Timeline of Bhutanese history

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This is a timeline of Bhutanese history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Bhutan and its predecessor states.

6th century[edit]

Year Date Event
600 During the reign of Bhaskar Varman of Kamarupa, parts of Bhutan come under Indian control.[1] (to 650)

7th century[edit]

Year Date Event
627 Tibetan ruler Songtsän Gampo (reigned 627–49) ordered the construction of many Buddhist temples, including two in Bhutan: Jambay Lhakhang at Bumthang in central Bhutan, and Kyichu Lhakhang on the Kyi River in the Paro Valley.[2] The construction of these temples marked the arrival of Buddhism in Bhutan. (to 649)

8th century[edit]

Year Date Event
747 Buddhist saint Padmasambhava, known as "Guru Rimpoche", comes to Bhutan from India at the invitation of Sindhu Raja of the Kingdom of Bumthang, one of the numerous kingdoms predating modern Bhutan. Padmasambhava converts the king to Buddhism and then continues to Tibet. When he returns to Bhutan at the invitation of Trisong Detsen, he oversees the construction of new monasteries in the Paro Valley and sets up his headquarters in Jakar. According to tradition, Padmasambhava thus founds the Nyingma, or "Red Hat," sect of Vajrayana Buddhism. Padmasambhava plays a great historical and religious role as the national patron saint who revealed the tantras to Bhutan. He returned for a third visit during the reign of Murthi Tsenpo (764–817), son of Trisong Detsen.[2][3]

9th century[edit]

Year Date Event
807 Alternate date for Padmasambhava's invitation to Bhutan by Sindhu Raja. Naguchhi's sons spread the realm into parts of modern Sikkim and Tibet.[1][4]
809 Padmasambhava comes again to Bhutan.[1] Around the same time, independent monarchies develop.[5]
824 Tibetan King Ralpacan (reigned 816–836), grandson of Trisong Detsen, goes to war with an Indian people ruler in Bhutan, driving him out. Tibetan troops who remained in Bhutan were called Milog, meaning "those that will not return." The region they settle is referred to as Tshochhen Gyed. Its eight parts or divisions are Wang, Be, Med, Kawang, Chang, Thi, Thim, and Lar.[1][6]
836 Tibetan King Tritsug Detsen is murdered by agents of his brother Langdarma. Tibetans seek refuge in Bhutan from ensuing political and religious upheaval during the reign of Langdarma (836–842). After Langdarma's assassination in 842, Tibetans continue to flee to western Bhutan, thus creating the homeland of the modern Ngalop people. The centuries that follow, known in Tibet as the Era of Fragmentation, are characterized by their lack of political cohesion. During much of this period, the dominant Bhutanese polity was the Kingdom of Bumthang.[3][7]
900 In the late 9th century, ethnic Tibetan forces expel Indian people princes from parts of modern Bhutan. Tibetans in this period and location develop the roots of Ngalong culture.[1][7][8]

10th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1000 By the 11th century, Tibetan-Mongol forces occupy the whole of Bhutan. More waves of Tibetans seek refuge in Bhutan from religious persecution. Charismatic lamas become the de facto leaders of regions in western Bhutan.[3][7]

11th century[edit]

12th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1180 Tibetan lama Tsangpa Gyare (1161–1211) founds Ralung Monastery for the Drukpa Lineage of the Kagyu school, named after the thunder dragons (druk) he witnessed on his quest for an appropriate foundation site.[3] With the proliferation of the Drukpa, the druk become synonymous with Bhutan and later its central national symbol.

13th century[edit]

14th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1360 Gelug monks flee to Bhutan from Tibet.[5]

15th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1475 Pema Lingpa, a Bhutanese religious figure and tertön from Bumthang, discovered his first terma from Lake Membar near Bumthang.[3]

16th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1527 Punakha Dzong is established.[9]

