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Seventh century (601 - 700)
This century corresponds to approximately 23 BH - 81 AH.
- 605: Birth of Fatimah the daughter of Muhammad. She was the wife of Ali ibn Abu Talib and all of Muhammad's descendants are through her.
- 605: Muhammad helps rebuild the Ka'ba.
- 610: The first announced revelation of the Qur'an in the cave at Hira. He is given his first revelation from the Angel Gabriel in the cave. Khadija is the first to believe Islam.
- 613: Declaration at Mount Safa inviting the general public to Islam.
- 614: Persecution of the Muslims by the Quraish. A party of Muslims migrates to Abyssinia
- 615: Acceptance of Islam by Umar and Hamza
- 616: Second migration to Abyssinia.
- 617: Boycott of the Hashemites and Muhammad by the Quraish.
- 619: Lifting of the boycott. Deaths of Abu Talib and Khadija, Year of Sorrow.
- 620: Visit to Taif. "Ascension to the heavens".
- 622: Hijra—migration to Medina. First year of Islamic calendar.
- 622: Constitution of Medina. Establishment of the first Islamic state.
- 624: Battle of Badr. Expulsion of the Bani Qainuqa Jews from Medina. The direction of prayer is converted from Jerusalem to Mecca.
- 625: Battle of Uhud. Expulsion of Banu Nadir Jews from Medina.
- 625: Birth of Hasan ibn Ali, son of Ali and Fatimah and 2nd Shia imams.
- 626: Birth of Husayn ibn Ali, son of Ali and Fatimah and 3rd Shia imams.
- 627: Battle of the Trench. Invasion of Banu Qurayza.
- 628: Treaty of Hudaybiyyah. Battle of Khaybar. Muhammad sends letters to various heads of states.
- 629: Muhammad pilgrimage to Mecca. Battle of Mu'ta.
- 630: Conquest of Mecca. Battle of Hunayn. Battle of Autas. Siege of Ta'if.
- 631: Expedition to Tabouk, Ghassanids.
- 631 or 632, tribe of Thaqif adopts Islam.
- 632: Farewell pilgrimage at Mecca.
- 632: Death of Muhammad. Death of Fatimah, his daughter. Abu Bakr is chosen by consensus of the majority of the prophet's companions as caliph. Battles of Zu Qissa. Battles of Zu Abraq. Battle of Buzakha. Battle of Zafar. Battle of Naqra. Campaigns against Bani Tamim and Mosailima.
- 633: Campaigns in Bahrain, Oman, Yemen, and Hadramaut. Raids in Iraq.Battle of Chains, Battle of Saniyy, Battle of Walaja, Battle of Ullais, Battle of Hira, Battle of Al-Anbar, Battle of Ayn al-Tamr, Battle of Dawmat al-Jandal, Battle of Firaz.
- 634: Battle of Bosra, Battle of Damascus, Battle of Ajnadin. Death of Abu Bakr. Umar ibn al-Khattab assumes power as the second caliph. Battle of Namaraq, Battle of Saqatia.
- 635: Battle of Bridge, Battle of Buwaib, Conquest of Damascus, Battle of Fahl.
- 636: Battle of Yarmuk, Battle of al-Qādisiyyah, Conquest of Madain.
- 637: Conquest of Syria, Conquest of Jerusalem, Battle of Jalula.
- 638: Conquest of Jazirah.
- 639: Conquest of Khuzistan. Advance into Egypt. Plague of Emmaus.
- 640: Battle of Babylon in Egypt.
- 641: Conquest of Alexandria in Egypt.
- 642: Battle of Nihawand; Conquest of Egypt.
- 643: Conquest of Azarbaijan and Tabaristan (Mazandaran).
- 644: Conquest of Fars, Kerman, Sistan, Mekran and Kharan. Assassination of Umar. Uthman ibn Affan becomes the caliph.
- 646: Campaigns in Khurasan, Armenia and Asia Minor.
- 647: Campaigns in North Africa. Conquest of the island of Cyprus.
- 648: Campaigns against the Byzantines.
- 650: First conflict between Arabs and Turks. Khazars defeated an Arab force led by Abd ar-Rahman ibn Rabiah outside the Khazar town of Balanjar.
- 652: Disaffection against the rule of Uthman.
- 655: Naval battle of the Masts against the Byzantines.
- 656: Uthman is killed. Ali ibn Abi Talib becomes the fourth caliph. Battle of the Camel.
- 657: Ali shifts the capital from Medina to Kufa. Battle of Siffin.
- 658: Battle of Nahrawan.
- 659: Conquest of Egypt by Muawiyah I.
- 660: Ali recaptures Hijaz and Yemen from Muawiyah. Muawiyah I declares himself as the caliph at Damascus.
- 661: Ali ibn Abi Talib, fourth Caliph, is assassinated by Kharijites.
- 662: Kharijites' revolts.
- 666: Muawia bin Hudeij raids Sicily. Abdu'l-Rahman ibn Abu Bakr, Muhammad ibn Maslamah and Ramlah bint Abi Sufyan dies.
- 669: Hasan ibn Ali, the second imam of the Shiites is poisoned and killed. Husayn ibn Ali becomes Imam of Ali ibn Abi Talib's followers.
Timeline of Muslim history