Timeline of 1960s counterculture

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The following is a chronological capsule history of 1960s counterculture. Influential events and milestones beginning decades ahead of the 1960s are included for context relevant to the subject period of the early 1960s through the mid 1970s.

1960s[edit]

1960[edit]

  • The Student League for Industrial Democracy changes its name to Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) and first meets in Ann Arbor, Michigan. SDS dissociates itself from LID in 1965, and becomes the most notable radical student political organization of the counterculture era.[1][2]
  • A beatnik community in Cornwall, UK noted for wearing their hair past their shoulders, and including a young Wizz Jones, is interviewed by Alan Whicker for BBC TV.[3]
  • Harvard lecturer Timothy Leary and assistant professor Richard Alpert begin experimenting with hallucinogens at Cambridge, MA. The highly controversial Leary soon becomes the most notable advocate of LSD use during the era.[4][5]
  • February 1: The first of the Greensboro sit-ins sparks a wave of similar protests against segregation at Woolworth and other retail store lunch counters across the American South.[6]
  • March 26: Governor Buford Ellington of Tennessee orders an investigation into a CBS news crew for filming a Nashville sit-in.[7]
  • April: The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) is organized by Ella Baker at Shaw University.[8]
  • May 1: U-2 Incident: a US spy plane searching for Soviet nuclear installations is shot down deep within the USSR. Presumed dead by the US, the CIA pilot is captured alive and paraded in the Russian press after the White House enlists NASA in a botched and quickly exposed deception claiming that the plane went missing during a weather flight.[9][10]
  • May 9: The Pill: The US Food & Drug Administration approves the use of the first reliable form of birth control: a 99%-effective pill. The Sexual Revolution commences, first in the bedrooms of married couples.[11][12]
  • May 13: Black Friday: 400 police using firehoses force a student "mob" out of a HUAC meeting at City Hall in San Francisco. The counterculture era of student political protest, outside of the ongoing civil rights struggle, begins.[13][14][15]
  • May 19: SANE holds an anti-arms race rally at Madison Square Garden in New York. 20,000 attend.[16]
  • July 11: To Kill A Mockingbird: Harper Lee's Pulitzer Prize-winning story of racial inequality is published and becomes a classic of American literature. The story arrives in cinemas in 1962.[17]
  • November 8: John F. Kennedy is elected 35th President of the US, defeating sitting Vice President Richard M. Nixon in what is considered to be the closest and most intellectually charged US presidential election since 1916.[18][19][20] Nearly 70 million ballots are cast, but the margin of victory is approximately 100,000 votes.[21]

1961[edit]

  • January: Look Magazine journalist George Leonard writes about "Youth of the Sixties: The Explosive Generation" and predicts that the "quiet generation" of the 1950s "is rumbling and is going to explode".[22][23]
  • January 17: US President (and retired 5-Star Army General) Eisenhower gives his farewell address to the nation, and uses much of his time to warn of the undue influence of the "Military Industrial Complex".[24]
  • January 20: In a powerful inaugural address, new US President Kennedy calls upon citizens to "ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country".[25][26]
  • March 1: JFK signs an executive order creating the Peace Corps.[27]
  • March 28: Although he supported the program during the 1960 campaign, JFK orders final cancellation of full production of the oft-resurrected USAF B-70 Bomber program in a significant rollback of the nuclear arms race.[28]
  • March 30: The UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is signed in New York City, tightening controls on international trade in opiates.[29]
  • April 12: Vostok: Man in Space: The western world is again shocked when Cold War foe the USSR follows its Sputnik triumph, putting the first human in space.[30]
  • April 17: Bay of Pigs: A secret CIA-led invasion force intent on the overthrow of communist dictator Fidel Castro lands on a remote beach in Cuba. Anti-Castro Cuban expatriates and CIA mercenaries are overtaken and captured by Cuban forces. JFK attempts to cut losses and denies additional US air support, dooming the operation.[31][32]
  • May 4: Freedom Riders: Civil Rights activists travel on public buses and trains across the American South to personally confront and challenge segregation.[33]
  • June 4: JFK meets with Soviet Premier Khrushchev in Vienna, and reports no progress on issues concerning partitioned Germany. Another Berlin Crisis ensues.[34][35]
  • July: Amnesty International is formed in London after British attorney Peter Benenson is outraged by the arrest of two students who raise a toast to freedom in Portugal. The human rights organization wins the Nobel Peace Prize in 1977.[36][37]
  • August 13: Berlin Wall: To stem the massive tide of emigration from the communist east into the democratic west (200,000 escape East Germany in 1960 alone), the construction of a wall dividing the city of Berlin begins under Soviet direction.[38]
  • October 25: US and Soviet tanks face off at Checkpoint Charlie in Berlin.[39][40]
  • November 1: Women Strike for Peace: 50,000 women march in 60 cities in the US to demonstrate against nuclear weapons.[41][42]
  • November 30: Cuban Project: Aggressive covert operations against despot Fidel Castro's revolutionary rule in Cuba are authorized by JFK and soon implemented under the direction of Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy. Implementation of the plan is highly unorthodox, as command oversight is given to the new Attorney General, and not career military or intelligence officers.[43][44][45]
  • December 14: JFK signs an executive order establishing the Presidential Commission on the Status of Women.[46][47]

1962[edit]

  • January: Black is Beautiful: The African Jazz-Art Society stages "Naturally '62," a fashion show in Harlem, popularizing the phrase which would become important to the culture of the Civil Rights Movement.[48]
  • January 12: Operation Chopper: US forces participate in major combat in Vietnam for the first time.[49]
  • January 18: Operation Ranch Hand: The US military begins the use of extremely toxic and carcinogenic defoliants in Vietnam. Use of the dioxin-containing Agent Orange begins in 1965.[50]
  • February 4: Escalation: In another of the first air actions of the deepening conflict, US helicopters assist the South Vietnamese Army in the capture of Hung My.[51]
  • February 26: Soviet Deputy Foreign Minister Valerian Zorin warns the UN that the Americans "are getting bogged down in a very disadvantageous and politically unjustified war (in Vietnam) which will entail very unpleasant consequences for them."[52]
  • March 16: US Defense Secretary Robert McNamara reveals that US troops in Vietnam have engaged in ground combat.
  • March 19: Bob Dylan's self-named first album is released. It reaches #13 in the UK, but does not chart on the Billboard 200 in the US. Dylan's second album, The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan, makes an enormous impact on the US folk and pop music scenes in 1963.[53]
  • March 31: Cesar Chavez begins organizing migrant farm workers in California.[54]
  • June 15: The SDS completes the Port Huron Statement.[55]
  • July–August: The Albany Movement civil rights protest against segregation is active in Albany, GA.
  • August 5: Film star Marilyn Monroe dies of a barbiturate overdose under suspicious circumstances in Los Angeles. Monroe's death is a precursor to an explosion of recreational use of highly addictive prescription drugs (and thousands of accidental pill overdose deaths) during the counterculture era, even as legitimate use of these drugs is already in decline.[56][57]
  • September 12: John F. Kennedy speaks at Rice: "... we choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard ..."[58]
  • September 27: Silent Spring: Following a growing groundswell of reports on the deleterious effects of DDT use on the ecosystem, Rachel Carson's expose' is published and the modern environmental movement begins.[59][60]
  • October 1: Following a riot which leaves 2 dead and over 300 injured on September 30, James Meredith is the first African-American student to enter "Ole Miss".[61][62]
  • October 5: "Love Me Do": The Beatles' first single is released in the UK. From this modest beginning the group eventually goes on to sell over 600 million records worldwide and remains the best selling musical group of all time. Earlier in the year, Decca Records and others had chosen not to sign the group.[63][64][65]
  • October 16–28: The Cuban Missile Crisis brings the world to the brink of nuclear war after the USSR attempts to station missiles with nuclear warheads in Cuba, thereby directly challenging the longstanding Monroe Doctrine and threatening the US. On October 22, President Kennedy bluntly addresses the nation on the matter of "highest national urgency" and discusses the possibility of global nuclear war, terrifying the nation and world. JFK's generals advise him to invade Cuba, but Kennedy orders a naval blockade instead. The Soviets back down and remove the missiles.[66][67][68]
  • December: The USAF Skybolt air-launched ballistic missile program is cancelled by President Kennedy.[69]
  • Inspired by Aldous Huxley's Human Potential Movement, Michael Murphy and Dick Price found the Esalen Institute in Big Sur, California.[70]
  • Sex and the Single Girl: Helen Gurley Brown's post-pill career and dating manual becomes a best-seller. Brown's attempt to have the book "banned" for marketing purposes fails, but early sales top two million copies. Brown goes on to edit influential Cosmopolitan Magazine for over 30 years.[71]
  • The Other America: Michael Harrington's compelling study of the intractable plight of the poor in the US is published. The book is later credited as inspirational to LBJ's "War on Poverty."[72]
  • Ken Kesey's One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest is published. The novel draws in part from Kesey's experiences as an MKULTRA volunteer. An Oscar winning adaptation hits theaters in 1975.[73][74]
  • Seven Days in May, a novel depicting a foiled military coup in the US, is published. A film follows in 1964 with an all-star cast.[75]

1963[edit]

1964[edit]

  • January: The Holy Modal Rounders' version of "Hesitation Blues" marks the first reference to the term psychedelic in popular music.[97]
  • January 8: LBJ's State of the Union address features a declaration of "War on Poverty".[98][99]
  • January 13: The Times They Are A-Changin': Bob Dylan's 3rd album is released and the title track is soon considered to be the most prophetic and relevant American protest song of the era. Dylan disagrees, saying the song "is a feeling."[100][101]
  • January 23: 24th Amendment ratified: US Congress and states are prohibited from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of poll or other forms of tax.[102]
  • February 1: I Want to Hold Your Hand: The Beatles achieve their first hit #1 on Billboard with a 7-week run on top. Beatlemania has spread to the US, and the monumental British Invasion of UK music across the free world is underway.[103][104]
  • February 3: Nearly half a million public school students in NYC boycott classes in protest of segregation.[105][106]
  • February 7–22: The Beatles make their first US visit and are showcased three times on The Ed Sullivan Show. The February 9 telecast is seen by over 73 million, the largest TV audience to date in the US.[107][108]
  • February 25–26: Tens of thousands of school students in Boston and Chicago skip classes in protest of segregation.
  • April 4: Beatles singles occupy the top 5 slots on the Billboard Hot 100. It's an unprecedented, and never repeated, chart achievement.[109][110]
  • April 13: Sidney Poitier becomes the first man of African descent to win the Oscar for Best Actor, Santa Monica, CA.[111][112]
  • April 20: Approximately 85% of black students in Cleveland boycott classes to protest segregation.[113]
  • May: Robert Jasper Grootveld's surreal happenings begin in Spui square Amsterdam with his unpredictable performances and famous cries of "Klaas is Coming!" and "Uche, Uche, Uche". Later described as the "announcer of the international spirit of revolution" he gained a following of Nozems (Dutch rockers) and inspired the start of the Provo (Provocation) movement in both Holland and California, introducing a playful element into social protest.[114][115]
  • May: Appearance of the Faire Free Press (later the Los Angeles Free Press), earliest of many "underground" US newspapers of the counterculture era.
  • May: San Francisco Sheraton Palace Hotel sit-ins result in arrests of University of California, Berkeley students protesting racially discriminatory Bay area hiring practices.[116]
  • May 7: President Johnson first refers to "the Great Society" in a speech at Ohio University, Athens, OH.
  • May 12: The first public draft-card burning is reported in New York City.[117]
  • June 14: The Merry Pranksters: Led by author Ken Kesey, an assemblage of adventure seekers departs California in the repurposed school bus Further en route to the 1964 World's Fair in Queens, NY.[118]
  • June 22: I Know it When I See it: The US Supreme Court overturns the obscenity conviction of an Ohio theater operator. Although local obscenity battles continue to the present, the decision clears the way for the commercial exhibition of sexually explicit film material in the US.[119][120]
  • July 2: The Civil Rights Act is signed by President Johnson. Racial segregation in public places and race-based employment discrimination are now banned under federal law.[121]
  • August 2: War Dance: the spurious Gulf of Tonkin Incidents off the coast of Vietnam lead to the nearly unanimous passage of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution by the US Congress on August 7, giving the president unprecedented broad authority to engage in full "conventional" military escalation in Southeast Asia without a formal declaration of war.[122]
  • August 28: The Beatles reportedly use marijuana for the first time, compliments of Bob Dylan, New York City.[123][124]
  • September: Two National Farmers Organization members were killed when they and about 500 others attempted to stop a truck from taking cattle to market.[125]
  • October 1: The Free Speech Movement begins with a student sit-in at the University of California, Berkeley.[126][127][128]
  • October 14: Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. wins the Nobel Peace Prize.[129]
  • October 25: Bad boys The Rolling Stones appear on Ed Sullivan and create so much audience disruption that Sullivan bans the "lewd" group from his show. The Stones are back, however, in future years.[130]
  • November 3: Sitting President Lyndon B. Johnson is elected President of the US in his own right, defeating Republican Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater in a landslide.[131]
  • November 4: Comedian Lenny Bruce is convicted on obscenity charges in New York City after performing a routine about Eleanor Roosevelt's "tits" and other "offensive" subject matter. Bruce is soon sentenced to a workhouse.[132]
  • December 2: Put Your Bodies Upon the Gears: In a now-famous speech during a Berkeley sit-in, student Mario Savio tells supporters of the Free Speech Movement to protest the "machine" of the college's administration.[133][134]

1965[edit]

  • February 8: Aerial bombing of North Vietnam by the US commences.
  • February 9–15: Thousands demonstrate against the US attacks on North Vietnam at the US Embassies in Moscow, Budapest, Jakarta, and Sofia.
  • February 21: Malcolm X is assassinated in New York City.[135]
  • March: The "Filthy Speech Rally" at Berkeley.[136][137]
  • March 6: Regular US troops engage in combat in Vietnam for the first time.
  • March 7–25: The SCLC stages the watershed Selma to Montgomery marches, initially organized by James Bevel.
  • March 16: Alice Herz, age 82, self-immolates in Detroit, MI in protest of Vietnam escalation. Herz dies 10 days later.[138]
  • March 24–25: The first major "Teach-in" is held by the SDS in Ann Arbor. 3000 attend.
  • March 25: For Your Love: Already a guitar legend, blues purist Eric Clapton quits The Yardbirds after release of the proto-psychedelic hit. Clapton recommends Jimmy Page to fill his spot. Page passes, but suggests Jeff Beck, who accepts. In 1966, Page joins the group.[139][140]
  • Spring: Don't trust anyone over 30: Berkeley grad student and Free Speech activist Jack Weinberg's quip is quoted in paraphrase, inadvertently creating a key catchphrase of the generation.[141]
  • Spring: A circle of late-beat-era folk musicians including John Phillips, Michelle Phillips, Cass Elliot, and Denny Doherty rusticate in a communal beach tent on St. Thomas to party and create music. The working vacation, financed on Phillips' American Express card, results in the formation of the Mamas and the Papas, and a lucrative recording contract. The events are recounted in song on the group's hit 1967 single "Creeque Alley".[142]
  • April: Beatles John Lennon and George Harrison experience LSD for the first time at a UK dinner party hosted by Harrison's dentist.[143]:98[144]
  • April: US combat troops in Vietnam total 25,000.
  • April 16: Needle of Death: The debut album of Scottish folk musician Bert Jansch features a song of warning concerning the deadly dangers of heroin.[145][146]
  • April 17: The first major anti-Vietnam War rally in the US is organized by the SDS in Washington, DC. 20,000 attend. Joan Baez, Judy Collins, and Phil Ochs perform.[147]
  • May: Owsley Stanley returns to the Bay Area with the first large batch of LSD for sale as a recreational drug.[148][149]
  • May 5: Draft card burnings take place at Berkeley. Several hundred UC Berkeley students march on the Berkeley Draft Board (BDB) and present the staff with a black coffin.[150]
  • May: Jerry Rubin, Stephen Smale, Paul Montauk, Abbie Hoffman and others form the Vietnam Day Committee.[150]
  • May 17: Hunter S. Thompson's article "The Motorcycle Gangs: A portrait of an outsider underground" appears in The Nation. A book soon follows.[151]
  • May 20–22: The Vietnam Day Committee organizes the largest Vietnam teach-in to date. 30,000 attend the 36-hour event at Berkeley, including Benjamin Spock, Norman Thomas, Norman Mailer, Mario Savio, Paul Krassner, Dick Gregory and Phil Ochs. Hundreds march to the draft board, where Lyndon Johnson is hanged in effigy, and many burn draft cards.[150][152][153]
  • May: Drop City: One of the earliest hippie communes is founded in Colorado, US. The Droppers build geodesic domes from trashed automobile hoods and roofs, notably involving collaborations with Steve Baer and Buckminster Fuller inspired Zomes.[154][155]
  • June–August: Red Dog Experience comes into full flower at Virginia City, Nevada's Red Dog Saloon – full-fledged "hippie" identity takes shape.
  • June 7: Griswold v. Connecticut: The US Supreme Court rules that Constitutional privacy guarantees trump a Connecticut statute banning use of contraceptives by married couples. "Comstock-era" laws are likewise now moot in other states. In 1972, the court rules that protections apply to unmarried couples as well.[156][157][158]
  • June 11: International Poetry Incarnation: Notables including Allen Ginsberg, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Michael Horovitz, and William S. Burroughs participate in a breakthrough event for the UK Underground, Royal Albert Hall, London.[143]:98[159]
  • June 11: The Beatles are appointed as Members of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (MBE) by the Queen for their contributions to British arts and commerce. The myth that the group smoked marijuana in a palace bathroom after the investiture ceremony in October is later debunked by George Harrison.[160]
  • July 25: Bob Dylan "goes electric" and is booed by some at the Newport Folk Festival.[161]
  • July 30: Medicare is signed into law in the US, giving seniors a healthcare safety net.
  • August: Phil Ochs releases the satirical "Draft Dodger Rag" on the album I Ain't Marching Anymore. He later performs the song on the CBS News Special Avoiding the Draft. Pete Seeger's version appears in 1966.[162]
  • August 6: The Voting Rights Act is signed into law in the US; "Literacy tests", poll taxes and other local schemes to prevent voting by blacks are newly or further banned under federal law.
  • August 11: Watts: Six days of massive race riots erupt in Los Angeles: 34 dead, 1000 injuries, 100s of buildings looted or destroyed, and thousands of arrests. Meanwhile, smaller riots occur in Chicago.[163]
  • August 24: She Said She Said: Shortly after setting a concert attendance record at Shea Stadium, Queens, NY, the Beatles briefly rest in Benedict Canyon, near the end of their grueling American tour. With ongoing Beatlemania preventing the band from leaving their rented home, they invite local company, including members of the Byrds, Peter Fonda, Joan Baez, and Peggy Lipton. Lennon writes a song, which appears on Revolver in 1966. As the era progresses, nearby Laurel Canyon becomes home to many prominent counterculture musicians.[164][165][166][167]
  • August 30: Bob Dylan's Highway 61 Revisited is released featuring the six-minute single "Like a Rolling Stone".[168]
  • August 31: The ban on the burning of draft cards is signed into law in the US.[169]
  • September 5: The word hippie is used in print by San Francisco writer Michael Fallon, helping popularise use of the term in the media, although the tag was seen elsewhere earlier, notably in a remark about pot cookies in syndicated journalist Dorothy Kilgallen's June 11, 1963 column.[170][171]
  • September 8: Multi-talented and stunningly beautiful star Dorothy Dandridge, the first African-American nominated for a Best Actress Oscar, dies of an apparent accidental prescription drug overdose in Los Angeles, although a later analysis suggests a rare embolism may have been the cause.[172][173]
  • September 15: I-Spy: Comedian Bill Cosby becomes the first African-American to star in a dramatic American television series. (Amanda Randolph had starred in the comedy The Laytons on the short-lived DuMont Network in the late 1940s.)[174]
  • September 25: The Beatles Saturday morning cartoon series debuts on US TV.[175]
  • September 25: Eve of Destruction: Barry McGuire's version of P.F. Sloan's work becomes the first protest song to hit #1 in the charts, while drawing heavy criticism and being banned by many stations.[176][177]
  • October: The Yardbirds, featuring Jeff Beck, release the single "Shapes of Things" with the B-side "Still I'm Sad." Psychedelic rock first makes the charts.[178]
  • October 1: The East Village Other begins publication in New York City.[179]
  • October 15–16: Vietnam War protests in cities across the US draw 100,000.
  • October 16: A Tribute to Dr. Strange: Dan Hicks helps organize a Family Dog event where 1,000 original San Francisco "hippies" party en masse at Longshoreman's Hall. Still legal, Owsley's "White Lightning" acid is available to all.[180][181]
  • November: The Autobiography of Malcolm X is published posthumously by Grove Press. Derived from interviews of the slain activist by writer Alex Haley, it is considered to be one of the most influential works of non-fiction of the 20th century. Doubleday's cancellation of their original contract for the bestseller is later called the biggest mistake in publishing history.[182][183][184]
  • November 2: Quaker leader Norman Morrison self-immolates at the Pentagon to protest the war. Secretary of Defense McNamara witnesses the horror from his office in the building.[185][186]
  • November 5: My Generation: The Who speak to the new youth. "This is my generation!" and "I hope I die before I get old" become mantras of the rising counterculture.[187][188]
  • November 9: Catholic activist Roger Allen LaPorte self-immolates at the UN building in New York City.[189]
  • November 19: Fifth Estate: The first issue of the long-running anti-authoritarian newspaper is published in Detroit.[190]
  • November 20: 8,000 anti-war protesters march from Berkeley to Oakland in CA.
  • November 27: Ken Kesey's Merry Pranksters hold the first "Acid Test" at Soquel, CA.[191]
  • November 27: Up to 35,000 anti-war protesters march on the White House.
  • November 30: Unsafe at Any Speed: Activist attorney Ralph Nader's wake-up call concerning automotive safety is published and fuels the modern Consumer Movement. Nader's ongoing work contributes to the passage of the US National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966. In 1972 alone, annual US highway deaths peak at 54,589, approaching the total number of war dead during the entire 10-year US combat involvement in Vietnam.[192][193][194]
  • December: California Dreamin': A westward clarion call is released by The Mamas and the Papas.[195]
  • December: The Pretty Things release Get the Picture?. The album includes a song entitled £.S.D.[196]
  • December 3: The Beatles' Rubber Soul is released in the UK with a visually distorted image of the group on the cover.[197] The album contains "Norwegian Wood", which sparks the "great sitar explosion" in pop music.[198]
  • December 23: Timothy Leary is arrested for drug possession at the Mexican border.[199]

1966[edit]

1967[edit]