17th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1616 Ngawang Namgyal, 1st Zhabdrung Rinpoche, facing arrest and following visions in which it is said that the chief guardian deities of Bhutan offered him a home, leaves Tibet to establish a new base in western Bhutan, founding Chagri Monastery at the head of the Thimphu Valley.
1627 Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal builds Simtokha Dzong at the entrance to Thimphu valley. From this dzong, he exerts control over traffic between the powerful Paro Valley to the west and Trongsa Valley to the east.
Circa 1627, during the first war with Tibet, Portuguese Jesuits Estêvão Cacella and João Cabral were the first recorded Europeans to visit Bhutan on their way to Tibet. They met with Ngawang Namgyal, presented him with firearms, gunpowder and a telescope, and offered him their services in the war against Tibet, but the Zhabdrung declined the offer. After a stay of nearly eight months, Cacella wrote a long letter from Chagri Monastery reporting the travel. This is a rare remaining direct report of the Zhabdrung.[7][9][10]
1629 Attempted Tibetan invasion fails.[11]
1631 Attempted Tibetan invasion fails.[11]
1634 Ngawang Namgyal prevails in the Battle of Five Lamas over the Tibetan Empire and Bhutanese forces allied against him. The Zhabdrung is thus the first to unite Bhutan into a single country. The Zhabdrung establishes the Drukpa Lineage as the state religion under the dual system of government, and codifies the system of laws known as the Tsa Yig, based on Buddhist religious law (dharma).[9]
1639 Attempted Tibetan invasion fails.[11]
1643 A joint Mongol-Tibetan force sought to destroy Nyingma refugees who had fled to Bhutan, Sikkim, and Nepal. The Mongols had seized control of religious and civil power in Tibet in the 1630s and established the Gelug school as the state religion. Bhutanese rivals of Ngawang Namgyal encouraged the Mongol intrusion, but the Mongol force was easily defeated in the humid lowlands of southern Bhutan.[11]
1647 Attempted Tibetan invasion fails.[11]
1651 Ngawang Namgyal dies; however, his death is kept a secret for fifty-four years in order to keep Bhutan from disintegrating. While the Zhabdrung was supposedly away on an extended religious retreat, his son reigned.[12]
1680 Bhutan invades Sikkim. The same year, Ngawang Namgyal's son is succeeded by the Zhabdrung's stepbrother.[12]
1700 Bhutan invades Sikkim.[12]

18th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1714 Tibetan forces, aided by the Mongols, invade Bhutan but fail to gain control.[12]
1730 Cooch Behar first requests Bhutanese assistance in repelling Mughal Empire encroachments, establishing a dependent relationship with Bhutan.[7][13]
1770 Bhutan invades Sikkim, supported by troops from Cooch Behar.[13]
1772 In a succession dispute in Cooch Behar, the Druk Desi's nominee for the throne was opposed by a rival who invited British troops; in effect, Cooch Behar became a dependency of the British East India Company.[13]
British expeditionary forces drive Bhutanese garrisons out of Cooch Behar, until that time a Bhutanese dependency. The Druk Desi petitions Lhasa unsuccessfully for assistance.[13][14] (to 1773)
1774 25 April The Druk Desi signs a Treaty of Peace with the British East India Company. Under the treaty, Bhutan returns to its pre-1730 boundaries and allows the British to harvest timber in Bhutan.[14]
1784 British government turns over to Bhutan the Bengal Duars territory, where boundaries had been poorly defined. As in its other foreign territories, Bhutan left administration of the Bengal Duars territory to local officials and collected its revenues.[14]

