demonstrators marched to protest against the draft. Young men placed draft cards into boxes marked 'Resisters'. 181 draft cards and several hundred protest cards were presented to a US Marshal but he refused to accept them. The group then marched to a post office and posted them directly to the Attorney General in Washington. The anti-war movement took on an added gravity yesterday when Florence Beaumont, mother of two, burned herself to death. After soaking herself in petrol she set herself alight in front of the Federal Building, Los Angeles. Counter-demonstrations have been planned by the National Committee for Responsible Patriotism, based in New York. Parades have been scheduled for the weekend in support of "our boys in Vietnam".
  384. ^ John Rockwell (3 June 2014). The New York Times the Times of the Sixties: The Culture, Politics, and Personalities That Shaped the Decade. Hachette Books. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-57912-964-4.
  385. ^ "N.Y. Police, Students Battle". Chicago Tribune. UPI (1967-10-19) via Chicago Tribune (1967-10-20). 1967-10-20. Retrieved 2016-04-04.
  386. ^ Sharin N. Elkholy (March 22, 2012). The Philosophy of the Beats. University Press of Kentucky. p. 239. ISBN 978-0-8131-4058-2.
  387. ^ Leen, Jeff (September 27, 1999). "The Vietnam Protests: When Worlds Collided". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 11, 2014. The Pentagon march was the culmination of five days of nationwide anti-draft protests organized by the National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam – "the Mobe." But a singular spark was provided by the Youth International Party (Yippies), a fringe group whose leaders, Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin, had announced that they planned an "exorcism" of the Pentagon. They would encircle the building, chant incantations, "levitate" the structure and drive out the evil war spirits.
  388. ^ Ron Chepesiuk (January 1, 1995). Sixties Radicals, Then and Now: Candid Conversations with Those Who Shaped the Era. McFarland. p. 303. ISBN 978-0-7864-3732-0.
  389. ^ "Huey P. Newton Biography: Civil Rights Activist (1942–1989)". biography.com. A&E Television Networks, LLC. Retrieved August 11, 2014. Newton himself was arrested in 1967 for allegedly killing an Oakland police officer during a traffic stop. He was later convicted of voluntary manslaughter and sentenced to two to 15 years in prison. But public pressure – "Free Huey" became a popular slogan of the day – helped Newton's cause. The case was eventually dismissed after two retrials ended with hung juries.
  390. ^ Huey P. Newton (September 29, 2009). Revolutionary Suicide (Penguin Classics Deluxe ed.). Penguin Group US. ISBN 978-1-101-14047-5.
  391. ^ Fagan, Alexandra. "Rolling Stone's First Issue". rockhall.com. Retrieved 2016-01-14.
  392. ^ Barker, Andrew (2014-10-24). "Cream Bassist Jack Bruce Dies at 71". Variety. Retrieved 2016-01-14.
  393. ^ James E. Perone (17 October 2012). The Album: A Guide to Pop Music's Most Provocative, Influential, and Important Creations. ABC-CLIO. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-313-37907-9.
  394. ^ "Students Demonstrate Against Dow Chemical Company". history.com. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved 2016-10-05.
  395. ^ Jim DeRogatis (1 January 2003). Turn on Your Mind: Four Decades of Great Psychedelic Rock. Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-634-05548-5.
  396. ^ Wenner, Jann (1968-01-20). "Otis Redding: The Crown Prince of Soul Is Dead – The singer dies in a plane crash at 26 years old". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2016-05-09. Otis Redding, 26 years old, a former well-driller from Macon, Georgia, died in a plane crash in an icy Wisconsin lake on December 10. With him were the five teen-age members of the Bar-Kays, a group which made the popular instrumental, "Soul Finger," and who backed Otis on his recent tours and appearances. Otis was headed from Cleveland, Ohio, to a Sunday evening concert in Madison, Wisconsin. It was his first tour in the private plane he had just purchased. His plane hit the surface of the fog-shrouded Madison lake with tremendous force, widely scattering the debris. He was only four miles from the Madison Municipal Airport. On Tuesday, teams of divers were still dredging the bottom of the lake in a search for the bodies.
  397. ^ Brian Greenberg; Linda S. Watts; Richard A. Greenwald (23 October 2008). Social History of the United States [10 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-59884-128-2.
  398. ^ James A. Inciardi (1990). Handbook of Drug Control in the United States. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-313-26190-9.
  399. ^ "PCP Fast Facts". www.justice.gov. National Drug Intelligence Center, a component of the U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 2018-05-29. PCP is an addictive drug; its use often results in psychological dependence, craving, and compulsive behavior. PCP produces unpleasant psychological effects, and users often become violent or suicidal.
  400. ^ Gross, Terry (October 29, 1987). "Tom Wolfe: Chronicling Counterculture's 'Acid Test'". npr.org. National Public Radio (US). Retrieved July 9, 2014. Fresh Air: Text & Audio of Interview w/Wolfe
  401. ^ "Blue Cheer Biography". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone Magazine. 2001. Archived from the original on December 9, 2013. Retrieved July 9, 2014. Blue Cheer appeared in spring 1968 with a thunderously loud remake of Eddie Cochran's "Summertime Blues" that many regard as the first true heavy-metal record. One of the first hard-rock power trios, the group was named for an especially high-quality strain of LSD. Its manager, Gut, was an ex-Hell's Angel. (This biography originally appeared in The Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll (Simon & Schuster, 2001))
  402. ^ "The 100 Greatest Metal Albums of All Time". Rollng Stone. 2017-06-21. Retrieved 2017-10-08. With a crash of thunder, the ringing of ominous church bells and one of the loudest guitar sounds in history, a heavy new music genre was born in earnest on a Friday the 13th early in 1970. Its roots stretch back to the late Sixties, when artists like Blue Cheer, Iron Butterfly and Led Zeppelin cranked their amps to play bluesy, shit-kicking rockers, but it wasn't until that fateful day, when Black Sabbath issued the first, front-to-back, wholly heavy-metal album – their gloomy self-titled debut – that a band had mastered the sound of the genre, one that still resonates nearly 50 years later: heavy metal.
  403. ^ "'Laugh-In' Comic Alan Sues Dies At 85". sanfrancisco.cbslocal.com. CBS/AP. December 4, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  404. ^ Cheng, Jim (May 26, 2008). "'Laugh-in' comic Dick Martin dies at 86". usatoday.com. USA Today/Gannett. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  405. ^ Oberdorfer, Don (November 2004). "TET: Who Won?; A North Vietnamese battlefield defeat that led to victory, the Tet Offensive still triggers debate nearly four decades later". smithsonianmag.com. Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved January 13, 2015.
  406. ^ James Arnold (September 20, 2012). Tet Offensive 1968: Turning point in Vietnam. Osprey Publishing. p. 88. ISBN 978-1-78200-428-8.
  407. ^ Nielsen Business Media, Inc. (March 30, 1968). Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. p. 35. ISSN 0006-2510.
  408. ^ Staton, Scott (December 12, 2012). "Neal Cassady: American Muse, Holy Fool". newyorker.com. The New Yorker Magazine. Retrieved November 13, 2015.
  409. ^ Bass, Jack (2003). "Documenting the Orangeburg Massacre". www.nieman.harvard.edu. Nieman Foundation for Journalism at Harvard / Harvard University. Retrieved July 9, 2014. Campus killings of black students received little news coverage in 1968, but a book about them keeps their memory alive.
