Timeline of Arizona

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Important dates in Arizona's history
Flag of Arizona
1539
Marcos de Niza explores Arizona
February 2, 1848
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo; Most of Arizona passes to U.S.
December 30, 1853 
Gadsden Purchase; U.S. obtains rest of Arizona
February 24, 1863 
Arizona Territory created
1877 
Silver discovered near Tombstone
February 14, 1912
Arizona becomes 48th state
February 26, 1919
Grand Canyon National Park is created
November 3, 1964
Barry Goldwater loses the U.S. presidential election
September 21, 1981
Sandra Day O'Connor becomes the first woman on the U.S. Supreme Court
West Mitten at Monument Valley

The following is a timeline of the history of the area which today comprises the U.S. state of Arizona. Situated in the desert southwest, for millennia the area was home to a series of Pre-Columbian peoples. By 1 AD, the dominant groups in the area were the Hohokam, the Mogollon, and the Ancestral Puebloans (also known as the Anasazi). The Hohokam dominated the center of the area which is now Arizona, the Mogollon the southeast, and the Puebloans the north and northeast. As these cultures disappeared between 1000–1400 AD, other Indian groups settled in Arizona. These tribes included the Navajo, Apache, Southern Paiute, Hopi, Yavapai, Akimel O'odham, and the Tohono O'odham.

The first European presence in the state were the Spanish. In 1539 Marcos de Niza explored the area, followed by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado the following year. Spanish missionaries began to settle in the southern portion of the state, near present-day Tucson, around 1700, but did not move further north. With the construction of the Presidio San Augustin del Tucson, on August 20, 1775, Tucson became the first European city in what would become Arizona. In 1822, Arizona became part of the state of Sonora, Mexico, but most of current Arizona was transferred to the United States as a result of the Mexican–American War, with the rest transferring with the completion of the Gadsden Purchase in 1853. During the American Civil War, both sides laid claim to Arizona, although the North and South split the New Mexico/Arizona area differently: the South split the territory into north and south divisions, creating Confederate Arizona, while the northern section remained part of the United States as the New Mexico Territory; while the North in 1863, after driving Confederate forces from the Tucson area, created the Arizona Territory from the New Mexico Territory by splitting off the western section. Prescott became the territory's first capital, which would transfer to Tucson in 1867, then back to Prescott in 1877, before settling finally in Phoenix in 1889.

Arizona achieved statehood in 1912, becoming the 48th state, with Phoenix remaining the capital of the new state. In the 1900s, the state, particularly the Phoenix Metropolitan area, has seen tremendous population growth. Phoenix currently ranks as the 6th most populous city in the nation.

Pre-Columbian and Spanish eras[edit]

Pre-Columbian[edit]

  • ca. 9,000 BC – Paleo-Indians arrive in the southwest, including Arizona, known as the Clovis culture, they were hunter-gatherers.[1]
  • ca. 4,500 BC – Maize is introduced into the southwest United States, including Arizona.[2]
  • ca. 1,500 BC – Pre-Columbian Indians begin developing irrigation systems.[2]
  • 1,250 BC – Las Capas, slightly north of present-day Tucson, settled by pre-Columbian peoples, centered on an irrigation system.[2]
  • 600 BC-550 AD – Ancestral Puebloans begin to settle on the Four Corners area.[3]
  • 1-300 AD – Hohokam establish several villages along the Gila River.
  • 200 AD – The Mogollon culture begins to appear in the southeast area of Arizona.[4]
  • 300 AD – Ceramics appear in the Hohokam culture.[5]
  • ca. 450 AD – Pueblo Grande settled.
  • 600-1300 AD – Hohokam build large network or irrigation canals throughout the area.[6]
  • 875 AD – Patayan peoples appear along the Colorado River.[7]
  • 899 AD – Major floods along Salt River disrupt Hohokam irrigation systems.[8]
  • 1000 AD – The Kayenta tradition of the Ancestral Puebloans develops in northern Arizona.[9]
  • 1100 AD – The Hopi found the village of Oraibi, the oldest continuously inhabited settlement in North America.[10][11]
  • 1276-99 AD – Severe drought hits the Colorado Plateau.[12]
  • 1276-99 AD – Grasshopper Pueblo founded by the Mogollon and Ancestral Puebloans.[13]
  • 1300 AD – Ancestral Puebloans abandon their communities in north Arizona.
  • 1300 AD – Hohokam have largest population in the southwest.[5]
  • 1300 AD – Awatovi founded by the Hopi.[14]
  • 1300 AD – The Yavapai, descended from the Patayan, begin settling in Arizona near the southern extent of the Colorado Plateau.[15]
  • 1370s AD – Drought hits the Hopi areas.[16]
  • 1300–1450 AD – Periods of drought alternate with flooding in the Salt River area.
  • 1400 AD – The Athabaskan ancestors of the Navajo enter Arizona.[17]
  • 1430s AD – Drought hits the Hopi areas.[16]
  • 1440s AD – Drought hits the Hopi areas.[16]
  • ca. 1450 AD – Pueblo Grande abandoned due to drought.
  • 1455-65 AD – Drought hits the Hopi areas.[16]