19th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1815 British mission to Thimphu fails to reach a conclusion amid increasing border tensions.[14]
1838 British mission to Thimphu offers Bhutan a treaty providing for the extradition of Bhutanese officials responsible for incursions into Assam, free and unrestricted commerce between India and Bhutan, and settlement of Bhutan's debt to the British. In an attempt to protect its independence, Bhutan rejected the British offer.[14]
1841 British annex Bhutanese controlled Assam Duars, paying a compensation of 10,000 rupees a year to Bhutan.[14]
1842 Bhutan cedes control of the troublesome Bengal Duars to Britain.[14]
1862 Bhutanese forces raid Sikkim and Cooch Behar; the British respond by withholding all compensation payments and demanding release of all captives and return of stolen property. These demands went unheeded by the Druk Desi, as he was alleged to be unaware of frontier officials' raids.[14]
1864 Britain sends a peace mission to Bhutan in the wake of a recent civil war, during a period when two rival claimants to the office of Druk Desi competed for power.[14] Though the British attempt to deal with both Druk Desis, the peace mission is rejected by Bhutan.[14]
November Britain declares war on Bhutan. The Duar War lasts five months, resulting in Bhutan's defeat and cession of significant territory under the Treaty of Sinchula.[14]
1865 11 November Bhutan signs the Treaty of Sinchula, ceding territories in the Assam Duars and Bengal Duars, as well as the eighty-three-square-kilometer territory of Dewangiri in southeastern Bhutan, in return for an annual subsidy of 50,000 rupees.[14]
1870 In the 1870s and 1880s, renewed competition among regional rivals – primarily the pro-British penlop of Trongsa and the anti-British, pro-Tibetan penlop of Paro – resulted in the ascendancy of Ugyen Wangchuck, the penlop of Trongsa.[14] (to 1880)
1885 Ugyen Wangchuck, penlop (governor) of Trongsa, puts down civil unrest across Bhutan, consolidates power, and cultivates closer ties with British India.[11][15]