  410. ^ Goldberg, Philip (2010). American Veda: From Emerson and the Beatles to Yoga and Meditation – How Indian Spirituality Changed the West. New York, NY: Harmony Books. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-385-52134-5.
  411. ^ Paytress, Mark (2003). "A Passage to India". Mojo Special Limited Edition: 1000 Days of Revolution (The Beatles' Final Years – Jan 1, 1968 to Sept 27, 1970). London: Emap. pp. 15–17.
  412. ^ Johnson Publishing Company (December 1998). "Ebony". Ebony. Johnson Publishing Company: 68. ISSN 0012-9011.
  413. ^ Moyers, Bill (March 28, 2008). "The Kerner Commission – 40 Years Later". pbs.org. Bill Moyers Journal / Public Affairs Television. Retrieved July 10, 2014. ... the Kerner Report, with its stark conclusion that "Our nation is moving towards two societies – one white, one black – separate and unequal" – was a best-seller. It was also the source of great controversy and remains so today.
  414. ^ Thernstrom, Stephan; Siegel, Fred; Woodson, Robert (June 24, 1998). "The Kerner Commission Report". heritage.org. Heritage Foundation. Retrieved July 10, 2014. This lecture was held at The Heritage Foundation on March 13, 1998.
  415. ^ "3 Honored for Saving Lives at My Lai". The New York Times. March 7, 1998. Retrieved July 10, 2014. Thirty years after one of the darkest moments in United States military history, three soldiers who happened upon the My Lai massacre and risked their lives to save Vietnamese civilians by aiming their weapons at fellow Americans were proclaimed heroes today by the Army.
  416. ^ William Thomas Allison (July 21, 2012). My Lai: An American Atrocity in the Vietnam War. JHU Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-4214-0706-7.
  417. ^ "Report of the Department of the Army Review of the Preliminary Investigations into the My Lai Incident: Vol. 1, the Report of the Investigation" (PDF). loc.gov. United States Army. March 14, 1970. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  418. ^ "1968: Anti-Vietnam demo turns violent". bbc.co.uk. BBC (UK). 2008. Retrieved July 10, 2014. The trouble followed a big rally in Trafalgar square, when an estimated 10,000 demonstrated against American action in Vietnam and British support for the United States.
  419. ^ Hoyland, John (2008-03-14). "Power to the people: The year was 1968 and, worldwide, there was revolution in the air. But when John Hoyland attacked John Lennon's politics in a radical paper, he didn't expect the fiery Beatle to rise to the bait". Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 2016-04-14.
  420. ^ Burley, Leo (March 9, 2008). "Jagger vs Lennon: London's riots of 1968 provided the backdrop to a rock'n'roll battle royale". independent.co.uk. The Independent (UK). Retrieved July 11, 2014. Forty years ago, the world was on the brink of revolution. But while Mick was urging insurrection on the streets of London, John was preaching peace and love. In a series of incendiary, rediscovered interviews, Jagger and Lennon reveal themselves as never before or since: battling one another for the soul of rock'n'roll
  421. ^ Kennedy, Robert Francis (March 18, 1968). "Robert F. Kennedy Speeches: Remarks at the University of Kansas, March 18, 1968". jfklibrary.org. John F. Kennedy Library & Museum. Retrieved July 10, 2014. I don't want to be part of a government, I don't want to be part of the United States, I don't want to be part of the American people, and have them write of us as they wrote of Rome: "They made a desert and they called it peace."
  422. ^ McNeill, Don; Ortega, Tony (March 28, 1968). "The Grand Central Riot: Yippies Meet the Man". villagevoice.com. The Village Voice. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved July 27, 2014. Clip Job: Yip-In Turns Into Bloody Mess as Police Riot at Grand Central (headline from archived article published 2010-04-10)
  423. ^ Peter Knight (2003). Conspiracy Theories in American History: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 752. ISBN 978-1-57607-812-9.
  424. ^ Boxer, Tim. "Photo: Yippies In Grand Central Station". gettyimages.com. Getty Images. Retrieved July 10, 2014. Caption:Members of the Youth International Party, or Yippies, gathering Grand Central Station for a sit-down demonstration New York, New York, March 22, 1968. (Photo by Tim Boxer/Pictorial Parade/Getty Images)
  425. ^ Johnson, Lyndon Baines (March 31, 1968). "Presidential Johnson's Address to the Nation, 3/31/68". lbjlibrary.net. The Lyndon Baines Johnson Presidential Library (video via Youtube). Retrieved July 10, 2014. I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your president.
  426. ^ Campbell, Howard (September 12, 2012). "Larry Marshall makes sweet Nanny Goat". Jamaica Observer. Retrieved July 11, 2014. The song he recorded at Dodd's Studio One was Nanny Goat which some musicologists and reggae historians say is the first reggae song. Others argue that Toots and the Maytals' Do The Reggay, also done in 1968, and Games People Play by Bob Andy the following year, marked the transition from rocksteady to reggae. But for most, Nanny Goat was the game-changer.
  427. ^ Kevin O'Brien Chang; Wayne Chen (1998). Reggae Routes: The Story of Jamaican Music. Temple University Press. p. 129. ISBN 978-1-56639-629-5.
  428. ^ Don Voorhees (October 4, 2011). The Super Book of Useless Information: The Most Powerfully Unnecessary Things You Never Need to Know. Penguin. p. 123. ISBN 978-1-101-54513-3.
  429. ^ Cox Commission (1968). Crisis at Columbia (Cox Commission Report) (Paperback). Random House / First Vintage Press. p. 222. Report of the Fact Finding Commission Appointed to Investigate the Disturbances at Columbia University in April and May 1968
  430. ^ "Reservists Lose Plea, High Court OK's Vietnam Duty". AP via Milwaukee Journal. October 28, 1968. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  431. ^ "Complete Transcript of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Assassination Conspiracy Trial" (PDF). thekingcenter.org. The Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change. Retrieved July 9, 2014.
  432. ^ Flock, Elizabeth (April 12, 2012). "Martin Luther King assassination in 1968 a 'cruel and wanton act'". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 9, 2014. After King's death, riots spread through Memphis. Some 4,000 National Guard troops were ordered into the city, and a curfew was imposed on the city...The riots soon spread across the nation – to Chicago, Baltimore, Kansas City and Washington, D.C.
  433. ^ "Youth: The Politics of YIP". Time Magazine. No. April 5, 1968. April 5, 1968. Vol. 91 No. 41
  434. ^ "Interview: Eldridge Cleaver". PBS / Frontline (US). Retrieved July 10, 2014. Bobby Hutton didn't get wounded during the shootout, but they murdered him after we were in custody.
  435. ^ Pear, Robert (July 12, 1981). "Plan to Merge FBI and Drug Agency Pressed (Special to the NY Times)". The New York Times. Retrieved July 11, 2014. The Bureau of Narcotics, a Treasury Department agency established in 1930, was combined in 1968 with the Bureau of Drug Abuse Control, a unit of the Food and Drug Administration, to form the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, within the Justice Department. Then, with the transfer of more than 500 narcotics investigators from the Treasury's old Bureau of Customs, the Drug Enforcement Administration was created in 1973.
  436. ^ Law, Lisa. "Lisa Law Photo Index". americanhsitory.si.edu. Retrieved 2017-09-29.
  437. ^ Emmis Communications (November 1991). "Texas Monthly". Domain : The Lifestyle Magazine of Texas Monthly. Emmis Communications: 118. ISSN 0148-7736.