Arrival of the Spanish[edit]

U.S. Possession and U.S. territory[edit]

Advertisement for Orozco & Vasquez, Phoenix, 1888[33]

1840s[edit]

1850s[edit]

  • 1853
  • 1855 – While surveying a road from New Mexico to California, Lieutenant Beale's company camps at the current site of Flagstaff. The location got its name when his men stripped a local tree and ran a flag up the staff.[37]
  • 1856 – August 29: Conference held to organize Arizona Territory.
  • 1857 – San Antonio-San Diego Mail Line in operation.
  • 1859 – Gold is discovered near the confluence of the Gila and Colorado Rivers, creating Arizona's first "gold rush".[38]

1860s[edit]

  • 1862
    • February 14: Confederate Arizona officially becomes a territory of the Confederate States of America, consisting of the portion of the New Mexico Territory below the 34th parallel, with Mesilla, New Mexico as the territorial capital.[39][40]
    • February: Tucson occupied by Confederate forces.[23]
    • May 20: Capture of Tucson by Union forces.[41]
    • Gold is discovered north of Yuma, and the town of La Paz is founded. By the end of the year, it would be the most populous settlement in Arizona, and the capital of Yuma County. The following year, it would be considered for the capital of the Arizona Territory.[38]
  • 1863
  • 1864
    • May 30: Prescott founded, and named the capital of the Arizona Territory.[46]
    • November 7: Arizona Historical Society founded by an Act of the First Territorial Legislature.[47]
    • Fort Whipple moved near Prescott (from Chino Valley, where it had been established the prior year).
  • 1865 – Camp McDowell (later Fort McDowell) is set up on the Verde River.[48]
  • 1866 – L. Zechendorf & Co. merchandisers opens in Tucson.[45]
  • 1867
    • November: Jack Swilling, resident of Wickenburg, establishes the Swilling Irrigating and Canal Company with the intent to develop the Phoenix area, which he became impressed with after viewing the area on a visit to Camp McDowell.[49]
    • December: Swilling leads a group of 17 miners from Wickenburg to the Phoenix area and begins the process of developing a canal system.[50]
    • Territorial capital moved from Prescott to Tucson.[46]
  • 1868
    • May 4: Phoenix is officially recognized by the Board of Supervisors of Yavapai County, which at that point contained Phoenix.[51]
    • June 15: First post office in Phoenix is established, in the Swilling homestead, with Swilling as postmaster.[52]
    • Swilling has completed almost 3 miles of his canals in Phoenix.[53]
    • Mary Adeline Gray, the first European woman settler in Phoenix, and her husband Columbus, arrive.[53]
    • Salt River floods for the first of many times during Phoenix's settlement.[53]
  • 1869 – St. Augustine Roman Catholic Church built in Tucson.[32]

1870s[edit]