20th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1903 The last reigning Shabdrung dies, and a successor is not found until 1906. In the meantime, the civil administration comes under the power of the Ugyen Wangchuck as Desi.[14]
Ugyen Wangchuck volunteers to accompany a British mission to Lhasa as a mediator in the British expedition to Tibet and resulting Anglo-Tibetan Convention. In return, Ugyen is knighted and thereafter continues to accrue greater power in Bhutan.[5][14] (to 1904)
1907 17 December Ugyen Wangchuck is elected Bhutan's first hereditary ruler (Druk Gyalpo) after having politically unified the country.[15][16]
1910 8 January The Treaty of Punakha amends two articles of the 1865 Treaty of Sinchula: the British agree to double the annual stipend to 100,000 rupees and "to exercise no interference in the internal administration of Bhutan." In turn, Bhutan agrees "to be guided by the advice of the British Government in regard to its external relations."[17]
1926 21 August King Ugyen Wangchuck dies; his son Jigme Wangchuck begins to reign.
1927 16 March Coronation of Jigme Wangchuck.
1931 The 7th Shabdrung Jigme Dorji dies at Talo monastery. Jigme Dorji is the last Shabdrung recognized by the government of Bhutan, though subsequent claimants to the incarnation continue today.
1947 The British Empire leaves India, and direct political by the British ends. Bhutan remains relatively isolated from international affairs.[14]
1949 8 August India and Bhutan sign the Treaty of Peace and Friendship, which provided that India would not interfere in Bhutan's internal affairs but that Bhutan would be guided by India in its foreign policy. This is the first international agreement that unambiguously recognizes Bhutan's independence and sovereignty. The same year, India cedes to Bhutan some territories lost to the British in the 1865 Treaty of Sinchula.[11][14][15][16]
1952 24 March King Jigme Wangchuck dies; his son Jigme Dorji Wangchuck begins to reign. Bhutan begins a program of planned development and democratization.[15] The same year, the National Assembly is established, and the post of Chief Minister (Gongzim) is abolished.[16]
1957 Major glacial lake outburst flood from glacial lakes.[18]
1958 Slavery is abolished.[16]
The first Nationality Act is enacted, defining Bhutanese citizenship and introducing a compulsory registration process.[19]
1959 Bhutanese enclaves in western Tibet are seized by the Chinese.[20]
1960 Major glacial lake outburst flood from glacial lakes.[18]
1961 First Five-Year Plan is introduced.[5]
1964 5 April Prime Minister Jigme Palden Dorji is assassinated in a dispute among competing political factions. The King's own uncle, a military cadre, was among those executed for their role in the attempted coup. After a brief tenure by acting Prime Minister Lhendup Dorji, the post of Prime Minister is abolished until 1998.[5][16]
1965 Unsuccessful attempt to assassinate King Jigme Dorji Wangchuck.[16]
1966 The capital is moved from Punakha to Thimphu through a transition period when Punakha was the winter capital and Thimphu the summer capital.[5][21]
1968 King Jigme Dorji Wangchuck establishes the first Council of Ministers, or executive cabinet.[16][22] At the same time, the king renounces his power of veto, which had never been used.[22] The king also creates the High Court (the Thimkhang Gongma) and empowers it to review the king's decisions.[22] The Bank of Bhutan is also founded as a central bank, charged with supervising the transition from a barter economy to a monetary economy.[22]
Major glacial lake outburst flood from glacial lakes.[18]
1969 Jigme Dorji Wangchuck called for a triennial vote of confidence by the National Assembly to renew the Druk Gyalpo's mandate to rule. This vote was later abolished by his successor.[5]
1970 Bhutan's population reaches an estimated 300,000.[23]
1971 Bhutan joins the United Nations.[15][16]
1972 21 July King Jigme Dorji Wangchuck dies; his son Jigme Singye Wangchuck begins to reign.