  438. ^ Alverson, Brigid. "Felix Dennis, defendant in Rupert Bear obscenity case, dies". comicbookresources.com. Comic Book Resources. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  439. ^ Poggioli, Sylvia (May 13, 2008). "Marking the French Social Revolution of '68". npr.org. Morning Edition /National Public Radio (US). Retrieved July 10, 2014. Audio, Text & Photos
  440. ^ "People & Events: Paris Peace Talks". pbs.org. PBS/WGBH/American Experience (US). Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  441. ^ Robert Dallek (March 19, 1998). Flawed Giant: Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 1961–1973. Oxford University Press. p. 738. ISBN 978-0-19-977190-5.
  442. ^ Christine Bragg (2005). Vietnam, Korea and US Foreign Policy 1945-75. Heinemann. p. 153. ISBN 978-0-435-32708-8.
  443. ^ ""Catonsville 9" All Get Prison". AP via Milwaikee Journal. November 8, 1968. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  444. ^ "Actor, Director Tim Robbins Takes Up Historic Vietnam War Protest in Production of "The Trial of the Catonsville Nine"". Democracy Now. Juan Gonzalez. 27 August 2009. Retrieved 16 December 2016. Tim Robbins: Nine Catholic activists – Father Daniel Berrigan, his brother Philip Berrigan and seven others – broke into the draft board, Catonsville, Maryland, and burned about 350 draft records, dragged them outside and burned them with homemade napalm in an act of protest against the Vietnam War... They waited for the police to arrive, and they waited for the trial to happen... it became a very large issue and went nationwide, and these moral questions that these Catholics were asking did become part of the national conversation.
  445. ^ Lewis, Daniel (30 April 2016). "Daniel J. Berrigan, Defiant Priest Who Preached Pacifism, Dies at 94". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 December 2016. A defining point was the burning of Selective Service draft records in Catonsville, Md., and the subsequent trial of the so-called Catonsville Nine, a sequence of events that inspired an escalation of protests across the country; there were marches, sit-ins, the public burning of draft cards and other acts of civil disobedience.
  446. ^ "Rioting in Louisville, KY (1968)". nkaa.uky.edu. University of Kentucky. 2003–2014. Retrieved July 11, 2014. The skirmish escalated, growing into a full-fledged riot in the West End, lasting for almost a week. Six units of the national guard, over 2,000 guardsmen, were ordered to Louisville. Looting and shooting occurred, buildings were burned, two teens were killed, and 472 people were arrested
  447. ^ Robert Niemi (January 1, 2006). History in the Media: Film and Television. ABC-CLIO. p. 305. ISBN 978-1-57607-952-2.
  448. ^ Smith, Jack (June 3, 1968). "Photo: Andy Warhol being lifted into an ambulance after he was shot, June 3, 1968". warhol.org. The Andy Warhol Museum, Pittsburgh; Founding Collection, Contribution The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
  449. ^ Kaplan, Michael (2018-06-02). "I could have saved Andy Warhol from being shot". nypost.com. The New York Post. Retrieved 2018-06-03.
  450. ^ Granberry, Michael (June 5, 2014). "Forty-six years ago today, an assassin shot Sen. Robert F. Kennedy, stamping 1968 as the year that forever changed America". dallasnews.com. The Dallas Morning News Inc. Archived from the original on June 9, 2014. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
  451. ^ Christopher P. Lehman (October 26, 2006). American Animated Cartoons of the Vietnam Era: A Study of Social Commentary in Films and Television Programs, 1961–1973. McFarland. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-7864-5142-5.
  452. ^ "The Beatles' 1968 Pop Art masterpiece Yellow Submarine has been digitally restored and re-released to huge acclaim". thebeatles.com. Apple Corps. June 22, 2012. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
  453. ^ Günter Bischof; Stefan Karner; Peter Ruggenthaler (2010). The Prague Spring and the Warsaw Pact Invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7391-4304-9.
  454. ^ "The 1968 Democratic National Convention: At the height of a stormy year, Chicago streets become nightly battle zones". chicagotribune.com. Chicago Tribune. August 26, 1968. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
  455. ^ Kenneth Womack; Todd F. Davis (February 1, 2012). Reading the Beatles: Cultural Studies, Literary Criticism, and the Fab Four. SUNY Press. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-7914-8196-7.
  456. ^ Elwood Watson; Darcy Martin (21 August 2004). "There She Is, Miss America": The Politics of Sex, Beauty, and Race in America's Most Famous Pageant. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 138. ISBN 978-1-4039-6301-7.
  457. ^ W. Joseph Campbell (2010). Getting it Wrong: Ten of the Greatest Misreported Stories in American Journalism. University of California Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-520-25566-1.
  458. ^ Ali, Lorraine (2018-04-24). "'The Mod Squad,' 'Adam-12' and how TV brought the counterculture into 1968's cop shows". pilotonline.com. LA Times via Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved 2018-04-25. "The Mod Squad" featured a multiracial trio of nonconformist crime fighters: Long-haired rebel Pete. Black activist Linc. Flower girl Julie. On other long-running detective shows of the era, such as "Dragnet," they would have been cast as the disrespectful young people arrested during aimless protests or a raid on a free-love cult.
  459. ^ "Whole Earth History: 1968 to 1988". wholeearth.com. New Whole Earth LLC. Retrieved July 12, 2014. 1968: Stewart Brand initiates The Whole Earth Catalog as "a Low Maintenance, High Yield, Self Sustaining, Critical Information Service." Self-published, with no advertising, it sold 1000 copies at $5 each.
  460. ^ Stern, Jane; Stern, Michael (December 9, 2007). "Access to Tools (Book Review: Counterculture Green)". The New York Times. Retrieved March 8, 2015. Kirk's book uses the genesis and evolution of Whole Earth as an opportunity to survey the sea change in environmental and design attitudes that emerged in the 1960s counterculture but, he notes emphatically, eventually outgrew it.
  461. ^ Richman, Joe; Diaz-Cortes, Anayansi (December 1, 2008). "Mexico's 1968 Massacre: What Really Happened? (Text, Audio, & Photo Gallery)". npr.org. Radio Diaries / All Things Considered / US National Public Radio. Retrieved March 8, 2015. Government sources originally reported that four people had been killed and 20 wounded, while eyewitnesses described the bodies of hundreds of young people being trucked away. Thousands of students were beaten and jailed, and many disappeared. Forty years later, the final death toll remains a mystery, but documents recently released by the U.S. and Mexican governments give a better picture of what may have triggered the massacre.
  462. ^ Cosgrove, Ben; Dominis, John (October 14, 2013). "The Black Power Salute that Rocked the 1968 Olympics". life.time.com. Time, Inc. Archived from the original on October 14, 2013. Retrieved January 1, 2015. When Olympic sprinters Tommie Smith and John Carlos stood atop the medal podium at the 1968 Summer Games in Mexico City, bowed their heads and raised black-gloved fists during the playing of the national anthem, millions of their fellow Americans were outraged. But countless millions more around the globe thrilled to the sight of two men standing before the world, unafraid, expressing disillusionment with a nation that so often fell, and still falls, so short of its promise.
  463. ^ Maraniss, David (2015). Once in a Great City: A Detroit Story (First ed.). Simon & Schuster. pp. 247–272. ISBN 978-1-4767-4838-2.
  464. ^ "Oct 18, 1968: John Lennon and Yoko Ono arrested for drug possession". history.com. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
  465. ^ Robert Niemi (2006). History in the Media: Film and Television. ABC-CLIO. p. 155. ISBN 978-1-57607-952-2.