  • January 1: The US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) implements radio non-duplication rules: FM stations must broadcast at least 50% original content, and not simply simulcasts of their AM sister stations. Soon, FM DJs have the avenue to play the music of the generation without regard to AM chart status.[268][269]
  • January 12: US TV on LSD: Acid is the subject of the debut "Blue Boy" episode of the topical, but square and sermon-laden police drama Dragnet '67.[270][271]
  • January 14: Human Be-In: "The joyful, face-to-face beginning of the new epoch" is held in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco. 20,000 attend.[272][273][274][275]
  • January 28 (and February 4): The Million Volt Light and Sound Rave: The Beatles contribute a to-date unreleased experimental "sound collage" for early raves at the Round House Theatre, London.[276]
  • January 29: Ultimate High: The Mantra-Rock Dance is held at the Avalon Ballroom in San Francisco. Hare Krishna is promoted, and the Grateful Dead, Big Brother and the Holding Company and Moby Grape perform. Ginsberg, Leary and Owsley attend.[277][278]
  • February: Surrealistic Pillow by Jefferson Airplane is released. Grace Slick becomes the first female rock star. Psilocybin mushrooms are visible on the album cover. Tracks include "White Rabbit", and "D.C.B.A.-25", referring to the song's chords and LSD-25.[279][280][281][282]
  • February: Quagmire: Noam Chomsky's anti-Vietnam War essay The Responsibility of Intellectuals is published in The New York Review of Books.[283]
  • February 5: The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour debuts on CBS and soon pushes the boundaries of acceptable broadcast TV content to the limit.[284]
  • February 10: A Day in the Life: The Beatles stage a gathering of rock and other celebrities including Donovan, Keith Richards, Mick Jagger, Mike Nesmith and Pattie Boyd to observe the recording of the final orchestral overdubs for Sgt. Pepper, Abbey Road Studios, London.[285] Some later contend that Tara Browne, the Guinness brewing heir reportedly responsible for introducing Paul McCartney to LSD, and who perished in a car crash in London in 1966, was an inspiration for Lennon's portion of the lyric.[286]:380
  • February 11: Human Fly-In: New York DJ Bob Fass uses the airwaves to inspire an impromptu gathering of thousands at Kennedy Airport, in what is later called a "prehistoric flash mob".[287][288][289]
  • February 12: Stones Bust: Keith Richards and Mick Jagger are arrested for drugs at Richards' UK estate. In June they are tried and convicted, but soon freed on appeal.[290]
  • February 13: The Beatles issue John Lennon's psychedelic masterwork "Strawberry Fields Forever" as part of a double A-side with "Penny Lane". "Cranberry sauce" is heard after the song fades out. Or is it "I buried Paul"?[291]
  • February 14: London's first Macrobiotic Restaurant run by Craig Sams opens at Centre House and also supplies food to the UFO Club.[292]:141
  • February 17: The cover of Life Magazine features Ed Sanders of The Fugs below "HAPPENINGS – The worldwide underground of the arts creates – THE OTHER CULTURE."[293][294]
  • February 22: MacBird! opens at the Village Gate in New York City and runs for 386 performances. The controversial play compares Lyndon Johnson to Shakespeare's Macbeth, who caused the death of his predecessor.[295]
  • March 16, 1967: The National Farmers Organization withholds milk supplies for 15 days. Nationwide, supply was only cut two percent, but in the Nashville, Tennessee area milk supplies were reduced from 12,000 to 1,800 gallons per day. All remaining milk was escorted by police to hospitals.[296]
  • March 26: 10,000 attend the New York City "Be-In" in Central Park.[297]
  • March 31: In an early and detailed report on the Haight in Life Magazine, Loudon Wainwright predicts that "the hour of the hippie...is coming."[298]
  • April 4: Beyond Vietnam: Dr. King delivers a monumental anti-war speech.[299]
  • April 7: The cover of Time features the birth control pill.[300]
  • April 8–10: Race riots break out in Nashville, TN. Activist Stokely Carmichael and Allen Ginsberg are present.[301]
  • April 15: National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam: An estimated 400,000 protest the escalating Vietnam War in New York City, marching from Central Park to UN Headquarters. Martin Luther King, James Bevel, Benjamin Spock, and Stokely Carmichael speak. 75,000 assemble in San Francisco where Coretta Scott King speaks.[302]
  • April 28: Boxing Champ Muhammad Ali refuses induction into the US Army in Houston, TX, on the grounds that he is a conscientious objector to the war in Vietnam.[303]
  • April 29: The 14 Hour Technicolor Dream: Pink Floyd featuring Syd Barrett headlines for 7,000 attending a groundbreaking televised psychedelic rave to promote love and peace at Alexandra Palace, London.[208][304]
  • April 30: An anti-hate Love-In is held on Belle Isle in Detroit.[305]
  • May: The radical left-wing underground newspaper Seed begins publication in Chicago.[306]
  • May 2: Armed Black Panthers led by Bobby Seale enter the California State Assembly, protesting a bill to outlaw open carry of loaded firearms. Seale and five others are arrested.[307]
  • May 5: Mr. Natural: Robert Crumb's soon to be ubiquitous underground comix counterculture icon, makes his first appearance in the premiere issue of Yarrowstalks.[308]
  • May 10: Rolling Stone Brian Jones is arrested for drug possession. He is arrested again in 1968. Jones' conviction record leaves him largely unable to tour outside of the UK.[309]
  • May 15–17: Student protesters confront police at Texas Southern University, resulting in the death of a police officer, and over 400 arrests.[310][311]
  • May 20–21: The Spring Mobilization Conference is held in Washington, D.C. 700 anti-war activists gather to discuss the April 15 protests, and to plan future demonstrations.[312]
  • June: Vietnam Veterans Against the War is formed in New York City.[313][314]
  • June–July: Race riots create upheaval in cities across the US.[315]
  • June–September: The "Summer of Love" in Haight-Ashbury, San Francisco and recognition of the Hippie movement. Runaways inundate, TV crews visit, Gray Line sells bus tours. London also becomes a hotbed of countercultural activity.[316][317][318]
  • June 1: The Beatles' Sgt Pepper is released and widely recognised as the high-water mark of the brief psychedelic rock era. It is also later rated as the greatest rock album of all time.[319][320]
  • June 10–11: Fantasy Fair and Magic Mountain Music Festival: The Summer of Love kicks off at Mount Tamalpais, Marin County, California. Over 30,000 see the Byrds, Doors, Jefferson Airplane, Country Joe & the Fish, and dozens of other acts perform in the first rock festival gathering of its kind.[321][322][323]
  • June 12: The US Supreme Court rules that state laws prohibiting interracial marriage are unconstitutional.[324]
  • June 15: Look Magazine features an article and photos on the hippies.[325]
  • June 16: Paul McCartney is the first Beatle to publicly discuss LSD use. Quotes from a British magazine are re-published in a Life Magazine article entitled "The New Far-Out Beatles." McCartney is interviewed on film concerning the controversy on the 19th.[326][327][328]
  • June 16–18: The Monterey Pop Festival in California, organized principally by John Phillips, draws thousands and is the first large extended festival of the rock era. Jimi Hendrix returns from the UK and makes his US "debut." David Crosby uses microphone time to brashly condemn the Warren Report.[329][330][331]
  • June 20: Muhammad Ali is found guilty of draft evasion. The US Supreme Court eventually hears Ali's legal appeal.[332]
  • June 21: 5,000 tablets of the LSD-like drug STP are rumored to be distributed without charge at a celebration in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park. The then-unknown substance causes some panic due to its long duration, sometimes inducing a 24-hour trip.[333][334]
  • June 25: All You Need Is Love: The Beatles' contribute a performance of their summer UK hit to the first live global satellite TV broadcast, reaching an estimated 200–400 million worldwide via the BBC.[335][336]
  • June 30: US military forces in Vietnam total 448,000.
  • July 7: The cover of Time features "The Hippies: The Philosophy of a Subculture."[337]
  • July 15–30: Dialectics of Liberation Congress: A gathering of leftist intellectuals in London is pranked when Digger Emmett Grogan delivers a speech to rousing applause. The audience then becomes irate when Grogan reveals that his words are culled entirely from a 1937 speech by Adolf Hitler. The episode later inspires a scene in the fictional 1971 cult film Billy Jack. Grogan reportedly dies of a heroin overdose in 1978.[338][339][340]
  • July 16: Hyde Park Rally: 5,000 gather in London to protest "immoral in principle and unworkable in practice" UK marijuana laws. A petition signed by many notables is published.[341][342]
  • July 23–27: Detroit Riots: A dispute with police erupts into the worst outbreak of urban lawlessness of the century to date: 43 deaths, 467 injuries, over 7,200 arrests, and the burning of over 2,000 buildings to the ground. Detroit has yet to fully recover.[343][344]
  • August 22: Look Magazine runs a cover story on "The Hippies".
  • August 27: Death of Brian Epstein: credited with "discovering" the Beatles, their manager and friend dies of a prescription drug overdose in London at age 32.[345][346]
  • September 17: The Doors perform their hit "Light My Fire" on The Ed Sullivan Show, but fail to edit the perceived drug term "higher" from the lyric as instructed by producers. 6 future Doors dates on the show are immediately cancelled.[347]
  • September 30: Pirates No More: Hip Radio 1 commences broadcast over the legitimate airwaves of the BBC following the UK ban on offshore "pirate" radio transmissions.[348]
  • September: 18-year-old folk singer-songwriter Arlo Guthrie releases the 18-minute song Alice's Restaurant Massacre.[349]
  • October 2: 710 Ashbury Street: Members of the Grateful Dead and others are busted for drugs when their communal home is targeted and raided in San Francisco.[350]
  • October 6: Death of Hippie: "Guerrilla theater" group the Diggers stage a mock funeral in San Francisco. The demonstration is intended to discourage more youngsters from descending upon the overcrowded, under-equipped Haight.[351]
  • October 8: Groovy Murders: James "Groovy" Hutchinson and Linda Fitzpatrick are murdered in New York City in a drug deal gone bad. Two plead guilty.[352][353]
  • October 9: Death of Che Guevara: The Argentine expatriate, Castro-groomed international revolutionary, and future icon of revolt, is executed in Bolivia.[354]
  • October 17: Stop the Draft Week: Demonstrators mob the US Army Induction Center in Oakland, CA. Joan Baez is among those arrested. Some are charged with sedition.[355][356][357]
  • October 17: Hair: a timely stageplay featuring controversial full frontal nudity premieres to mature audiences off-Broadway in New York City. The play becomes a Broadway smash in 1968.[358]
  • October 19: Thousands of students clash with police at Brooklyn College in New York after two military recruiters appear on campus. Students strike the following day.[359]
  • October 20–21: "Mobe's" March on the Pentagon: 100,000 protest the war in Washington, DC. Jerry Rubin, Abbie Hoffman and others lead attempts at "exorcism" and levitation of the Pentagon.[360][361]
  • October 27: Baltimore Four: Catholic priest Philip Berrigan and three others are jailed after pouring blood on draft files in the SSS office, protesting bloodshed in Vietnam. Berrigan is later convicted.[362]
  • October 28: Black Panther leader Huey Newton is stopped by Oakland police. A shootout resulting in the death of an officer leads to Newton's conviction, which is later overturned.[363][364]
  • November: The activity at the Diggers' Free Store is the impetus for an anti-hippie turf war with local thugs in New York City.[365]
  • November 9: Rolling Stone Magazine: John Lennon is featured on the cover of the first issue in a photo from the film How I Won The War. Rolling Stone grows to become a focal point for news and reviews during the era, and beyond.[366]
  • November 10: Disraeli Gears: Cream's quintessential psychedelic rock album is released.[367]
  • November 10: The Moody Blues' masterpiece Days of Future Passed, featuring psychedelic themes and the London Festival Orchestra, is released.[368]
  • November 20: Police using tear gas charge a large student demonstration against corporate recruiters for napalm manufacturer Dow Chemical at San Jose State College.[369]
  • November 24: I Am the Walrus: The Beatles release John Lennon's psychedelic coda. The album Magical Mystery Tour arrives November 27.[370]
  • December 4–8: Anti-war groups across the US attempt to shut down draft board centers, Dr. Benjamin Spock and poet Allen Ginsberg are among the 585 arrested.
  • December 10: Monterey Pop Fest standout and soon-to-be soul legend Otis Redding dies in a plane crash at age 26.[371]
  • December 22: Owsley Stanley is found in possession of 350,000 doses of LSD and 1,500 doses of STP, arrested, and sentenced to 3 years.
  • December 31: Yippies: "Yippie" is coined by radicals Jerry Rubin, Abbie Hoffman, Anita Hoffman, Dick Gregory, Nancy Kurshan and Paul Krassner. In January, the Youth International Party is formed. Inspired by the Diggers, the humorous Yippies also take the counterculture protest movement into the realm of performance theater.[372]
  • December: US troops in Vietnam total 486,000. US war dead total 15,000.
  • Originally marketed (but withdrawn) by Parke-Davis as a surgical anesthetic, PCP (Angel Dust) begins to appear as a "recreational" drug. The limited street demand for the deadly dissociative compound, which induces horrific hallucinations, violent psychoses, and self-mutilation peaks in the late 1970s.[373][374][375]
  • Chemist Alexander Shulgin, who first synthesized the psychedelic compound DOM (STP) in 1963, first ingests the MDMA (Ecstasy) he'd earlier synthesized in his former Dow Chemical lab. Soon, mind-altering properties unknown since patent of the compound by Merck in 1912 are reported.[376]

1968[edit]

  • Tom Wolfe's The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test is published.[377]
  • January: Owsley-inspired pioneer Heavy Metal band Blue Cheer release Vincebus Eruptum, as early metal ground-breakers Iron Butterfly release their debut Heavy.[378][379]
  • January 22: Laugh-In: The sketch comedy "phenomenon that both reflected and mocked the era's counterculture", and brought it into "mainstream living rooms", debuts on US TV.[380][381]
  • January 31: The Tet Offensive is launched by the NVA and Vietcong. Western forces are victorious on the battlefield, but not in the press.[382][383]
  • February 1: Following the free-form programming experimentations at KFRC-FM in San Francisco, WABX-FM in Detroit and other stations nationwide begin to officially change format. FM playlists and other content are now chosen by local DJs, not corporate executives or record companies. The Progressive Rock format takes hold.[384]
  • February 4: Beat figure and Merry Prankster Neal Cassady dies in Mexico of unknown causes at age 41.[385]
  • February 8: Orangeburg Massacre: Police fire on and kill three protesting segregation at a South Carolina bowling alley.[386]
  • February 15: The Beatles in India: All four Beatles, along with fellow devotees such as Mike Love, Donovan and Mia Farrow, journey to Rishikesh in India to study Transcendental Meditation under Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. John Lennon and George Harrison are the last of the celebrities to leave; they depart amid unsubstantiated rumors of the Maharishi's sexual impropriety toward some of the female students[387] and the band members' suspicions that he was using their fame for self-promotion.[388]
  • February 27: 1950s teen vocal star Frankie Lymon dies of a heroin overdose in New York City at age 25.[389]
  • February 29: Kerner Report: The Report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders is released after seven months of investigation into US urban rioting, and states that "our nation is moving towards two societies, one black, one white – separate and unequal."[390][391]
  • March 16: My Lai Massacre in Vietnam. Apparent wanton rape and murder of innocents by US GIs creates enormous new anti-war outcry when news leaks in 1969.[392][393][394]
  • March 17: London police stop 10,000 anti-war marchers from violently storming the US Embassy. 200 are arrested. The protest serves as partial inspiration for the Rolling Stones' most notable political foray, "Street Fighting Man".[395][396][397]
  • March 18: RFK In: NY Senator Robert F. Kennedy, a long-time supporter of US policy in Vietnam, speaks out against the war for the first time, and announces his candidacy for President.[398]
  • March 22: 3,000 Yippies take over Grand Central Station in New York City, staging a "Yip-In" that ultimately results in an "extraordinary display of unprovoked police brutality" and 61 arrests.[399][400][401]
  • March 31: LBJ Out: Embattled President Lyndon Johnson addresses the US public about Vietnam on TV, and shocks the nation with his closing remark that he will focus on the war effort and not seek a second elected term as President.[402]
  • Spring: Reggae: "Nanny Goat" by Larry Marshall, and Do the Reggay by Toots and the Maytals mark the arrival of a new musical genre.[403][404] Johnny Nash ("Hold Me Tight"), and Paul McCartney ("Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da") are inspired by the Jamaican sound.[405]
  • March–May: Columbia University protests, New York City. Up Against the Wall Motherfuckers becomes a protest slogan at this time, as well as the name of a radical activist group.[406]
  • April: The US Department of Defense begins calling-up reservists for duty in Vietnam. The US Supreme Court turns down a challenge to the mobilization in October.[407]
  • April 4: MLK Assassinated: The Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated in Memphis, TN. Drifter James Earl Ray is soon arrested for the murder. The King family later expresses complete doubt as to Ray's guilt.[408] Violence erupts in cities across the US, with thousands of Federal guardsman dispatched. Memphis, TN, Chicago, IL, Baltimore, MD, Kansas City, MO, and Washington, DC are hotspots.[409]
  • April 5: A Yippie plot to disrupt the upcoming August Democratic Convention in Chicago is published in Time.[410]
  • April 6: Oakland Shootout: Black Panther Bobby Hutton is killed and Eldridge Cleaver is wounded in a gun battle with police. Cleaver later claims that Hutton was murdered while in police custody.[411]
  • April 8: The US Bureau of Narcotics (from Treasury) and Bureau of Drug Abuse Control (from the Food and Drug Administration) merge into the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, substantially ramping-up anti-drug efforts.[412]
  • April 14: The Easter Sunday "Love-In" is held in Malibu Canyon, CA.[413]
  • April 27: Anti-war protesters march in several US cities, including 87,000 in Central Park, NYC.
  • May: The Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers first appear in The Rag, an Austin TX underground paper.[414][415]
  • May 2: MAI 68: Massive student protests erupt in France which escalate and spread, leading to a general strike and widespread civil unrest during May and June, bringing the country to a virtual standstill.[416]
  • May 10: The Paris Peace Talks commence in France. The war in Southeast Asia is the subject of the negotiations.[417][418][419]
  • May 12: Dr. King's Poor People's Campaign establishes "Resurrection City", a shanty town on the National Mall in Washington D.C., with around 5,000 protesters.
  • May 17: Catonsville Nine: Catholic priests opposed to the war including Daniel Berrigan destroy draft records in a Maryland draft office.[420][421][422]
  • May 24–27: Louisville Riots: After a claim of police brutality, police and thousands of National Guard confront rioting protesters and looters. Two black teens die before order is restored.[423]
  • June 3: Artist Andy Warhol is shot and wounded by a "radical feminist" writer.[424][425][426]
  • June 5: RFK Assassinated: Senator Robert Francis Kennedy, winner of the California primary earlier that day, and the new presumptive Democratic presidential front-runner, is mortally wounded in Los Angeles. RFK dies June 6.[427]
  • June 19: "Solidarity Day" protest at Resurrection City draws 55,000 participants.
  • June 24: Remnants of "Resurrection City", with only about 300 protesters still remaining, razed by riot police.
  • July 17: The Beatles' post-psychedelic, pop-art animated film Yellow Submarine is released in the UK (November 13 in the US).[428][429]
  • July 28–30: University of California, Berkeley campus shut down by protests.
  • August 21: Prague Spring: Communist tanks roll in Czechoslovakia and crush the popular anti-Soviet uprising which began in January.[430]
  • August 25–29: Democratic National Convention in Chicago. The proceedings are overshadowed by massive protests staged by thousands of demonstrators of every stripe.[431] Mayor Daley's desire to enforce order in the city results in egregious police brutality, televised on national airwaves. On the third night, police indiscriminately attack protesters and bystanders, including journalists Mike Wallace, Dan Rather and Hugh Hefner. The spectacle is a turning point for both supporters and critics of the larger movement.
  • August 26: Revolution?: Lennon's B-side to McCartney's smash "Hey Jude" is released. Its eschewing of violent protest is seen as a betrayal by some on the left. A version recorded earlier is released in November and suggests indecision as to Lennon's stance on violence.[432]
  • August 31: First Isle of Wight Festival featuring Jefferson Airplane, Arthur Brown, The Move, T-Rex and The Pretty Things.
  • September 7: Miss America Protest: Feminists demonstrate against what they call "The Degrading Mindless-Boob-Girlie Symbol," filling a "freedom trash can" with items including mops, pots and pans, Cosmopolitan and Playboy magazines, false eyelashes, high-heeled shoes, curlers, hairspray, makeup, girdles, corsets, and bras. The widely reported "burning of bras" is, however, a myth.[433][434]
  • September 24: The Mod Squad: "One Black, One White, One Blonde" is the tagline for the hip, troubled-kids-turned-cops TV police drama which debuts on ABC.[435]
  • September 28: 10,000 in Chicago protest on one-month anniversary of the convention violence.
  • Fall: Stewart Brand begins publication of The Whole Earth Catalog.[436][437]
  • October 2: Tlatelolco massacre: Students and police violently clash in Mexico City.[438]
  • October 16: Mexico '68: Medal-winning American sprinters Tommie Smith and John Carlos raise their gloved hands on the Olympic award podium to protest global human rights shortcomings. Their demonstration is met with both international praise and death threats alike.[439][440]
  • October 18: John Lennon and Yoko Ono are arrested for drug possession in London. Lennon is only fined for his first offence, and more serious obstruction charges against the pair are dropped, but the arrest will later serve as the pretext for the politically motivated attempted deportation of Lennon from the US in the 1970s.[441]
  • October 25: Emile de Antonio's highly controversial and Oscar nominated anti-war documentary In the Year of the Pig (per the Chinese "Year of the Pig") is released. Although it is otherwise reported, and de Antonio aspires to the leftist badge of honor, de Antonio technically never appears on President Nixon's Enemies List.[442][443][444]
  • October 27: 25,000 march in London against the Vietnam war.[445]
  • October 31: President Johnson orders a halt to the aerial bombing of North Vietnam.[446][447]
  • November 5: Former Vice President Richard M. Nixon defeats sitting VP Hubert Humphrey, and the George Wallace/Curtis Lemay ticket in a close race. Nixon in January becomes the 37th President of the US, ending eight years of Democratic Party control of the White House.[448][449]
  • November 6: Head: The Monkees delve into psychedelia in an ambitious but unpromoted and little seen film co-written and co-produced by Jack Nicholson.[450][451]
  • November 6: Students demanding minority studies courses begin a strike at San Francisco State College, where demonstrations and clashes occur into March 1969, making it the longest student strike in US history.[452][453][454]
  • November 11: Two Virgins: John Lennon and Yoko Ono's experimental album is released. Beatles distributors EMI (for Parlophone/Gramophone labels) and Capitol (for Apple label) refuse distribution, as the cover features the couple in shocking full frontal nudity. Lennon later describes the cover as a depiction of two slightly overweight ex-junkies.[455][456][457]
  • November 22: The Beatles' White Album is released. The band's hair is very long, and the musical content is not psychedelic.[458]
  • December 24: Earthrise: A striking photograph of the Earth taken from lunar orbit is called "the most influential environmental photograph ever taken."[459]

1969[edit]

