Timeline of HIV/AIDS

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This is a timeline of AIDS, including AIDS cases before 1980.


  • Researchers estimate that some time in the early 1900s a form of simian immunodeficiency virus, SIV, was transmitted to humans in central Africa.[1] This particular virus, group M of HIV-1, went on to become the pandemic strain of HIV, though others have been identified.[2]


  • Scientists estimate that HIV was circulating in Kinshasa by the 1920s.[1]
X-ray showing infection with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.
  • The first known case of HIV in a human occurs in a man who died in the Congo, later (from his preserved blood samples) confirmed as having HIV infection.[3][4] The authors of the study did not sequence a full virus from his samples, writing that "attempts to amplify HIV-1 fragments of >300 base pairs (bp) were unsuccessful ... However, after numerous attempts, four shorter sequences were obtained"; these represented small portions of two of the six genes of the complete HIV genome.[4]
  • June 28, in New York City, Ardouin Antonio, a 49-year-old Jamaican-American shipping clerk dies of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, a disease closely associated with AIDS. Gordon Hennigar, who performed the postmortem examination of the man's body, found "the first reported instance of unassociated Pneumocystis carinii disease in an adult" to be so unusual that he preserved Ardouin's lungs for later study. The case was published in two medical journals at the time,[5][6] and Hennigar has been quoted in numerous publications saying that he believes Ardouin probably had AIDS.[7][8][9][10]
  • Jerome Horwitz of Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute and Wayne State University School of Medicine synthesize AZT under a grant from the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). AZT was originally intended as an anticancer drug.
  • Genetic studies of the virus indicate that, in or about 1966, HIV first arrived in the Americas, infecting one person in Haiti. At this time, many Haitians were working in Congo, providing the opportunity for infection.[12][medical citation needed]
  • A 2003 analysis of HIV types found in the United States, compared to known mutation rates, suggests that the virus may have first arrived in the United States in this year.[11] The disease spread from the 1966 American strain, but remained unrecognized for another 12 years.[12][medical citation needed] This is, however, contradicted by the estimated area of time of initial infection of Robert Rayford who was most likely infected around 1959.
  • A St. Louis teenager, identified as Robert Rayford, dies of an illness that baffles his doctors. Eighteen years later, molecular biologists at Tulane University in New Orleans test samples of his remains and find evidence of HIV.[13]
  • The first reports of wasting and other symptoms, later determined to be AIDS, are reported in residents of Africa.[14][medical citation needed]
  • The daughter of Arvid Noe dies in January 1975.
  • Norwegian sailor Arvid Noe dies; it is later determined that he contracted HIV/AIDS in Africa during the early 1960s.
  • Danish physician Grethe Rask dies of AIDS contracted in Africa.
  • A San Francisco prostitute gives birth to the first of three children who were later diagnosed with AIDS. The children's blood was tested after their deaths and revealed an HIV infection. The mother died of AIDS in May 1987. Test results show she was infected no later than 1977.[15][medical citation needed]
  • A Portuguese man known as Senhor José (English: Mr. Joseph) dies; he will later be confirmed as the first known infection of HIV-2. It is believed that he was exposed to the disease in Guinea-Bissau in 1966.[citation needed]
  • A 34-year-old airline secretary who was treated in Brussels since autumn 1977, dies in Kinshasa in early 1978.[16]
  • An early case of AIDS in the United States was of a female baby born in New Jersey in 1973 or 1974. She was born to a sixteen-year-old girl, an identified drug-injector, who had previously had multiple male sexual partners. The baby died in 1979 at the age of five. Subsequent testing on her stored tissues confirmed that she had contracted HIV-1.[17][18][unreliable medical source?]
  • Herbert Heinrich: Bisexual German concert violinist who died in 1979. Tests in 1989 found that he was HIV-positive, and there has been speculation that he was infected by a prostitute who was infected by Røed, but as of 1997, this had not been proven.[19]
  • A thirty-year-old woman from the Dominican Republic dies at Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York City from CMV infection.