  • 1870
    • October 20: Town site selected in what is currently downtown Phoenix.[51][54]
    • Phoenix is laid out,[55] original town site consists of 320 acres, or 0.5 square miles.[51][56]
    • Population of the Salt River Valley reaches 240, the Arizona Territory has 9,658 people.[53]
    • 1700 acres under cultivation in the Salt River Valley.[53]
    • Maricopa Canal completed.[53]
    • Arizona Citizen newspaper begins publication in Tucson.[57]
    • J.S. Mansfield news depot opens in Tucson.[45]
  • 1871
    • February 12: Maricopa County is broken out of Yavapai County, Phoenix becomes the county seat.[41][58]
    • July 4: First wheat ground in Salt River Valley at Birchard's Mill.[53]
    • First permanent building in Phoenix, the Hancock residence, is constructed at Washington and First Streets.[53]
    • The second building in Phoenix, a brewery, is constructed.[53]
    • The first store (Hancock's) and the first church (Central Methodist) open in Phoenix.[51][53]
    • The Tempe Irrigating Canal Co. is created.[53]
    • Tempe founded by Charles T. Hayden.[53]
    • Population of Phoenix reaches 500.[53]
  • 1872
    • September 5: Phoenix public school in session.[51]
    • December 19: Fort Grant is established at the foot of Mount Graham.[59]
    • Adobe schoolhouse constructed in Phoenix.[53]
    • Phoenix's first wedding, between George Buck and Matilda Murray.[53]
    • Phoenix's first Chinese settlers arrive.[53]
    • The first bookstore and newsstand in Phoenix is opened by Edward Irvine.[53]
    • Public School department in Tucson is organized.[32]
    • Population of Tucson is 3,500 (estimate).[32]
  • 1873
    • Hellings Mill in the Phoenix area expands to include a hog-slaughterhouse.[53]
    • San Diego-Tucson telegraph begins operating (approximate date).[60]
    • Fort Lowell built near Tucson.[23]
  • 1874
    • Hayden's mill opens in the Phoenix/Tempe area. It will remain in operation for more than 100 years.[53]
    • Phoenix's formal patent for the town site is formally granted.[53]
    • Salt River floods.[53]
  • 1875 – Salt River floods.[53]
  • 1876
    • July 1: Territorial Prison built in Yuma. First prison in Arizona.[59]
    • Empire Ranch is founded in southeastern Pima County.[61]
    • Salero founded as a mining camp. Currently a ghost town, one of the best preserved in Arizona.[62]
  • 1877
    • Tucson incorporated.[23]
    • Maricopa Library Association organized.[55]
    • Lehi is founded by Mormon settlers (now part of Mesa).[63]
    • Territorial capital returned to Prescott, from Tucson.[46]
    • Copper deposits discovered in Bisbee and Jerome.[64]
  • 1878
    • Salt River Herald, Phoenix' first newspaper, begins publication.[65]
    • The first bank in Phoenix, a branch of the Bank of Arizona, opens.[66]
    • Population of Phoenix reaches 1500.[53]
    • Brick factory opens in Phoenix.[53]
    • Grand Canal completed.[53]
    • Mesa is founded.[53][63]
    • El Fronterizo newspaper begins publication.[57][67]
  • 1879

1880s[edit]