  • January 8–18: Students at Brandeis University take over Ford and Sydeman Halls, demanding creation of an Afro-American Dept., which is approved by the University on April 24.[460]
  • January 28: Santa Barbara Oil Spill: The environmental movement moves into high gear after an offshore oil well blows out and dumps 100,000 barrels of crude oil onto the California coast, killing wildlife and fouling beaches for years to come.[461]
  • January 29: Sir George Williams Computer Riot: the largest student campus occupation in Canadian history results in millions in damage in Montreal.[462]
  • January 30: Let It Be: The Beatles plus Billy Preston perform in public as a group for the last time on the roof atop their offices in London. Footage of the performance appears on the film documenting the sessions for the album.[463]
  • January 30 – February 15: Administration building of University of Chicago taken over by around 400 student protesters in a "sit-in".
  • February: Esquire Magazine features a cover story declaring: "Chicks Up Front! How Troublemakers Use Girls to Put Down the Cops" and other tactics of the radical left.[464]
  • February 13: National Guard with tear gas and riot sticks crush demonstrations at the University of Wisconsin, Madison.[465]
  • February 16: After three days of clashes between police and Duke University students, the school agrees to establish a Black Studies program.
  • February 24: Tinker v. Des Moines: The US Supreme court affirms public school students' First Amendment rights to protest the war.[466]
  • March 1: Do You Want to See My Cock?: Arrest warrants are issued for Doors frontman Jim Morrison after he allegedly exposes himself and simulates masturbation and fellatio at a concert in Miami, FL. In 2010, Morrison is posthumously pardoned by Florida's Clemency Board.[467][468]
  • March 12: George Harrison and Pattie Boyd are arrested for pot possession in London.[469]
  • March 22: President Nixon condemns trend of campus takeovers and violence.
  • March 25–31: Following their wedding at Gibraltar, John Lennon and Yoko Ono hold a "Bed-In" peace event in Amsterdam.[470]
  • April: US troop strength in Vietnam peaks at over 543,000.[471][472]
  • April 3–4: National Guard called into Chicago, and Memphis placed on curfew on anniversary of Dr. King's assassination.
  • April 4: After a decline in ratings, and ongoing pressure over highly controversial content, CBS cancels the Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour. Writers including Mason Williams, Carl Gottlieb, Bob Einstein, Rob Reiner, Steve Martin, and Pat Paulsen move on to other projects.[473][474]
  • April 9: 300 students "sit-in" at offices of Harvard protesting the ROTC. 400 police restore order April 10. The college makes ROTC extracurricular April 19.
  • April 19: Armed black students take over Willard Straight Hall at Cornell. The University accedes to their demands the following day, promising an Afro-American studies program.
  • April 25–28: Activist students takeover Merrill House at Colgate University demanding Afro-American studies programs.
  • May 7: Students at Howard University occupy eight buildings. They are cleared by US Marshals May 9.
  • May 8: City College of New York closes following a 14-day-long student takeover demanding minority studies; riots among students break out when CCNY tries to reopen.
  • May 9–11: Zip to Zap: Several thousand college students flock to a party event in rural North Dakota, which degenerates into a "riot" later dispersed by the National Guard.[475]
  • May 15: Bloody Thursday: Alameda County Sheriffs and National Guardsman authorized by governor Ronald Reagan move to eject unlawful protestors from People's Park at Berkeley. They open fire with buckshot-loaded shotguns, mortally wounding student James Rector, permanently blinding carpenter Alan Blanchard, and inflicting lesser wounds on several others.[476]
  • May 21–25: 1969 Greensboro uprising: student protesters battle police for five days on campus of North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University; one student killed May 22. National Guard assault the campus using tear gas, even dropping it by helicopter.
  • May 23: Tommy: The Who's Rock Opera is a smash.[477]
  • May 26 – June 2: Give Peace a Chance: Celebrities gather as John and Yoko conduct their second Bed-In in Montreal, where the anti-war anthem is recorded live.[478]
  • June: Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Sex* (*But Were Afraid to Ask) is published and becomes a bestseller.[479]
  • June 18: SDS convenes in Chicago; they oust the Progressive Labor Party faction June 28, which sets up its own rival convention.
  • June 22: Judy Garland, superstar of stage, screen, TV, and song, and early icon for the LGBT community, dies of an accidental barbiturate overdose, Chelsea, London.[480][481]
  • June 28: The Stonewall Riots in New York City are the first major gay-rights uprisings in the US.[482]
  • July 3: Brian Jones, founder of the Rolling Stones, dies "by misadventure" in his swimming pool in East Sussex, UK, under mysterious circumstances at age 27.[483]
  • July 5: The Stones in the Park: Shocked by the overdose death of former bandmate Brian Jones, the grieving Rolling Stones continue with their much-anticipated free concert before a massive crowd at Hyde Park, London.[484][485]
  • July 14: Easy Rider: The low-budget, cocaine-dealing biker road movie is released and becomes a de facto cultural landmark. The film's success helps open doors for independent film makers of the 1970s. The soundtrack includes Steppenwolf's seminal ode to bikers "Born to be Wild," and the early anti-drug dirge "The Pusher." [486][487][488]
  • July 15: Cover story on LOOK: "How Hippies Raise their Children"[489]
  • July 18: Cover story on LIFE: "The Youth Communes – New Way of Living Confronts the U.S."[490]
  • July 20: Apollo 11's Apollo Lunar Module lands. Humans walk on the Moon. A plaque with the inscription "We Came in Peace for All Mankind" is left on the lunar surface.[491]
  • July 21: Andy Warhol's Blue Movie premieres at the New Andy Warhol Garrick Theatre. The movie is a seminal film in the Golden Age of Porn and helps inaugurate the "porno chic"[492][493] phenomenon in modern American culture, and later, in many other countries throughout the world.[494][495]
  • July 25: Vietnamization: RMN's Nixon Doctrine calls on Asian regional allies formerly guaranteed protection under treaty to fend for themselves in non-nuclear conflicts.
  • August 9–10: Helter Skelter: Actress Sharon Tate, Tate's unborn baby, and five others are viciously murdered at knifepoint by cult members acting under the direction of psychopath Charles Manson during a two-day killing spree in California. The events shock the nation. For many, the crimes and Manson's "family" are seen as products of the counterculture.[496][497][498][499]
  • August 15–18: Woodstock: An estimated 300,000–500,000 people gather in upstate New York for "3 Days of Peace & Music" at the watershed event in counterculture history.[500][501]
  • August 19: Immediately following Woodstock, David Crosby, Stephen Stills, Joni Mitchell and Jefferson Airplane appear on the Dick Cavett Show. The Airplane's lyric "Up against the wall, motherfuckers!" in the performance of "We Can Be Together" slips past the censors and airs on national television.[502]
  • August 30–31: Second Isle of Wight Festival attracts 150,000 people to see acts including Bob Dylan and The Band, The Who, Free, Joe Cocker, and the Moody Blues.
  • September: Penthouse: The first US issue of Robert Guccione's explicit monthly hits newsstands, and is later called "the adult magazine that wormed its way into the kinkier recesses of the libidinal subconscious and, arguably, did more to liberate puritan America from its deepest sexual taboos than any magazine before or since."[503]
  • September 1–2: Race rioting in Hartford, CT and Camden, NJ.
  • September 2: Ho Chi Minh, President of communist North Vietnam, aggressor and prime mover of the Vietnam War, dies. Ho's war rages on after his death.[504]
  • September 6: H.R. Pufnstuf: the highly novel, surreal Saturday morning children's show debuts on US TV.[505]
  • September 24: The Chicago Eight trial commences. Tom Hayden, Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, et al., face charges including conspiracy to incite riots during the 1968 Democratic National Convention. They become the Chicago Seven November 5 after defendant Bobby Seale is bound, gagged, and severed from the proceedings.
  • September 29: "Okie from Muskogee": Country legend Merle Haggard's song is a huge hit with those opposed to drug use and the protest activities of the counterculture.[506][507]
  • October 4: TV star Art Linkletter's daughter Diane, 20, jumps to her death from her 6th story apartment. The elder Linkletter claims Timothy Leary and LSD are responsible.[508]
  • October 8–11: Days of Rage: Elements of the SDS and the Weather Underground faction continue radical efforts to "bring the war home" in Chicago, and exchange brutalities with Chicago Police.[509]
  • October 15: Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam: Massive anti-war demonstrations across the US and world.
  • October 21: Jack Kerouac dies from complications of alcoholism in Florida at age 47.[510]
  • October 29: "login": The first message on the ARPANET – precursor to the internet and WWW – is sent by UCLA student programmer Charley Kline.[511]
  • November 13: Vice President Spiro T. Agnew publicly criticizes the three mainstream television networks for their lack of favorable coverage.
  • November 15: Moratorium redux: over 500,000 march in Washington, DC. It is the largest anti-war demonstration in US history.[512]
  • November 20: Native American protesters begin the Occupation of Alcatraz, which continues for 19 months.[513]
  • December: Total US casualties (dead and seriously wounded) in Vietnam total 100,000.
  • December 1: The first draft lottery in the US since World War II is held in New York City and broadcast live on CBS. Later statistical analysis indicates the lottery method (birthdates in capsules pulled from a hand-rotated drum) is flawed, leaving certain birthdates more likely to be drawn than others.[514][515]
  • December 4: Black Panther Fred Hampton is killed by combined elements of Federal, Illinois State, and Chicago law enforcement under circumstances which to some suggest political assassination.[516]
  • December 6: Altamont: The Rolling Stones help organize and headline at a free concert attended by 300,000. The event, intended as a "Woodstock West," devolves into chaos and violent death at a speedway between Tracy and Livermore, CA.[517][518]
  • December 27–31: Flint War Council, Michigan. SDS is abolished, the Weathermen break off, and one of the most significant seditious revolts since the US Civil War emerges.[519]
  • Wavy Gravy's Hog Farm Hippie commune is established near Llano, NM.
  • Friends of the Earth is founded in the US. It becomes an international network in 1971.
  • Making of a Counter Culture: Theodore Roszak's Reflections on the Technocratic Society is published. Roszak is later credited with coining the term "counterculture" in print.[520]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Drury, Jeffrey P. (2006). "Paul Potter, "The Incredible War" (17 April 1965)". Archived from the original on 9 October 2014. Retrieved September 22, 2014. Although the beginnings of the 1965 March on Washington can be located in a number of places, it is perhaps best to begin with the origins of the chief organization behind the march: the Students for a Democratic Society. As a social movement organization, the SDS grew out of a parent group founded in 1905 called the League for Industrial Democracy (LID). The LID embraced a largely socialist orientation toward democratic governance; the organization was initially called the Intercollegiate Socialist Society before changing its name in 1921. Many prominent political thinkers were members of the LID, including Upton Sinclair, Walter Lippmann, Michael Harrington, and John Dewey (who was president for a short time). Growing out of the larger organization, the student section of the LID—aptly titled the Student League for Industrial Democracy, or SLID—existed in early 1960 on only three campuses: Yale, Columbia, and the University of Michigan.
  2. ^ Walker, Jack (June 1983). "The Origins and Maintenance of Interest Groups in America". unc.edu. American Political Science Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 20, 2008. Retrieved January 14, 2015. From: The American Political Science Review, Vol. 77, No. 2, (Jun., 1983), pp. 390–406
  3. ^ Whicker, Alan; Jones, Wizz; et al. (1960). "(Nominal) BBC Interview". youtube.com. BBC. Retrieved September 22, 2014. The original broadcast air date of the report has not been verified.
  4. ^ Thompson, Nathan (June 8, 2014). "True secrets of psychedelics: Are they everything they're cracked up to be?". salon.com. Salon Media Group. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
  5. ^ Sigel, Efrem (December 12, 1962). "Psilocybin Expert Raps Leary, Alpert on Drugs". thecrimson.com. The Harvard Crimson, Inc. Retrieved July 1, 2014. Original article was updated on 2014-01-27
  6. ^ "Freedom Struggle – Sitting for Justice: Woolworth's Lunch Counter". A collective effort of the staff of the National Museum of American History, Behring Center via Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved September 22, 2014. On February 1, 1960, four African American college students sat down at a lunch counter at Woolworth's in Greensboro, North Carolina, and politely asked for service. Their request was refused. When asked to leave, they remained in their seats. Their passive resistance and peaceful sit-down demand helped ignite a youth-led movement to challenge racial inequality throughout the South. (text and photos)
  7. ^ "Investigation is Ordered in Sit-In Demonstration" (PDF). March 26, 1960. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 3, 2015. Governor Buford Ellington ordered today a full investigation into the activities of a television network camera crew...
  8. ^ "SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee)". northcarolinahistory.org. North Carolina History Project via John Locke Foundation. Retrieved September 22, 2014. SNCC evolved out of that Easter weekend at Shaw University. Students in the SCLC had wished, for some time, for a student-led organization. (There were student chapters within the SCLC, but Martin Luther King, Jr. had not been pushing for an official student organization). Students wanted leadership opportunities and had different strategies than the SCLC leadership, which they believed moved toward progress at a glacial speed. At the 1960 Shaw meeting, students also expressed a fear that a strong centralized organization (even if student-led) would be a foe of democracy. Therefore, Baker and others established SNCC as a decentralized organization, with the national headquarters providing support and literature, including a newspaper, but not the strategy and leadership.
  9. ^ "Foreign Relations of the United States, 1958–1960, Volume X, Part 1, Eastern Europe Region, Soviet Union, Cyprus May–July 1960: The U–2 Airplane Incident". history.state.gov. US Department of State. Retrieved June 23, 2014.
  10. ^ Wise, David; Ross, Thomas (1962). The U-2 Affair (Bantam, 1962-11 ed.). New York: Random House / Bantam. Here, told for the first time, is the remarkable story behind the most explosive espionage case of the 20th century...
  11. ^ "FDA Approves the Pill". History Channel.
  12. ^ Fink, Brenda (September 29, 2011). "The pill and the marriage revolution". gender.stanford.edu. Clayman Institute / Stanford University. Archived from the original on 2017-12-12. Retrieved November 26, 2014. The birth control pill arrived on the market in 1960. Within two years, 1.2 million American women were "on the pill." By 1964, it was the most popular contraceptive in the country. Looking back, Americans credit—or blame—the pill with unleashing the sexual revolution of the 1960s and 1970s. The pill is widely believed to have loosened sexual mores, including the double standard that sanctioned premarital sex for men but not for women. But, according to historian Elaine Tyler May, this idea is largely a myth. As May explained to a Stanford audience, the pill's impact on the sexual revolution is unclear. What is clear is that the drug had a far greater impact within marriage itself.
  13. ^ "The Sixties: House Un-American Activities Committee" at PBS.org
  14. ^ Carl Nolte (May 13, 2010). "'Black Friday,' birth of U.S. protest movement". San Francisco Chronicle.
  15. ^ Stack, Barbara. "HUAC Black Friday Police Riot – May 13, 1960 (Archival Material: Free Speech Movement)". btstack.com. Barbara Toby Stack. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
  16. ^ "Timeline". Peace Action.
  17. ^ Mejia, Paula (2016-02-19). "Harper Lee, Author of 'To Kill a Mockingbird,' Dies at 89". newsweek.com. Newsweek. Retrieved 2016-02-20. Lee became a literary phenomenon upon the publication of Mockingbird on July 11, 1960. It was a best-seller and earned the author the Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 1961—an astonishing feat for a debut novel. "No book in years has commanded the kind of volunteer claque which is now pushing an unassuming first novel toward the best-seller list's summit," wrote Newsweek in its profile of Lee that same year. The following year the Mockingbird film adaptation, starring Gregory Peck as the white lawyer Atticus Finch who defends a black man wrongfully accused of rape, was released. The film was also hailed an instant classic.
  18. ^ Wooley, John; Peters, Gerhard. "Election of 1960". presidency.ucsb.edu. Gerhard Peters – The American Presidency Project via University of California-Santa Barbara. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
  19. ^ "Key Counties May Indicate Closest Election Since 1916". The Milwaukee Journal. October 20, 1960. Retrieved June 12, 2014 – via Google capture.
  20. ^ Shribman, David (October 24, 2010). "Nixon v. Kennedy: 50 years ago America chose between two men who were dramatically different – and eerily similar". post-gazette.com. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette/PG Publishing Co. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
  21. ^ White, Theodore H. (1961). The Making of the President 1960 (First ed.). New York: Atheneum House. p. 386. ISBN 9780689708039.
  22. ^ Jones, Carolyn (January 7, 2010). "Human potential pioneer George Leonard dies". sfgate.com. San Francisco Chronicle/Hearst. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
  23. ^ Martin, Douglas (January 18, 2010). "George Leonard, Voice of '60s Counterculture, Dies at 86". nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
  24. ^ "President Dwight D. Eisenhower's Farewell Address (1961): On January 17, 1961, in this farewell address, President Dwight Eisenhower warned against the establishment of a "military-industrial complex."". ourdocuments.gov. The National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
  25. ^ "President John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address (1961)". ourdocuments.gov. The National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
  26. ^ Kennedy, John. "John F. Kennedy Inaugural Address". Transcription as posted by University of California, Santa Barbara.
  27. ^ "Executive Order 10924: Establishment of the Peace Corps. (1961)". Ourdocuments.gov. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  28. ^ Gunston, Bill (1973). Bombers of the West. New York: Scribner. p. 254. ISBN 978-0684136233.
  29. ^ "International Drug Control Conventions". unodc.org. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
  30. ^ Glines, Jr., Carroll V (1963). The Compact History of the United States Air Force (New & Revised, May 1973 ed.). New York: Hawthorn Books. pp. 319–320. ISBN 978-0-405-12169-2.
  31. ^ "The Bay of Pigs". jfklibrary.org. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum. Retrieved September 22, 2014. Before his inauguration, John F. Kennedy was briefed on a plan by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) developed during the Eisenhower administration to train Cuban exiles for an invasion of their homeland. The plan anticipated that the Cuban people and elements of the Cuban military would support the invasion. The ultimate goal was the overthrow of Castro and the establishment of a non-communist government friendly to the United States.
  32. ^ Cia History Office Staff; Jack B. Pfeiffer (2011). CIA Official History of the Bay of Pigs Invasion, Volume IV: The Taylor Committee Investigation of the Bay of Pigs. Military Bookshop. ISBN 978-1-78039-476-3.
  33. ^ "The Freedom Rides: CORE Volunteers Put Their Lives on the Road". core-online.org. Congress of Racial Equality. Retrieved September 22, 2014. In 1961 CORE undertook a new tactic aimed at desegregating public transportation throughout the south. These tactics became known as the "Freedom Rides". The first Freedom Ride took place on May 4, 1961 when seven blacks and six whites left Washington, D.C., on two public buses bound for the Deep South. They intended to test the Supreme Court's ruling in Boynton v. Virginia (1960), which declared segregation in interstate bus and rail stations unconstitutional. In the first few days, the riders encountered only minor hostility, but in the second week the riders were severely beaten. Outside Anniston, Alabama, one of their buses was burned, and in Birmingham several dozen whites attacked the riders only two blocks from the sheriff's office. With the intervention of the U.S. Justice Department, most of CORE's Freedom Riders were evacuated from Birmingham, Alabama to New Orleans. John Lewis, a former seminary student who would later lead SNCC and become a US congressman, stayed in Birmingham. CORE Leaders decided that letting violence end the trip would send the wrong signal to the country. They reinforced the pair of remaining riders with volunteers, and the trip continued. The group traveled from Birmingham to Montgomery without incident, but on their arrival in Montgomery they were savagely attacked by a mob of more than 1000 whites. The extreme violence and the indifference of local police prompted a national outcry of support for the riders, putting pressure on President Kennedy to end the violence. The riders continued to Mississippi, where they endured further brutality and jail terms but generated more publicity and inspired dozens more Freedom Rides. By the end of the summer, the protests had spread to train stations and airports across the South, and in November, the Interstate Commerce Commission issued rules prohibiting segregated transportation facilities.
  34. ^ "Berlin Crises". Archived from the original on December 3, 2014. Retrieved September 22, 2014. At the Vienna Summit in June 1961, Khrushchev reiterated his threat to sign a separate peace treaty with East Germany if the West did not come to terms over Berlin by the end of the year. Rather than submit to such pressure, President John F. Kennedy replied that it would be a "cold winter." When he returned to the United States, Kennedy faced instead a summer of decision. On July 25 he announced plans to meet the Soviet challenge in Berlin, including a dramatic buildup of American conventional forces and drawing the line on interference with Allied access to West Berlin. This warning, in fact, contained the basis for resolving the crisis. On August 13 the East German Government, supported by Khrushchev, finally closed the border between East and West Berlin by erecting what eventually became the most concrete symbol of the Cold War: the Berlin Wall. Although the citizens of Berlin reacted to the wall with outrage, many in the West—certainly within the Kennedy administration—reacted with relief. The wall interfered with the personal lives of the people but not with the political position of the Allies in Berlin. The result was a "satisfactory" stalemate—the Soviets did not challenge the legality of Allied rights, and the Allies did not challenge the reality of Soviet power.
  35. ^ Kennedy, John F. "Report on the Berlin Crisis (July 25, 1961) by John F. Kennedy". millercenter.org. Miller Center / University of Virginia. Archived from the original on March 15, 2015. Retrieved September 22, 2014. So long as the Communists insist that they are preparing to end by themselves unilaterally our rights in West Berlin and our commitments to its people, we must be prepared to defend those rights and those commitments. We will at all times be ready to talk, if talk will help. But we must also be ready to resist with force, if force is used upon us. Either alone would fail. Together, they can serve the cause of freedom and peace.
  36. ^ "Amnesty International: Where it All Began". amnesty.org. Amnesty International. Retrieved 2016-04-29. In 1961, British lawyer Peter Benenson was outraged when two Portuguese students were jailed just for raising a toast to freedom. He wrote an article in The Observer newspaper and launched a campaign that provoked an incredible response. Reprinted in newspapers across the world, his call to action sparked the idea that people everywhere can unite in solidarity for justice and freedom. This inspiring moment didn't just give birth to an extraordinary movement, it was the start of extraordinary social change.
  37. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1977 Amnesty International". nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB. Retrieved 2016-04-30. Amnesty International was founded in 1961 by Peter Benenson, a British lawyer. It was originally his intention to launch an appeal in Britain with the aim of obtaining an amnesty for prisoners of conscience all over the world. The committee working for this cause soon found that a detailed documentation of this category of prisoners would be needed. Gradually they realized that the work would have to be carried out on a more permanent basis; the number of prisoners of conscience was enormous and they were to be found in every part of the world.
  38. ^ "The construction of the Berlin Wall". berlion.de. Governing Mayor of Berlin – Senate Chancellery. Retrieved 2017-01-12. Around 2.7 million people left the GDR and East Berlin between 1949 and 1961, causing increasing difficulties for the leadership of the East German communist party, the SED. Around half of this steady stream of refugees were young people under the age of 25. Roughly half a million people crossed the sector borders in Berlin each day in both directions, enabling them to compare living conditions on both sides. In 1960 alone, around 200,000 people made a permanent move to the West. The GDR was on the brink of social and economic collapse.
  39. ^ Brian J. Collins (2011). NATO: A Guide to the Issues. ABC-CLIO. pp. 73–. ISBN 978-0-313-35491-5.
  40. ^ File:EUCOM Checkpoint Charlie Standoff 1961.jpg
  41. ^ "Women Strike for Peace". jwa.org. Jewish Women's Archive. Retrieved September 22, 2014. On November 1, 1961, Women Strike For Peace (WSP) was inaugurated with a day-long strike by an estimated 50,000 women in 60 cities, all pressing for nuclear disarmament. The organization was composed primarily of mothers who feared the effects of nuclear proliferation on the short- and long-term health of their children. They were particularly concerned with levels of irradiation in milk and the increase in nuclear testing. WSP had the slogan "End the Arms Race – Not the Human Race," as well as "Pure Milk, Not Poison." Bella Abzug joined the group in its early organizational stages as an active participant in the New York contingent and as creator and chairperson of WSP's legislative committee. By pushing the organization to incorporate legislative lobbying into its efforts, she helped it to become an effective political force. By 1964, the emphasis of Women Strike for Peace had shifted to focus as much on the Vietnam War as on disarmament, protesting against the draft and the war's effects on Vietnamese children. Abzug remained active in WSP until she was elected to Congress in 1970.
  42. ^ Marder, Dorothy. "Photographs of Dorothy Marder – Women Strike for Peace, 1961–1975". swarthmore.edu. Elizabeth Matlock and Wendy Chmielewski via Swarthmore College (Swarthmore College Peace Collection). Retrieved September 22, 2014. Women Strike for Peace (WSP) was formed in 1961 after over 50,000 women across the country marched for peace and against above ground testing of nuclear weapons. By the mid 1960s the focus of the organization shifted to working against the Vietnam war. Dorothy Marder took photographs at many WSP demonstrations on the East Coast and her images appeared in WSP publications. Her photographs show the women behind WSP who wanted to protect their families from nuclear testing and a male-dominated militarism. Leaders of the organization include Dagmar Wilson, Bella Abzug, Amy Swerdlow, Cora Weiss, and many more are featured in Dorothy Marder's photography.