  • April 24, San Francisco resident Ken Horne, the first AIDS case in the United States to be recognized at the time, is reported to the Center for Disease Control with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). He was also suffering from Cryptococcus.[19][medical citation needed]
  • A 36-year-old Danish gay male passes away in the Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen from Pneumocystis pneumonia.[20]
  • October 31, French-Canadian flight attendant Gaëtan Dugas pays his first known visit to New York City bathhouses. He would later be incorrectly deemed "Patient Zero" for his supposed connection to many early cases of AIDS in the United States.[21][medical citation needed]
  • December 23, Rick Wellikoff, a Brooklyn schoolteacher, dies of AIDS in New York City. He is the 4th US citizen known to die from the illness.[22]
  • A Zairian woman and a French woman die in late 1980 of Pneumocystis Pneumonia in the Claude Bernard Hospital in Paris.[23]
Kaposi's sarcoma on the skin of an AIDS patient
  • January 15, Nick Rock becomes the first known AIDS death in New York City.[21][medical citation needed][dubious ]
  • May 18, Lawrence Mass becomes the first journalist in the world to write about the epidemic, in the New York Native, a gay newspaper. A gay tipster overheard his physician mention that some gay men were being treated in intensive-care units in New York City for a strange pneumonia. "Disease Rumors Largely Unfounded" was the headline of Mass's article. Mass repeated a New York City public-health official's claims that there was no wave of disease sweeping through the gay community. At this point, however, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) had been gathering information for about a month on the outbreak that Mass's source dismissed.[citation needed]
  • June 5, The CDC reports a cluster of Pneumocystis pneumonia in five gay men in Los Angeles.[24]
  • July 3, An article in The New York Times carries the headline: "Rare Cancer Seen in 41 Homosexuals". The article describes cases of Kaposi's sarcoma found in forty-one gay men in New York City and San Francisco.[25]
  • July 4, The CDC reports clusters of Kaposi's sarcoma and Pneumocystis pneumonia among gay men in California and New York City.[26]
  • September, "AIDS poster boy" Bobbi Campbell becomes the 16th person in San Francisco diagnosed with Kaposi's sarcoma.[27]
  • October, first reported case in Spain, a 35-year-old gay man[28]. Died shortly after.
  • December 12, First known case reported in the United Kingdom.[29]
  • One of the first reported patients to have died of AIDS (presumptive diagnosis) in the US is reported in the journal Gastroentereology. Louis Weinstein, the treating physician, wrote that "Immunologic incompetence, related to either disease or therapy, or both ... although suspected, could not be proved..."[30]
  • By the end of the year, 121 people are known to have died from the disease.[11][medical citation needed]
  • January, the service organization Gay Men's Health Crisis is founded by Larry Kramer and others in New York City.
  • April 12, Golden Globe-nominated film actor Lenny Baker succumbs to AIDS-related cancer at the age of 37. Baker had been gravely ill and in the final stage of the disease since 1980.[31]
  • June 18, "Exposure to some substance (rather than an infectious agent) may eventually lead to immunodeficiency among a subset of the homosexual male population that shares a particular style of life."[32] For example, Marmor et al. recently reported that exposure to amyl nitrite was associated with an increased risk of KS in New York City.[33] Exposure to inhalant sexual stimulants, central-nervous-system stimulants, and a variety of other "street" drugs was common among males belonging to the cluster of cases of KS and PCP in Los Angeles and Orange counties."[32]
  • July 4, Terry Higgins becomes one of the first people to die of AIDS-related illnesses in the United Kingdom, prompting the foundation in November of what was to become the Terrence Higgins Trust.[34]
  • July 9, The CDC reports a cluster of opportunistic infections (OI) and Kaposi's sarcoma among Haitians recently entering the United States.[1]
  • July 27, The term AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is proposed at a meeting in Washington of gay-community leaders, federal bureaucrats and the CDC to replace GRID (gay-related immune deficiency) as evidence showed it was not gay specific.[35]
  • Summer, First known case in Italy.[36]
  • September 24, The CDC defines a case of AIDS as a disease, at least moderately predictive of a defect in cell-mediated immunity, occurring in a person with no known cause for diminished resistance to that disease. Such diseases include KS, PCP, and serious OI. Diagnoses are considered to fit the case definition only if based on sufficiently reliable methods (generally histology or culture). Some patients who are considered AIDS cases on the basis of diseases only moderately predictive of cellular immunodeficiency may not actually be immunodeficient and may not be part of the current epidemic.[37]
  • December 10, a baby in California becomes ill in the first known case of contracting AIDS from a blood transfusion.[21][medical citation needed]
  • First known case in Brazil.[38]
  • First known case in Canada.[39]
  • First known case in Australia, diagnosed at St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney.[40]
  • January, Françoise Barré-Sinoussi, at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, isolates a retrovirus that kills T-cells from the lymph system of a gay AIDS patient. In the following months, she would find it in additional gay and hemophiliac sufferers. This retrovirus would be called by several names, including LAV and HTLV-III before being named HIV in 1986.[41]
  • CDC National AIDS Hotline is established.