  466. ^ Randolph Lewis (1 November 2000). Emile de Antonio: Radical Filmmaker in Cold War America. Univ of Wisconsin Press. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-299-16913-8.
  467. ^ "Cold War Chronicles: The Films of Emile de Antonio". harvard.edu. Harvard Film Archive. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
  468. ^ "On This Day: 27 October". news.bbc.co.uk. BBC. 2008. Retrieved March 8, 2015. The turnout for the march was around 25,000, half the number predicted by police and organisers. But, far from being disappointed at the low turnout Mr Ali said; "This is not the end. This is the beginning of the campaign."
  469. ^ "Oct 31, 1968: President Johnson announces bombing halt". A&E Television Networks. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  470. ^ "Material at the LBJ Library Pertaining to the October 31, 1968 Bombing Halt" (PDF). lbjlibrary.net. Lyndon Baines Johnson Library & Museum. Retrieved July 10, 2014. This list highlights several key files that contain material on the October 31, 1968, bombing halt.
  471. ^ "Nixon wins heated battle". November 6, 1968. Retrieved July 10, 2014. 25 years ago...
  472. ^ "Political Roundup: Humphrey, Nixon, Wallace". news.google.com. AP via Washington Observer-Reporter. October 19, 1968. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  473. ^ Lynskey, Dorian (28 April 2011). "The Monkees' Head: 'Our fans couldn't even see it'". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 February 2016. It's a fourth-wall-shattering, stream-of-consciousness black comedy that mocks war, America, Hollywood, television, the music business and the Monkees themselves. These days, it is fondly remembered as one of the weirdest and best rock movies ever made, and a harbinger of the so-called New Hollywood. Quentin Tarantino and Edgar Wright are both fans. DJ Shadow and Saint Etienne have sampled its dialogue. According to director Bob Rafelson, the Beatles and the Rolling Stones both requested private screenings, while Thomas Pynchon attended a screening disguised as a plumber. But to the fans who had made the Monkees household names, it might as well never have existed. "The movie dropped like a ball of dark star," says bassist Peter Tork. "The simile of a rock in the water is too mild for how badly that movie did."
  474. ^ Yoram Allon; Del Cullen; Hannah Patterson (2002). Contemporary North American Film Directors: A Wallflower Critical Guide. Wallflower Press. p. 435. ISBN 978-1-903364-52-9.
  475. ^ Springer, Denize (September 22, 2008). "Campus commemorates 1968 student-led strike". sfsu.edu. SF State News (University Communications). Retrieved July 11, 2014. The five-month event defined the University's core values of equity and social justice, laid the groundwork for establishment of the College of Ethnic Studies...
  476. ^ Schevitz, Tanya (October 26, 2008). "S.F. State to mark 40th anniversary of strike". sfgate.com. San Francisco Chronicle/Hearst. Retrieved July 11, 2014. Pioneer in ethnic studies: Early in 1969, the university agreed to many of the student demands, including the establishment of the nation's first and only college of ethnic studies. The strike ended March 20.
  477. ^ "Archival Videos". diva.sfsu.edu. San Francisco Bay Area Television Archive. Retrieved December 30, 2014.
  478. ^ Linda Martin; Kerry Segrave (1993). Anti-rock: The Opposition to Rock 'n' Roll. Perseus Books Group. pp. 187–188. ISBN 978-0-306-80502-8.
  479. ^ John Lennon (October 1, 2013). Skywriting by Word of Mouth. HarperCollins. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-06-231986-9.
  480. ^ File:TwoVCover.jpg
  481. ^ "The Beatles (White Album): Releases". allmusic.com. AllMusic. Retrieved July 11, 2014. Release Date: November 22, 1968
  482. ^ "The Earthrise Photograph". Abc.net.au. December 24, 1968. Retrieved August 31, 2013.
  483. ^ "Remembering Ford & Sydeman Halls – The Student Occupation of Ford Hall, January 1969". lts.brandeis.edu. Brandeis University Archives & Special Collections. Retrieved December 31, 2014. On January 8, 1969, approximately seventy African American students took control of Ford and Sydeman Halls. The students quickly presented the administration with a list of ten demands for better minority representation on campus. Although the administration did not come to an agreement on all ten demands, the students left Ford and Sydeman Halls on January 18th, eleven days after the occupation began. The administration did grant most of the students amnesty, and President Morris Abram stated that every legitimate demand would be met in good faith.
  484. ^ Schneider, Keith; Barboza, Tony (2018-01-04). "California offshore drilling could be expanded for the first time since 1984 under federal leasing proposal". LA Times. Retrieved 2018-01-07. A devastating, 100,000-barrel spill in Santa Barbara in 1969 killed thousands of seabirds and led to the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act, the foundation of U.S. environmental law, and the creation of the federal Environmental Protection Agency. The 260,000-barrel Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska's Prince William Sound in 1989 exposed thousands of that state's residents to the beach-fouling consequences of spilled oil. The 4.9-million-barrel Deepwater Horizon disaster, the worst offshore oil spill in U.S. history, stirred new and broad opposition to offshore development.
  485. ^ Lindeman, Tracey (February 15, 2014). "A look back at Montreal's race-related 1969 Computer Riot". cbc.ca. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved December 31, 2014. Forty-five years ago this week, violent protests and a 14-day sit-in over racism at Sir George Williams University exploded, causing $2 million in damage for the school.
  486. ^ Runtagh, Jordan (2016-01-29). "Beatles' Famous Rooftop Concert: 15 Things You Didn't Know". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2016-10-16. George's rosewood ax, mics wrapped in pantyhose and Orson Welles' alleged son – the wild truth about the Fab Four's final show
  487. ^ "Spectators Guide to the New Troublemakers". The Village Voice. 1969-01-16. Retrieved 2015-11-27. Advertisement for the February, 1969 edition of Esquire published in the Village Voice
  488. ^ McCormick, Dennis; Archival Reports (1969). "Peaceful protests lead to turmoil on Madison's campus". Wisconsin State Journal. Retrieved 2016-04-14.
  489. ^ "ACLU History". ACLU.org. American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved April 25, 2014.
  490. ^ Burks, John (2010-12-10). "Jim Morrison's Indecency Arrest: Rolling Stone's Original Coverage". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2016-03-02. Jim Morrison, the Doors' cataclysmic, electroplastic lead singer, finally let it all hang out at a March 2nd concert in Miami, Florida, and in the outraged aftermath became the object of six arrest warrants, including one for a felony charge of "Lewd and lascivious behavior in public by exposing his private parts and by simulating masturbation and oral copulation." [Original article with discussion by author].
  491. ^ Johnston, Maura (2010-12-09). "Jim Morrison Pardoned By Florida Clemency Board: Doors lead singer's indecent exposure conviction stems from 1969 incident". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2016-10-05. On Thursday, Florida's Clemency Board pardoned the late Doors frontman Jim Morrison for two misdemeanor convictions stemming from a 1969 incident in which he allegedly exposed himself. The pardon was requested by outgoing Florida Gov. Charlie Crist and the state Clemency Board unanimously granted it. In March 1969, a bearded, drunken Morrison was performing at the Dinner Key Auditorium in Miami when, during the performance, he allegedly asked the audience, "Do you wanna see my cock?" After the audience of more than 10,000 fans responded, he pulled down his pants and briefly simulated masturbation.