  43. ^ "Inspector General's Survey of the Cuban Operation and Associated Documents" (PDF). February 16, 1962. Retrieved November 26, 2014.
  44. ^ Lansdale (February 20, 1962). "[Internal Memo] The Cuba Project". p. 1. Retrieved November 26, 2014.
  45. ^ Weiner, Tim (1997-11-23). "Stupid Dirty Tricks ; The Trouble With Assassinations". New York Times. Retrieved 2015-11-30. Editor's Note: October 30, 1998, Friday An article on Sept. 29 discussed the release of 60,000 secret documents on the killing of President John F. Kennedy. Their declassification occurred over a period, leading up to the final report of a citizens' commission created by Congress six years ago to dispel lingering suspicions that the truth had been hidden. Discussing criticism of the Warren Commission, which investigated the assassination at the time, the article said that one member, Allen W. Dulles, a former Director of Central Intelligence, had failed to tell fellow members that Kennedy had ordered the C.I.A. to assassinate Castro. The article did not cite evidence or authority for the assertion about the President. Earlier articles, on July 20, 1997, and Nov. 23, 1997, also declared without qualification that Kennedy ordered Fidel Castro's assassination. A number of prominent historians and officials with knowledge of intelligence matters in that era have asserted in interviews that President Kennedy gave such an order. But others, also close to the President, dispute their account. The Times's practice is to attribute or qualify information that it is unable to report firsthand. That should have been done in these cases.
  46. ^ "Betty Friedan and the Presidential Commission on the Status of Women". Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study / Harvard University. November 20, 2013. Retrieved November 26, 2014. Text & Video
  47. ^ "American Women: Report of The President's Commission on the Status of Women. 1963" (PDF). US Government via University of Michigan via Hathitrust.org. 1963. Retrieved November 26, 2014. Google digitized pdf from U-M library
  48. ^ Laneri, Raquel (2018-02-05). "How a Harlem fashion show started the 'Black is Beautiful' movement". New York Post. Retrieved 2018-02-06. The event, held in the basement of the Harlem Purple Manor, a popular nightclub on East 125th Street, was called "Naturally '62" and was intended to promote African culture and fashion. What made the show revolutionary were the models: a group of nonprofessionals with unabashedly dark skin and natural, unprocessed, curly hair. They were part of the newly formed Grandassa Models, and they were as unlike any fashion plates as the crowd had ever seen. "It was a pioneering concept, women coming out on stage wearing their hair in a natural state," former AJASS member Robert Gumbs told The Post. "We didn't know how the community would respond. I think a number of people came to laugh." Yet by the end of the evening, audience members were cheering the models. And the show's slogan, "Black Is Beautiful" — printed on fliers and posters announcing the event — would become a rallying cry and movement celebrating natural hair, darker skin and African heritage.
  49. ^ "Battlefield: Timeline". PBS. Retrieved 2016-02-11. In Operation Chopper, helicopters flown by U.S. Army pilots ferry 1,000 South Vietnamese soldiers to sweep a NLF stronghold near Saigon. It marks America's first combat missions against the Vietcong.
  50. ^ Buckingham, Jr., William (1983). "Operation Ranch Hand: Herbicides In Southeast Asia". Air University Review. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  51. ^ Essoyan, Roy (1962-02-05). "U.S. COPTER SHOT DOWN IN VIET NAM" (Volume CXXI- No. 31). The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2015-12-24.
  52. ^ "UN Session Seen as Help to U.S., Red Space Ties". news.google.com/newspapers. Schenectady Gazette. AP. February 27, 1962. Retrieved June 3, 2014.
  53. ^ "Bob Dylan". Billboard. Retrieved 2016-02-09.
  54. ^ "The Official Web Page of the United Farm Workers of America". UFW. Archived from the original on September 6, 2013. Retrieved August 31, 2013.
  55. ^ "The Statement". University of Michigan Department of History. 2012. Archived from the original on November 29, 2014. Retrieved November 21, 2014. The Port Huron Statement was the declaration of principles issued June 15, 1962, by Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), a major radical student organization in the United States during the 1960s. Having only a few hundred members across the country at the time the Statement was drafted, SDS drew tens of thousands of students into its ranks as the movement against the Vietnam War grew—before a deep factional split destroyed the organization in 1969. During SDS's history of activism, 60,000 copies of the Statement were distributed. It has become a historical landmark of American leftwing radicalism and a widely influential discourse on the meaning of democracy in modern society.
  56. ^ Lopez-Munoz, Francisco; Ucha-Udabe, Ronaldo; Alamo, Cecilio (December 2005). "The History of Barbiturates a Century after their Clinical Introduction". Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. Dove Press via US National Institutes of Health. 1 (4): 329–343. PMC 2424120. PMID 18568113. In relation to the frequent cases of death by overdose, given the small therapeutic margin of these substances, it should be pointed out that this was a common method in suicide attempts. It suffices to recall, in this regard, the famous case of Marilyn Monroe, on whose death certificate it clearly states "acute poisoning by overdose of barbiturates" (Figure 7). The lethal effect of these compounds was such that a mixture of barbiturates with other substances was even employed in some US states for the execution of prisoners sentenced to death. Furthermore, there are classic reports of fatal overdose due to the "automatism phenomenon", whereby the patient would take his or her dose, only to forget that he or she had already taken it, given the amnesic effect of the drug, and take it again, this process being repeated several times (Richards 1934). Figure 8 shows the evolution of number of deaths (accidental or suicide) by barbiturate overdose in England and Wales for the period 1905–1960. In this regard, and in the city of New York alone, in the period 1957–1963, there were 8469 cases of barbiturate overdose, with 1165 deaths (Sharpless 1970), whilst in the United Kingdom, between 1965 and 1970, there were 12 354 deaths attributed directly to barbiturates (Barraclough 1974). These data should not surprise us, since in a period of just one year (1968), 24.7 million prescriptions for barbiturates were issued in the United Kingdom (Plant 1981). In view of these data, the Advisory Council Campaign in Britain took measures restricting the prescription of these drugs. Meanwhile, the prescription of prolonged-acting sedative barbiturates was strongly opposed through citizens' action campaigns such as CURB (Campaign on the Use and Restrictions of Barbiturates), especially active during the 1970s.
  57. ^ "Top 10 Mistresses: #4, Marilyn Monroe". content.time.com. Time, Inc. July 1, 2009. Retrieved September 25, 2014. Monroe died later in 1962 of a drug overdose, but tales about her alleged fling with the President grew increasingly tall. FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover tried to prove that the man on a secret FBI sex tape of Monroe was Kennedy, but he lacked definitive proof. Others claim Kennedy was involved in her death. Needless to say, the rumors are even less substantiated than the affair itself.
  58. ^ Kennedy, John. "John F. Kennedy Moon Speech – Rice Stadium". US National Aeronautical & Space Administration.
  59. ^ Griswold, Eliza (September 21, 2012). "How 'Silent Spring' Ignited the Environmental Movement". nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2014.
  60. ^ Meyer, Michal; Kenworthy, Bob. "DDT: The Britney Spears of Chemicals (Audio Podcast)". Science History Institute. Retrieved 20 March 2018. Americans have had a long, complicated relationship with the pesticide DDT, or dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane, if you want to get fancy. First we loved it, then we hated it, then we realized it might not be as bad as we thought. But we'll never restore it to its former glory. And couldn't you say the same about America's once-favorite pop star?
  61. ^ James Meredith (2012). A Mission from God: A Memoir and Challenge for America. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4516-7474-3.
  62. ^ "The Integration of Ole Miss (Historical video and text resources)". history.com. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
  63. ^ "The Beatles' 'Love Me Do' Hits the Public Domain in Europe". Rolling Stone. January 12, 2013.
  64. ^ Hotten, Russell (2012-10-04). "The Beatles at 50: From Fab Four to fabulously wealthy". BBC. Retrieved 2015-11-18.
  65. ^ Viner, Brian (2012-02-11). "The man who rejected the Beatles". independent.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-02-09. Exactly 50 years ago, Decca's Dick Rowe turned down the Fab Four, so heading an unenviable club of talent-spotters who passed up their biggest chance. But is it all an urban myth? A new book suggests so
  66. ^ Dobbs, Michael; Dobbs, Rachel (2012-10-08). "Thirteen Days in October (Annotated Slideshow)". Foreignpolicy.com. Foreign Policy. Retrieved 2016-06-28.
  67. ^ "Aerial Photograph of Missiles in Cuba (1962)". ourdocuments.gov. The National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
  68. ^ Kennedy, John (1962-10-22). "JFK Addresses Nation". youtube.com. US Government (original). Retrieved 2017-02-15. Complete and uncut footage of speech.
  69. ^ Schwartz, Stephen (August 1998). "Skybolt Air-Launched Ballistic Missile (AGM-48A) (Archive Document)". brookings.edu. The Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
  70. ^ Anderson, Walter Truett. The Upstart Spring: Esalen and the American Awakening, Addison Wesley Publishing Company (1983, 2004) p. 64
  71. ^ Fox, Margalit (2012-08-13). "Helen Gurley Brown, Who Gave 'Single Girl' a Life in Full, Dies at 90". New York Times. Retrieved 2015-11-30. As Cosmopolitan's editor from 1965 until 1997, Ms. Brown was widely credited with being the first to introduce frank discussions of sex into magazines for women. The look of women's magazines today — a sea of voluptuous models and titillating cover lines — is due in no small part to her influence.
  72. ^ Isserman, Maurice (June 19, 2009). "Essay Michael Harrington: Warrior on Poverty". nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved July 13, 2014. Among the book's readers, reputedly, was John F. Kennedy, who in the fall of 1963 began thinking about proposing antipoverty legislation. After Kennedy's assassination, Lyndon Johnson took up the issue, calling in his 1964 State of the Union address for an "unconditional war on poverty." Sargent Shriver headed the task force charged with drawing up the legislation, and invited Harrington to Washington as a consultant.
  73. ^ Lehmann-Haupt, Christopher (November 11, 2001). "Ken Kesey, Author of 'Cuckoo's Nest,' Who Defined the Psychedelic Era, Dies at 66". nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved July 7, 2014. Ken Kesey, the Pied Piper of the psychedelic era, who was best known as the author of the novel One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, died yesterday in a hospital in Eugene, Ore., said his wife, Faye. He was 66 and lived in Pleasant Hill, Ore.
  74. ^ Hoffman, Jordan (2015-11-19). "'One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest' Still Resonates 40 Years Later". biography.com. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved 2016-06-20. Milos Forman's adaptation of Ken Kesey's novel 'One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest' is, in some ways, the essential film document about the 1960s counter-culture.
  75. ^ Dunlap, David (January 4, 2012). "Charles W. Bailey, Journalist and Political Novelist, Dies at 82". nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved February 7, 2015. Written with Fletcher Knebel and published in 1962, Seven Days in May tells of an attempted coup by the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in May 1974 after the president negotiates a disarmament treaty with Russia. It was at the top of The New York Times's best-seller list in early 1963 and was made into a movie, with Burt Lancaster, Kirk Douglas and Fredric March, in 1964.
  76. ^ Jesse Walker (2004). Rebels on the Air: An Alternative History of Radio in America. NYU Press. pp. 91–. ISBN 978-0-8147-8477-8.
  77. ^ Hinckley, David (September 20, 2012). "Documentary 'Radio Unnameable' captures the wee-hour WBAI broadcasts of Bob Fass". nydailynews.com. The New York Daily News. Retrieved July 24, 2014. Legendary jock entertained and informed New Yorkers in the '60s and '70s by bringing on guests like Bob Dylan and Abbie Hoffman.
  78. ^ Paul Lovelace & Jessica Wolfson (2012). Radio Unnameable (Film Documentary). New York: Lost Footage Films.
  79. ^ a b Cochrane, Kira (May 6, 2013). "1963: the beginning of the feminist movement – Fifty years on, we look back at the year that signalled the beginning of the modern era". theguardian.com. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved June 3, 2014.
  80. ^ "Louie Louie (The Song)". fbi.gov. US Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved 2016-05-12. In 1963, a rock group named the Kingsmen recorded the song "Louie, Louie." The popularity of the song and difficulty in discerning the lyrics led some people to suspect the song was obscene. The FBI was asked to investigate whether or not those involved with the song violated laws against the interstate transportation of obscene material. The limited investigation lasted from February to May 1964 and discovered no evidence of obscenity.
  81. ^ McArdle, Terence (2015-04-29). "Jack Ely, whose garbled version of 'Louie Louie' became a sensation, dies". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2016-05-13. According to rock music historian Peter Blecha, advances in recording technology have revealed an actual obscenity on the Kingsmen's recording of "Louie Louie." About 54 seconds in, Blecha said, Easton uses a barely audible profanity after fumbling with a drumstick.
  82. ^ File:President Kennedy American University Commencement Address June 10, 1963.jpg
  83. ^ "The Burning Monk: A defining moment photographed by AP's Malcolm Browne". ap.org. Associated Press. 2013. Retrieved March 1, 2015. Nevertheless, it was that picture which shocked President John F. Kennedy, who immediately ordered a review of his administration's Vietnam policy. The review led to more troops, not fewer.
  84. ^ Schudel, Matt (August 28, 2012). "Malcolm W. Browne, Pulitzer-winning journalist who captured indelible Vietnam image, dies at 81". washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post. Retrieved March 1, 2015. He chronicled the regime of South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem and the homegrown opposition led by Buddhist monks. On June 11, 1963, Mr. Browne was present when an elderly monk named Thich Quang Duc, wearing sandals and a robe, calmly sat cross-legged on a cushion in the center of an intersection in Saigon. Other monks poured fuel over him, and the monk struck a match and was immediately engulfed in flames. Mr. Browne shot roll after roll of film, documenting the self-immolation.
  85. ^ Cosgrove, Ben; Loengard, John (June 11, 2013). "Behind the Picture: Medgar Evers' Funeral, June 1963 (Story and Photos)". life.time.com. Time, Inc. Archived from the original on July 28, 2014. Retrieved June 25, 2014. In its June 28, 1963, issue, LIFE confronted the assassination with a combination of scorn (for the Klan and for white supremacists in general), anger (at the waste of such a life as Evers') and an occasionally sardonic venom.
  86. ^ "School District of Abington Township, Pennsylvania v. Schempp". Cornell University Law School / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved February 27, 2015. Syllabus: Because of the prohibition of the First Amendment against the enactment by Congress of any law "respecting an establishment of religion," which is made applicable to the States by the Fourteenth Amendment, no state law or school board may require that passages from the Bible be read or that the Lord's Prayer be recited in the public schools of a State at the beginning of each school day – even if individual students may be excused from attending or participating in such exercises upon written request of their parents.
  87. ^ "God in America – People & Ideas: Madalyn Murray O'Hair". US PBS. Retrieved February 27, 2015. Madalyn Murray O'Hair was an outspoken advocate of atheism and the founder of the organization American Atheists. In 1960 O'Hair gained notoriety when she sued Baltimore public schools for requiring students to read from the Bible and to recite the Lord's Prayer at school exercises.
  88. ^ Scherman, Rowland (July 31, 2009). "Dylan In Pictures: Newport 1963". npr.org. US National Public Radio. Retrieved February 27, 2015. That seminal moment at the 1963 Newport Folk Festival, Dylan went from zero to hero in the course of a weekend.
  89. ^ Ulrich Adelt (2010). Blues Music in the Sixties: A Story in Black and White. Rutgers University Press. pp. 38–. ISBN 978-0-8135-4750-3.
  90. ^ Suarez, Ray. "Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" Remembered". pbs.org. Public Broadcasting Service (US). Retrieved May 16, 2014.
  91. ^ "Test Ban Treaty (1963):On August 5, 1963, the Limited Test Ban Treaty was signed by the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union. After Senate approval, the treaty that went into effect on October 10, 1963, banned nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere, in outer space, and under water". ourdocuments.gov. The National Archives and Records Administration, et al (US). Retrieved June 4, 2014.
  92. ^ Richard A. Reuss (2000). American Folk Music and Left-wing Politics, 1927–1957. Scarecrow Press. pp. 2–. ISBN 978-0-8108-3684-6.
  93. ^ "Harvard Sex Orgies Disclosed by Dean". The Chicago Tribune. UPI. 1963-11-01. Retrieved 2015-11-14.
  94. ^ Robert S. McNamara; James Blight; Robert K. Brigham; Thomas J. Biersteker; Col. Herbert Schandler (2007). Argument Without End: In Search of Answers to the Vietnam Tragedy. PublicAffairs. pp. 328–. ISBN 978-1-58648-621-1.
  95. ^ Lane, Mark (1966). Rush to Judgment (Paperback, 1992 ed.). New York: Thunder's Mouth Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-56025-043-2.
  96. ^ Marrs, Jim (1989). "Preface". Crossfire: The Plot That Killed Kennedy (1st Paperback, 1990 ed.). New York: Carroll & Graf. ISBN 978-0-88184-648-5.
  97. ^ Jeanette Leech (2010). Seasons They Change: The Story of Acid and Psychedelic Folk. Jawbone Press. pp. 37–. ISBN 978-1-906002-32-9.
  98. ^ Johnson, Lyndon Baines. "Annual Message to the Congress on the State of the Union. January 8, 1964". .presidency.ucsb.edu. Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley – The American Presidency Project via UCSB. Retrieved February 12, 2015. Let this session of Congress be known as the session which did more for civil rights than the last hundred sessions combined; as the session which enacted the most far-reaching tax cut of our time; as the session which declared all-out war on human poverty and unemployment in these United States; as the session which finally recognized the health needs of all our older citizens; as the session which reformed our tangled transportation and transit policies; as the session which achieved the most effective, efficient foreign aid program ever; and as the session which helped to build more homes, more schools, more libraries, and more hospitals than any single session of Congress in the history of our Republic.
  99. ^ "For LBJ, The War On Poverty Was Personal". npr.org. NPR. January 8, 2014. Retrieved February 12, 2015. President Lyndon Johnson stood in the Capitol on Jan. 8, 1964, and, in his first State of the Union address, committed the nation to a war on poverty. "We shall not rest until that war is won," Johnson said. "The richest nation on Earth can afford to win it. We cannot afford to lose it." It was an effort that had been explored under President Kennedy, but it firmly — and quickly — took shape under Johnson.
  100. ^ Sanburn, Josh (2011-05-09). "The 10 Best Bob Dylan Songs: 'The Times They Are A-Changin'". Time, Inc. Retrieved 2015-11-07.
  101. ^ "500 Greatest Songs of All Time: 59 Bob Dylan, 'The Times They Are A-Changin'". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2015-11-07.
  102. ^ "Historical Highlights: The 24th Amendment". history.house.gov. U.S. House of Representatives (History, Art & Archives). Retrieved March 1, 2015. On this date in 1962, the House passed the 24th Amendment, outlawing the poll tax as a voting requirement in federal elections, by a vote of 295 to 86. At the time, five states maintained poll taxes which disproportionately affected African-American voters: Virginia, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Texas. The poll tax exemplified "Jim Crow" laws, developed in the post-Reconstruction South, which aimed to disenfranchise black voters and institute segregation.
  103. ^ "Beatlemania Comes to the United States". rockhall.com. Rock & Roll Hall of Fame. February 3, 2015. Retrieved March 1, 2015. In Britain, "I Want to Hold Your Hand" saw its official release on December 5, 1963, reaching Number One the following week. It held the position for five weeks. Soon thereafter, American DJs began spinning the import single and the immediate, positive response prompted Capitol to not only bump up the release date to December 26, but also increase the press run from 200,000 copies to one million. A media blitz followed, as reporters from the Associated Press, CBS, Life, New York Times and more were assigned to cover the Beatles. "I Want to Hold Your Hand" reached Number One on the Billboard charts on February 1, 1964, and remained on the Billboard Hot 100 for seven weeks.
  104. ^ Barry Miles (2009). The British Invasion. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. ISBN 978-1-4027-6976-4.
  105. ^ "New York School Boycott". crdl.usg.org. Civil Rights Digital Library/Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved 2017-03-17.
  106. ^ Khan, Yasmeen (2016-02-03). "Demand for School Integration Leads to Massive 1964 Boycott — In New York City". wnyc.org. Retrieved 2017-03-17. After hearing too many "vague promises" from the New York City Board of Education to integrate the schools, civil rights activists in 1964 called for swift action: desegregate the city's schools and improve the inferior conditions of many that enrolled black and Latino students. To force the issue, they staged a one-day school boycott on Feb. 3, when approximately 460,000 students refused to go to school.
  107. ^ "The Beatles". edsullivan.com. SOFA Entertainment. 2010. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
  108. ^ Harding, Barrie (1964-02-08). "5,000 scream 'welcome' to the Beatles" (No. 18, 704). Daily Mirror. Retrieved 2015-12-24.
  109. ^ Trust, Gary (2013-04-04). "April 4, 1964: The Beatles Control Entire Top Five On Billboard Hot 100". billboard.com. Billboard. Retrieved 2016-08-11. On the Billboard Hot 100 dated April 4, 1964, 49 years ago today, the Beatles made history as the only act ever to occupy the chart's top five positions in a week. With a 27–1 second-week blast to the top for "Can't Buy Me Love," the Fab Four locked up the chart's entire top five: No. 1, "Can't Buy Me Love" No. 2, "Twist and Shout" No. 3, "She Loves You" No. 4, "I Want to Hold Your Hand" No. 5, "Please Please Me"
  110. ^ Bronson, p. 145.
  111. ^ The New York Times (2014). New York Times The Times of the Sixties: The Culture, Politics, and Personalities that Shaped the Decade. Running Press. pp. 1136–. ISBN 978-1-60376-366-0.
  112. ^ France, Lisa Respers (2018-03-01). "All the best actor Oscar winners through the years". cnn.com. CNN. Retrieved 2018-06-03.
  113. ^ "The 1964 Cleveland schools' boycott to protest segregation: Black History Month".
  114. ^ Winner, David (19 May 2009). "Robert Jasper Grootveld: Artist and activist who helped found the Dutch Provos in the 1960s". www.independent.co.uk. The Independent. Retrieved 3 December 2016. No single person can be said to have created the worldwide cultural phenomenon we call "the Sixties". But the Dutch anti-smoking "magician" and voodoo showman Robert Jasper Grootveld has a better claim than most. In the early Sixties, his surreal, dadaist "happenings" in Amsterdam electrified the city's bored youth and led to the creation of the playful Provo movement (short for "provocation"). With the charismatic, flamboyantly transvestite Grootveld as a spokesman, Provo was a catalyst for cultural revolution. The group provided free bicycles, subverted a royal wedding and humiliated the stiff-necked Dutch establishment and Amsterdam police force so effectively that both groups – and the country – underwent a near-total personality change. Provo lasted only from 1965 to 1967 but the spirit of what Grootveld dubbed "International Magic Centre Amsterdam" broke old Holland, inspired hippies in San Francisco and musicians and artists in London and paved the way, among other things, for the summer of love, Dutch total football and the green movement.
  115. ^ International Institute of Social History – Grootveld flyers
  116. ^ Enfield, Robert. "Photographs:Sheraton Palace Demonstration, May 1964". cdlib.org. University of California. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
  117. ^ James J. Farrell (1997). The Spirit of the Sixties: Making Postwar Radicalism. Psychology Press. pp. 180–. ISBN 978-0-415-91385-0.
  118. ^ Peter Bacon Hales (2014). Outside the Gates of Eden: The Dream of America from Hiroshima to Now. University of Chicago Press. pp. 317–. ISBN 978-0-226-12861-0.
  119. ^ Green; Nicholas J. Karolides (2009). Encyclopedia of Censorship. Infobase Publishing. pp. 301–. ISBN 978-1-4381-1001-1.
  120. ^ "Jacobellis v. Ohio - 378 U.S. 184 (1964)". supreme.justia.com. justia.com. Retrieved July 9, 2014.
  121. ^ "Landmark Legislation: The Civil Rights Act of 1964". senate.gov. Retrieved 2016-08-11.
  122. ^ Krock, p.411
  123. ^ The Beatles (2000). The Beatles Anthology. Chronicle Books. pp. 158–. ISBN 978-0-8118-2684-6.
  124. ^ Cusick, Rick (2014-08-28). "Bob Dylan Smoked Out The Beatles 50 Years Ago Today". hightimes.com. High Times. Retrieved 2016-10-04. Perhaps the mostly influential sesh in history happened on August 28, 1964 when Bob Dylan got The Beatles high at The Delmonico Hotel in New York City. While this was not technically The Moptops first-time toking — they shared a joint in Hamburg but couldn't agree whether or not they got high — they definitely copped a buzz with Dylan in New York.
  125. ^ NFO PROTEST CANCELLED Truck Crushes Two to Death
  126. ^ "Visual History: Free Speech Movement, 1964-Mario Savio addresses the crowd". Retrieved March 1, 2015. Mario Savio addresses the crowd Mario Savio climbs on top of the police car containing Jack Weinberg to address the crowd of demonstrators. Savio demands Weinberg's release and the lifting of University prohibitions against political activity on campus.
  127. ^ Robert Cohen (2009). Freedom's Orator: Mario Savio and the Radical Legacy of the 1960s. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-976634-5.
  128. ^ Seth Rosenfeld (2012). Subversives: The FBI's War on Student Radicals, and Reagan's Rise to Power. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-1-4299-6932-1.
  129. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1964". nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB. Retrieved March 1, 2015. He is the first person in the Western world to have shown us that a struggle can be waged without violence. He is the first to make the message of brotherly love a reality in the course of his struggle, and he has brought this message to all men, to all nations and races. Today we pay tribute to Martin Luther King, the man who has never abandoned his faith in the unarmed struggle he is waging, who has suffered for his faith, who has been imprisoned on many occasions, whose home has been subject to bomb attacks, whose life and the lives of his family have been threatened, and who nevertheless has never faltered.
  130. ^ Barry Miles (2009). The British Invasion. Sterling Publishing Company. pp. 129–. ISBN 978-1-4027-6976-4.