  • March, United States Public Health Service (PHS or USPHS) issues donor screening guidelines. AIDS high-risk groups should not donate blood/plasma products.
  • First known case in Colombia A female sexual worker from Cali was diagnosed with HIV in the Hospital Universitario de Cartagena[42]
  • First AIDS-related death occurs in Australia, in the city of Melbourne. The Hawke Labor government invests in a significant campaign that has been credited with ensuring Australia has one of the lowest HIV infection rates in the world.
  • AIDS is diagnosed in Mexico for the first time. HIV can be traced in the country to 1981.[43]
  • The PCR (polymerase chain reaction) technique is developed by Kary Mullis; it is widely used in AIDS research.
  • Within a few days of each other, the musicians Jobriath and Klaus Nomi become the first internationally known recording artists to die from AIDS-related illnesses.
  • First known case in Portugal.[44]
  • Around January, the first case of HIV infection in the Philippines was reported.[45]
  • March 30, Gaëtan Dugas dies. He was a French Canadian flight attendant who was falsely linked by the CDC directly or indirectly to 40 of the first 248 reported cases of AIDS in the U.S.
  • April 23, U.S. Health and Human Services Secretary Margaret Heckler announces at a press conference that an American scientist, Robert Gallo, has discovered the probable cause of AIDS: the retrovirus is subsequently named human immunodeficiency virus or HIV in 1986. She also declares that a vaccine will be available within two years.
  • June 25, French philosopher Michel Foucault dies of AIDS in Paris.
  • September 6, First performance at Theatre Rhinoceros in San Francisco of The AIDS Show which runs for two years and is the subject of a 1986 documentary film of the same name.
  • December 17, Ryan White was diagnosed with AIDS by a doctor performing a partial lung removal. White became infected with HIV from a blood products that were administered to him on a regular basis as part of his treatment for hemophilia. When the public school that he attended, Western Middle School in Russiaville, Indiana, learned of his disease in 1985 there was enormous pressure from parents and faculty to bar him from school premises. Due to the widespread fear of AIDS and lack of medical knowledge, principal Ron Colby and the school board assented. His family filed a lawsuit, seeking to overturn the ban.
  • March 2, the FDA approves an ELISA test as the first commercially available test for detecting HIV in blood.[46][47] It detects antibodies which the body makes in response to exposure to HIV and is first intended for use on all donated blood and plasma intended for transfusion and product manufacture.[46]
  • April 21, the play The Normal Heart by Larry Kramer premieres in New York City.
  • October 2, Rock Hudson dies of AIDS. On July 25, 1985, he was the first American celebrity to publicly admit having AIDS; he had been diagnosed with it on June 5, 1984.
  • October 12, Ricky Wilson, guitarist of American rock band The B-52's dies from an AIDS related illness. The album Bouncing Off The Satellites, which he was working on when he died, is dedicated to him when it is released the next year. The band is devastated by the loss and do not tour or promote the album. Wilson is eventually replaced on guitar by his former writing partner Keith Strickland, the B52's former drummer.
  • October, a conference of public health officials including representatives of the Centers for Disease Control and World Health Organization meet in Bangui and define AIDS in Africa as "prolonged fevers for a month or more, weight loss of over 10% and prolonged diarrhea".
  • First officially reported cases in China.[48]
  • November 11, An Early Frost, the first film to cover the topic of HIV/AIDS is broadcast in the U.S. on prime time TV by NBC.
This image revealed the presence of both HTLV-1, and HIV.
  • HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is adopted as name of the retrovirus that was first proposed as the cause of AIDS by Luc Montagnier of France, who named it LAV (lymphadenopathy associated virus) and Robert Gallo of the United States, who named it HTLV-III (human T-lymphotropic virus type III)
  • January 14, "one million Americans have already been infected with the virus and that this number will jump to at least 2 million or 3 million within 5 to 10 years..." – NIAID Director Anthony Fauci, New York Times.[49]
  • February, President Reagan instructs his Surgeon General C. Everett Koop to prepare a report on AIDS. (Koop was excluded from the Executive Task Force on AIDS established in 1983 by his immediate superior, Assistant Secretary of Health Edward Brandt.) Without allowing Reagan's domestic policy advisers to review the report, Koop released the report at a press conference on October 22, 1986.[50][51]
  • Attorney Geoffrey Bowers is fired from the firm of Baker & McKenzie after AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma lesions appeared on his face. The firm maintained that he was fired purely for his performance.[52] He sued the firm, in one of the first AIDS discrimination cases to go to a public hearing. These events were the inspiration for the 1993 film Philadelphia.[53]
  • November 18, model Gia Carangi dies of AIDS-related illness.
  • First officially known cases in the Soviet Union[54][medical citation needed]and India.[55]
  • AZT (zidovudine), the first antiretroviral drug, becomes available to treat HIV.[11]
  • On February 4, popular performing musician Liberace dies from AIDS related illness.
  • In April the FDA approves a Western blot test as a more precise test for the presence of HIV antibodies than the ELISA test.[46]'
  • In March, the direct action advocacy group ACT UP is founded by Larry Kramer in New York City.
  • On May 28, playwright and performer Charles Ludlam dies of AIDS-related PCP pneumonia.
  • On July 11, Tom Waddell, founder of the Gay Games, dies of AIDS.
  • Randy Shilts's investigative journalism book And the Band Played On published chronicling the 1980–1985 discovery and spread of HIV/AIDS, government indifference, and political infighting in the United States to what was initially perceived as a gay disease. (Shilts himself would die of the disease on February 17, 1994.)
  • On August 18 the FDA sanctioned the first clinical trial to test an HIV vaccine candidate in a research participant.[46]
  • May, C. Everett Koop sends an eight-page, condensed version of his Surgeon General's Report on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome report named Understanding AIDS to all 107,000,000 households in the United States, becoming the first federal authority to provide explicit advice to US citizens on how to protect themselves from AIDS.[50][56]
  • November 11, The fact-based AIDS-themed film Go Toward The Light is broadcast on CBS.
  • December 1, The first World AIDS Day takes place.
  • In Buenos Aires, Argentina, the rock musicians Miguel Abuelo (March 26) and Federico Moura (December 21), die from AIDS-related complications.
  • The television movie The Ryan White Story airs. It stars Judith Light as Jeanne, Lukas Haas as Ryan and Nikki Cox as sister Andrea. Ryan White had a small cameo appearance as Chad, a young patient with AIDS. Another AIDS-themed film, The Littlest Victims, debuted in 1989, biopicing James Oleske, the first U.S. physician to discover AIDS in newborns during AIDS' early years, when many thought it was only spread through homosexual sex.
  • NASCAR driver Tim Richmond dies from AIDS-related complications.
  • Amanda Blake best known for her portrayal of saloon owner Miss Kitty on the television show Gunsmoke becomes the first actress of note in the United States to die of AIDS-related illness. Cause of death was Cardiac Arrest stemming from CMV Hepatitis, an AIDS-related hepatitis.


  • January 6, British actor Ian Charleson dies from AIDS at the age of 40 — the first show-business death in the United Kingdom openly attributed to complications from AIDS.
  • February 16, New York artist and social activist Keith Haring dies from AIDS-related illness.
  • April 8, Ryan White dies at the age of 18 from pneumonia caused by complications associated with AIDS.
  • Congress enacted The Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency (CARE) Act or Ryan White Care Act, the United States' largest federally funded health related program (excluding Medicaid and Medicare).
  • July 7, Brazilian singer Cazuza dies in Rio de Janeiro at the age of 32 from an AIDS-related illness.
