1818: Conclusion of Egypt's seven-year campaign against the Wahabis in Arabia, who had occupiied Mecca and Medina and threatened Syria. As a result, the eastern coast of the Mediterranean fell under Egyptian control.
1833: The Treaty of Hünkâr İskelesi established alliance between the Ottoman Empire and Russia and provided that the Ottomans would close the Dardanelles to any foreign warships at the Russians' request.
1839: In response to threats by Egytptian wāliMuhammad Ali to declare himself independent, an Ottoman army began (March) the invasion of Syria from the Euphrates. It was defeated (June 24) by the Egyptians in the battle of Nezib. On July 1 the Turkish fleet surrendered itself (possibly by an act of treachery) to Muhammad Ali in Alexandria.
1853: After a series of intrigues ostensibly designed to enable it to act as protector of Orthodox Christians in Ottoman territories failed, Russia occupied the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia in March. The Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia in October beginning the Crimean War. Great Britain and France would declare war on Russia the following March.
1856: Hatt-ı Hümâyûnu (the Reform Edict of 1856) is issued on February 18 and constitutes the most important Ottoman reform measure of the nineteenth century. It guaranteed the lives and property of Christians, replaced the heads of churches with a national synod, provided full freedom of conscience and civil participation for adherents to all religions. The edict was forced on the sultan by the British, French and Austrians to forestall a Russian intervention.
1856: Treaty of Paris (March 30) ends Crimean War, and admits Turkey into the European concert, whereby its independence and imperial integrity was guaranteed. Russia ceded the mouuths of the Danube and Bessarabia, returned Kurs, relinquished its claim as protector of Christians in the Ottoman Empire and agreed to the neutralization of the Black Sea.
1861: Sultan Abd-ul-Mejid I died and is succeeded by Abdülaziz whose reign (1861-1876) is notable for the rapid spread of western influence (particularly Great Britain and France, allies of the Ottoman Empire during the Crimean War), as evidenced by the first foreign loans, railroad construction, and public debt administration, and the rise of secular liberalism, shown by literary revival, translation of Western literature, rise of Turkish journalism and establishment of universities.
1891: Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian claimed to be the promised Messiah and Imam Mahdi, and thus laid the foundation of the Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam But All scholars of Muslim world especially Indian announce Ghulam Ahmad as fake personality and latterly Parliament of Pakistan declared followers of ahmadiya movement as non- Muslims.