  131. ^ "Election of 1964". University of California, Santa Barbara / American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on 2015-03-13. Retrieved March 1, 2015.
  132. ^ Moylan, Brian (December 22, 2014). "'Offensive' Is the New 'Obscene'". time.com. Time. Retrieved March 1, 2015. On Dec. 21, 1964, Bruce was sentenced to four months in a workhouse for a set he did in a New York comedy club that included a bit about Eleanor Roosevelt's "nice tits..."
  133. ^ Robert Cohen; Reginald E. Zelnik (2002). The Free Speech Movement: Reflections on Berkeley in the 1960s. University of California Press. pp. 534–. ISBN 978-0-520-23354-6.
  134. ^ Jackman, Michael (December 1, 2014). "Mario Savio's 'bodies upon the gears' speech – 50 years later". metrotimes.com. Detroit Metro Times. Retrieved March 1, 2015. It's a short but bold and defiant oration that says free human beings aren't going to be pushed around by anybody, from lawmakers and police to liberals and labor leaders. Standing in front of a crowd of 4,000 people, Savio described his meeting with university officials, who compared the president of the university to the president of a corporation.
  135. ^ Drash, Wayne (2010-04-28). "Malcolm X killer freed after 44 years". CNN. Retrieved 2016-10-04. Malcolm X is best known as the fiery leader of the Nation of Islam who denounced whites as "blue-eyed devils." But at the end of his life, Malcolm X changed his views toward whites and discarded the Nation of Islam's ideology in favor of orthodox Islam. In doing so, he feared for his own life from within the Nation.
  136. ^ W.J. Rorabaugh Professor of History University of Washington (1989). Berkeley at War : The 1960s: The 1960s. Oxford University Press. pp. 134–. ISBN 978-0-19-802252-7.
  137. ^ Enfield, Robert. "Photographs:Filthy Speech Rally, Spring, 1965". cdlib.org. University of California. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
  138. ^ Spencer C. Tucker (2011). The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History [4 volumes]: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. pp. 775–. ISBN 978-1-85109-961-0.
  139. ^ Barry Miles (2009). The British Invasion. Sterling Publishing Company. pp. 133–. ISBN 978-1-4027-6976-4.
  140. ^ "The Yardbirds Announce New Lineup – Including Pre-Eric Clapton Guitarist Top Topham – and 2015 Tour Dates". guitarworld.com. NewBay Media. February 10, 2015. Retrieved November 13, 2015.
  141. ^ Raasch, Chuck (May 16, 2014). "Never trust anyone over 30? A second thought". stltoday.com. St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved May 26, 2014.
  142. ^ Matthew Greenwald (2002). Go Where You Wanna Go: The Oral History of The Mamas and The Papas. Cooper Square Press. pp. 212–. ISBN 978-1-4616-2290-1.
  143. ^ a b c d Andy Roberts (2008). Albion Dreaming: A popular history of LSD in Britain (Revised Edition with a new foreword by Sue Blackmore). Marshall Cavendish International Asia Pte Ltd. ISBN 978-981-4328-97-5.
  144. ^ Herbert, Ian (2006-09-08). "Revealed: Dentist who introduced Beatles to LSD". The Independent. Retrieved 2016-01-07.
  145. ^ Cromelin, Richard (2011-10-06). "Bert Jansch dies at 67; Scottish singer-guitarist influenced rock, folk greats". latimes.com. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2018-06-06.
  146. ^ Martin Charles Strong (2002). The Great Scots Musicography: The Complete Guide to Scotland's Music Makers. Birlinn, Limited. ISBN 978-1-84183-041-4.
  147. ^ Roger Chapman (2010). Culture Wars: An Encyclopedia of Issues, Viewpoints, and Voices. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 545–. ISBN 978-0-7656-2250-1.
  148. ^ Greenfield, Robert (March 14, 2011). "Owsley Stanley: The King of LSD". Rolling Stone. Retrieved February 6, 2015. By May 1965, he was back in the Bay Area with 3,600 capsules of extraordinarily pure LSD, dubbed "Owsley" by a pot-dealing folk guitarist friend. "I never set out to 'turn on the world,' as has been claimed by many," Owsley says.
  149. ^ McGee, Rosie (1969). "Owsley Stanley, left, with Jerry Garcia of the Grateful Dead in a 1969 publicity photograph". nytimes.com. The New York Times. Reuters. Retrieved February 6, 2015.
  150. ^ a b c "The Pacifica Radio/UC Berkeley Social Activism Sound Recording Project:Anti-Vietnam War Protests in the San Francisco Bay Area & Beyond". University of California Berkeley Library. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  151. ^ Thompson, Hunter (2005-03-02). "The Motorcycle Gangs: A portrait of an outsider underground". thenation.com. The Nation Company, LLC. Retrieved 2018-07-06. This article first appeared in the May 17, 1965 issue.
  152. ^ "Unforgettable Change: 1960s: 1960s in Vietnam and in Berkeley (Text and Audio Content)". museumca.org. Oakland Museum of California. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
  153. ^ Enfield, Robert. "Photographs:Vietnam Day, Spring, 1965". cdlib.org. University of California. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
  154. ^ Knopper, Steve (2015-09-01). "Colorado's Famous Historic Artist Commune". 5280.com. 5280 The Denver Magazine. Retrieved 2015-12-30. At the time, the idea of a commune—a place where young artists would live off sales of their work and share a bank account to buy food and supplies—was new and exciting. The concept attracted those who identified with the blossoming '60s counterculture. Prominent figures in the movement, including eventual Woodstock Nation members such as LSD guru Timothy Leary and the Doors' Jim Morrison, ventured to this plot of land in Trinidad. What they found when they arrived was a utopia born from the zeitgeist of 1960s America—a place unlike anywhere else in Colorado.
  155. ^ "America and the Utopian Dream – Utopian Communities". brbl-archive.library.yale.edu.
  156. ^ William E. Hudson (2007). The Libertarian Illusion: Ideology, Public Policy and the Assault on the Common Good. Sage Publications. pp. 191–. ISBN 978-1-4833-0122-8.
  157. ^ "Margaret Sanger (1879–1966)". ocp.hul.harvard.edu. Harvard University Library. Retrieved August 13, 2014. In 1965, the Supreme Court decision in Griswold v. Connecticut legalized contraception for married couples.
  158. ^ CNN (August 7, 2014). "The Times they are a Changin'". The Sixties (Documentary Series). CNN.
  159. ^ Hodgkinson, Will (June 13, 2005). "Snapshot: Allen Ginsberg at the Albert Hall". theguardian.com. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
  160. ^ Gary Graff; Daniel Durchholz (2012). Rock 'n' Roll Myths: The True Stories Behind the Most Infamous Legends. Voyageur Press. pp. 118–. ISBN 978-0-7603-4230-5.
  161. ^ Righthand, Jess (2010-07-23). "July 25, 1965: Dylan Goes Electric at the Newport Folk Festival". smithsonian.com. Retrieved 2015-02-14. It was during that concert, 45 years ago today, that Bob Dylan plugged in his electric guitar, an action that would alter the landscape of American popular music for generations to come. On that day, as boos, shouts and cries for "the old Dylan" rose above the music, Dylan departed from his acoustic roots and ventured into the realm of rock 'n' roll, a genre generally disdained as commercial and mainstream by Dylan's bohemian peers of the 1960s American folk music revival. In doing this, the artist forged the way for the folk-rock genre, merging his lyrical songwriting style with the hard-driving sounds of rock.
  162. ^ "I Ain't Marching Anymore by Phil Ochs".
  163. ^ "Watts Riots". crdl.usg.edu. Civil Rights Digital Library/Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved 2018-04-28. The Watts Riot, which raged for six days and resulted in more than forty million dollars worth of property damage, was both the largest and costliest urban rebellion of the Civil Rights era. The riot spurred from an incident on August 11, 1965 when Marquette Frye, a young African American motorist, was pulled over and arrested by Lee W. Minikus, a white California Highway Patrolman, for suspicion of driving while intoxicated. As a crowd on onlookers gathered at the scene of Frye's arrest, strained tensions between police officers and the crowd erupted in a violent exchange. The outbreak of violence that followed Frye's arrest immediately touched off a large-scale riot centered in the commercial section of Watts, a deeply impoverished African American neighborhood in South Central Los Angeles. For several days, rioters overturned and burned automobiles and looted and damaged grocery stores, liquor stores, department stores, and pawnshops. Over the course of the six-day riot, over 14,000 California National Guard troops were mobilized in South Los Angeles and a curfew zone encompassing over forty-five miles was established in an attempt to restore public order. All told, the rioting claimed the lives of thirty-four people, resulted in more than one thousand reported injuries, and almost four thousand arrests before order was restored on August 17. Throughout the crisis, public officials advanced the argument that the riot was the work outside agitators; however, an official investigation, prompted by Governor Pat Brown, found that the riot was a result of the Watts community's longstanding grievances and growing discontentment with high unemployment rates, substandard housing, and inadequate schools. Despite the reported findings of the gubernatorial commission, following the riot, city leaders and state officials failed to implement measures to improve the social and economic conditions of African Americans living in the Watts neighborhood.
  164. ^ Miles, Barry (1998). The Beatles: A Diary. Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0-7119-9196-5.
  165. ^ Montagne, Renee (2012-12-12). "Music and Mayhem in 'Laurel Canyon'". NPR. Retrieved 2015-11-25.
  166. ^ Robinson, Lisa (2015-02-28). "An Oral History of Laurel Canyon, the 60s and 70s Music Mecca". Vanity Fair/Conde Nast. Retrieved 2015-11-25.
  167. ^ Reed, Ryan (2015-09-15). "Paul on Drums, George on Bass: 10 Great Beatles Instrument Swaps". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2018-05-19. McCartney's melodic bass work is a signature of the Beatles' oeuvre, but Harrison did a great job approximating it on the psychedelic Revolver meditation "She Said She Said" — one of the band's only tracks not to feature Sir Paul. "I think we'd had a barney or something, and I said, 'Oh, fuck you!' and they said, 'Well, we'll do it,'" McCartney told Barry Miles in the 1998 biography Many Years From Now. The song was inspired by Lennon's 1965 LSD trip with Byrds members Roger McGuinn and David Crosby, during which actor Peter Fonda told a frightened Harrison that he knew "what it's like to be dead." And the result plays like both a celebration and a mockery of the acid movement, driven by Harrison's stoned guitar shrapnel and dextrous, Macca-styled bass runs.
  168. ^ Cornish, Audie (2015-08-28). "A New Ride Down Dylan's 'Highway': What Do Millennials Think Of The Album?". npr.org. US National Public Radio. Retrieved 2017-01-12.
  169. ^ Rothman, Lily (2015-10-15). "This Photo Shows the Vietnam Draft-Card Burning That Started a Movement". time.com. Time Inc. Retrieved 2018-04-28. David Miller was not the first person to destroy a draft card. As protests against the Vietnam War increased in the 1960s, the destruction of Selective Service registration certificates became common enough that in August of 1965 President Johnson signed a law making it a federal crime to destroy or mutilate the cards. But after Miller publicly burned his draft card on Oct. 15, 1965—exactly 50 years ago—he became the first person to be prosecuted under that law and a symbol of the growing movement against the war.
  170. ^ Howard Smead (2000). Don't Trust Anyone Over Thirty: The First Four Decades of the Baby Boom. iUniverse. pp. 155–. ISBN 978-0-595-12393-3.
  171. ^ Kilgallen, Dorothy (June 11, 1963). "Dorothy Kilgallen's Voice of Broadway". Syndicated column via The Montreal Gazette. Retrieved July 10, 2014. New York hippies have a new kick – baking marijuana in cookies...
  172. ^ "Dandridge death caused by drugs". UPI via Baltimore Afro-American. 1965-11-20. Retrieved 2016-06-19.
  173. ^ "Starring Dorothy Dandridge". tcm.com. Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved 2016-06-19. She was beautiful, she could dance, she could sing, and she could act. Most importantly, she had that indefinable magnetism that attracts an audience and holds their attention. In short, she had everything it took to be a major star in the 1950s. Everything, that is, except white skin.
  174. ^ Kathleen Fearn-Banks (2005). Historical Dictionary of African-American Television. Scarecrow Press. pp. 90–. ISBN 978-0-8108-6522-8.
  175. ^ Fleming, Colin (2015-09-25). "Revisiting Beatles' Wonderfully Wacky Cartoon Series, 50 Years Later". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2018-04-28. Even Beatles completists sometimes have a blind spot when it comes to the band's eponymous cartoon, which ran on ABC for four years — starting exactly 50 years ago, on September 25th, 1965. If you like your Beatles animated, chances are your thing is for the 1968 film Yellow Submarine, the rare cinematic venture that works just as well for the kiddies as the adults.
  176. ^ Staff Report. "Hot 100 55th Anniversary: Every No. 1 Song (1958–2013)". billboard.com. Billboard. Retrieved 2015-12-07. Eve Of Destruction, Barry McGuire, 9/25/1965
  177. ^ Chawkins, Steve (2015-11-17). "P.F. Sloan dies at 70; wrote '60s protest song 'Eve of Destruction'". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2015-12-07.
  178. ^ Unterberger, Richie. "The Yardbirds – Biography". AllMusic. Rovi Corp. Retrieved 2015-12-07.
  179. ^ Rosenkranz, Patrick. "The East Village Other: The Rise of Underground Comix and the Alternative Press". eastvillageother.org. The Local East Village, NYU Arthur L. Carter Journalism Institute, Fales Library and Special Collections, et al. Retrieved 2015-12-30.
  180. ^ Wiegand, David (2016-02-06). "Dan Hicks, a true original of S.F. music scene, dies at 74". San Francisco Chronicle via sfgate.com. Retrieved 2016-07-04. Today the band is little recalled by those who weren't there, but the Charlatans were the first important new rock band in San Francisco when LSD first rolled through town and things started getting weird. When the five-man band of Edwardian dandies in immaculate vintage wear returned from playing all summer 1965 at the Red Dog Saloon in Virginia City, the Charlatans were the headline attraction at A Tribute to Dr. Strange, the Longshoreman's Hall dance/concert that was ground zero for the '60s San Francisco rock scene. ...Farther down the program that evening was another new band just starting out at a former pizza parlor in the Marina with the peculiar name of Jefferson Airplane.
  181. ^ Jones, Kevin (2016-02-06). "Dan Hicks, San Francisco Folk Jazz Pioneer, Dead at 74". kqed.org. KQED. Retrieved 2017-03-03. In 1965, Hicks would become the drummer for The Charlatans, who, along with groups such as the Jefferson Airplane and the Grateful Dead, would help define the city's psychedelic sound. Later, rock historians would cite the group's extended residency at the Red Dog Saloon in Nevada in the summer of '65 as being the precursor to San Francisco's LSD-focused rock shows of the later '60s because of the trippy rock posters used to advertise the residency, and the fact that the band would ingest psychedelic drugs while playing.
  182. ^ Gray, Madison (August 11, 2011). "All-TIME 100 Nonfiction Books: #13, The Autobiography of Malcolm X". entertainment.time.com. Time, Inc. Retrieved September 21, 2014. Malcolm X predicted that he would not live to see its publication, a prophecy fulfilled as friction between himself and the Nation of Islam, and a subsequent falling-out culminated in his 1965 assassination. But the pages chronicling the years leading up to it reveal the world of a man who had gone from being a hustler to being one of history's most controversial civil rights icons.
  183. ^ Manning, Marable; Goodman, Amy (May 21, 2007). "Manning Marable on "Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention" (transcribed from radio program)". democracynow.org. Retrieved September 21, 2014. But what we do know that is true is that when Malcolm is assassinated on February 21, 1965, within two-and-a-half weeks the original publisher, Doubleday, exes the deal on the book. And in early March '65, they cancel the contract. That's why the book is published at the end of the year by Grove, not Doubleday. It was the most disastrous decision in corporate publishing history. They lost millions of dollars on this.
  184. ^ "The Autobiography of Malcolm X: Epilogue By Alex Haley – Minister Malcolm X – The Honorable Elijah Muhammad". www.alex-haley.com.
  185. ^ Mitchell, Greg (2010-11-13). "When Antiwar Protest Turned Fatal: The Ballad of Norman Morrison". The Nation.
  186. ^ Ruane, Michael (2015-11-01). "Vietnam critic's end was the start of family's pain". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2016-04-07. Morrison had set himself ablaze 40 feet from the Pentagon office window of then-Defense Secretary Robert S. McNamara, one of the chief organizers of the U.S. involvement in the war. Years later, a contrite McNamara wrote that Morrison's death was a tragedy "for me and the country."
  187. ^ Donna E. Alvermann (2002). Adolescents and Literacies in a Digital World. Peter Lang. pp. 68–. ISBN 978-0-8204-5573-0.
  188. ^ "The Who and the New Generation". historyengine.richmond.edu. University of Richmond. Retrieved July 26, 2014. "Things they do look awful c-cold," Daltry continued stuttering, "Hope I die before I get old." Daltry then screamed, drilling the purpose of the song into everyone's heads, "This is my generation!" And this truly was the youths' generation. All the years of old men from bygone eras had to pave way to Roger Daltry's generation, for the young men and women of the Western world were finally speaking up and letting their voices be heard. "It's my generation, baby," Daltry repeated his mantra.
  189. ^ Reinholz, Mary (2015-11-26). "Sixties draft-card burners recall inflammatory time at Maryhouse panel talk". The Villager/NYC Community Media. Retrieved 2015-12-30.
  190. ^ "We Look Back at Detroit's Alternative Paper 'The Fifth Estate', Founded 50 years Ago". wdet.org. WDET 101.9 and Wayne State University. 2015-09-04. Retrieved 2016-01-31. Text and Link to Audio Program
  191. ^ Jarnow, Jesse (2015-11-30). "Acid Tests Turn 50: Wavy Gravy, Merry Prankster Ken Babbs Look Back". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2018-04-28. This week in Santa Cruz, California, a concert, reading and site dedication will commemorate the 50th anniversary of Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters' first LSD-fueled Acid Test, held in the small neighborhood of Soquel on November 27th, 1965.
  192. ^ Hyde, Justin. "June 24: Ralph Nader wins Senate passage of Highway Safety Act on this date in 1966". autos.yahoo.com. Yahoo News / Motoramic. Retrieved June 25, 2014. Article includes video of Nader reflecting on auto safety legislation.
  193. ^ Nader, Ralph (1965). Unsafe at Any Speed. New York: Grossman Publishers. ISBN 978-1561290505.
  194. ^ US NHTSA. "Highway Safety Act of 1966, 23 USC Chapter 4, As Amended by SAFETEA-LU Technical Corrections Act of 2008, Revision June 2008". nhtsa.gov. US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Retrieved June 25, 2014.
  195. ^ "The Mamas and the Papas, 'California Dreamin". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone Magazine. Retrieved July 11, 2014. #89 of the 500 Greatest Songs of All Time
  196. ^ Alan Clayson (2002). The Yardbirds: The Band that Launched Eric Clapton, Jeff Beck, Jimmy Page. Backbeat Books. pp. 107–. ISBN 978-0-87930-724-0.
  197. ^ Myers, Marc (2015-12-02). "The Beatles' 'Rubber Soul' Turns 50". The New York Times. Retrieved 2016-02-07. For most American teens, the arrival of the Beatles' "Rubber Soul" 50 years ago was unsettling. Instead of cheerleading for love, the album's songs held cryptic messages about thinking for yourself, the hypnotic power of women, something called "getting high" and bedding down with the opposite sex. Clearly, growing up wasn't going to be easy.
  198. ^ Lavezzoli, Peter (2006). The Dawn of Indian Music in the West. New York: Continuum. pp. 171–72. ISBN 978-0-8264-2819-6.
  199. ^ "Leary Arrested On Drug Charge". thecrimson.com. The Harvard Crimson, Inc. 1966-01-03. Retrieved 2018-04-28. Timothy Leary, former lecturer in Clinical Psychology, was arrested at the Mexican border Dec. 23 and charged by U.S. customs officials with the illegal possession of marijuana. The agents seized five ounces of the drug. Leary, his two children, and two associates posted $2500 bond in Laredo, Tex., and were released pending action on the charge. In a telephone interview last night from his home in Millbrook, N.Y., Leary said he was unsure whether he would be indicted before a Texas grand jury and was awaiting word from his lawyer. Leary was dismissed from his Harvard lectureship in 1962 for absenting himself from classes without University permission. He and Richard Alpert, assistant professor of Clinical Psychology, who was dismissed at the same time, had been conducting experiments with psychedelic drugs. Alpert was fired because he violated an agreement with the University and administered drugs to an undergraduate.
  200. ^ William S. McConnell (2004). The Counterculture Movement of the 1960s. Greenhaven Press. ISBN 978-0-7377-1819-5.
  201. ^ "Archived: Grateful Dead Live at Fillmore Auditorium on 1966-01-08". archive.org. 1967. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
  202. ^ Tom Wolfe (2008). The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. pp. 353–. ISBN 978-1-4299-6114-1.
  203. ^ William McKeen (2000). Rock and Roll is Here to Stay: An Anthology. Norton. pp. 173–. ISBN 978-0-393-04700-4.
  204. ^ R. Serge Denisoff (1975). Solid Gold: The Popular Record Industry. Transaction Publishers. pp. 339–. ISBN 978-1-4128-3479-7.
  205. ^ Getlen, Larry (2016-11-19). "This guy made the best LSD of the '60s". New York Post. Retrieved 2016-11-19. For many, the psychedelic Sixties began at an event called the Trips Festival that took place in San Francisco the third weekend of January 1966. At the three-day blowout, between 3,000 and 5,000 people tripping on LSD — more than had ever experienced the drug together — let loose. Grateful Dead guitarist Jerry Garcia called it "total, wall-to-wall gonzo lunacy", noting there were "people jumping off balconies onto blankets and then bouncing up and down". Hell's Angels fought with other biker gangs while a member of the Merry Pranksters, the experimental LSD crew of author Ken Kesey — who attended the event in a "silver space suit with a helmet" — tried to pull Janis Joplin and her band off stage after just one song.
  206. ^ Symonds, Alexandria (2016-02-09). "'Valley of the Dolls,' by the Numbers". The New York Times. Retrieved 2016-06-18. When the actress Jacqueline Susann was diagnosed with breast cancer in 1962, she made a deal with God: She would settle for 10 more years of life. . . if she could become the world's most popular writer. In the 12 years that followed, she became just that: the first novelist to achieve three consecutive New York Times No. 1 best sellers, and one of the richest self-made women in America. Her first novel, Valley of the Dolls, remains a pop-culture touchstone: a gleefully salacious story of friendship, sex, backstabbing and pills (or dolls) that won famous fans and detractors alike. (Susann, who died in 1974, made hundreds of appearances to support the novel and is credited with inventing the modern book tour.) Now celebrating its 50th anniversary, the tawdry tale of Anne Welles, Jennifer North and Neely O'Hara hasn't lost its punch. Here, a look at the vital stats behind one of the most talked-about books of all time.
  207. ^ Meltzer, Marisa (2016-03-12). "'Valley of the Dolls,' Pitched to a New Generation". The New York Times. Retrieved 2016-06-18.
  208. ^ a b Barry Miles (2010). London Calling: A Countercultural History of London since 1945. Atlantic Books, Limited. pp. 142–. ISBN 978-1-84887-554-8.
  209. ^ Weil, Andrew (1966-03-14). "Leary Plans Drug Conviction Appeal, Urges Test Case of Marijuana Laws". thecrimson.com. Harvard Crimson. Retrieved 2016-02-25. Timothy F. Leary, convicted Friday on marijuana charges, told the Boston CRIMSON yesterday that a "battery of lawyers" would appeal his sentence of 30 years imprisonment and a $30,000 fine. The former Harvard lecturer on Psychology said he would also try to make his case a legal test of current laws on marijuana.
  210. ^ "Song Stories: Eight Miles High". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
  211. ^ Richie Unterberger (2003). Eight Miles High: Folk-rock's Flight from Haight-Ashbury to Woodstock. Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-0-87930-743-1.
  212. ^ Fong-Torres, Ben (1970-07-23). "David Crosby: The Rolling Stone Interview". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone Magazine. Retrieved 2015-11-08.
  213. ^ Shirleene Robinson; Julie Ustinoff (2012). The 1960s in Australia: People, Power and Politics. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 207–. ISBN 978-1-4438-3676-0.
  214. ^ "Australian women protest conscription during Vietnam War [Save Our Sons (SOS)], 1965–1972". nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu. Swarthmore College, etal. Retrieved 2016-03-01.
  215. ^ David Luhrssen; Michael Larson (2017). Encyclopedia of Classic Rock. ABC-CLIO. pp. 305–. ISBN 978-1-4408-3514-8.
  216. ^ McCormack, Ed (2014-01-13). "A Last Waltz on the Wild Side". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 2017-03-16. The doctor turned out to be the notorious society and show-business croaker Robert Freymann, supposedly the original "Dr. Feelgood." His past patients were rumored to range from J.F.K. to the Beatles, and a veritable Who's Who of prominent speed freaks still gathered in his office at an ungodly hour for his magic vitamins. ("Day or night he'll be there, any time at all," the Beatles sang in their musical tribute "Doctor Robert," which Paul McCartney admitted was inspired by the doctor "who kept New York high.")
  217. ^ Erika Dyck (2010). Psychedelic Psychiatry: LSD from Clinic to Campus. JHU Press. pp. 131–. ISBN 978-1-4214-0075-4.
  218. ^ John Bassett Mccleary (2013). Hippie Dictionary: A Cultural Encyclopedia of the 1960s and 1970s. Potter/TenSpeed/Harmony. pp. 315–. ISBN 978-0-307-81433-3.
  219. ^ "Timothy Leary: An Inventory of His Collection at the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center". lib.utexas.edu. University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved 2016-02-25. From as early as 1962 until 1970, Leary had been arrested and incarcerated on drug-related charges in Mexico, British West Indies, Texas, New York, Michigan, and California. In April 1966, the Millbrook estate was raided by local police, led by G. Gordon Liddy then of the Dutchess County Sheriff's Department, and four people, including Leary, were arrested for possession of drugs. Following his arrest, Leary, to avoid constant harassment, founded the League for Spiritual Discovery which was a religious movement that sought constitutional protection for the right to take LSD as a sacramental substance.
  220. ^ Simmons, Bob (2012-02-19). "Bob Simmons on Timothy Leary and the Raid on Millbrook". nytimes.com. East Village Other via New York Times. Retrieved 2016-02-25. Images of original EVO pages included.
  221. ^ "Neal Cassady at Timothy Leary's Millbrook Estate". corbisimages.com. Corbis. Neal Cassady at Millbrook
  222. ^ Christopher Partridge (2006). The Re-Enchantment of the West, Vol 2: Alternative Spiritualities, Sacralization, Popular Culture and Occulture. A&C Black. pp. 99–. ISBN 978-0-567-04123-4.
  223. ^ Jim DeRogatis (2003). Turn on Your Mind: Four Decades of Great Psychedelic Rock. Hal Leonard Corporation. pp. 53–. ISBN 978-0-634-05548-5.
  224. ^ "Students Keep Up Anti-Draft Sit-in at U.C." The Chicago Tribune. 1966-05-16. Retrieved 2016-04-07.
  225. ^ Charles L. Granata; Tony Asher (1 October 2016). Wouldn't It Be Nice: Brian Wilson and the Making of the Beach Boys' Pet Sounds. Chicago Review Press. ISBN 978-1-61373-840-5.
  226. ^ Guriel, Jason (2016-05-16). "How Pet Sounds Invented the Modern Pop Album". theatlantic.com. The Atlantic Monthly Group. Retrieved 2018-06-03. It was a record of a great artist's mind, popular music's first long-form investigation into the psyche of an auteur.
  227. ^ Shapiro, Fred (2006). Yale Book of Quotations. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10798-2.
  228. ^ Bronson, p. 201