  • 1880
    • Arizona Gazette newspaper begins publication.[65]
    • Methodist church established in Phoenix.[55]
    • First legal hanging in Maricopa County.[53]
    • Southern Pacific Railroad begins operating in Tucson.[32]
    • Tucson Library Association organized.[32]
    • St. Mary's Hospital opens near Tucson.[32]
    • Terminus is renamed Casa Grande. Population by end of year was 33.[31]
    • Population of Phoenix reaches 1,800;[55] population of Tucson reaches 7,007.[23]
    • Bien/McNatt House is built in Casa Grande.[69]
    • Harshaw founded as a mining town. Currently a ghost town.[70]
  • 1881
    • February 25: Phoenix officially incorporated when Governor John C. Frémont signs "The Phoenix Charter Bill", and instituting a mayor-council form of government.[41][51]
    • La Guardia, Phoenix's first Spanish language newspaper, begins publication.[71]
    • May 3: John T. Alsap defeated James D. Monihon, 127 to 107, to become the Phoenix's first mayor.[51]
    • May 9: City Council begins meeting.[72]
    • June 24: Catholic church in Phoenix dedicated.[55]
    • Phoenix Rangers organized in response to hostile Apache activity in Tonto Basin.[53]
    • Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe railroad begins operating in Tucson.[32]
    • Methodist Church built in Tucson.[32]
    • AT&SF's subsidiary, the Atlantic & Pacific Railroad constructs line from Albuquerque to California. The line passes through Flagstaff, and many towns in northern Arizona take their names from men working on the line: Kingman, Holbrook, Drake and Winslow.[36]
  • 1882
  • 1883
    • Cotton cultivation is brought to the Salt River Valley.[53]
    • Two smallpox outbreaks in Phoenix. City creates the position of Health Officer.[53]
    • Mesa City incorporates.[53]
    • Tucson chartered. Townsite is bounded by Speedway Boulevard on the north, 22nd Street on the south, 1st Avenue on the east, & on the west by Main Avenue from north of 18th Street, & 10th Avenue from south of 18th Street.[23]
    • First church, a Methodist congregation, established in Flagstaff.[75]
An aerial lithograph of Phoenix from 1885
  • 1884
  • 1885
    • Arizona Canal completed.[53]
    • Phoenix broken up into four wards, although city officials remain citywide offices.[53]
    • Destructive fire destroys major portions of Phoenix.[53]
    • Arizona Insane Asylum is awarded to Phoenix, while the state university is awarded to Tucson.[53]
  • 1886
    • A second major fire in Phoenix destroys several buildings and results in approximately $100,000 in damage.[53]
    • Phoenix Fire Department established, when bond issue passes establishing 2 fire companies.[53]
    • First private gas lighting company established in Phoenix.[56]
    • First telephone company opens in Phoenix.[66]
    • Phoenix Opera House is completed.[53]
    • Arizona Insane asylum's construction is completed.[53]
    • Casa Grande suffers from a devastating fire.[31]
    • Judge William T. Day House is built in Casa Grande.[69]
    • Fire destroys a major portion of Flagstaff on Valentine's Day.[78]
  • 1887
    • Maricopa-Phoenix railway and horse-drawn Street Railway begin operating.[79]
    • Public water system created in Phoenix.[66]
    • Public Health Department is established in Phoenix.[53]
    • Mule-drawn streetcar system established in Phoenix.[66]
    • Salt River Valley News begins weekly publication.[53]
    • Philanthropist Mary Tileston Hemenway sponsored an archeological expedition led by Frank Hamilton Cushing which explored the Casa Grande ruins.[19]
    • McMillan Building built in Flagstaff.[80]
  • 1888
    • Electric power company created in Phoenix.[66]
    • New city hall opens in Phoenix.[51]
    • November 4 – Phoenix Chamber of Commerce established.[81]
    • Peoria is founded.[53]
    • For the second time in 3 years, Flagstaff suffers a major fire.[78]
    • Babbitt Brothers building constructed in Flagstaff.[82]
  • 1889
    • Prescott incorporated.
    • Capital of Arizona Territory relocated to Phoenix from Prescott.[83]
    • Citrus cultivation is begun in the Salt River Valley by the Arizona Improvement Company.[53]
    • The Atlantic & Pacific Railroad constructs a freight depot in Flagstaff.[84]

1890s[edit]

  • 1890
    • Arizona Republican newspaper begins publication.[65]
    • Population of Phoenix reaches 3,152;[41] Casa Grande's population was 256.[31]
    • Walnut Grove dam bursts, 50 people killed.[53]
    • Ladies Benevolent Society formed in Phoenix.[53]
    • Shonessy House in Casa Grande is built.[69]
    • Dr. Alexander Chandler purchases 80 acres southeast of Phoenix, and establishes a ranch and trading post.[85]
  • 1891
  • 1892
    • June 22: Casa Grande Reservation is created by President Benjamin Harrison. The first prehistoric and cultural reserve in the United States.[19]
    • The Phoenix Sewer and Drainage Department is created.[56]
    • The Phoenix Indian School holds its first classes.[53]
    • Mesa Free Press begins publication.[87]
    • Flagstaff suffers another major fire.[78]
  • 1893
    • The Phoenix Street Railway switches over from mule-drawn to electrical streetcars.[56]
    • The Arizona Territory passes a law allowing cities, including Phoenix, to annex land surrounding the city, as long as it obtained the permission of the inhabitants of that area.
    • Arizona State Museum established in Tucson.
    • Casa Grande suffers its second major fire in 6 years.[31]
    • The Abineau building, a brick liquor store, was built in Flagstaff.[88]
  • 1894
    • Orangedale (later called Scottsdale) is founded by Winfield Scott.[53]
    • Phoenix passes an ordinance limiting prostitution to a single block area.[53]
    • Phoenix's speed limit is raised to 6 mph.[53]
    • Tempe incorporates.[53]
    • Lowell Observatory is established.[89]
  • 1895
  • 1896
  • 1897
  • 1898
    • El Demócrata newspaper begins publication in Phoenix.[65]
    • The block of the red-light district is now illegal in Phoenix.[53]
    • Doris Opera House Opens in Phoenix.[53]
    • First public library opens in Phoenix.[53]
    • Casa Grande Hotel opens.[69]
    • The Coconino Chop House, an iron building, was constructed in Flagstaff.[78]
  • 1899
    • Phoenix Library Association created.[53]
    • Northern Arizona University (NAU) founded in Flagstaff.[94]
    • The second half of the Weatherford Hotel is constructed in Flagstaff, and the hotel would open on New Year's Day, 1900.[95]
    • Las Dos Naciones Cigar Company founded, the only cigar company in the southwest.[96]