1974 March Strains between the Wangchucks and Dorjis were relieved with the return that year of the exiled members of the latter family. The reconciliation, however, was preceded by reports of a plot to assassinate the new Druk Gyalpo before his coronation could take place and to set fire to the Tashichho Dzong, the seat of government in Thimphu. Yangki, the Druk Gyalpo's Tibetan mistress, was the alleged force behind the plot. Thirty persons were arrested, including high government and police officials.[5] (to April)
2 June Coronation of Jigme Singye Wangchuck. The same year, the first foreign tourists are allowed to enter Bhutan.[16]
1978 Bhutan's population reaches an estimated 400,000.[23]
1982 The Royal Government establishes the Royal Monetary Authority, the central bank of Bhutan.[24][25]
1985 10 June The Bhutanese Citizenship Act 1985 is enacted.[26]
1986 Bhutan's population reaches an estimated 500,000.[23]
One thousand illegal Lhotshampa laborers are expelled.[5]
1987 Gasa District is split up among Punakha and Thimphu Districts; Chhukha District is carved out from parts of Samtse, Paro, and Thimphu Districts.[21][27]
1988 Bhutan conducts its first census. As a result, many Lhotshampa (ethnic Nepalis) are branded as illegal immigrants.[16]
After a census, the government begins evicting those it identifies as illegal immigrants among the Nepali-speaking population in southern Bhutan. Over two decades, the population of Bhutanese refugees in refugee camps in neighboring Nepal climbed to 107,000 by 2008 according to UNHCR.[16][28]
1989 The driglam namzha, the official behaviour and dress code, is elevated from recommended to mandatory in public and educational settings. Nepali ceases to be a language of instruction in schools, escalating tensions between Ngalops and Lhotshampas.[16]
Tek Nath Rizal, leader of the Bhutan Peoples' Party, is arrested and imprisoned.[29]
1990 Violent ethnic unrest and anti-government protests in southern Bhutan pressing for greater democracy and respect for minority rights. The Bhutan Peoples' Party, whose members are mostly Lhotshampa, begin a campaign of violence against the government. Pro-government citizen militias form in response to rising crime and violence including clashes between Lhotshampa demonstrators and the Royal Bhutan Army. The Bhutan Peoples' Party is subsequently banned.[5][16]
1991 Jigme Singye Wangchuck threatens to abdicate in face of hardline opposition in the National Assembly to his efforts to resolve ethnic unrest, leaving an international summit to attend to unrest.[5]
1992 Tek Nath Rizal, leader of the illegal Bhutan Peoples' Party, is sentenced to life imprisonment.[16]
Gasa District is carved out from Punakha District; Tashi Yangtse District is split from Trashigang District. Other district boundaries are also changed[21][27]
2 November The National Security Act is enacted. The Act defines treason and speech crimes, as well as unlawful assembly, rioting, and states of emergency, providing for lengthy prison sentences, capital punishment, and the use of deadly force by the government to stop unlawful demonstrations.[30]
1994 Major glacial lake outburst flood from glacial lakes, devastating Punakha.[18]
1998 The Council of Ministers (Lhengye Zhungtshog) replaces the cabinet, and King Jigme Singye Wangchuck withdraws from his role in the decision-making of the cabinet. The post of Prime Minister (Lonchen) is restored. (to 1999)
1999 Television is introduced.[16]
18 December Tek Nath Rizal, leader of the illegal Bhutan Peoples' Party, is pardoned and released from prison along with some 40 other political prisoners. He goes into exile in Nepal, a common condition of release among Lhotshampa political dissidents.[29][31][32][33]
2000 Bhutan and Nepal reach an agreement regarding the repatriation of certain classes of Bhutanese refugees living in camps in Nepal, subject to joint government verification. Points of contention included that some camp inhabitants were never citizens – or some even residents – of Bhutan before attaining refugee status. Also, the Bhutanese government regarded many political groups among the Nepalese Lhotshampa community, such as the Bhutan Peoples' Party (BPP) and Bhutan National Democratic Party (BNDP), as terrorist or anti-national groups.[33][34]