  229. ^ E .F. Schumacher: His Life and Thought by Barbara Wood. Harper & Row, 1984. ISBN 0-06-015356-3, (p. 348–349).
  230. ^ "Resurgence • Magazine issues 1966–1969". www.resurgence.org.
  231. ^ Howard Friel (2013). Chomsky and Dershowitz: On Endless War and the End of Civil Liberties. Interlink Publishing Group, Incorporated. pp. 23–. ISBN 978-1-62371-035-4.
  232. ^ Peter Hitchens (6 December 2012). The War We Never Fought: The British Establishment's Surrender to Drugs. A&C Black. pp. 103–. ISBN 978-1-4411-7206-8.
  233. ^ Simon Wells (2012). The Great Rolling Stones Drugs Bust. Music Sales Group. pp. 94–. ISBN 978-0-85712-711-2.
  234. ^ "Miranda v. Arizona; et al, Facts and Case Summary". uscourts.gov. Administrative Office of the US Courts. Retrieved May 23, 2014.
  235. ^ Dave Marsh; James Bernard (1 November 1994). New Book of Rock Lists. Simon and Schuster. pp. 398–. ISBN 978-0-671-78700-4.
  236. ^ Chris Woodstra; John Bush; Stephen Thomas Erlewine (2007). All Music Guide Required Listening: Classic Rock. Backbeat Books. pp. 251–. ISBN 978-0-87930-917-6.
  237. ^ Anna L. Harvey (1998). Votes Without Leverage: Women in American Electoral Politics, 1920–1970. Cambridge University Press. pp. 228–. ISBN 978-0-521-59743-2.
  238. ^ Turner, Steve (2016). Beatles '66: The Revolutionary Year. New York: HarperLuxe. p. 353. ISBN 978-0-06-249713-0.
  239. ^ Stuart Shea; Robert Rodriguez (2007). Fab Four FAQ: Everything Left to Know about the Beatles – and More!. Hal Leonard. pp. 75–. ISBN 978-1-4234-2138-2.
  240. ^ Wolcott, James (2016-02-05). "Why the Cinema of Swinging London Matters, 50 Years Later". Vanity Fair. Conde Nast. Retrieved 2016-02-25. A heavy whiff of fascism attended the rise to cultural power of teenyboppers and twentysomethings and the emergence of the pop messiah. "We're more popular than Jesus now," John Lennon infamously told London's Evening Standard in 1966, a comment that caused little stir in England but set off a fury here in the States, especially in the Bible Belt, where Beatles records and souvenirs were fed to bonfires, much as disco albums would be a decade later.
  241. ^ Cleave, Maureen (2009-12-18). "Maureen Cleave: Did I break up The Beatles?". Daily Mail / Associated Newspapers. Retrieved 2016-05-10.
  242. ^ Richie Unterberger (2002). Turn! Turn! Turn!: The '60s Folk-rock Revolution. Backbeat Books. pp. 234–. ISBN 978-0-87930-703-5.
  243. ^ "Beatles to avoid Philippines" (64th Year-No. 221). AP via Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. 1966-07-08. Retrieved 2015-12-29.
  244. ^ Thomson, Elizabeth (2014-02-14). "Five myths about Bob Dylan". Washington Post. Retrieved 2015-11-07.
  245. ^ "Lenny Bruce, Uninhibited Comic, Found Dead in Hollywood Home". nytimes.com. AP via New York Times Co. August 3, 1966. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  246. ^ Larkin, Colin (2006). Encyclopedia of Popular Music. 1. Muze. p. 489. ISBN 978-0-19-531373-4.
  247. ^ Lavezzoli, Peter (2006). The Dawn of Indian Music in the West. New York: Continuum. p. 175. ISBN 978-0-8264-2819-6.
  248. ^ David Scott Kastan (2006). The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature. Oxford University Press. pp. 139–. ISBN 978-0-19-516921-8.
  249. ^ Ghosh, Palash (August 29, 2012). "Beatles Last Concert At Candlestick Park: The Dream Is Over (Analysis)". ibtimes.com. International Business Times/IBT Media. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  250. ^ "The Monkees – 1967". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2016-02-07. In 1967 the Monkees sold more records than the Beatles and Rolling Stones combined...
  251. ^ J. Harold Ellens; Thomas B. Roberts Ph.D. (2015). The Psychedelic Policy Quagmire: Health, Law, Freedom, and Society: Health, Law, Freedom, and Society. ABC-CLIO. pp. 52–. ISBN 978-1-4408-3971-9.
  252. ^ "Love Pageant". pbs.org. American Experience/PBS. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  253. ^ Unknown (1966). "Love Pageant Rally". centerforhomemovies.org. Retrieved 2016-03-24. About the Film On October 6, 1966, the day LSD was made illegal in California a group of hippies, said to fall somewhere around 1,000 in number, gathered on San Francisco's Panhandle for the Love Pageant Rally. The organizers, Allen Cohen and Michael Bowen, were key figures with the San Francisco Oracle (12 issues between September 1966 and February 1968), an underground publication credited for shaping Haight-Ashbury's burgeoning counterculture. Cohen and Bowen framed the event not as a protest, but as a celebration of "transcendental consciousness" and the "beauty of being." While less known than events that followed, this gathering marked a seminal moment in the counterculture revolution of the 1960s. This short document of the Love Pageant Rally features several notable figures from the Haight-Ashbury scene at the time. Striking in the film is how clearly the movement is on the cusp of both of breaking through and falling, if not apart, at least away from its idyllic core. There are two primary focuses in its three minutes: Ken Kesey's Merry Pranksters and a performance by Big Brother and the Holding Company featuring Janis Joplin. Some groovy dancing does receive significant screen time, but for the sake of this brief essay, lets imagine they're grooving to Big Brother. The differences between where each stood in regards to their participation in hippie culture presents an interesting glimpse at the seismic shift the countercultural revolution rested at the edge of.
  254. ^ Domenic Priore; Brian Wilson; Van Dyke Parks (2005-03-07). Smile: The Story of Brian Wilson's Lost Masterpiece. Music Sales Limited. pp. 115–. ISBN 978-1-78323-198-0.
  255. ^ Caswell, Tasha (September 14, 2014). ""Free Bobby, Free Ericka": The New Haven Black Panther Trials". wnpr.org. WNPR / Connecticut Public Broadcasting. Retrieved October 6, 2014. The Black Panther Party, formed in 1966 in Oakland, California by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale, was a revolutionary socialist organization that strove to end the oppression of black people in the United States. It adopted a ten-point plan that called for autonomy, employment, free healthcare, decent housing, financial reparations for slavery, the end of police brutality against black people, the release of black prisoners from jails, fair trials, and black nationalism. In practice, the Panthers focused much of their attention on policing the police, often resorting to violence. The FBI had taken notice. J. Edgar Hoover said in 1968 that the Black Panther Party was "the greatest threat to the internal security of the country." By 1969, the Black Panther Party was well known nationally and had spread across the country.
  256. ^ United States. Congress. House. Committee on Internal Security (1970). The Black Panther Party, its origin and development as reflected in its official weekly newspaper, the Black panther: black community news service; staff study, Ninety-first Congress, second session. U.S. Government Printing Office.
  257. ^ "The Black Panther". The British Library Board. Retrieved 2016-02-06. The Black Panther: The Black Panther Party was a radical, revolutionary political group formed in October 1966 by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale. The Black Panther symbol had been used previously by the Lowndes County Freedom Organization which fought for black voting rights in Alabama.
  258. ^ "On this day in 1966: John meets Yoko". pbs.org/newshour. MacNeil / Lehrer Productions. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
  259. ^ Rasmussen, Cecilia (August 5, 2007). "Closing of club ignited the 'Sunset Strip riots'". latimes.com. The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 6, 2014. Young rock fans take to the streets after the shuttering of Pandora's Box in 1966. The unrest inspired Stephen Stills' landmark anthem.
  260. ^ John Einarson (2004). For What It's Worth: The Story of Buffalo Springfield. Cooper Square Press. pp. 125–. ISBN 978-0-8154-1281-6.
  261. ^ Lopez, Steve (2016-11-16). "50 years ago, the Sunset Strip riots made L.A. the 'magical' epicenter of a revolution". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2016-11-16. Los Angeles was the epicenter of rupture in the '60s — a civil rights uprising, a growing antiwar movement and a cultural revolution that was built in large part around the rock, folk and psychedelic music scene on Sunset Boulevard, which had quickly evolved from Frank Sinatra to Frank Zappa. For several years, the Strip was the international center of a movement that John Densmore, the Doors drummer, refers to as magical. "So we're the house band at the Whiskey a Go Go, and I'm sitting upstairs looking out the window," Densmore said. "It's like a Tuesday night, and it's complete gridlock and thousands of hippies on the street and I said, 'Wow, we're taking over.'" But the nightly throngs rattled the nerves of homeowners and some merchants. Local officials ordered a curfew and a crackdown. Pandora's Box, a popular club at Sunset and Crescent Heights Boulevard, had been scheduled for demolition, and rebels rallied Nov. 12, 1966, in an effort to save it. The Times reported that Sonny and Cher, Jack Nicholson and Peter Fonda were among the demonstrators, and that Fonda was carted away in handcuffs.
  262. ^ "Film Censorship: Noteworthy Moments in History". aclu.org. American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved August 11, 2014. Rather than cut nude scenes from Blow-Up, Michelangelo Antonioni chooses to release it without an MPAA seal.
  263. ^ Mikulecky, Don (8 June 2015). "Does anyone remember the Diggers?". Daily Kos. Retrieved 30 November 2016. On December 17, 1966, the Diggers held a happening called "The Death of Money" in which they dressed in animal masks and carried a large coffin full of fake money down Haight Street, singing "Get out my life, why don't you babe?" to the tune of Chopin's "Death March."
  264. ^ "Gene Anthony Gallery of Digger Photographs". The Digger Archives. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  265. ^ "Comprehensive information about Richard Brautigan, his life, and writings – 1960s Chronology". BRAUTIGAN.net. John F. Barber, Curator and Archivist. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  266. ^ "IT – International Times Archive". www.internationaltimes.it.
  267. ^ Miles, Barry (2002). In the Sixties. Jonathon Cape. ISBN 9780224062404. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  268. ^ Comoratta, Len (May 15, 2011). "Rock History 101: Freeform Radio". Consequence of Sound • A Member of Townsquare Music. Retrieved March 1, 2015. In the early days of FM, broadcasts were principally educational programming and classical music aimed at a more "upmarket listenership." AM stations simply duplicated their programming onto the FM band, widening their audience with little effort. In 1965, the Federal Communications Commission enacted the FM Non-Duplication Rule. Until this law, AM stations were allowed to rebroadcast the majority of their programming on their FM stations. However, with the passage of the FM Non-Duplication Rule, as of January 1, 1967, FM stations would have to broadcast original content over 50% of their broadcast day. Station programmers and owners now faced with having to create original content were forced to exit the box that was the Top 40 format and begin experimenting.
  269. ^ Jim Cox (2013). Radio After the Golden Age: The Evolution of American Broadcasting Since 1960. McFarland. pp. 59–. ISBN 978-0-7864-7434-9.
  270. ^ Wheeler Winston Dixon (2013). Cinema at the Margins. Anthem Press. pp. 36–. ISBN 978-1-78308-016-8.
  271. ^ David Marc (2011). Demographic Vistas: Television in American Culture. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 78–. ISBN 978-0-8122-0271-7.
  272. ^ "The Year of the Hippie/Summer of Love". pbs.org. American Experience/PBS. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  273. ^ Sanking, Aaron (September 11, 2012). "Human Be-In Planned In Golden Gate Park This Weekend (PHOTOS)". huffingtonpost.com. The Huffington Post. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  274. ^ "Human Be-In". youtube.com. Amateur Footage Uploaded to Youtube by unknown author. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  275. ^ "Grateful Dead at The Human Be-in". youtube.com. 1967-01-14. Retrieved 2016-08-20. Amateur footage (some enhanced with modern post-production effects) of the Grateful Dead performing at Human Be-In, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco
  276. ^ Mark Brend (2012). The Sound of Tomorrow: How Electronic Music Was Smuggled into the Mainstream. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 6–. ISBN 978-1-62356-529-9.
  277. ^ Haripada Adhikary (2012). Unifying Force of Hinduism: The Harekrsna Movement. AuthorHouse. pp. 213–. ISBN 978-1-4685-0393-7.
  278. ^ File:1967 Mantra-Rock Dance Avalon poster.jpg
  279. ^ Jerome L. Rodnitzky (1999). Feminist Phoenix: The Rise and Fall of a Feminist Counterculture. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 73–. ISBN 978-0-275-96575-4.
  280. ^ "Jefferson Airplane: Surrealistic Pillow". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. August 27, 1987. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  281. ^ Mushrooms are clearly visible between Grace Slick and Marty Balin's heads
  282. ^ "Paul Kantner: Leader of Jefferson Airplane whose psychedelic harmonies became the soundtrack to the counter-culture". The Telegraph. 29 Jan 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  283. ^ Chomsky, Noam (February 23, 1967). "A Special Supplement: The Responsibility of Intellectuals". nybooks.com. NYREV, Inc. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  284. ^ Bodroghkozy, Aniko. "The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour". museum.tv. The Museum of Broadcast Communications. Retrieved May 17, 2014.
  285. ^ Robinson, Will. "Watch the never-before-seen Beatles video for 'A Day in the Life'". ew.com. Entertainment Weekly, Inc. Retrieved 2015-12-27.
  286. ^ Miles, Barry (1997). Paul McCartney: Many Years From Now. New York: Henry Holt & Company. ISBN 978-0-8050-5249-7.
  287. ^ Jeff Land (1999). Active Radio: Pacifica's Brash Experiment. University of Minnesota Press. pp. 118–. ISBN 978-1-4529-0372-9.
  288. ^ Scott, A.O. (September 18, 2012). "Rekindling the Spirit of the '60s, Even for Those Who Can't Remember". nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved July 26, 2014. On the night of Feb. 11, 1967, hundreds — maybe thousands — of people congregated in the international terminal of Kennedy Airport, not to embark on flights to far-flung places but rather, well, it isn't entirely clear or relevant. The gathering was an impromptu party, a nonpolitical demonstration, a happening named, in the spirit of the times, a fly-in. Now we might be inclined to see it as a prehistoric flash mob, an example of the power of communication technology to create instantaneous, ephemeral but nonetheless meaningful communities.
  289. ^ Christopher H. Sterling; Cary O'Dell (2011). The Concise Encyclopedia of American Radio. Routledge. pp. 311–. ISBN 978-1-135-17684-6.
  290. ^ Greenfield, Robert (August 19, 1971). "Keith Richard: The Rolling Stone Interview". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. Retrieved July 3, 2014. From the Archives
  291. ^ Sheila Whiteley (2003). The Space Between the Notes: Rock and the Counter-Culture. Routledge. pp. 66–. ISBN 978-1-134-91662-7.
  292. ^ Green, Jonathon (1988). Days In The Life: Voices from the English Underground 1961–1971. Heinemann. ISBN 978-1-448-10444-4. I remember Christopher Hills, who ran the Centre House, calling down one day, 'Can you please not smoke marijuana – we can smell it on the third floor.' After that we put in a guest book which said, 'I am not in possession of any kind of drugs,' and everyone signed it including Yoko Ono
  293. ^ "Life Magazine Cover February 17, 1967". Life Magazine. Retrieved May 6, 2014.
  294. ^ Ratliff, Ben (January 11, 2012). "Present at the Counterculture's Creation". nytimes.com. The New York Times Co. Retrieved May 6, 2014.
  295. ^ Horwitz, Jane (September 5, 2006). "Backstage: She Hopes 'MacBird' Flies in a New Era". washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post. Retrieved May 17, 2014.
  296. ^ page 15 of Growing a new agrarian myth: the american agriculture movement, identity, and the call to save the family farm by Ryan J. Stockwell
  297. ^ McNeill, Don (March 30, 1967). "The 1967 Central Park Be-In: A 'Medieval Pageant'". villagevoice.com. Village Voice. Archived from the original on April 17, 2014. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  298. ^ Wainwright, Loudon (March 31, 1967). The Strange New Love Land of the Hippies. Time, Inc. pp. 15–16. Retrieved October 5, 2014. Life Magazine via Google Books
  299. ^ "Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Global Freedom Struggle (sourced)". stanford.edu. Martin Luther King, Jr. Research & Education Center. Archived from the original on 2014-01-25. Retrieved May 3, 2014.
  300. ^ "TIME Magazine Cover: The Pill". Time.com. April 7, 1967. Retrieved March 20, 2010.
  301. ^ "Photos: Nashville race riots 1967". tennessean.com. Gannett (archive.tennessean.com). February 29, 2008. Archived from the original on May 17, 2014. Retrieved May 17, 2014.
  302. ^ "The MOBE: "What are we waiting for?"". pbs.org. PBS / Independent Television Service (ITVS). Retrieved August 11, 2014. After the elections, the committee became the Spring Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, which organized major anti-war demonstrations that took place in April 1967. In New York City, 400,000 protesters marched from Central Park to the United Nations, with speakers including Martin Luther King Jr., and Stokely Carmichael. 75,000 gathered for a similar rally in San Francisco.
  303. ^ Hlavaty, Craig (April 28, 2014). "47 years ago today, Muhammad Ali refused the draft in Houston". chron.com. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved October 5, 2014. (Report with photos) Forty-seven years ago today, Muhammad Ali made headlines for refusing to be drafted into the U.S. Army on the grounds of being a conscientious objector, and it all happened here in Houston. It would set off a chain of events that wouldn't cease until a 1971 Supreme Court decision reversed his conviction.
  304. ^ "Pink Floyd – John Lennon & The 14 Hour Technicolour Dream". youtube.com. Retrieved 2018-08-08. Footage from the 14 Hour Technicolor dream
  305. ^ "1967 Hippies at Detroit Love-in rally newsreel archival stock footage". youtube. 1967. Retrieved 2018-02-18.
  306. ^ Walt Crowley (1995). Rites of Passage: A Memoir of the Sixties in Seattle. University of Washington Press. pp. 83–. ISBN 978-0-295-97492-7.
  307. ^ Winkler, Adam (July 24, 2011). "The Secret History of Guns". theatlantic.com. The Atlantic Monthly Group. Retrieved October 10, 2014. It was May 2, 1967, and the Black Panthers' invasion of the California statehouse launched the modern gun-rights movement.
  308. ^ "Yarrowstalks Archives". library.temple.edu. Temple University. 1977. Retrieved October 14, 2014. Twelve issues of Yarrowstalks were published in Philadelphia from 1967 until 1975. Most of the activity was concentrated at the beginning of the period, in the heyday of underground press activity. The "summer of love" in 1967 saw the birth of about 100 underground publications nationwide, and Yarrowstalks was one of the first. It was the most physically appealing of the first wave in its creative use of color and artwork. In contrast to the other Philadelphia papers, Yarrowstalks leaned away from the politics. Like New York's East Village Other and the San Francisco Oracle, Yarrowstalks was among the first underground paper to explore the graphic possibilities of cold-type offset printing. Color was splashed over pages with sketches and text. The Oracle, particularly, was responsible for making newspaper graphics an art form, and it published some of the most beautiful and trend-setting psychedelic art of the 1960s. Yarrowstalks was Philadelphia's Oracle, and it was the first of the undergrounds to publish the cartoons of Robert Crumb, an ex-Hallmark illustrator who has become the leading artist of underground "commix." In his character, Mr. Natural, he captured the feeling of the movement. Mr. Natural graced Yarrowstalks that summer and subsequently appeared in most of the alternative publications in the country.
  309. ^ Peter Hitchens (2013). The War We Never Fought: The British Establishment's Surrender to Drugs. A&C Black. pp. 107–. ISBN 978-1-4411-7331-7.
  310. ^ Bryson, William (May 22, 1967). "Texas Southern University: Born in Sin, A College Finally Makes Houston Listen". thecrimson.com. The Harvard Crimson, Inc. Retrieved October 15, 2014. Since this article was written, the situation at Texas Southern has become even worse. A policeman was killed in rioting last week, and 488 people were arrested.
  311. ^ Zoch, Louis (May 2010). "Fallen Officers Remembered: Louis Kuba". hpou.org. Houston Police Officers' Union. Archived from the original on 2014-10-15. Retrieved January 14, 2015. At 2:20 a.m., a group of officers were near the northwest corner of the University Center, lined up along a wall awaiting directions from supervisors at the scene. Chief Short, like all of the other officers, took cover wherever possible. The chief directed officers to fire only when fired upon and only above the building or directly at a known source of the gunfire. Reporters Charley Schneider of The Houston Post and Nick Gearhardt of KHOU-TV (Channel 11), were with this group of officers. Schneider said that there were two officers and a TV newsman in front of him. He said that Officer Louis Kuba was directly behind him with his hand on Schneider's shoulder. Heavy fire continued from the dorm and Schneider suddenly felt Kuba's hand become limp. Turning, he saw the officer slumping backward into Gearhardt's outstretched arms, an expressionless look on his face and blood pouring from his forehead. Schneider reported in a Post article the following day, "There was no riot at TSU. It was war." An ambulance rushed the wounded officer to Ben Taub General Hospital. He died at 8:38 a.m. from a bullet wound above his right eye. Quiet, easy-going, even-tempered, Officer Louis Raymond Kuba, only thirty-four days out of Class No. 34, was only twenty-five.
  312. ^ Crane, Ralph (April 1967). "1967: Pictures from a Pivotal Year". life.time.com. Time, Inc. Retrieved January 14, 2015.
  313. ^ Andrew E. Hunt (2001). The Turning: A History of Vietnam Veterans Against the War. NYU Press. pp. 11–12. ISBN 978-0-8147-3635-7.
  314. ^ "VVAW / FAQ / Who founded Vietnam Veterans Against the War?". vvaw.org. Vietnam Veterans Against the War. Retrieved October 15, 2014. On June 1, 1967, six Vietnam veterans gathered in Barry's apartment to form VVAW. Another vet associated with the early days of VVAW is Carl Rogers. Rogers held a press conference upon his return from his Vietnam service as a chaplain's assistant announcing his opposition to the war. Barry recruited him and at some point he became "vice president" of VVAW. Other early influential members who are mentioned are David Braum, John Talbot, and Art Blank. Jan Barry also lists Steve Greene and Frank (Rocky) Rocks
  315. ^ Walter C. Rucker; James N. Upton (2007). Encyclopedia of American Race Riots. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-33302-6.
  316. ^ Coyote, Peter (2007-05-20). "Summer of Love: 40 Years Later". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2018-02-18. Peter Coyote, well-known film and television actor. THEN: One of Haight-Ashbury's irrepressible Diggers...
  317. ^ Weller, Sheila (July 2012). "Suddenly That Summer". Vanity Fair / Conde Nast. Vanity Fair. Retrieved January 14, 2015. It was billed as "the Summer of Love," a blast of glamour, ecstasy, and Utopianism that drew some 75,000 young people to the San Francisco streets in 1967. Who were the true movers behind the Haight-Ashbury happening that turned America on to a whole new age?
  318. ^ Light, Alan (2007-07-12). "Summer of Love: London – Tightly knit, decadent and explosively creative, the scene was too good to last". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2016-02-08.
  319. ^ "500 Greatest Albums of All Time: #1- The Beatles, 'Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band'". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. Retrieved October 18, 2014. At the same time, Sgt. Pepper formally ushered in an unforgettable season of hope, upheaval and achievement: the late 1960s and, in particular, 1967's Summer of Love. In its iridescent instrumentation, lyric fantasias and eye-popping packaging, Sgt. Pepper defined the opulent revolutionary optimism of psychedelia and instantly spread the gospel of love, acid, Eastern spirituality and electric guitars around the globe. No other pop record of that era, or since, has had such an immediate, titanic impact. This music documents the world's biggest rock band at the very height of its influence and ambition.
  320. ^ The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature. Oxford University Press. 2006. pp. 139–. ISBN 978-0-19-516921-8.
  321. ^ Paul Hegarty; Martin Halliwell (June 23, 2011). Beyond and Before: Progressive Rock since the 1960s. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 30–. ISBN 978-1-4411-1480-8.
  322. ^ "Photos: KFRC Fantasy Fair 1967 and Mountain Music Festival". jeffersonairplane.com. Jefferson Airplane, Inc. June 1967. Retrieved January 14, 2015.
  323. ^ Newman, Jason (2014-06-14). "The Untold and Deeply Stoned Story of the First U.S. Rock Festival: How the Doors, Byrds and nearly 30 other bands, a pack of Hells Angels and a lot of drugs made history at Fantasy Fair & Magic Mountain". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2018-03-20. On June 10th and 11th, 1967 — one week before the Monterey Pop Festival and two years before Woodstock — tens of thousands of Bay Area music fans converged on the Sydney B. Cushing Memorial Amphitheatre on Mount Tamalpais in Marin County, California, for the first U.S. rock festival. Conceived as a promotion for the KFRC 610 AM radio station, the Fantasy Fair and Magic Mountain Music Festival featured more than 30 acts, including the Doors, Jefferson Airplane, the Byrds and Captain Beefheart & the Magic Band, as well as a group of Hells Angels and an "acid doctor" to mitigate bad trips. Arguably, the festival was the true start of the Summer of Love, and this is its previously untold story.
  324. ^ Coleman, Arica (2016-06-10). "What You Didn't Know About Loving v. Virginia". Time. Retrieved 2016-08-10. The landmark civil rights Supreme Court case—which made it illegal to ban interracial marriage—was about more than black and white
  325. ^ Marshall, Jim. "Hippie story (Photos)". loc.gov. Look via Library of Congress. Retrieved 2015-11-16. Summary: Photographs show hippies in the Haight-Ashbury section of San Francisco, Calif. Includes people at a "feed-in"; a man injecting drugs; the rock group The Grateful Dead performing in Golden Gate Park; people dancing in the park; a man selling small pictures on a street; a woman delivering mail; Allen Cohen, publisher of Oracle magazine. Also Look editor William Hedgepeth in a group portrait with his house-mates. Unpublished photographs show a young woman holding a flower; with a puppy; with a kitten; hugging a man. Also people in a San Francisco park; a man blowing large soap bubbles.
  326. ^ Spangler, Jay. "McCartney Interview: LSD and Journalism, 6/19/1967". beatlesinterviews.org. Retrieved 2016-10-06. Q: "Paul, how often have you taken LSD?" PAUL: (pause) "About four times." Q: "And where did you get it from?" PAUL: "Well, you know, if I was to say where I got it from, you know, I mean... it's illegal and everything... it's silly to say that, you know. So I'd rather not say that." Q: "Don't you believe that this is a matter which you should have kept private?" PAUL: "Mmm, but the thing is – I was asked a question by a newspaper, and the decision was whether to tell a lie or tell him the truth. I decided to tell him the truth... but I really didn't want to say anything, you know, because if I had my way I wouldn't have told anyone. I'm not trying to spread the word about this. But the man from the newspaper is the man from the mass medium. I'll keep it a personal thing if he does too you know... if he keeps it quiet. But he wanted to spread it so it's his responsibility, you know, for spreading it not mine."
  327. ^ "Paul McCartney admits taking LSD". 94.7 WCSX-Greater Media. Archived from the original on 2016-10-09. Retrieved 2016-10-06. Video of McCartney Interview
  328. ^ Thompson, Thomas (16 June 1967). "LIFE - New Far-Out Beatles". Time Inc.