  • The first combination drug therapies for HIV are introduced. Such "cocktails" are more effective than AZT alone and slow down the development of drug resistance.[11]
  • April 6, popular science fiction writer Isaac Asimov dies. Ten years later, his wife revealed that his death was due to AIDS-related complications. The writer was infected during a blood transfusion in 1983.[57]
  • June 18, Australian singer Peter Allen dies from complications due to AIDS.
  • July 20–24, Maria Dolzura Cortez becomes the first Filipino AIDS victim to come out in public to tell about her life and how she acquired the AIDS virus. She died a few months later due to complications related to AIDS.[58]
  • September 12, American actor Anthony Perkins, known for his role as Norman Bates in the Psycho movies, dies from AIDS.
  • At the Royal Free Hospital in London, an out-patients' centre for HIV and AIDS is opened by Ian McKellen. It is named the Ian Charleson Day Centre after actor Ian Charleson.
  • Robert Reed, best known as Mike Brady on the sitcom The Brady Bunch dies of AIDS on May 12.
  • Elizabeth Glaser, wife of Starsky & Hutch's Paul Michael Glaser, dies from AIDS-related complications almost ten years after receiving an infected blood transfusion while giving birth. She unknowingly passes AIDS on to her daughter, Ariel, and son, Jake. Ariel died in 1988, Jake is living with HIV, while Paul Michael remains negative.
  • Sarah Jane Salazar, a 19-year-old Filipino AIDS activist and educator, publicly admits she contracted HIV from a foreign customer while working as a club entertainer in the early 90's. She was the second Filipino to do so.[60][61] The first was Dolzura Cortez.
  • Saquinavir, a new type of protease inhibitor drug, becomes available to treat HIV. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) becomes possible.[11] Within two years, death rates due to AIDS will have plummeted in the developed world.
  • March 26, Rapper Eazy-E dies from AIDS-related pneumonia.
  • April 4, British DJ and entertainer Kenny Everett dies from AIDS.
  • Oakland resident Jeff Getty becomes the first person to receive a bone marrow transplant from a Baboon as an experimental procedure to treat his HIV infection. The graft did not take, but Getty experienced some reduction in symptoms, before dying of heart failure after cancer treatment, in 2006.[62]
  • Robert Gallo's discovery that some natural compounds known as chemokines can block HIV and halt the progression of AIDS is hailed by Science as one of that year's most important scientific breakthroughs.
  • HIV resistance due to the CCR5-Δ32 discovered. CCR5-Δ32 (or CCR5-D32 or CCR5 delta 32) is an allele of CCR5.[63][64]
  • September 2, The Washington Post carries an article stating, "The most recent estimate of the number of Americans infected (with HIV), 750,000, is only half the total that government officials used to cite over a decade ago, at a time when experts believed that as many as 1.5 million people carried the virus."[citation needed]
  • Based on the Bangui definition the WHO's cumulative number of reported AIDS cases from 1980 through 1997 for all of Africa is 620,000.[65] For comparison, the cumulative total of AIDS cases in the USA through 1997 is 641,087.
  • December 7, "French President Jacques Chirac addressed Africa's top AIDS conference on Sunday and called on the world's richest nations to create an AIDS therapy support fund to help Africa. According to Chirac, Africa struggles to care for two-thirds of the world's persons with AIDS without the benefit of expensive AIDS therapies. Chirac invited other countries, especially European nations, to create a fund that would help increase the number of AIDS studies and experiments. AIDS workers welcomed Chirac's speech and said they hoped France would promote the idea to the Group of Eight summit of the world's richest nations."[66]
  • December 10, International Human Rights Day, Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) is launched to campaign for greater access to HIV treatment for all South Africans, by raising public awareness and understanding about issues surrounding the availability, affordability and use of HIV treatments. TAC campaigns against the view that AIDS is a death sentence.