1900-09[edit]

  • 1900
    • July 14: Most of downtown Prescott is destroyed by fire.[97]
    • Dorris Theatre opens in Phoenix (approximate date).[98]
    • Phoenix accesses unincorporated lands, area increases from .5 acre to over 2 acres.[53]
    • In spite of efforts by the Women's Temperance Union, Phoenix has 28 saloons and 18 casinos.[53]
    • First automobiles arrive in Phoenix.[53]
    • Population in Phoenix reaches 5,544,[41] population of Tucson is 7,531.[23]
    • San Rafael Ranch built south of Patagonia.[99]
  • 1901
    • February 25: The State Capitol building is dedicated, built at a cost of $130,000.[83]
    • Drought hits Phoenix.[53]
    • The Phoenix Women's Club is founded.[53]
    • The Carnegie Free Library opens in Tucson.[100]
  • 1902 – Evans School for Boys opens; later renamed Mesa Ranch School.
  • 1903
  • 1904
    • Chandler's ranch has grown to 18,000 acres.[85]
    • Riordan Mansion built in Flagstaff.[104]
  • 1905
    • The largest agricultural crop in Phoenix is alfalfa.[53]
    • Flooding once again causes issues in Phoenix.[53]
  • 1906
    • Construction begins on the Theodore Roosevelt Dam.[105]
    • Gambling is outlawed in Phoenix.[53]
    • A.J. Chandler purchases 100 ostriches, the beginning of Ostrich farming in Chandler.[106]
  • 1907
    • St. Luke's Home, a tuberculosis treatment center, opens in Phoenix.[53]
    • The YMCA raises $100,000 to construct a building in Phoenix.[53]
    • Southern Pacific railway station built.
    • Roskruge School, Tucson's first high school, opens.[107]
  • 1908
    • Salt River again floods.[53]
    • Prescott National Forest is established.
    • Granite Reef dam completed.[53]
    • In Phoenix, the Carnegie Library is completed and open to the public.[53]
    • The Coconino County Hospital for the Indigent is opened in Flagstaff.[108]
    • The Arizona Prison at Florence opens.[59]
  • 1909
    • In Phoenix, the Central Avenue bridge over the Salt River is approved.[53]
    • The original "Old Main" campus of Mesa High School opens.
    • Mesa installs potable waterworks system.
    • Arizona Overland Telephone Company opens in Flagstaff, giving residents long distance capability for the first time; headquartered in the Telegraph Building, built the same year.[109]
    • September 15: Yuma Territorial Prison is closed.[59]

1910s[edit]

  • 1910
    • Speed limit in Phoenix is increased to 12 mph in city limits; city has 329 licensed cars.[53]
    • Phoenix city schools establish an official segregation policy.[53]
    • In Phoenix, the Adams Hotel is destroyed by fire, but is rebuilt.[53]
    • Guidelines concerning surface water rights are established by the Kent decree.[53]
    • Population in Phoenix reaches 11,134,[41] Tucson hits 13,193.[23]
    • The oldest synagogue in Arizona, Stone Avenue Temple, opens in Tucson. Currently known as Temple Emanu-El.[110]
  • 1911
    • May 18: Roosevelt Dam dedicated by Theodore Roosevelt, it is the first multi-purpose (electricity and water) dam built under the National Reclamation Act.[105]
    • Center Street Bridge in Phoenix opens.[53]
    • Mesa takes over irrigation system operation within incorporated city limits.
    • Hinchcliffe Court opens near Tucson, the first auto court motel in Arizona.[111]
  • 1912
    • February 14: Arizona becomes the 48th state of the United States; Phoenix becomes the state capital.[105]
    • May 17: Chandler is founded by Alexander Chandler, from the breakup of his ranch.[53][85][112]
    • May 21: The Chandler Arizonan begins publication.[113]
    • Women are granted the right to vote.[53]
    • Casa Grande Dispatch founded.[114]
    • Chandler Grammar School opens.[85]
    • Fort Grant becomes the State Industrial School for Wayward Boys and Girls.[59]