  329. ^ Barney Hoskyns (2010). Hotel California: The True-Life Adventures of Crosby, Stills, Nash, Young, Mitchell, Taylor, Browne, Ronstadt, Geffen, the Eagles, and Their Many Friends. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 17–. ISBN 978-1-118-04050-8.
  330. ^ David S. Kidder; Noah D. Oppenheim (2008). The Intellectual Devotional Modern Culture: Revive Your Mind, Complete Your Education, and Converse Confidently with the Culturati. Rodale. pp. 248–. ISBN 978-1-60529-793-4.
  331. ^ "The Monterey Pop Festival reaches its climax". history.com. A&E Television Network. Retrieved 2018-05-29. Some 200,000 people attended the Monterey Pop Festival over its three-day schedule, many of whom had descended upon the west coast inspired by the same spirit expressed in the Scott McKenzie song "San Francisco (Be Sure To Wear Flowers In Your Hair)," written by festival organizer John Phillips of the Mamas and the Papas expressly as a promotional tune for the festival. The Summer of Love that followed Monterey may have failed to usher in a lasting era of peace and love, but the festival introduced much of the music that has come to define that particular place and time.
  332. ^ Johnson Publishing Company (1995). Ebony. Johnson Publishing Company. pp. 136–. ISSN 0012-9011.
  333. ^ Edward M., Brecher (1972). "The Consumers Union Report on Licit and Illicit Drugs – Chapter 51. How the hazards of LSD were augmented, 1962–1969". Schaffer Library of Drug Policy. Consumer Reports Magazine. Retrieved 19 December 2016. 32 were treated at the Haight-Ashbury Medical Clinic. "All but one of these 32 patients were returned to their homes or to the care of their friends within a few hours, following explanation and very mild sedation," Dr. David E. Smith subsequently reported. Seven other users, however, were arrested and imprisoned–– and then, as their symptoms grew worse, were taken to the San Francisco General Hospital. They suffered much more severe and prolonged illnesses.
  334. ^ Gecker, Jocelyn (2017-02-09). "San Francisco denies permit for 'Summer of Love' concert". AP via multiple outlets. Retrieved 2017-02-15.[permanent dead link]
  335. ^ Roger Beebe; Jason Middleton (2007). Medium Cool: Music Videos from Soundies to Cellphones. Duke University Press. pp. 256–. ISBN 978-0-8223-9020-6.
  336. ^ George Martin (1994). All You Need Is Ears: The Inside Personal Story of the Genius who Created The Beatles. St. Martin's Press. pp. 193–. ISBN 978-0-312-11482-4.
  337. ^ "The Hippies: The Philosophy of a Subculture". Time Magazine. 1967-07-07. Retrieved 2015-11-16. Article Summary: One sociologist calls them "the Freudian proletariat." Another observer sees them as "expatriates living on our shores but beyond our society." Historian Arnold Toynbee describes them as "a red warning light for the American way of life." For California's Bishop James Pike, they evoke the early Christians: "There is something about the temper and quality of these people, a gentleness, a quietness, an interest—something good." To their deeply worried parents throughout the country, they seem more like dangerously deluded dropouts, candidates for a very sound spanking and a cram course in civics—if only they would return...
  338. ^ Preston, John (2010-03-07). "London Calling by Barry Miles: review – The louche, the drunk, the ridiculously avant garde... London Calling by Barry Miles offers an entertaining tour of the capital's counterculture". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2016-06-17. That said, it's worth ploughing through almost any amount of detail to get to the story of Emmett Grogan, who in 1967 was one of the speakers who addressed the deeply unalluringly titled Dialectics of Liberation Congress at the Roundhouse in Chalk Farm. Grogan delivered a 10-minute speech all about 'effecting a real inner transformation' that was rapturously received by the assembled hippies. After the applause had died down, Grogan thanked the audience for their generosity, but pointed out that he was not, in fact, the first person to make this speech: it had originally been delivered by Adolf Hitler at the Reichstag in 1937. Whereupon the rapturous audience immediately turned into a baying lynch-mob.
  339. ^ "1967 Dialectics Participants Among the main participants at the 1967 Dialectics of Liberation Congress were". dialecticsofliberation.com. Dialectics of Liberation. Retrieved 2016-06-17.
  340. ^ Simons, Terry (2015-06-26). "A Brief History of the Counterculture". counterpunch.org. CounterPunch. Retrieved 2016-06-17.
  341. ^ Cullen, Tom A. (September 14, 1967). "Americans in London – England is Hippie Heaven". news.google.com/newspapers. Retrieved October 18, 2014.
  342. ^ "Photos: Pot Rally at Hyde Park, London (July 16th, 1967)". herbmuseum.ca. The Herb Museum. Retrieved October 18, 2014. "July 1967: A 'Legalise Pot' rally is held in London's Hyde Park; an advertisement in The Times, sponsored by SOMA, a drug research organisation, states: 'The law against marijuana is immoral in principle and unworkable in practice.' Signatories include the Beatles, RD Laing and Graham Greene." – from 100 Years of Altered States, The Guardian Newspaper (July 21, 2002)
  343. ^ "Photos and Detroit News page image captures". detroitnews.mycapture.com. The Detroit News. July 1967. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
  344. ^ McGee, Frank (1967). "1967 NBC News Special Report: Summer '67 "What We Learned"". youtube.com. NBC News. Retrieved June 6, 2014.
  345. ^ "Beatles' manager Epstein dies". bbc.co.uk. BBC. August 27, 1967. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  346. ^ File:The_Daily_Mirror,_Brian_Epstein_death.jpg
  347. ^ Greil Marcus (9 April 2013). The Doors: A Lifetime of Listening to Five Mean Years. PublicAffairs. pp. 87–. ISBN 978-1-61039-236-5.
  348. ^ Tony Currie (2001). The Radio Times Story. Kelly. pp. 118–. ISBN 978-1-903053-09-6.
  349. ^ Deborah Cartmell (2012). A Companion to Literature, Film and Adaptation. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 448–. ISBN 978-1-118-31204-9.
  350. ^ Hartlaub, Peter (2013-07-25). "Grateful Dead and the 710 Ashbury St. drug bust of 1967". sfgate.com. Hearst. Retrieved 2016-02-27. SF Chronicle excerpts and photos."
  351. ^ Daniels, Maria; et al. (1997). "OCTOBER 6, 1967 Death of the Hippie". pbs.org. PBS / American Experience (US). Retrieved October 24, 2014. Hippies stage a mock funeral to signal the end of San Francisco's overhyped, overattended hippie scene. As Mary Ellen Kasper will later recall, the message was, "Stay where you are! Bring the revolution to where you live."
  352. ^ Goldstein, Richard (October 19, 1967). "Love: A Groovy Idea While He Lasted". villagevoice.com. Village Voice, LLC. Archived from the original on May 2, 2014. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
  353. ^ Krajicek, David (2016-03-12). "'Groovy Murders' in 1967, when young wanderer and wealthy teen girlfriend were bludgeoned with bricks, rattled Greenwich Village's hippie culture". nydailynews.com. New York Daily News. Retrieved 2016-03-12. Police said she and Groovy were looking to score LSD at Tompkins Square on Oct. 7, a Saturday. Thomas Dennis, a young black man who was a fixture in the park, steered them a half-block away to a five-story Avenue B tenement. There they met Donald Ramsey, 26, a self-declared Yoruba priest who lived in the building with his wife and newborn son. Thomas Fink, a police boss, said the pair were "enticed into the basement, where they were given the drug."
  354. ^ Bourne, Richard (October 10, 1967). "Che Guevara, Marxist architect of revolution". guardian.com. Guardian News and Media. Retrieved October 18, 2014. Rumours of disagreements with Castro grew. After months of mystery Castro announced that Guevara, who was known to have a garibaldian yearning to liberate the entire Latin American land mass, had resigned Cuban citizenship and left for "a new field of battle in the struggle against imperialism". [web story is reprint of original article]
  355. ^ W.J. Rorabaugh Professor of History University of Washington (1989). Berkeley at War : The 1960s: The 1960s. Oxford University Press. pp. 118–. ISBN 978-0-19-802252-7.
  356. ^ Richards, Harvey; Richards, Paul. "Stop the Draft, December, 1967 – Draft Cards Burning, Sit ins, Stop the Draft Week". hrmediaarchive.estuarypress.com. Harvey Richards Media Archive / Paul Richards. Retrieved October 18, 2014. Photos & Text: top the Draft Week in December, 1967 at the Oakland Army Induction Center on Clay Street in downtown Oakland, California had many of the same actions that happened in October, 1967, just two months earlier. There was civil disobedience. Protesters blocked the doorway of the Center and were arrested. This time, protesters also sat down in front of the buses full of draftees. Draft eligible protesters publicly burned their draft cards in an open show of defiance against the draft and the laws that made it illegal to burn your draft card. Noticeably different in these photos is moderation of the police response. The streets were not cleared of protesters. Police did not stand with billy clubs at the ready. In the end, the draftees went into the center and the war machine continued.
  357. ^ "1967: Joan Baez arrested in Vietnam protest". news.bbc.co.uk. BBC. October 16, 1967. Retrieved October 18, 2014. Rallies across America have taken place in 30 US cities, from Boston to Atlanta, to protest against the continuing war in Vietnam. In Oakland, California, at least 40 anti-war protesters, including the folk singer Joan Baez, were arrested for taking part in a sit-in at a military induction centre. As many as 250 demonstrators had gathered to try and prevent conscripts from entering the building when the arrests were made. The 'Stop the Draft Week' protests are forming part of a nationwide initiative organised by a group calling itself 'the Resistance'. Accompanied by singing from Baez and others, the sitting protesters forced draftees to climb over them in order to get inside the building. As they entered they were handed leaflets asking them to change their minds, refuse induction and join the protests. Human barricade Police formed a human barricade to enable inductees to pass and then made their arrests. In New York, around 500 demonstrators marched to protest against the draft. Young men placed draft cards into boxes marked 'Resisters'. 181 draft cards and several hundred protest cards were presented to a US Marshal but he refused to accept them. The group then marched to a post office and posted them directly to the Attorney General in Washington. The anti-war movement took on an added gravity yesterday when Florence Beaumont, mother of two, burned herself to death. After soaking herself in petrol she set herself alight in front of the Federal Building, Los Angeles. Counter-demonstrations have been planned by the National Committee for Responsible Patriotism, based in New York. Parades have been scheduled for the weekend in support of "our boys in Vietnam".
  358. ^ John Rockwell (2014). The New York Times the Times of the Sixties: The Culture, Politics, and Personalities That Shaped the Decade. Hachette Books. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-1-57912-964-4.
  359. ^ "N.Y. Police, Students Battle". Chicago Tribune. UPI (1967-10-19) via Chicago Tribune (1967-10-20). 1967-10-20. Retrieved 2016-04-04.
  360. ^ Sharin N. Elkholy (2012). The Philosophy of the Beats. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 239–. ISBN 978-0-8131-4058-2.
  361. ^ Leen, Jeff (September 27, 1999). "The Vietnam Protests: When Worlds Collided". washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post. Retrieved August 11, 2014. The Pentagon march was the culmination of five days of nationwide anti-draft protests organized by the National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam – "the Mobe." But a singular spark was provided by the Youth International Party (Yippies), a fringe group whose leaders, Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin, had announced that they planned an "exorcism" of the Pentagon. They would encircle the building, chant incantations, "levitate" the structure and drive out the evil war spirits.
  362. ^ Ron Chepesiuk (1995). Sixties Radicals, Then and Now: Candid Conversations with Those Who Shaped the Era. McFarland. pp. 303–. ISBN 978-0-7864-3732-0.
  363. ^ "Huey P. Newton Biography: Civil Rights Activist (1942–1989)". biography.com. A&E Television Networks, LLC. Retrieved August 11, 2014. Newton himself was arrested in 1967 for allegedly killing an Oakland police officer during a traffic stop. He was later convicted of voluntary manslaughter and sentenced to two to 15 years in prison. But public pressure—"Free Huey" became a popular slogan of the day—helped Newton's cause. The case was eventually dismissed after two retrials ended with hung juries.
  364. ^ Huey P. Newton (2009). Revolutionary Suicide: (Penguin Classics Deluxe Edition). Penguin Group US. ISBN 978-1-101-14047-5.
  365. ^ Wetzteon, Ross; Ortega, Tony (November 16, 1967). "Not Everyone Loves You For Giving Things Away". villagevoice.com. The Village Voice. Archived from the original on August 19, 2014. Retrieved August 15, 2014. Hippies' Free Store Not So Popular With Thugs (headline from Ortega's excerpt of original article, published by Village Voice 2010-03-24)
  366. ^ Fagan, Alexandra. "Rolling Stone's First Issue". rockhall.com. Retrieved 2016-01-14.
  367. ^ Barker, Andrew (2014-10-24). "Cream Bassist Jack Bruce Dies at 71". Variety. Retrieved 2016-01-14.
  368. ^ James E. Perone (17 October 2012). The Album: A Guide to Pop Music's Most Provocative, Influential, and Important Creations. ABC-CLIO. pp. 2–. ISBN 978-0-313-37907-9.
  369. ^ "Students Demonstrate Against Dow Chemical Company". history.com. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved 2016-10-05.
  370. ^ Jim DeRogatis (2003). Turn on Your Mind: Four Decades of Great Psychedelic Rock. Hal Leonard Corporation. pp. 50–. ISBN 978-0-634-05548-5.
  371. ^ Wenner, Jann (1968-01-20). "Otis Redding: The Crown Prince of Soul Is Dead – The singer dies in a plane crash at 26 years old". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2016-05-09. Otis Redding, 26 years old, a former well-driller from Macon, Georgia, died in a plane crash in an icy Wisconsin lake on December 10. With him were the five teen-age members of the Bar-Kays, a group which made the popular instrumental, "Soul Finger," and who backed Otis on his recent tours and appearances. Otis was headed from Cleveland, Ohio, to a Sunday evening concert in Madison, Wisconsin. It was his first tour in the private plane he had just purchased. His plane hit the surface of the fog-shrouded Madison lake with tremendous force, widely scattering the debris. He was only four miles from the Madison Municipal Airport. On Tuesday, teams of divers were still dredging the bottom of the lake in a search for the bodies.
  372. ^ Brian Greenberg; Linda S. Watts; Richard A. Greenwald (2008). Social History of the United States [10 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. pp. 6–. ISBN 978-1-59884-128-2.
  373. ^ James A. Inciardi (1990). Handbook of Drug Control in the United States. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 16–. ISBN 978-0-313-26190-9.
  374. ^ Julia Buxton (6 April 2011). The Politics of Narcotic Drugs: A Survey. Routledge. pp. 271–. ISBN 978-1-136-88061-2.
  375. ^ "PCP Fast Facts". www.justice.gov. National Drug Intelligence Center, a component of the U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 2018-05-29. PCP is an addictive drug; its use often results in psychological dependence, craving, and compulsive behavior. PCP produces unpleasant psychological effects, and users often become violent or suicidal.
  376. ^ Karch, Stephen (2011). "The Open Forensic Science Journal, 2011, 4, 20–24 20 1874-4028/11 2011 Bentham Open Open Access A Historical Review of MDMA". The Open Forensic Science Journal. 4: 20–24. doi:10.2174/1874402801104010020. Retrieved 2016-08-13. University and industry based medicinal chemists took up where the Army had left off and scientific human experimentation finally began in earnest. Psychiatrists suspected that MDMA had useful therapeutic properties. Much of the enthusiasm for this line of research was a result of active proselytizing by a former Dow Chemical employee Alexander Shulgin who first synthesized MDMA as an academic exercise in 1965. He did not try the drug himself until 1967. Marie Kleinman, a graduate student in the medicinal chemistry group that Shulgin advised at San Francisco State University, finally convinced Shulgin to try the drug. In 1976, Shulgin shared his enthusiasm about MDMA with Leo Zeff, a psychologist from Oakland, California. Zeff, who had actually been using the drug since 1961, began giving MDMA to his patients, using small doses as an aid to therapeutic interaction. Zeff proselytized actively and introduced MDMA to hundreds of psychologists around the nation, including Ann Shulgin, whom Alexander Shulgin met in 1979, and married in 1981 [6].
  377. ^ Gross, Terry (October 29, 1987). "Tom Wolfe: Chronicling Counterculture's 'Acid Test'". npr.org. National Public Radio. Retrieved July 9, 2014. Fresh Air: Text & Audio of Interview w/Wolfe
  378. ^ "Blue Cheer Biography". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone Magazine. 2001. Retrieved July 9, 2014. Blue Cheer appeared in spring 1968 with a thunderously loud remake of Eddie Cochran's "Summertime Blues" that many regard as the first true heavy-metal record. One of the first hard-rock power trios, the group was named for an especially high-quality strain of LSD. Its manager, Gut, was an ex-Hell's Angel. (This biography originally appeared in The Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll (Simon & Schuster, 2001))
  379. ^ "The 100 Greatest Metal Albums of All Time". Rollng Stone. Retrieved 2017-10-08. With a crash of thunder, the ringing of ominous church bells and one of the loudest guitar sounds in history, a heavy new music genre was born in earnest on a Friday the 13th early in 1970. Its roots stretch back to the late Sixties, when artists like Blue Cheer, Iron Butterfly and Led Zeppelin cranked their amps to play bluesy, shit-kicking rockers, but it wasn't until that fateful day, when Black Sabbath issued the first, front-to-back, wholly heavy-metal album – their gloomy self-titled debut – that a band had mastered the sound of the genre, one that still resonates nearly 50 years later: heavy metal.
  380. ^ "'Laugh-In' Comic Alan Sues Dies At 85". sanfrancisco.cbslocal.com. CBS/AP. December 4, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  381. ^ Cheng, Jim (May 26, 2008). "'Laugh-in' comic Dick Martin dies at 86". usatoday.com. USA Today/Gannett. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  382. ^ Oberdorfer, Don (November 2004). "TET: Who Won?; A North Vietnamese battlefield defeat that led to victory, the Tet Offensive still triggers debate nearly four decades later". smithsonianmag.com. Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved January 13, 2015.
  383. ^ James Arnold (2012). Tet Offensive 1968: Turning point in Vietnam. Osprey Publishing. pp. 88–. ISBN 978-1-78200-428-8.
  384. ^ Nielsen Business Media, Inc. (March 30, 1968). Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. pp. 35–. ISSN 0006-2510.
  385. ^ Staton, Scott (December 12, 2012). "Neal Cassady: American Muse, Holy Fool". newyorker.com. The New Yorker Magazine. Retrieved November 13, 2015.
  386. ^ Bass, Jack (2003). "Documenting the Orangeburg Massacre". www.nieman.harvard.edu. Nieman Foundation for Journalism at Harvard / Harvard University. Retrieved July 9, 2014. Campus killings of black students received little news coverage in 1968, but a book about them keeps their memory alive.
  387. ^ Goldberg, Philip (2010). American Veda: From Emerson and the Beatles to Yoga and Meditation – How Indian Spirituality Changed the West. New York: Harmony Books. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-385-52134-5.
  388. ^ Paytress, Mark (2003). "A Passage to India". Mojo Special Limited Edition: 1000 Days of Revolution (The Beatles' Final Years – Jan 1, 1968 to Sept 27, 1970). London: Emap. pp. 15–17.
  389. ^ Johnson Publishing Company (December 1998). Ebony. Johnson Publishing Company. pp. 68–. ISSN 0012-9011.
  390. ^ Moyers, Bill (March 28, 2008). "The Kerner Commission – 40 Years Later". pbs.org. Bill Moyers Journal / Public Affairs Television. Retrieved July 10, 2014. ... the Kerner Report, with its stark conclusion that "Our nation is moving towards two societies — one white, one black — separate and unequal" — was a best-seller. It was also the source of great controversy and remains so today.
  391. ^ Thernstrom, Stephan; Siegel, Fred; Woodson, Robert (June 24, 1998). "The Kerner Commission Report". heritage.org. Heritage Foundation. Retrieved July 10, 2014. This lecture was held at The Heritage Foundation on March 13, 1998.
  392. ^ "3 Honored for Saving Lives at My Lai". nytimes.com. The New York Times. March 7, 1998. Retrieved July 10, 2014. Thirty years after one of the darkest moments in United States military history, three soldiers who happened upon the My Lai massacre and risked their lives to save Vietnamese civilians by aiming their weapons at fellow Americans were proclaimed heroes today by the Army.
  393. ^ William Thomas Allison (2012). My Lai: An American Atrocity in the Vietnam War. JHU Press. pp. 10–. ISBN 978-1-4214-0706-7.
  394. ^ "Report of the Department of the Army Review of the Preliminary Investigations into the My Lai Incident: Vol. 1, the Report of the Investigation" (PDF). loc.gov. United States Army. March 14, 1970. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  395. ^ "1968: Anti-Vietnam demo turns violent". bbc.co.uk. BBC. 2008. Retrieved July 10, 2014. The trouble followed a big rally in Trafalgar square, when an estimated 10,000 demonstrated against American action in Vietnam and British support for the United States.
  396. ^ Hoyland, John (2008-03-14). "Power to the people: The year was 1968 and, worldwide, there was revolution in the air. But when John Hoyland attacked John Lennon's politics in a radical paper, he didn't expect the fiery Beatle to rise to the bait". Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 2016-04-14.
  397. ^ Burley, Leo (March 9, 2008). "Jagger vs Lennon: London's riots of 1968 provided the backdrop to a rock'n'roll battle royale". independent.co.uk. The Independent. Retrieved July 11, 2014. Forty years ago, the world was on the brink of revolution. But while Mick was urging insurrection on the streets of London, John was preaching peace and love. In a series of incendiary, rediscovered interviews, Jagger and Lennon reveal themselves as never before or since: battling one another for the soul of rock'n'roll
  398. ^ Kennedy, Robert Francis (March 18, 1968). "Robert F. Kennedy Speeches: Remarks at the University of Kansas, March 18, 1968". jfklibrary.org. John F. Kennedy Library & Museum. Retrieved July 10, 2014. I don't want to be part of a government, I don't want to be part of the United States, I don't want to be part of the American people, and have them write of us as they wrote of Rome: "They made a desert and they called it peace."
  399. ^ McNeill, Don; Ortega, Tony (March 28, 1968). "The Grand Central Riot: Yippies Meet the Man". villagevoice.com. The Village Voice. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved July 27, 2014. Clip Job: Yip-In Turns Into Bloody Mess as Police Riot at Grand Central (headline from archived article published 2010-04-10)
  400. ^ Peter Knight (2003). Conspiracy Theories in American History: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 752–. ISBN 978-1-57607-812-9.
  401. ^ Boxer, Tim. "Photo: Yippies In Grand Central Station". gettyimages.com. Getty Images. Retrieved July 10, 2014. Caption:Members of the Youth International Party, or Yippies, gathering Grand Central Station for a sit-down demonstration New York, March 22, 1968. (Photo by Tim Boxer/Pictorial Parade/Getty Images)
  402. ^ Johnson, Lyndon Baines (March 31, 1968). "Presidential Johnson's Address to the Nation, 3/31/68". lbjlibrary.net. The Lyndon Baines Johnson Presidential Library (video via Youtube). Retrieved July 10, 2014. I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your president.
  403. ^ Campbell, Howard (September 12, 2012). "Larry Marshall makes sweet Nanny Goat". Jamaica Observer. Retrieved July 11, 2014. The song he recorded at Dodd's Studio One was Nanny Goat which some musicologists and reggae historians say is the first reggae song. Others argue that Toots and the Maytals' Do The Reggay, also done in 1968, and Games People Play by Bob Andy the following year, marked the transition from rocksteady to reggae. But for most, Nanny Goat was the game-changer.
  404. ^ Kevin O'Brien Chang; Wayne Chen (1998). Reggae Routes: The Story of Jamaican Music. Temple University Press. pp. 129–. ISBN 978-1-56639-629-5.
  405. ^ Don Voorhees (2011). The Super Book of Useless Information: The Most Powerfully Unnecessary Things You Never Need to Know. Penguin. pp. 123–. ISBN 978-1-101-54513-3.
  406. ^ Cox Commission (1968). Crisis at Columbia (Cox Commission Report) (Paperback). Random House / First Vintage Press. p. 222. Report of the Fact Finding Commission Appointed to Investigate the Disturbances at Columbia University in April and May 1968
  407. ^ "Reservists Lose Plea, High Court OK's Vietnam Duty". AP via Milwaukee Journal. October 28, 1968. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  408. ^ "Complete Transcript of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Assassination Conspiracy Trial" (PDF). thekingcenter.org. The Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change. Retrieved July 9, 2014.
  409. ^ Flock, Elizabeth (April 12, 2012). "Martin Luther King assassination in 1968 a 'cruel and wanton act'". washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post. Retrieved July 9, 2014. After King's death, riots spread through Memphis. Some 4,000 National Guard troops were ordered into the city, and a curfew was imposed on the city...The riots soon spread across the nation— to Chicago, Baltimore, Kansas City and Washington, D.C.
  410. ^ "Youth: The Politics of YIP" (April 5, 1968). Time Magazine. April 5, 1968. Vol. 91 No. 41
  411. ^ "Interview: Eldridge Cleaver". PBS / Frontline (US). Retrieved July 10, 2014. Bobby Hutton didn't get wounded during the shootout, but they murdered him after we were in custody.
  412. ^ Pear, Robert (July 12, 1981). "Plan to Merge FBI and Drug Agency Pressed (Special to the NY Times)". nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved July 11, 2014. The Bureau of Narcotics, a Treasury Department agency established in 1930, was combined in 1968 with the Bureau of Drug Abuse Control, a unit of the Food and Drug Administration, to form the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, within the Justice Department. Then, with the transfer of more than 500 narcotics investigators from the Treasury's old Bureau of Customs, the Drug Enforcement Administration was created in 1973.
  413. ^ Law, Lisa. "Lisa Law Photo Index". americanhsitory.si.edu. Retrieved 2017-09-29.
  414. ^ Emmis Communications (November 1991). Texas Monthly. Emmis Communications. pp. 118–. ISSN 0148-7736.
  415. ^ Alverson, Brigid. "Felix Dennis, defendant in Rupert Bear obscenity case, dies". comicbookresources.com. Comic Book Resources. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  416. ^ Poggioli, Sylvia (May 13, 2008). "Marking the French Social Revolution of '68". npr.org. Morning Edition /National Public Radio (US). Retrieved July 10, 2014. Audio, Text & Photos
  417. ^ "People & Events: Paris Peace Talks". pbs.org. PBS/WGBH/American Experience. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  418. ^ Robert Dallek (1998). Flawed Giant: Lyndon Johnson and His Times, 1961–1973. Oxford University Press. pp. 738–. ISBN 978-0-19-977190-5.
  419. ^ Christine Bragg (2005). Vietnam, Korea and US Foreign Policy 1945-75. Heinemann. pp. 153–. ISBN 978-0-435-32708-8.
  420. ^ ""Catonsville 9" All Get Prison". AP via Milwaikee Journal. November 8, 1968. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  421. ^ "Actor, Director Tim Robbins Takes Up Historic Vietnam War Protest in Production of "The Trial of the Catonsville Nine"". Democracy Now. Juan Gonzalez. 27 August 2009. Retrieved 16 December 2016. Tim Robbins: Nine Catholic activists — Father Daniel Berrigan, his brother Philip Berrigan and seven others — broke into the draft board, Catonsville, Maryland, and burned about 350 draft records, dragged them outside and burned them with homemade napalm in an act of protest against the Vietnam War... They waited for the police to arrive, and they waited for the trial to happen... it became a very large issue and went nationwide, and these moral questions that these Catholics were asking did become part of the national conversation.