  492. ^ Graeme Thomson (11 October 2013). George Harrison: Behind The Locked Door. Music Sales Group. p. 215. ISBN 978-0-85712-858-4.
  493. ^ Fawcett, Anthony (1976). "THE PEACE POLITICIAN – THE BED-INS-AMSTERDAM AND MONTREAL". imaginepeace.com. Grove Press via Imagine Peace. Retrieved July 16, 2014. From the (Anthony Fawcett) book One Day at a Time
  494. ^ Marc Jason Gilbert (2001). The Vietnam War on Campus: Other Voices, More Distant Drums. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-275-96909-7.
  495. ^ "This Day in History. Vietnam War:Westmoreland requests more troops". history.com. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved August 13, 2014. Gen. William Westmoreland, senior U.S. military commander in Vietnam, sends a new troop request to the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Westmoreland stated that he needed 542,588 troops for the war in Vietnam in 1967 – an increase of 111,588 men to the number already serving there. In the end, President Johnson acceded to Westmoreland's wishes and dispatched the additional troops to South Vietnam, but the increases were done in an incremental fashion. The highest number of U.S. troops in South Vietnam was 543,500, which was reached in 1969.
  496. ^ Gross, Terry (2010-10-15). "'The Uncensored Story' Of The Smothers Brothers". npr.og. National Public Radio (US). Retrieved 2016-04-14. Undeniably, CBS wanted Tom and Dick Smothers off the air because of the ideas they were espousing on their show, but eventually removed them by claiming that the brothers had violated the terms of their contract by not delivering a copy of that week's show in time. It was like the feds busting Al Capone: the crime for which he was convicted was a mere technicality, but it got Capone off the streets. In the case of CBS and the Smothers Brothers, they got them off the air. Fired, not canceled, as Tom Smothers invariably corrected people in an effort to set the record straight.
  497. ^ "TV Ratings 1968–69". classictvhits.com. Retrieved 2016-08-13.
  498. ^ Donovan, Lauren (2008-05-09). "40th anniversary of infamous Zip to Zap party nears". Bismarck Tribune. Retrieved 2016-10-05. Between 1,000 and 2,000 mostly college students converged on Zap, a coal mine hamlet in Mercer County. The press was there and worldwide headlines resulted when the Guard moved in and rousted the by-then sleepy kids out of town, causing thousands of other Zap-bound students to turn around.
  499. ^ Rosen, Rebecca (2014-02-14). "Video: Ronald Reagan's Press Conference After 'Bloody Thursday': An angry governor shows no patience for his critics following a confrontation between Berkeley students and the National Guard". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2016-04-14. May of 1969 was a terrifying and unsettling time for students at the University of California, Berkeley. Activist efforts to turn an unused plot of university land into a park, "People's Park," were met with, at first, mild bureaucratic resistance, but tensions soon escalated, and, ultimately, Governor Ronald Reagan decided to break up a rally by sending in California's National Guard.
  500. ^ Elizabeth L. Wollman (November 6, 2006). The Theater Will Rock: A History of the Rock Musical, from Hair to Hedwig. University of Michigan Press. p. 77. ISBN 0-472-11576-6.
  501. ^ Lennon, John; Lennon, Yoko Ono (May 1969). "Bed Peace". imaginepeace.com. Bag Productions / Yoko Ono Lennon. Retrieved January 14, 2015. In 1969, John and I were so naïve to think that doing the Bed-In would help change the world. Well, it might have. But at the time, we didn't know. It was good that we filmed it, though. The film is powerful now. What we said then could have been said now...-Yoko Ono Lennon, 2014.(Film hosted on Youtube.)
  502. ^ Len Sperry (31 December 2015). Mental Health and Mental Disorders: An Encyclopedia of Conditions, Treatments, and Well-Being. ABC-CLIO. p. 416. ISBN 978-1-4408-0383-3.
  503. ^ "Stars, Drugs and Death: Judy Garland". cbsnews.com. CBS. Retrieved 2016-06-19. Judy Garland was found dead in London on June 22, 1969, at the age of 47. The coroner stated that the cause of death was "an incautious self-overdosage" of barbiturates. Her death certificate stated that her death had been accidental.
  504. ^ Rimalower, Ben (2016-06-14). "Rufus Wainwright On What Makes Judy Garland a Gay Icon". Playbill. Retrieved 2016-06-19.
  505. ^ Quijano, Elaine; Kennedy, KIm (2015-06-28). "Remembering the Stonewall riot and the start of a movement". CBS News. Retrieved 2016-04-14. Mafia-owned and illegal, the Stonewall was a speakeasy-style bar with a jukebox and a dance floor. "To get in, you had to know the secret codes which is to say 'you're a friend of Dorothy's,'" said Bockman. But in the predawn hours of June 28, 1969, the Stonewall, full to the rafters, was raided by police. But unlike previous raids, this time the crowd pushed back. A six-day riot between gays and police began.
  506. ^ "Brian Jones: Sympathy for the Devil". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. August 9, 1969. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  507. ^ Helmut Staubmann (June 3, 2013). The Rolling Stones: Sociological Perspectives. Lexington Books. p. 123. ISBN 978-0-7391-7672-6.
  508. ^ "Rolling Stones to return to Hyde Park". bbc.com. BBC. April 3, 2003. Retrieved October 22, 2014. The Rolling Stones are to perform in London's Hyde Park for the first time since a legendary free concert for an estimated 250,000 people in 1969. The outdoor gig will take place on 6 July, a week after the group's first appearance at the Glastonbury festival. The rock legends famously played in the park just two days after death of guitarist Brian Jones in July 1969.
  509. ^ Bernstein, Adam (2010-05-30). "Dennis Hopper dies; actor, director's 'Easy Rider' became a generational marker". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2015-12-07. Dennis Hopper, 74, an actor and director whose low-budget biker movie Easy Rider made an unexpected fortune by exploring the late 1960s counterculture and who changed Hollywood by helping open doors to younger directors including Steven Spielberg and George Lucas, died May 29 at his home in Venice, Calif.
  510. ^ Mathew J. Bartkowiak; Yuya Kiuchi (15 June 2015). The Music of Counterculture Cinema: A Critical Study of 1960s and 1970s Soundtracks. McFarland. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-7864-7542-1.
  511. ^ Mastropolo, Frank. "The Story of the Groundbreaking 'Easy Rider' Soundtrack". utlimateclassicrock.com. Loudwire/Townsquare Media. Retrieved 2018-06-17. The Easy Rider soundtrack was a powerhouse collection of songs that included "The Pusher" by Steppenwolf, the acid rocker "If 6 Was 9" by the Jimi Hendrix Experience and the Band's enigmatic "The Weight," which was included in the movie but covered by the group Smith on the album due to contractual issues.
  512. ^ "Pat with Look Magazine article How Hippies Raise Their Children 170519-102031 C4V". Flickr. 2017-05-19.
  513. ^ "LIFE". Time Inc. 18 July 1969.