  • January 31, Studies suggest that a retrovirus, SIVcpz (simian immunodeficiency virus) from the common chimpanzee Pan troglodytes, may have passed to human populations in west equatorial Africa during the twentieth century and developed into various types of HIV.[67][68]
  • Edward Hooper releases a book called The River, which accuses doctors who developed and administered the oral polio vaccine in 1950s Africa of unintentionally starting the AIDS epidemic. The OPV AIDS hypothesis receives a great deal of publicity.[11] It was later refuted by studies demonstrating the origins of HIV as a mutated variant of a simian immunodeficiency virus that is lethal to humans.[69][70][71][72][73] Hooper's hypothesis should not be confused with the Heart of Darkness origin theory.


  • World Health Organization estimates between 15% and 20% of new HIV infections worldwide are the result of blood transfusions, where the donors were not screened or inadequately screened for HIV.[citation needed]
  • February 23, Israeli singer Ofra Haza died in Tel Aviv of AIDS-related pneumonia.
  • June 11, Sarah Jane Salazar died at the age of 25 from AIDS complications. Before her death, Salazar was confined at the National Center for Mental Health after being diagnosed with manic depression which doctors said may have been related to anti-AIDS drugs she was taking.[74]
  • September 21, FDA licenses the first nucleic acid test (NAT) systems intended for screening of blood and plasma donations.

·President George W Bush initiates the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. By the time he leaves office it provides medicine for 2 million Africans. https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/eugene-robinson-george-w-bushs-greatest-legacy--his-battle-against-aids/2012/07/26/gJQAumGKCX_story.html

  • January 5, "Individual risk of acquiring HIV and experiencing rapid disease progression is not uniform within populations", says Anthony S. Fauci, the director of NIAID.[75] [2]
  • January 21, The CDC recommends anti-retroviral post-exposure prophylaxis for people exposed to HIV from rapes, accidents or occasional unsafe sex or drug use. This treatment should start no more than 72 hours after a person has been exposed to the virus, and the drugs should be used by patients for 28 days. This emergency drug treatment has been recommended since 1996 for health-care workers accidentally stuck with a needle, splashed in their eyes with blood, or exposed in some other work-related way.[76]
  • A highly resistant strain of HIV linked to rapid progression to AIDS is identified in New York City.[11][medical citation needed]
  • In August, IFLA/FAIFE (International Federation of Library Associations/Free Access to Information and Freedom of Expression Committee) launches its world report, highlighting that library and information workers are making efforts to raise awareness of HIV and AIDS in the United States. This type of library service has yet to be initiated in other parts of the world.[77]
  • November 9, SIV found in gorillas.[78]
  • The first case of someone being cured of HIV is reported. A San Francisco man, Timothy Ray Brown, suffering from leukemia and HIV, is cured of HIV through a bone marrow transplant in Germany from a homozygous CCR5-Δ32 donor. Other similar cases are being studied to confirm similar results.[citation needed]
  • Maraviroc, the first available CCR5 receptor antagonist, is approved by the FDA as an antiviral drug for the treatment of AIDS.


  • Confirmation is published that the first patient cured of HIV, Timothy Ray Brown, still has a negative HIV status, 4 years after treatment.[79][medical citation needed]
  • Confirmation is published that a toddler has been "functionally cured" of HIV infection.[80] However, in 2014, it was announced that the child had relapsed and that the virus had re-appeared.[81]
  • A New York Times Article says that 12 people of 75 who began combination antiretroviral therapy soon after becoming infected may have been "functionally cured" of HIV according to a French study. A functionally cured person will not experience an increase of the virus in the bloodstream despite stopping antiretroviral therapy, and therefore not progress to AIDS.[82][83]
  • New, aggressive strain of HIV discovered in Cuba[85] Researchers at the University of Leuven in Belgium say the HIV strain CRF19 can progress to AIDS within two to three years of exposure to virus. Typically, HIV takes approximately 10 years to develop into AIDS. Patients with CRF19 may start getting sick before they even know they've been infected, which ultimately means there's a significantly shorter time span to stop the disease's progression.

See also[edit]


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  2. ^ Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, Beatrice H. (2016-11-01). "Origins of HIV and the AIDS Pandemic". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine:. 1 (1): a006841. ISSN 2157-1422. PMC 3234451Freely accessible. PMID 22229120. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a006841. 