  422. ^ Lewis, Daniel (30 April 2016). "Daniel J. Berrigan, Defiant Priest Who Preached Pacifism, Dies at 94". nytimes.com. New York Times. Retrieved 16 December 2016. A defining point was the burning of Selective Service draft records in Catonsville, Md., and the subsequent trial of the so-called Catonsville Nine, a sequence of events that inspired an escalation of protests across the country; there were marches, sit-ins, the public burning of draft cards and other acts of civil disobedience.
  423. ^ "Rioting in Louisville, KY (1968)". nkaa.uky.edu. University of Kentucky. 2003–2014. Retrieved July 11, 2014. The skirmish escalated, growing into a full-fledged riot in the West End, lasting for almost a week. Six units of the national guard, over 2,000 guardsmen, were ordered to Louisville. Looting and shooting occurred, buildings were burned, two teens were killed, and 472 people were arrested
  424. ^ Robert Niemi (2006). History in the Media: Film and Television. ABC-CLIO. pp. 305–. ISBN 978-1-57607-952-2.
  425. ^ Smith, Jack (June 3, 1968). "Photo: Andy Warhol being lifted into an ambulance after he was shot, June 3, 1968". warhol.org. The Andy Warhol Museum, Pittsburgh; Founding Collection, Contribution The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
  426. ^ Kaplan, Michael (2018-06-02). "I could have saved Andy Warhol from being shot". nypost.com. The New York Post. Retrieved 2018-06-03.
  427. ^ Granberry, Michael (June 5, 2014). "Forty-six years ago today, an assassin shot Sen. Robert F. Kennedy, stamping 1968 as the year that forever changed America". dallasnews.com. The Dallas Morning News Inc. Archived from the original on June 9, 2014. Retrieved June 12, 2014.
  428. ^ Christopher P. Lehman (2006). American Animated Cartoons of the Vietnam Era: A Study of Social Commentary in Films and Television Programs, 1961–1973. McFarland. pp. 116–. ISBN 978-0-7864-5142-5.
  429. ^ "The Beatles' 1968 Pop Art masterpiece Yellow Submarine has been digitally restored and re-released to huge acclaim". thebeatles.com. Apple Corps. June 22, 2012. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
  430. ^ Günter Bischof; Stefan Karner; Peter Ruggenthaler (2010). The Prague Spring and the Warsaw Pact Invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7391-4304-9.
  431. ^ "The 1968 Democratic National Convention: At the height of a stormy year, Chicago streets become nightly battle zones". chicagotribune.com. Chicago Tribune. August 26, 1968. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
  432. ^ Kenneth Womack; Todd F. Davis (2012). Reading the Beatles: Cultural Studies, Literary Criticism, and the Fab Four. SUNY Press. pp. 149–. ISBN 978-0-7914-8196-7.
  433. ^ Elwood Watson; Darcy Martin (2004). "There She Is, Miss America": The Politics of Sex, Beauty, and Race in America's Most Famous Pageant. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 138–. ISBN 978-1-4039-6301-7.
  434. ^ W. Joseph Campbell (2010). Getting it Wrong: Ten of the Greatest Misreported Stories in American Journalism. University of California Press. pp. 174–. ISBN 978-0-520-25566-1.
  435. ^ Ali, Lorraine (2018-04-24). "'The Mod Squad,' 'Adam-12' and how TV brought the counterculture into 1968's cop shows". pilotonline.com. LA Times via Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved 2018-04-25. "The Mod Squad" featured a multiracial trio of nonconformist crime fighters: Long-haired rebel Pete. Black activist Linc. Flower girl Julie. On other long-running detective shows of the era, such as "Dragnet," they would have been cast as the disrespectful young people arrested during aimless protests or a raid on a free-love cult.
  436. ^ "Whole Earth History: 1968 to 1988". wholeearth.com. New Whole Earth LLC. Retrieved July 12, 2014. 1968: Stewart Brand initiates The Whole Earth Catalog as "a Low Maintenance, High Yield, Self Sustaining, Critical Information Service." Self-published, with no advertising, it sold 1000 copies at $5 each.
  437. ^ Stern, Jane; Stern, Michael (December 9, 2007). "Access to Tools (Book Review: Counterculture Green)". nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved March 8, 2015. Kirk's book uses the genesis and evolution of Whole Earth as an opportunity to survey the sea change in environmental and design attitudes that emerged in the 1960s counterculture but, he notes emphatically, eventually outgrew it.
  438. ^ Richman, Joe; Diaz-Cortes, Anayansi (December 1, 2008). "Mexico's 1968 Massacre: What Really Happened? (Text, Audio, & Photo Gallery)". npr.org. Radio Diaries / All Things Considered / US National Public Radio. Retrieved March 8, 2015. Government sources originally reported that four people had been killed and 20 wounded, while eyewitnesses described the bodies of hundreds of young people being trucked away. Thousands of students were beaten and jailed, and many disappeared. Forty years later, the final death toll remains a mystery, but documents recently released by the U.S. and Mexican governments give a better picture of what may have triggered the massacre.
  439. ^ Cosgrove, Ben; Dominis, John (October 14, 2013). "The Black Power Salute that Rocked the 1968 Olympics". life.time.com. Time, Inc. Retrieved January 1, 2015. When Olympic sprinters Tommie Smith and John Carlos stood atop the medal podium at the 1968 Summer Games in Mexico City, bowed their heads and raised black-gloved fists during the playing of the national anthem, millions of their fellow Americans were outraged. But countless millions more around the globe thrilled to the sight of two men standing before the world, unafraid, expressing disillusionment with a nation that so often fell, and still falls, so short of its promise.
  440. ^ Maraniss, David (2015). Once in a Great City: A Detroit Story (First ed.). Simon & Schuster. pp. 247–272. ISBN 978-1-4767-4838-2.
  441. ^ "Oct 18, 1968: John Lennon and Yoko Ono arrested for drug possession". history.com. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
  442. ^ Robert Niemi (2006). History in the Media: Film and Television. ABC-CLIO. pp. 155–. ISBN 978-1-57607-952-2.
  443. ^ Randolph Lewis (1 November 2000). Emile de Antonio: Radical Filmmaker in Cold War America. Univ of Wisconsin Press. pp. 151–. ISBN 978-0-299-16913-8.
  444. ^ "Cold War Chronicles: The Films of Emile de Antonio". harvard.edu. Harvard Film Archive. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
  445. ^ "On This Day: 27 October". news.bbc.co.uk. BBC. 2008. Retrieved March 8, 2015. The turnout for the march was around 25,000, half the number predicted by police and organisers. But, far from being disappointed at the low turnout Mr Ali said; "This is not the end. This is the beginning of the campaign."
  446. ^ "Oct 31, 1968: President Johnson announces bombing halt". A&E Television Networks. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  447. ^ "Material at the LBJ Library Pertaining to the October 31, 1968 Bombing Halt" (PDF). lbjlibrary.net. Lyndon Baines Johnson Library & Museum. Retrieved July 10, 2014. This list highlights several key files that contain material on the October 31, 1968, bombing halt.
  448. ^ "Nixon wins heated battle". November 6, 1968. Retrieved July 10, 2014. 25 years ago...
  449. ^ "Political Roundup: Humphrey, Nixon, Wallace". news.google.com. AP via Washington Observer-Reporter. October 19, 1968. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  450. ^ Lynskey, Dorian (28 April 2011). "The Monkees' Head: 'Our fans couldn't even see it'". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 February 2016. It's a fourth-wall-shattering, stream-of-consciousness black comedy that mocks war, America, Hollywood, television, the music business and the Monkees themselves. These days, it is fondly remembered as one of the weirdest and best rock movies ever made, and a harbinger of the so-called New Hollywood. Quentin Tarantino and Edgar Wright are both fans. DJ Shadow and Saint Etienne have sampled its dialogue. According to director Bob Rafelson, the Beatles and the Rolling Stones both requested private screenings, while Thomas Pynchon attended a screening disguised as a plumber. But to the fans who had made the Monkees household names, it might as well never have existed. "The movie dropped like a ball of dark star," says bassist Peter Tork. "The simile of a rock in the water is too mild for how badly that movie did."
  451. ^ Yoram Allon; Del Cullen; Hannah Patterson (2002). Contemporary North American Film Directors: A Wallflower Critical Guide. Wallflower Press. pp. 435–. ISBN 978-1-903364-52-9.
  452. ^ Springer, Denize (September 22, 2008). "Campus commemorates 1968 student-led strike". sfsu.edu. SF State News (University Communications). Retrieved July 11, 2014. The five-month event defined the University's core values of equity and social justice, laid the groundwork for establishment of the College of Ethnic Studies...
  453. ^ Schevitz, Tanya (October 26, 2008). "S.F. State to mark 40th anniversary of strike". sfgate.com. San Francisco Chronicle/Hearst. Retrieved July 11, 2014. Pioneer in ethnic studies: Early in 1969, the university agreed to many of the student demands, including the establishment of the nation's first and only college of ethnic studies. The strike ended March 20.
  454. ^ "Archival Videos". diva.sfsu.edu. San Francisco Bay Area Television Archive. Retrieved December 30, 2014.
  455. ^ Linda Martin; Kerry Segrave (1993). Anti-rock: The Opposition to Rock 'n' Roll. Perseus Books Group. pp. 187–188. ISBN 978-0-306-80502-8.
  456. ^ John Lennon (2013). Skywriting by Word of Mouth. HarperCollins. pp. 18–. ISBN 978-0-06-231986-9.
  457. ^ File:TwoVCover.jpg
  458. ^ "The Beatles (White Album): Releases". allmusic.com. All Music. Retrieved July 11, 2014. Release Date: November 22, 1968
  459. ^ "The Earthrise Photograph". Abc.net.au. December 24, 1968. Retrieved August 31, 2013.
  460. ^ "Remembering Ford & Sydeman Halls – The Student Occupation of Ford Hall, January 1969". lts.brandeis.edu. Brandeis University Archives & Special Collections. Retrieved December 31, 2014. On January 8, 1969, approximately seventy African American students took control of Ford and Sydeman Halls. The students quickly presented the administration with a list of ten demands for better minority representation on campus. Although the administration did not come to an agreement on all ten demands, the students left Ford and Sydeman Halls on January 18th, eleven days after the occupation began. The administration did grant most of the students amnesty, and President Morris Abram stated that every legitimate demand would be met in good faith.
  461. ^ Schneider, Keith; Barboza, Tony (2018-01-04). "California offshore drilling could be expanded for the first time since 1984 under federal leasing proposal". LA Times. Retrieved 2018-01-07. A devastating, 100,000-barrel spill in Santa Barbara in 1969 killed thousands of seabirds and led to the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act, the foundation of U.S. environmental law, and the creation of the federal Environmental Protection Agency. The 260,000-barrel Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska's Prince William Sound in 1989 exposed thousands of that state's residents to the beach-fouling consequences of spilled oil. The 4.9-million-barrel Deepwater Horizon disaster, the worst offshore oil spill in U.S. history, stirred new and broad opposition to offshore development.
  462. ^ Lindeman, Tracey (February 15, 2014). "A look back at Montreal's race-related 1969 Computer Riot". cbc.ca. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved December 31, 2014. Forty-five years ago this week, violent protests and a 14-day sit-in over racism at Sir George Williams University exploded, causing $2 million in damage for the school.
  463. ^ Runtagh, Jordan (2016-01-29). "Beatles' Famous Rooftop Concert: 15 Things You Didn't Know". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2016-10-16. George's rosewood ax, mics wrapped in pantyhose and Orson Welles' alleged son — the wild truth about the Fab Four's final show
  464. ^ "Spectators Guide to the New Troublemakers". The Village Voice. 1969-01-16. Retrieved 2015-11-27. Advertisement for the February, 1969 edition of Esquire published in the Village Voice
  465. ^ McCormick, Dennis; Archival Reports (1969). "Peaceful protests lead to turmoil on Madison's campus". Wisconsin State Journal. Retrieved 2016-04-14.
  466. ^ "ACLU History". ACLU.org. American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved April 25, 2014.
  467. ^ Burks, John (2010-12-10). "Jim Morrison's Indecency Arrest: Rolling Stone's Original Coverage". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2016-03-02. Jim Morrison, the Doors' cataclysmic, electroplastic lead singer, finally let it all hang out at a March 2nd concert in Miami, Florida, and in the outraged aftermath became the object of six arrest warrants, including one for a felony charge of "Lewd and lascivious behavior in public by exposing his private parts and by simulating masturbation and oral copulation." [Original article with discussion by author].
  468. ^ Johnston, Maura (2010-12-09). "Jim Morrison Pardoned By Florida Clemency Board: Doors lead singer's indecent exposure conviction stems from 1969 incident". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2016-10-05. On Thursday, Florida's Clemency Board pardoned the late Doors frontman Jim Morrison for two misdemeanor convictions stemming from a 1969 incident in which he allegedly exposed himself. The pardon was requested by outgoing Florida Gov. Charlie Crist and the state Clemency Board unanimously granted it. In March 1969, a bearded, drunken Morrison was performing at the Dinner Key Auditorium in Miami when, during the performance, he allegedly asked the audience, "Do you wanna see my cock?" After the audience of more than 10,000 fans responded, he pulled down his pants and briefly simulated masturbation.
  469. ^ Graeme Thomson (2013). George Harrison: Behind The Locked Door. Music Sales Group. pp. 215–. ISBN 978-0-85712-858-4.
  470. ^ Fawcett, Anthony (1976). "THE PEACE POLITICIAN – THE BED-INS-AMSTERDAM AND MONTREAL". imaginepeace.com. Grove Press via Imagine Peace. Retrieved July 16, 2014. From the (Anthony Fawcett) book One Day at a Time
  471. ^ Marc Jason Gilbert (2001). The Vietnam War on Campus: Other Voices, More Distant Drums. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 121–. ISBN 978-0-275-96909-7.
  472. ^ "This Day in History. Vietnam War:Westmoreland requests more troops". history.com. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved August 13, 2014. Gen. William Westmoreland, senior U.S. military commander in Vietnam, sends a new troop request to the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Westmoreland stated that he needed 542,588 troops for the war in Vietnam in 1967—an increase of 111,588 men to the number already serving there. In the end, President Johnson acceded to Westmoreland's wishes and dispatched the additional troops to South Vietnam, but the increases were done in an incremental fashion. The highest number of U.S. troops in South Vietnam was 543,500, which was reached in 1969.
  473. ^ Gross, Terry (2010-10-15). "'The Uncensored Story' Of The Smothers Brothers". npr.og. National Public Radio (US). Retrieved 2016-04-14. Undeniably, CBS wanted Tom and Dick Smothers off the air because of the ideas they were espousing on their show, but eventually removed them by claiming that the brothers had violated the terms of their contract by not delivering a copy of that week's show in time. It was like the feds busting Al Capone: the crime for which he was convicted was a mere technicality, but it got Capone off the streets. In the case of CBS and the Smothers Brothers, they got them off the air. Fired, not canceled, as Tom Smothers invariably corrected people in an effort to set the record straight.
  474. ^ "TV Ratings 1968–69". classictvhits.com. Retrieved 2016-08-13.
  475. ^ Donovan, Lauren (2008-05-09). "40th anniversary of infamous Zip to Zap party nears". Bismarck Tribune. Retrieved 2016-10-05. Between 1,000 and 2,000 mostly college students converged on Zap, a coal mine hamlet in Mercer County. The press was there and worldwide headlines resulted when the Guard moved in and rousted the by-then sleepy kids out of town, causing thousands of other Zap-bound students to turn around.
  476. ^ Rosen, Rebecca (2014-02-14). "Video: Ronald Reagan's Press Conference After 'Bloody Thursday': An angry governor shows no patience for his critics following a confrontation between Berkeley students and the National Guard". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2016-04-14. May of 1969 was a terrifying and unsettling time for students at the University of California, Berkeley. Activist efforts to turn an unused plot of university land into a park, "People's Park," were met with, at first, mild bureaucratic resistance, but tensions soon escalated, and, ultimately, Governor Ronald Reagan decided to break up a rally by sending in California's National Guard.
  477. ^ Elizabeth L. Wollman (2006). The Theater Will Rock: A History of the Rock Musical, from Hair to Hedwig. University of Michigan Press. pp. 77–. ISBN 978-0-472-11576-1.
  478. ^ Lennon, John; Lennon, Yoko Ono (May 1969). "Bed Peace". imaginepeace.com. Bag Productions / Yoko Ono Lennon. Retrieved January 14, 2015. In 1969, John and I were so naïve to think that doing the Bed-In would help change the world. Well, it might have. But at the time, we didn't know. It was good that we filmed it, though. The film is powerful now. What we said then could have been said now...-Yoko Ono Lennon, 2014.(Film hosted on Youtube.)
  479. ^ Len Sperry (2015). Mental Health and Mental Disorders: An Encyclopedia of Conditions, Treatments, and Well-Being. ABC-CLIO. pp. 416–. ISBN 978-1-4408-0383-3.
  480. ^ "Stars, Drugs and Death: Judy Garland". cbsnews.com. CBS. Retrieved 2016-06-19. Judy Garland was found dead in London on June 22, 1969, at the age of 47. The coroner stated that the cause of death was "an incautious self-overdosage" of barbiturates. Her death certificate stated that her death had been accidental.
  481. ^ Rimalower, Ben (2016-06-14). "Rufus Wainwright On What Makes Judy Garland a Gay Icon". Playbill. Retrieved 2016-06-19.
  482. ^ Quijano, Elaine; Kennedy, Kim (2015-06-28). "Remembering the Stonewall riot and the start of a movement". CBS News. Retrieved 2016-04-14. Mafia-owned and illegal, the Stonewall was a speakeasy-style bar with a jukebox and a dance floor. "To get in, you had to know the secret codes which is to say 'you're a friend of Dorothy's,'" said Bockman. But in the predawn hours of June 28, 1969, the Stonewall, full to the rafters, was raided by police. But unlike previous raids, this time the crowd pushed back. A six-day riot between gays and police began.
  483. ^ "Brian Jones: Sympathy for the Devil". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. August 9, 1969. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  484. ^ Helmut Staubmann (2013). The Rolling Stones: Sociological Perspectives. Lexington Books. pp. 123–. ISBN 978-0-7391-7672-6.
  485. ^ "Rolling Stones to return to Hyde Park". bbc.com. BBC. April 3, 2003. Retrieved October 22, 2014. The Rolling Stones are to perform in London's Hyde Park for the first time since a legendary free concert for an estimated 250,000 people in 1969. The outdoor gig will take place on 6 July, a week after the group's first appearance at the Glastonbury festival. The rock legends famously played in the park just two days after death of guitarist Brian Jones in July 1969.
  486. ^ Bernstein, Adam (2010-05-30). "Dennis Hopper dies; actor, director's 'Easy Rider' became a generational marker". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2015-12-07. Dennis Hopper, 74, an actor and director whose low-budget biker movie Easy Rider made an unexpected fortune by exploring the late 1960s counterculture and who changed Hollywood by helping open doors to younger directors including Steven Spielberg and George Lucas, died May 29 at his home in Venice, Calif.
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  489. ^ "Pat with Look Magazine article How Hippies Raise Their Children 170519-102031 C4V". Flickr.
  490. ^ "LIFE". Time Inc. 18 July 1969.
  491. ^ Wilford, John Noble (1969). We Reach the Moon. New York: New York Times / Bantam. p. XV. ISBN 9780552082051. The Story of Man's Greatest Adventure
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  496. ^ "Charles Manson Biography: Charles Manson is an American cult leader whose followers carried out several notorious murders in the late 1960s and inspired the book Helter Skelter". biography.com. A&E Television Networks, LLC. 2014. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
  497. ^ Woods, William Crawford (August 8, 2013). "From the Stacks (January 4, 1975): "Demon in the Counterculture"". newrepublic.com. The New Republic. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
  498. ^ DeCurtis, Anthony (August 1, 2009). "Peace, Love and Charlie Manson: The Anti-Woodstock?". nytimes.com. The New York Times Co. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
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  500. ^ Christopher Gair (2007). The American Counterculture. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 205–. ISBN 978-0-7486-1989-4.
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  502. ^ "The Dick Cavett Show". August 19, 1969. Retrieved December 30, 2014.
  503. ^ Colapinto, John (2010-10-21). "The Twilight of Bob Guccione". rollingstone.com. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2015-11-27.
  504. ^ "Ho Chi Minh (1890–1969)". www.bbc.co.uk. BBC. Retrieved May 4, 2014.
  505. ^ Elber, Lynn (2015-10-13). "H.R. Pufnstuf, surreal 1960s icon, returns to TV". AP via San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved 2015-12-24.
  506. ^ Graham, David (2016-04-06). "Remembering Merle Haggard, Outlaw and Poet". The Atlantic Monthly Group. The Atlantic. Retrieved 2016-05-25. The song was released in 1969 and quickly became a counter-countercultural anthem—capturing backlash against hippies who were protesting the Vietnam War. The song made Haggard a darling of conservatives, and was one of several such songs hailed as anthems of the Silent Majority.
  507. ^ Steve Millward (2014). Different Tracks: Music and Politics in 1970. Troubador Publishing Ltd. pp. 191–. ISBN 978-1-78306-476-2.
  508. ^ "Linkletter blames LSD for death of daughter". Associated Press. Retrieved May 23, 2014.
  509. ^ "Photos: Days of Rage". chicagotribune.com. Chicago Tribune. 1969. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
  510. ^ Lelyveld, Joseph (1969-10-22). "Jack Kerouac, Novelist, Dead; Father of the Beat Generation". nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved 2016-05-25. Author of 'On the Road' was Hero to Youth—Rejected Middle-Class Values Jack Kerouac, the novelist who named the Beat Generation and exuberantly celebrated its rejection of middle-class American conventions, died early yesterday of massive abdominal hemorrhaging in a St. Petersburg, Fla., hospital. He was 47 years old.
  511. ^ Savio, Jessica (April 1, 2011). "Browsing history: A heritage site is being set up in Boelter Hall 3420, the room the first Internet message originated in". dailybruin.com. The Daily Bruin. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
  512. ^ Skarda, Erin (June 28, 2011). "Moratorium Against the Vietnam War, Nov. 15, 1969". content.time.com. Time, Inc. Retrieved July 16, 2014. In the frigid fall of 1969, more than 500,000 people marched on Washington to protest U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. It remains the largest political rally in the nation's history.
  513. ^ O'Rourke, Tim (2016-06-12). "Chronicle Covers: The end of the Indian occupation of Alcatraz". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2016-06-19. The occupation lasted 19 months, but its legacy lives on. The Chronicle's front page from June 12, 1971, covers the federal removal of the last of the American Indians who had seized Alcatraz Island in 1969.
  514. ^ Starr, Norton (1997). "Nonrandom Risk: The 1970 Draft Lottery". Journal of Statistics Education. v.5, n.2. Abstract: The 1970 draft lottery for birthdates is reviewed as an example of a government effort at randomization whose inadequacy can be exhibited by a wide variety of statistical approaches. Several methods of analyzing these data – which were of life-and-death importance to those concerned – are given explicitly and numerous others are cited. In addition, the corresponding data for 1971 and for 1972 are included, as are the alphabetic lottery data, which were used to select draftees by the first letters of their names. Questions for class discussion are provided. The article ends with a survey of primary and secondary sources in print.
  515. ^ "CBS News Special Report". youtube.com. CBS. 1969. Retrieved 2016-02-05. Correspondent Roger Mudd reporting.
  516. ^ Bobby Rush; Team Ebony (2017-12-04). "Rep. Bobby Rush on the Deaths of Fred Hampton and Mark Clark "They arrested seven Panthers, wounded two and killed Mark Clark and Fred Hampton."". Ebony. Ebony Media Operations, LLC. Retrieved 2018-04-11. At 4 a.m., they knocked on the door. Mark Clark was on patrol at the time. He said, "who is it?" They said, "Tommy." He asked, "Tommy who?" They said, "Tommy Gun." That's when they started shooting and the bullet shot him in the heart. At that time it was a signal for police to come in shooting from the back. Deborah Johnson was pregnant with Hampton's son, she screamed "stop shooting!" They dragged Deborah out. Hampton was on his bed. He had been shot, one of the police put a sheet over his head and said he was "as good as dead" now. They arrested seven Panthers, wounded two and killed Mark Clark and Fred Hampton.
  517. ^ Ian Inglis; Norma Coates (2006). "Chapter 6". Performance and Popular Music: History, Place and Time. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 58–. ISBN 978-0-7546-4057-8.
  518. ^ Buckley, Jr., William F. (December 10, 1970). "Altamont was Funeral for the Woodstock Nation". news.google.com. The Milwaukee Journal. Retrieved July 3, 2014. Re: release of 'Gimme Shelter'
  519. ^ Adams, Dominic (2017-02-22). "The Weather Underground, Flint and a campaign of violence". MLIVE. MLive Media Group. Retrieved 2018-04-11. 'Flint, Michigan War Council': Around 300 people packed into a boarded up hall called the Giant Ballroom at 1800 N. Saginaw St. from Dec. 27–31 in 1969, according to MLive-The Flint Journal archives. FBI says otherwise about Flint meetings: FBI documents previously labeled "top secret" and released to the Vault said the War Council meetings in Flint was the last open meeting held by the Weatherman Group. "It was at this meeting that the decision was made to go underground and to engage in guerrilla warfare against the U.S. government," a page read with the heading "WUD 'Flint, Michigan War Council.'"That 'quiet' Weatherman Council in Flint exploded. Weather Underground leader Mark Rudd said in Flint during the group's "War Council" that people should expect violence that will make "the '60s look like a Sunday school picnic," according to a July 24, 1970 Flint Journal article. A federal grand jury in Detroit charged Rudd and 12 others who conspired during the 4-day meeting in Flint in 1969 to commit assassinations and bombings in four U.S. cities, according to the article in MLive-The Flint Journal's archives. The indictments claimed the group met at the Giant Ballroom on Saginaw Street to set up a coordinating agency that would guide bombings in Chicago, Detroit, New York City and Berkeley, Calif. The indictments followed a dozen previous charges unveiled in connection to "Days of Wrath" riots in Chicago. Weatherman members went "underground" following the Chicago indictments, thus the group was then known as Weather Underground. Investigators and law enforcement officials said the meetings were a "failure" at the time and that they were social in nature more than anything.
  520. ^ Martin, Douglas (July 12, 2011). "Theodore Roszak, '60s Expert, Dies at 77". nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved February 10, 2015. Theodore Roszak, who three weeks after the Woodstock Festival in 1969 not only published a pivotal book about a young generation's drug-fueled revolt against authority but also gave it a name — "counterculture" — died on July 5 at his home in Berkeley, Calif. He was 77.

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