21st century[edit]

Year Date Event
2001 March First verification of Bhutanese refugees eligible for repatriation commences in Nepalese refugee camps. Actual repatriation is estimated to occur one year out.[34] As of 2011 over 200 refugees in the Khudunabari refugee camp alone had been certified, however no Bhutanese refugees had been repatriated.[35]
2002 Bhutan's population reaches an estimated 600,000.[23]
2003 Several guerrilla groups seeking to establish an independent Assamese state in northeast India had set up guerrilla bases in the forests of southern Bhutan from which they launch cross-border attacks on targets in Assam. The largest guerrilla group was the United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA). Negotiations aimed at removing them peacefully from these bases failed in the spring of 2003.
15 December The Royal Bhutan Army began military operations against guerrilla camps in southern Bhutan, in coordination with Indian armed forces who lined the border to the south to prevent the guerrillas from dispersing back into Assam. News sources indicated that of the 30 camps that were targeted, 13 were controlled by ULFA, 12 camps by the National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB), and 5 camps controlled by the Kamatapur Liberation Organisation (KLO). By January 2004, government news reports indicated the guerrillas had been routed from their bases.
2004 20 March Capital punishment in Bhutan is abolished.[36]
2005 26 March Proposed constitution is unveiled under which Bhutan would transition from absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy.[16]
December King Jigme Singye Wangchuck announces he will abdicate in 2008, when democratic parliamentary elections are held, and names Crown Prince Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck to succeed him.[16]
2006 January Authorities arrest two civil servants in the village of Nago in Paro District, accusing them of engaging in acts of proselytism under the false pretext of holding an official meeting, maligning the Spiritual Head of Bhutan (Je Khenpo), posing as officials on official business, and giving false information. In accordance with provisions in the Penal Code and the National Security Act, both men are found guilty in a district court. Christian groups maintain the men were arrested due to their religious beliefs since, according to these groups, the men were arrested while showing a Christian film in a Buddhist home. They are sentenced in early June 2006 in an open trial with a public hearing to three and a half years and three years in prison. They did not appeal the court judgment, although the right to appeal was provided for by law. On 28 July 2006, both men were released after payment of a fine.[37]
June Bhutanese refugees in Nepalese refugee camps protest, pressing for third-country resettlement.[16] (to August)
14 December Abdication of King Jigme Singye Wangchuck, ahead of the date previously announced; his son Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck begins to reign.
2007 5 January The Royal Government enacts the Immigration Act of 2007, amending the Bhutanese Citizenship Act 1985 and establishing the Department of Immigration under the Ministry of Home and Cultural Affairs to implement and administer immigration laws through immigration offices. The Act endowed officers of the Department of Immigration with broad police and prosecution powers: they may enter any private or official premises in order to search, arrest, seize, detain, interrogate or to demand forfeiture of any vehicles, trains, vessels, aircraft, or goods.[38]
February Bhutan signs an agreement with India giving the kingdom more say in its foreign and defense policies.[16]
3 February Reports allege the current Zhabdrung Rinpoche, Pema Namgyel (b. 20 November 2003 – then a small child) had been held under house arrest in Bhutan along with his parents since October 2005, when the family traveled to meet the Reincarnation Committee. The Committee later denied his reincarnation status.[39][40][41]
April Mock elections are staged to familiarise voters with parliamentary democracy ahead of planned polls in 2008.[16]
31 December First National Council election for the 20 elected non-partisan seats in National Council, Bhutan's upper house. Only 15 out of 20 dzongkhags (districts), however, were set to begin voting. In Thimphu, Trashiyangtse, Gasa, Haa and Lhuntse Districts, there were either no candidates or a single candidate, and elections were delayed until 29 January 2008.
2008 January A series of bombs blast the kingdom ahead of elections slated for 24 March. The attacks are blamed on armed Lhotshampa groups.[16] (to February)
24 March In Bhutan's first parliamentary elections, the pro-monarchy Bhutan Peace and Prosperity Party wins 45 out of 47 seats in the National Assembly, Bhutan's lower house. Another pro-monarchy party, the People's Democratic Party, wins the remaining two seats in Gasa and Haa Districts.
18 July The Constitution of Bhutan is enacted. The first ever Constitution of Bhutan, it sets forth a bicameral parliamentary democratic framework to safeguard human rights, while enshrining the institution of the monarchy, Drukpa Lineage Buddhism, and traditional Ngalop Bhutanese culture.[42]
November The government of India alleges links between Assamese separatists and the illegal Bhutanese Druk National Congress.[16]
1 November Coronation of Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck.[43]
2009 April Huanglongbing virus decimates Bhutan's orange crop, an important export for the kingdom.[16]
11 September Parliament enacts the Local Government Act of Bhutan 2009, the sixth legislative reform of Bhutanese local governments since 1999. The Act devolves various administrative powers to Dzongkhags (districts), Dungkhags (subdistricts), Gewogs (village blocks), Chiwogs (constituencies), and Thromdes (municipalities) while retaining legislative authority as the sole purview of the central government.[44]
21 September The 6.1-magnitude 2009 Bhutan earthquake strikes Mongar District, causing at least 12 deaths, extensive destruction, and severe aftershocks in Bhutan.[45][46]
2010 March A district court interprets the constitutional clause regarding religious "coercion or inducement" to prohibit not only forced conversion but also proselytism in the case of a Christian missionary pastor who used a generator and a projector in a private home on 21 May 2009. The pastor received a sentence of three years imprisonment for infringing the Constitution.[47]