  514. ^ Wilford, John Noble (1969). We Reach the Moon. New York: New York Times / Bantam. p. XV. ISBN 9780552082051. The Story of Man's Greatest Adventure
  515. ^ Blumenthal, Ralph (January 21, 1973). "Porno chic; 'Hard-core' grows fashionable-and very profitable". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
  516. ^ Corliss, Richard (March 29, 2005). "That Old Feeling: When Porno Was Chic". Time. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
  517. ^ Paasonen, Susanna; Saarenmaa, Laura (July 19, 2007). The Golden Age of Porn: Nostalgia and History in Cinema (PDF). WordPress. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
  518. ^ Delamater, John; Plante, Rebecca F. (June 19, 2015). Handbook of the Sociology of Sexualities. Springer Publishing. p. 416. ISBN 9783319173412. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
  519. ^ "Charles Manson Biography: Charles Manson is an American cult leader whose followers carried out several notorious murders in the late 1960s and inspired the book Helter Skelter". biography.com. A&E Television Networks, LLC. 2014. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
  520. ^ Woods, William Crawford (August 8, 2013). "From the Stacks (January 4, 1975): "Demon in the Counterculture"". The New Republic. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
  521. ^ DeCurtis, Anthony (August 1, 2009). "Peace, Love and Charlie Manson: The Anti-Woodstock?". nytimes.com. The New York Times Co. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
  522. ^ Sheffield, Rob (2013-11-21). "Heart of Darkness: A Charles Manson Timeline The helter-skelter life of America's most infamous criminal". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2016-05-01.
  523. ^ Christopher Gair (2007). The American Counterculture. Edinburgh University Press. p. 205. ISBN 978-0-7486-1989-4.
  524. ^ "Volunteers". 1969. Retrieved December 30, 2014.
  525. ^ "The Dick Cavett Show". August 19, 1969. Retrieved December 30, 2014.
  526. ^ Colapinto, John (2010-10-21). "The Twilight of Bob Guccione". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2015-11-27.
  527. ^ "Ho Chi Minh (1890–1969)". www.bbc.co.uk. BBC. Retrieved May 4, 2014.
  528. ^ Elber, Lynn (2015-10-13). "H.R. Pufnstuf, surreal 1960s icon, returns to TV". AP via San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved 2015-12-24.
  529. ^ Graham, David (2016-04-06). "Remembering Merle Haggard, Outlaw and Poet". The Atlantic Monthly Group. The Atlantic. Retrieved 2016-05-25. The song was released in 1969 and quickly became a counter-countercultural anthem – capturing backlash against hippies who were protesting the Vietnam War. The song made Haggard a darling of conservatives, and was one of several such songs hailed as anthems of the Silent Majority.
  530. ^ Steve Millward (28 September 2014). Different Tracks: Music and Politics in 1970. Troubador Publishing Ltd. p. 191. ISBN 978-1-78306-476-2.
  531. ^ "Linkletter blames LSD for death of daughter". Associated Press. Retrieved May 23, 2014.
  532. ^ "Photos: Days of Rage". chicagotribune.com. Chicago Tribune. 1969. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
  533. ^ Lelyveld, Joseph (1969-10-22). "Jack Kerouac, Novelist, Dead; Father of the Beat Generation". The New York Times. Retrieved 2016-05-25. Author of 'On the Road' was Hero to Youth – Rejected Middle-Class Values Jack Kerouac, the novelist who named the Beat Generation and exuberantly celebrated its rejection of middle-class American conventions, died early yesterday of massive abdominal hemorrhaging in a St. Petersburg, Fla., hospital. He was 47 years old.
  534. ^ Savio, Jessica (April 1, 2011). "Browsing history: A heritage site is being set up in Boelter Hall 3420, the room the first Internet message originated in". dailybruin.com. The Daily Bruin. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
  535. ^ Skarda, Erin (June 28, 2011). "Moratorium Against the Vietnam War, Nov. 15, 1969". content.time.com. Time, Inc. Retrieved July 16, 2014. In the frigid fall of 1969, more than 500,000 people marched on Washington to protest U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. It remains the largest political rally in the nation's history.
  536. ^ O'Rourke, Tim (2016-06-12). "Chronicle Covers: The end of the Indian occupation of Alcatraz". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2016-06-19. The occupation lasted 19 months, but its legacy lives on. The Chronicle's front page from June 12, 1971, covers the federal removal of the last of the American Indians who had seized Alcatraz Island in 1969.
  537. ^ Starr, Norton (1997). "Nonrandom Risk: The 1970 Draft Lottery". Journal of Statistics Education. v.5, n.2. Abstract: The 1970 draft lottery for birthdates is reviewed as an example of a government effort at randomization whose inadequacy can be exhibited by a wide variety of statistical approaches. Several methods of analyzing these data – which were of life-and-death importance to those concerned – are given explicitly and numerous others are cited. In addition, the corresponding data for 1971 and for 1972 are included, as are the alphabetic lottery data, which were used to select draftees by the first letters of their names. Questions for class discussion are provided. The article ends with a survey of primary and secondary sources in print.
  538. ^ "CBS News Special Report". youtube.com. CBS. 1969. Retrieved 2016-02-05. Correspondent Roger Mudd reporting.
  539. ^ Bobby Rush; Team Ebony (2017-12-04). "Rep. Bobby Rush on the Deaths of Fred Hampton and Mark Clark "They arrested seven Panthers, wounded two and killed Mark Clark and Fred Hampton."". Ebony. Ebony Media Operations, LLC. Retrieved 2018-04-11. At 4 a.m., they knocked on the door. Mark Clark was on patrol at the time. He said, "who is it?" They said, "Tommy." He asked, "Tommy who?" They said, "Tommy Gun." That's when they started shooting and the bullet shot him in the heart. At that time it was a signal for police to come in shooting from the back. Deborah Johnson was pregnant with Hampton's son, she screamed "stop shooting!" They dragged Deborah out. Hampton was on his bed. He had been shot, one of the police put a sheet over his head and said he was "as good as dead" now. They arrested seven Panthers, wounded two and killed Mark Clark and Fred Hampton.
  540. ^ Ian Inglis; Norma Coates (2006). "Chapter 6". Performance and Popular Music: History, Place and Time. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-7546-4057-8.
  541. ^ Buckley, Jr., William F. (December 10, 1970). "Altamont was Funeral for the Woodstock Nation". news.google.com. The Milwaukee Journal. Retrieved July 3, 2014. Re: release of 'Gimme Shelter'
  542. ^ Adams, Dominic (2017-02-22). "The Weather Underground, Flint and a campaign of violence". MLIVE. MLive Media Group. Retrieved 2018-04-11. 'Flint, Michigan War Council': Around 300 people packed into a boarded up hall called the Giant Ballroom at 1800 N. Saginaw St. from Dec. 27–31 in 1969, according to MLive-The Flint Journal archives. FBI says otherwise about Flint meetings: FBI documents previously labeled "top secret" and released to the Vault said the War Council meetings in Flint was the last open meeting held by the Weatherman Group. "It was at this meeting that the decision was made to go underground and to engage in guerrilla warfare against the U.S. government," a page read with the heading "WUD 'Flint, Michigan War Council.'"That 'quiet' Weatherman Council in Flint exploded. Weather Underground leader Mark Rudd said in Flint during the group's "War Council" that people should expect violence that will make "the '60s look like a Sunday school picnic," according to a July 24, 1970 Flint Journal article. A federal grand jury in Detroit charged Rudd and 12 others who conspired during the 4-day meeting in Flint in 1969 to commit assassinations and bombings in four U.S. cities, according to the article in MLive-The Flint Journal's archives. The indictments claimed the group met at the Giant Ballroom on Saginaw Street to set up a coordinating agency that would guide bombings in Chicago, Detroit, New York City and Berkeley, Calif. The indictments followed a dozen previous charges unveiled in connection to "Days of Wrath" riots in Chicago. Weatherman members went "underground" following the Chicago indictments, thus the group was then known as Weather Underground. Investigators and law enforcement officials said the meetings were a "failure" at the time and that they were social in nature more than anything.