  3. ^ Pence, G. E. (2008). Preventing the Global Spread of AIDS. In Medical Ethics Accounts of the Cases That Shaped and Define Medical Ethics (p. 330). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  4. ^ a b Zhu T, Korber BT, Nahmias AJ, Hooper E, Sharp PM, Ho DD (February 1998). "An African HIV-1 sequence from 1959 and implications for the origin of the epidemic". Nature. 391 (6667): 594–7. PMID 9468138. doi:10.1038/35400. 
  5. ^ Hennigar, G.R., Vinijchaikul, K., Roque, A.L, Lyons, H.A. (1 April 1961). "Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia in an Adult. Report of a Case". American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 35 (4): 353-364. doi:10.1093/ajcp/35.4.353. 
  6. ^ Lyons, H.A., Vinijchaikul, K., Hennigar, G.R (December 1961). "Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia Unassociated with Other Disease Clinical and Pathological Studies". Archives of Internal Medicine. 108 (6): 929-836. doi:10.1001/archinte.1961.03620120113015. 
  7. ^ "Strange Trip Back to the Future – The case of Robert R. spurs new questions about AIDS", TIME Magazine, November 9, 1987
  8. ^ "The River : A Journey to the Source of HIV and AIDS," Edward Hooper, 1999
  9. ^ "A History of HIV/AIDS in North America and the World" (PDF). Regional HIV/AIDS Connection. 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2015. 
  10. ^ Garner, Katy, ed. (2 December 2011). "HIV Positive not so Negative Anymore". Sacramento Press. Retrieved 25 April 2015. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h "Timeline: HIV & AIDS," John Pickrell, New Scientist, September 4, 2006
  12. ^ a b "Solved: the mystery of how AIDS left Africa," New Scientist, November 3, 2007, p.20
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  14. ^ "Did Modern Medicine Spread an Epidemic?/After decades, and millions of injections, scientists are asking the chilling question". Retrieved 15 March 2015. 
  15. ^ "And the Band Played On", Randy Shilts, pp. 512–513, St. Martin's Press, 2007 ISBN 0-312-37463-1
  16. ^ And the Band Played on, p. 36
  17. ^ Oleske, James; Minnefor, Anthony; Cooper, Roger; Thomas, Kathleen; dela Cruz, Antonio; Ahdieh, Houman; Guerrero, Isabel; Joshi, Vijah; Desposito, Franklin (May 6, 1983). "Immune Deficiency Syndrome in Children". Journal of the American Medical Association. 249 (17): 2345–2349. doi:10.1001/jama.1983.03330410031024. 
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  19. ^ KQED LGBT Timeline. Kqed.org. Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
  20. ^ And the Band Played On, p.35
  21. ^ a b c AIDS in New York, a Biography. Nymag.com (2006-05-28). Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
  22. ^ And the band played on, Randy Shilts, 1987
  23. ^ And the Band Played On, p. 37
  24. ^ Centers for Disease Control (1981-06-05). "Pneumocycstis Pneumonia – Los Angeles" (PDF). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 30 (21): 250–2. PMID 6265753. Retrieved 2008-05-10. 
  25. ^ Lawrence K. Altman (July 3, 1981). "Rare cancer seen in 41 homosexuals". The New York Times. Retrieved February 20, 2012. 
  26. ^ "Kaposi's Sarcoma and Pneumocycstis Pneumonia Among Homosexual Men – New York City and California" (PDF). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). 30 (25): 305–8. 1981-07-04. PMID 6789108. Retrieved 2013-10-23. 
  27. ^ "Bobbi Campbell (1952–1984)". Find a Grave. 2013-04-13. Retrieved 2015-07-19. 
  28. ^ http://leopoldest.blogspot.com.es/2013/06/historia-del-vihsida-en-imagenes-i.html
  29. ^ Dubois, R.M., Braitwaite, M.A., Mikhail, J.R., Batten, J.C. (1981-12-12). "Primary Pneumocystis carinii and cytomegalovirus infections". The Lancet. 2 (8259): 1339. 
  30. ^ Weinstein, L., Edelstein, S.M., Madara, J.L., Falchuk, K.R., McManus, B.M., Trier, J.S. (September 1981). "Intestinal cryptosporidiosis complicated by disseminated cytomegalovirus infection". Gastroenterology. 81 (3): 584-591. PMID 6118728. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(81)91353-2. 
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