16 June Parliament enacts the Tobacco Control Act, restricting import and possession, and banning the sale of tobacco in Bhutan.[48]
2011 24 January Sonam Tshering, a 23-year-old ordained monk from Langpa in Haa, was caught with 480 grams of chewing tobacco (purchased for Nu.120) en route from Phuntsholing to Thimphu. This presented the first prosecution under the Tobacco Control Act of Bhutan 2010 and was the result of a private individual informing the police that Tshering possessed tobacco. Although Tshering revealed the source of his tobacco to mitigate and qualify his offense as a misdemeanor, he failed to identify the location and supplier of the tobacco, apparently somewhere in the border town of Jaigaon. He was thus convicted of a felony, and sentenced to the minimum imprisonment of three years. The conviction and especially the sentence have made the Tobacco Control Act of Bhutan 2010 controversial in urban Bhutan due to their severity. Although the Constitution of Bhutan guarantees all persons the right to be represented by a jabmi (attorney), the Thimphu Dzongkhag Court closed the case before any jabmi could offer services. Tshering has since appealed the Dzongkhag Court ruling to the High Court of Bhutan, for which has retained a private attorney.[49][50]
23 January Local government elections, originally slated for 2008, begin on a staggered scale in 3 of Bhutan's 20 Dzongkhags: Thimphu, Phuntsholing, and Samdrup Jongkhar.[51]
24 February The Supreme Court of Bhutan declares unconstitutional the government's raising of personal vehicle import taxes in June 2010 without bicameral presentment and debate, affirming the judgment of the High Court Constitutional Bench against the Attorney General and for the Opposition in Parliament.[52]
28 June The Election Commission announces the results of the first local government elections under the Constitution of Bhutan.[53] Originally slated for 2008, elections faced multiple delays related to voter registration and constituency demarcation. Furthermore, voter turnout crept to 56% of eligible voters amid public sentiments of distrust and futility.[54] In several instances, voters were unable to cast votes; in a few cases, legally unqualified candidates ran and won seats. Disqualified candidates, uncontested seats, and inconclusive results in some constituencies required the Election Commission to rerun elections at a later date.[51][53][55][56][57]
13 October King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck marries Jetsun Pema.[58][59][60] Jetsun Pema, childhood friend of the Fifth King, becomes his Queen in a traditional Buddhist ceremony followed by three days of public holiday and celebrations.[61][62][63] The much anticipated wedding, announced 20 May, was the largest media event in Bhutanese history.[64][65]
2013 8 March The Speaker of the National Assembly, Jigme Tshultim, sentenced to 2 years 6 months imprisonment for official misconduct, fraud, and deceptive practices; and the then Home Minister, Lyonpo Minjur Dorji, and 13 Plot Allotment committee members sentenced to a year imprisonment by the Mongar District Court for official misconduct in the Gyelpozhing land allotment case.[66] On appeal, the convictions and sentences are upheld by the High Court of Bhutan on 16 May[67] and by the Supreme Court on 17 Julyth.[68]
13 April National Council elections held[69]
31 May Primary round of National Assembly elections held. Results: DCT—12,457 votes; DNT—35,962 votes; PDP-68,650 votes; DPT—93,949 votes.[70]
13 July Final round of National Assembly elections held. Results: PDP-32 seats; DPT—15 seats.[71] New Prime Minister: Tshering Tobgay.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b Worden, Robert L.; Savada, Andrea Matles (ed.) (1991). "Chapter 6 – Bhutan: Arrival of Buddhism". Nepal and Bhutan: Country Studies (3rd ed.). Federal Research Division, United States Library of Congress. ISBN 0-8444-0777-1. Retrieved 2010-10-19. 
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  4. ^ White, John Claude (1909). Sikhim & Bhutan: twenty-one years on the north-east frontier, 1887–1908. Longmans, Green. p. 99. Retrieved 2013-03-23. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Worden, Robert L.; Savada, Andrea Matles (ed.) (1991). "Modernization under Jigme Dorji, 1952–72". Nepal and Bhutan: Country Studies (3rd ed.). Federal Research Division, United States Library of Congress. ISBN 0-8444-0777-1. Retrieved 2010-10-19. 
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  8. ^ Ramakant, Ramesh; Misra, Chandra (1996). Bhutan: society and polity. South Asia studies. 34 (2 ed.). Indus Publishing. p. 45. ISBN 81-7387-044-6. 
  9. ^ a b c Worden, Robert L.; Savada, Andrea Matles (ed.) (1991). "Chapter 6 – Bhutan: Consolidation and Defeat of Tibetan Invasions, 1616–51". Nepal and Bhutan: Country Studies (3rd ed.). Federal Research Division, United States Library of Congress. ISBN 0-8444-0777-1. Retrieved 2010-10-19. 
  10. ^ "Stephen Cacella". Bhutannica online. 2 March 2008. Retrieved 2011-05-16. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g West, Barbara A. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania. Facts on File library of world history. 1. Infobase Publishing. pp. 107–110. ISBN 0-8160-7109-8. 
  12. ^ a b c d Worden, Robert L.; Savada, Andrea Matles (ed.) (1991). "Chapter 6 – Bhutan: Administrative Integration and Conflict with Tibet, 1651–1728". Nepal and Bhutan: Country Studies (3rd ed.). Federal Research Division, United States Library of Congress. ISBN 0-8444-0777-1. Retrieved 2010-10-19. 
  13. ^ a b c d Worden, Robert L.; Savada, Andrea Matles (ed.) (1991). "Chapter 6 – Bhutan: Civil Conflict, 1728–72". Nepal and Bhutan: Country Studies (3rd ed.). Federal Research Division, United States Library of Congress. ISBN 0-8444-0777-1. Retrieved 2010-10-19. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Worden, Robert L.; Savada, Andrea Matles (ed.) (1991). "Chapter 6 – Bhutan: British Intrusion, 1772–1907". Nepal and Bhutan: Country Studies (3rd ed.). Federal Research Division, United States Library of Congress. ISBN 0-8444-0777-1. Retrieved 2010-10-19. 
  15. ^ a b c d e "Background Note: Bhutan". U.S. Department of State. 2 February 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-02. 
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