  543. ^ Martin, Douglas (July 12, 2011). "Theodore Roszak, '60s Expert, Dies at 77". The New York Times. Retrieved February 10, 2015. Theodore Roszak, who three weeks after the Woodstock Festival in 1969 not only published a pivotal book about a young generation's drug-fueled revolt against authority but also gave it a name – "counterculture" – died on July 5 at his home in Berkeley, Calif. He was 77.
  544. ^ "Michael Brody Interview". nbcuniversalarchives.com. NBC Universal Media. 1970-01-15. Retrieved 2016-01-24. Michael James Brody, Jr., heir to the oleomargarine fortune and self-proclaimed savior holds a press conference at Kennedy Airport in New York. After disembarking from a plane with his wife, Michael Brody holds a press conference in the arrivals building of the airport. He says he wants to become well known to the public, because he plans to give away $50 million within the next year.
  545. ^ "Recipes: Jelke Good Luck Margarine". Duke University. Retrieved 2016-01-24.
  546. ^ New York Media, LLC (14 January 1991). "New York". Newyorkmetro.com. New York Media, LLC: 23. ISSN 0028-7369.
  547. ^ Fensterstock, Alison (2014-02-07). "Set up, like a bowling pin: A look back at the Grateful Dead's 1970 New Orleans bust, 44 years later". nola.com. New Orleans Times-Picayune/NOLA Media Group. Retrieved 2016-03-01. Text reprint and tearsheet images from original story with analysis by the author.
  548. ^ Rolling Stone Editors (1970-03-07). "New Orleans Cops & the Dead Bust: Police in the Big Easy giving bands a hard time". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2016-03-01. In New Orleans to open up a new ballroom, locally known as "the Warehouse," most of the Dead and their road crew were nailed in a dope raid in the same French Quarters hotel where members of the Jefferson Airplane were busted just weeks before. State and federal narcs rounded up 19 people in the Dead raid, and were none too polite about it, either."
  549. ^ Cathy Wilkerson (4 January 2011). Flying Close to the Sun: My Life and Times as a Weatherman. Seven Stories Press. ISBN 978-1-60980-070-3.
  550. ^ Graham, Steve (2009-05-08). "Peter Green: Man of the World". bbc.co.uk. BBC Four/BBC. Retrieved 2018-06-10. Legendary blues guitarist BB King named Peter Green as one of the greatest exponents of the blues, and the 'only guitar player to make me sweat'. If Green had only written Black Magic Woman, his name would still have a place in blues rock history forever. His three short years leading Peter Green's Fleetwood Mac saw the band established as one of the biggest-selling groups of the 1960s. Yet at the height of their fame Green left the group, with his life spiralling into turmoil as drug-induced mental health issues took control. Rumours of his demise began to spread, and sightings of him became notorious. After years battling his mental illness, Green is writing and recording again. Featuring archive performances and interviews with Carlos Santana, Noel Gallagher, founding members of Fleetwood Mac and Green himself, this film tells the story of one of blues rock's living legends.
  551. ^ "Peter Green – The Munich LSD Party Incident". youtube.com. Route via Youtube. 2012-08-12. Retrieved 2018-06-10. Clip from BBC Documentary. Peter Green and members of Fleetwood Mac give their accounts of the infamous LSD party at the Highfisch-Kommune in Munich. Band manager Clifford Davis claims that this was the night that Peter Green and Danny Kirwan became 'seriously mentally ill'. Peter Green says, 'I had a good play there, it was great.' This incident is the genesis for Ada Wilson's novel Red Army Faction Blues, which fully explores the situation the Peter Green walked into that night.
  552. ^ Kiron K. Skinner; Annelise Anderson; Ronald Reagan (6 October 2004). Reagan: A Life In Letters. Simon and Schuster. p. 191. ISBN 978-0-7432-1967-9.
  553. ^ "Midnight Cowboy". tcm.com. Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved July 27, 2014. 1969 was an interesting turning point in American cinema and no film better reflects that than Midnight Cowboy. Not only was it the first X-rated film to win the Best Picture Oscar but it presented a view of New York City that was the most bleak and depressing portrait since Ray Milland hit every seedy Manhattan bar in The Lost Weekend (1945).[permanent dead link]
  554. ^ Keith M. Booker (March 17, 2011). Historical Dictionary of American Cinema. Scarecrow Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-8108-7459-6.
  555. ^ Berman, Eliza (2015-04-22). "Meet the Organizers of the Very First Earth Day". Time, Inc. Archived from the original on April 22, 2015. Retrieved 2016-03-26. How a troupe of twenty-somethings mobilized millions of Americans to speak out on the environment
  556. ^ Gibbens, Sarah (2018-04-21). "How the Environment Has Changed Since the First Earth Day". natonalgeographic.com. National Geographic Society. Retrieved 2018-04-28. When Earth Day was first created in 1970, it rode the coattails of a decade filled with social activism. Voting rights were strengthened, civil rights were outlined, and women were demanding equal treatment. But there was no Environmental Protection Agency, no Clean Air Act, or Clean Water Act. Fast forward 48 years and what started as a grassroots movement has exploded into an international day of attention and activism dedicated to preserving the environment. Officially, the United Nations recognizes this upcoming April 22 as International Mother Earth Day. Across the globe, millions of people take part in Earth Day. According to the Earth Day Network, one of the largest activist bodies organizing Earth Day events, people celebrate by holding marches, planting trees, meeting with local representatives, and cleaning up their local environments.
  557. ^ "May 4 Sequence of Events". kentwired.com. kentwired. May 4, 2010. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
  558. ^ Bhatia, Kabir (May 3, 2013). "Dean Kahler: visitors' Center helps him move past May 4, 1970". wksu.org. WKSU Public Radio. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
  559. ^ Clara Bingham (May 2016). Witness to the Revolution: Radicals, Resisters, Vets, Hippies, and the Year America Lost Its Mind and Found Its Soul. Random House Publishing Group. p. 449. ISBN 978-0-8129-9318-9.
  560. ^ Mary Lou Sullivan; Johnny Winter (2010). Raisin' Cain: The Wild and Raucous Story of Johnny Winter. Backbeat Books. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-87930-973-2.
  561. ^ Walker, Jesse (2013-09-13). "Hardhats for Peace, College Kids for War: The surprising shape of public opinion in the Vietnam era". reason.org. Reason Foundation. Retrieved 2018-06-10. Book Review: Hardhats, Hippies, and Hawks: The Vietnam Antiwar Movement as Myth and Memory. The Hard Hat Riot of May 1970 has managed somehow to be both widely forgotten and universally remembered. The incident itself, in which rampaging New York construction workers beat up hippies and demanded that City Hall raise the American flag, is a piece of historical trivia; most Americans born after it have little inkling that it occurred, and even the people who were around at the time are likely to be hazy on the details. But the image of a pro-war worker in a hardhat punching a privileged protester is enshrined in our cultural memory. It's what the late '60s and early '70s were supposed to look like: college kids who hated the Vietnam War and blue-collar patriots who loved the flag.
  562. ^ Carr, Tom (2016). Blood on the Mitten (1st ed.). Chandler Lake Books / Mission Point Press. p. 47. ISBN 9781943338078.