Statehood through World War II[edit]

1910s, continued[edit]

  • 1913
    • November 22: Hotel San Marcos, the first golf resort in the state, opens in Chandler.[112]
    • Phoenix adopts council-manager form of government (previously mayor-council), becoming one of the first cities in the country to adopt this form of government.[115]
    • 35% of the votes cast in Phoenix were by women.[53]
    • Phoenix has 646 registered automobiles.[53]
    • Ash Avenue Bridge is completed in Phoenix.[53]
  • 1914
    • Arizona votes to ban alcohol.[53]
    • William Fairish becomes Phoenix's first manager.[116]
    • Chandler High School is formed, classes are held at the Grammar School, and at several local merchants until a building can be constructed (which was done in 1922).[85]
  • 1915
    • St. Mary's Basilica in Phoenix is dedicated.
    • Phoenix's first sewer treatment plant is completed.[116]
    • Mesa installs sanitary sewer system.
  • 1917
    • Arizona adopts its state flag.[83]
    • Litchfield is founded when the Goodyear Tire Company purchases a tract of land.[116]
    • Salt River Valley Water Users Association gains control of the Salt River Project.[116]
    • Migrant workers from Mexico are brought in to pick cotton in the Salt River Valley.[116]
    • Mesa purchases existing gas and electric utilities from Dr. A.J. Chandler.
    • Orpheum Theater opens in Flagstaff.[117]
  • 1918
    • August 3: Casa Grande Ruins are declared a national monument by President Woodrow Wilson.[19]
    • Alfalfa falls to the number two agricultural product, behind cotton in Phoenix.[116]
    • The Rialto Theatre opens in Phoenix.[116]
    • Spanish flu infects a significant portion of the population in Phoenix.[116]
  • 1919

1920s[edit]

1930s[edit]

1940s[edit]

Post-war years through the 1960s[edit]

1940s, continued[edit]

  • 1946
    • The Arizona State Constitution is amended; Arizona becomes a right-to-work state.[158]
    • Ray Bussey elected mayor of Phoenix.[158]
    • Avondale incorporated.
    • Tempe Airport starts operations as a private airport.[153]
    • Gilbert Airport is opened as a private airport, it would close in 1962-63.[153]
  • 1947
    • October: A fire destroys all but four of Phoenix's electric streetcars. The city begins the process of transitioning to a public bus transit system.[122]
    • The Phoenix Charter Revision Committee is formed. The political group, headed by Barry Goldwater, would dominate city politics in the 1950s.[159]
    • Phoenix Symphony Orchestra is founded.[158]
    • The New York Giants start spring training in Phoenix.[158]
  • 1948
  • 1949 – Modern wastewater treatment plant built at Riverview in Mesa.

1950s[edit]

  • 1950s – Widespread use of air-conditioning leads to a construction and population boom in Phoenix.[83]
  • 1950
    • Catalina Highway constructed in Tucson.
    • KTYL-FM radio in Mesa begins broadcasting.
    • The Phoenix population reaches 106,818, now 99th most populous city in the United States, and the largest in the Southwest;[158] Mesa's population reaches 16,790; Chandler's population stands at 3,800.[85]
    • Flagstaff Symphony Orchestra is formed.[164]
  • 1952
    • Wright House (residence) built in Phoenix.
    • Republican Barry Goldwater elected United States Senator, defeating the Senate Majority Leader Ernest McFarland; Republican John Howard Pyle elected governor
    • Arizona Public Service formed by the merger of Central Arizona Light and Power and Northern Arizona Light and Power[158]
    • Racial segregation is banned at Sky Harbor Airport.[158]
    • Adam Diaz becomes the first Hispanic on the Phoenix city council.[158]
    • Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum founded.
    • Kingman incorporated.
  • 1953
    • State courts declare school segregation illegal. Phoenix begins school desegregation.[158]
    • KYTL-TV begins operations as an NBC affiliate in Phoenix. Currently KPNX-TV.[158]
    • Channel 10 begins broadcasting in Phoenix, currently KSAZ-TV, the Fox affiliate.[158]
    • General Motors Desert Proving Grounds opens in Mesa.
    • 10 million gallon Pasadena city reservoir completed in Mesa.
  • 1954
    • May 24: Chandler upgraded from a town to a city.[85]
    • Peoria incorporated.[165]
    • Phoenix finishes the desegregation of Public schools.[158]
    • Tempe Airport purchased by the city of Tempe.[153]
  • 1955
    • January 24: Ira Hayes, one of the men made famous by the flag raising on Iwo Jima, and a member of the Pima Indian Tribe, was found dead of exposure near Sacaton.[166]
    • Terminal 1 opens at Sky Harbor Airport, built at a cost of $835,000, it represented the most modern and efficient passenger terminals of its time. It was demolished in 1991.[142]
    • In Phoenix, Metropolitan Bus Lines is purchased by L.A. Tanner and renamed Valley Transit Line. Tanner was unsuccessful in his attempts to also purchase the city-run municipal bus system.[122]
    • Phoenix battles Scottsdale over annexation of unincorporated areas. This battle would last until an agreement was reached regarding "spheres of annexation influence" in 1964.[167]
    • KTVK-TV opens operations as an ABC affiliate in Phoenix.[158]
    • Agriculture falls to second behind manufacturing in Phoenix's economy.[158]
    • Phoenix bans segregation in public housing.[158]
    • United States Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station opens.[168]
  • 1956 – Tucson Air National Guard Base active.
  • 1957
  • 1958
    • Phoenix doubles in size through annexation
    • Arizona State College becomes Arizona State University.[134]
    • The first Cactus Fly-In, a show of vintage aircraft, takes place at Casa Grande Airport.[169]
    • Phoenix Flyers Club established.[170]
    • Radio station KVNA begins broadcasting on AM from Flagstaff. An FM counterpart would begin broadcasting in 1999.
  • 1959
    • Phoenix Art Museum opens.[123]
    • L.A. Tanner is successful in purchasing the city-owned municipal bus system, merging it into his Valley Transit Line. All bus service in Phoenix is now unified.[122]
    • Sunnyslope annexed by Phoenix.[158]
    • Deer Valley airport opens.[124]
    • The Francisco Grande hotel is opened in Casa Grande as the spring training location for the San Francisco Giants.[171]

1960s[edit]

1970s through the end of the millennium[edit]

1970s[edit]

1980s[edit]

1990s[edit]

21st century[edit]

2000-09[edit]

2010s[edit]

See also[edit]

Cities in Arizona

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sheridan 2012, pp. 11-12.
  2. ^ a b c Sheridan 2012, p. 6.
  3. ^ Sheridan 2012, p. 18.
  4. ^ Sheridan 2012, p. 26.
  5. ^ a b "The Hohokam". Arizona Museum of Natural History, City of Mesa. Archived from the original on 30 November 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2012. 
  6. ^ Sheridan 2012, pp. 22-24.
  7. ^ Cordell, Linda S. (1984). Prehistory of the Southwest. New York: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-188220-9. 
  8. ^ Sheridan 2012, p. 25.
  9. ^ Sheridan 2012, p. 19.
  10. ^ "Hopi Places". Cline Library, Northern Arizona University. 
  11. ^ Casey, Robert L. Journey to the High Southwest. Guilford, Connecticut: Globe Pequot Press, 2007: 382. ISBN 978-0-7627-4064-2.
  12. ^ Sheridan 2012, p. 22.
  13. ^ Sheridan 2012, p. 29.
  14. ^ Malotki, Ekkehart. 2002. Hopi Tales of Destruction. Bison Books. pp. 230
  15. ^ Braatz 2003, p. 27.
  16. ^ a b c d Sheridan 2012, p. 31.
  17. ^ "Nahanni National Park Reserve". Great Canadian Parks. Retrieved 2007-07-02. 
  18. ^ "The journey of Coronado, 1540–1542: from the city of Mexico to the Grand ..." By Pedro de Castañeda de Nájera, Antonio de Mendoza, Juan Camilo, p.5 (Google Books ISBN 1-55591-066-1])
  19. ^ a b c d e f "A Brief History of the Casa Grande Ruins". National Park Service. Retrieved June 30, 2015. 
  20. ^ a b Sheridan 2012, p. 38.
  21. ^ Sheridan 2012, p. 41.
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Bibliography[edit]

  • Braatz, Timothy (2003). Surviving Conquest. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-2242-7. 
  • Sheridan, Thomas E. (2012). Arizona. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press. 

Further reading[edit]

Published in the 19th century
Published in the 20th century
Published in the 21st century

External links[edit]