  563. ^ Pevere, Geoff (2010-06-18). "How Joe and Patton could, 40 years on, play again today". The Toronto Star. Retrieved 2017-06-17. Joe, like Patton, had its true-life historical hook. Two months before the movie opened, and on the very same day as the Hard Hat Riot in Manhattan, a middle-aged railroad worker named Arville Douglas Garland entered a Detroit university residence (known, apparently, as a hippie haven) and shot and killed four students – including his daughter and her boyfriend. Although equipped for the rampage with multiple weapons and extra ammo, Garland was ultimately handed a light sentence by the same judge who'd seen Joe as part of his deliberation process and rejected any prospective jurors who'd done the same. Garland was seen to be let off lightly, but justly so by the hundreds of supporters who sent the killer letters endorsing his actions. At the time, it was reported that no one wrote to suggest that Garland had given the murdered kids anything but what they deserved.
  564. ^ Jennings, Peter; Jarriel, Tom (May 9, 1970). "5/9/1970: Nationwide Student Strike". abcnews.go.com. ABC News Internet Ventures. Retrieved September 26, 2014. Students gather to protest the invasion of Cambodia and the Kent State massacre. (Archival footage including speeches by Benjamin Spock, Jane Fonda, and Ron Young).
  565. ^ McNichol, Tom (November 14, 2011). "I Am Not a Kook: Richard Nixon's Bizarre Visit to the Lincoln Memorial". theatlantic.com. The Atlantic Monthly Group. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
  566. ^ Suarez, Ray (November 25, 2011). "New Nixon Tapes Reveal Details of Meeting With Anti-War Activists (Text & Video)". pbs.org. PBS Newshour. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
  567. ^ Getlen, Larry (August 31, 2014). "How Dock Ellis Dropped Acid and Threw a Ho-Hitter". nypost.com. The New York Post. Retrieved September 4, 2014. Later in life, Ellis, who ultimately got straight and became a drug counselor, expressed shame about what he had done. While the LSD no-hitter kept him in the public eye, he came to see it not as a point of pride, but as a sign that his drug use might have robbed him of his greatest professional memory.
  568. ^ Witz, Billy (September 4, 2010). "For Ellis, a Long, Strange Trip to a No-Hitter". The New York Times. Retrieved September 21, 2014. But it was Ellis's claim, after he retired, that he threw his no-hitter while under the influence of LSD that cemented his standing as an icon of the sport's counterculture era, making him an intriguing figure to artists, musicians, filmmakers, and journalists – even after his death.
  569. ^ Michael Howard Holzman (2008). James Jesus Angleton, the CIA, and the Craft of Counterintelligence. University of Massachusetts Press. p. 273. ISBN 978-1-55849-650-7.
  570. ^ Loch K. Johnson (1989). America's Secret Power. Oxford University Press. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-19-536153-7.
  572. ^ "Angela Davis Arrested in N. Y.; Was On Ten Most Wanted List". thecrimson.com. AP via The Harvard Crimson, Inc. 1970-10-14. Retrieved 2018-06-10. Davis was added on Aug. 18 to the FBI's list of Ten Most Wanted Fugitives. She has been accused of buying guns used in the attempt on Aug. 7 to free three San Quentin convicts undergoing trial in San Rafael, Calif. She has been charged with unlawful flight to avoid prosecution on state charges of murder and kidnapping.
  573. ^ "Sterling Hall bombing: Seven men linked by a moment in history". Madison.com. Wisconsin State Journal. August 17, 2010. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
  574. ^ Breasted, Mary; Ortega, Tony (September 30, 1970). "Women on the March: 'We're a Movement Now!'-1970: The Women's National Strike for Equality". villagevoice.com. The Village Voice. Archived from the original on December 30, 2013. Retrieved July 3, 2014.
  575. ^ Eder, Bruce. "Jesus Christ Superstar". allmusic.com. AllMusic, a division of All Media Network, LLC. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
  576. ^ Nick Talevski (7 April 2010). Rock Obituaries – Knocking On Heaven's Door. Omnibus Press. p. 272. ISBN 978-0-85712-117-2.
  577. ^ Christine Wallace (July 1, 2013). Germaine Greer: Untamed Shrew. Pan Macmillan Australia. p. 184. ISBN 978-1-74334-189-6.
  578. ^ "Trudeau Reflects On Four Decades Of 'Doonesbury'". npr.org. NPR Morning Edition. October 26, 2010. Retrieved June 2, 2014.
  579. ^ Carlson, Peter. "When Elvis Met Nixon". smithsonianmag.com. Smithsonian.com. Retrieved July 27, 2014. From the Archives: A bizarre encounter between the president and the king of rock and roll
  580. ^ File:Elvis-nixon.jpg
  581. ^ Gostisha, Dave (2010). "When Elvis Met Nixon". youtube.com. condensedmovies.com. Retrieved 2016-06-23.
  582. ^ Nicols, Dana; Chamberlain, Mark (2012-12-01). "The Happening". Laguna Beach Magazine. Retrieved 2017-06-19. Peace, Love and Not Much to Eat "The youth subculture in the United States has found an untraditional way to observe this Christmas weekend. It's another rock festival – but – unlike previous such events, it seems to have happened almost all by itself, with little apparent organization." – CBS News, December 1970
  583. ^ Schou, Nick (2010-12-23). "Laguna Beach's Great Hippie Invasion, 40 Years On". ocweekly.com. OC Weekly. Retrieved 2017-06-19.
  584. ^ Dan Berger (2006). Outlaws of America: The Weather Underground and the Politics of Solidarity. AK Press. p. 88. ISBN 978-1-904859-41-3.
  585. ^ Jordan Goodman (2005). Tobacco in History and Culture: An Encyclopedia. Granite Hill Publishers. p. 676. ISBN 978-0-684-31453-2.
  586. ^ Ray Broadus Browne; Pat Browne (2001). The Guide to United States Popular Culture. Popular Press. p. 744. ISBN 978-0-87972-821-2.
  587. ^ Gardella, Kay (January 11, 2015). "'All in the Family' introduces the world to foul-mouthed Archie Bunker in 1971". nydailynews.com. New York Daily News. Retrieved January 13, 2015. [Archived/Reprinted.Originally published by the Daily News on January 13, 1971] CBS Gambles on Reality with New Comedy Series
  588. ^ Silver, Michael (November 19, 2003). "Where Were You on March 8, 1971?". espn.go.com. ESPN Classic. Retrieved June 27, 2014. The country was split between those supporting our efforts in Vietnam and those opposed to the war. Hawks, doves, hard hats, flower children, black power, Woodstock, Kent State and the silent majority were bywords for the most divisive American decade since the American Civil War some 100 years earlier.
  589. ^ Fitzpatrick, Frank (April 14, 2014). "When politics enter the playing field". philly.com. The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved June 27, 2014. People forget the intensity of opposing passions in 1971. No one was neutral. Friends and families were bitterly divided. If you supported the Vietnam War, you supported Frazier. And if you opposed it, you were in the corner of Ali, who had forfeited his title for refusing military induction in 1967.
  590. ^ Cosgrove, Ben; Shearer, John. "Ali, Frazier and the 'Fight of the Century': A Photographer Remembers (w/text)". life.time.com. Time, Inc. Archived from the original on July 11, 2014. Retrieved June 27, 2014. Long before the first bell of their March 1971 fight sounded, the contest was billed as "The Fight of the Century" and, amazingly, it lived up to the hype. That night, a star-studded crowd watched two of the greatest fighters who ever lived battle for supremacy in the world's premier sports arena.