Jump to content

Timeline of Brazilian history

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a timeline of Brazilian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Brazil and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Brazil.

Centuries: 10th · 15th · 16th · 17th · 18th · 19th · 20th · 21st

10th century

Year Date Event
1000 Marajoara culture on am island] and now flourishes as an Amazonian center.[1]

Some of this is not true.

15th century

Year Date Event
1492–1502 Voyages of Christopher Columbus: navigator Christopher Columbus, sailing in the employ of Castile and Aragon, departed from Palos de la Frontera in search of a westward route to the East Indies.[2]
1494 7 June Treaty of Tordesillas: Spain and Portugal divide the New World between themselves.[3] Even though the treaty was negotiated without consulting the Pope, a few sources call the resulting line the "Papal Line of Demarcation".[4]
1500 Spanish navigator Vicente Yáñez Pinzón lands in the coast of Brazil but is prevented from claiming it by the Treaty of Tordesillas.[5][6][7][8][9]
22 April Portuguese navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral officially discovers Brazil and claims the land for the Kingdom of Portugal. He has 13 vessels with him.[10][11]
18 July Amerigo Vespucci Letter from Seville describes experiences on Alonso de Ojeda's May 1499 voyage. The letter is notable for its description of the Brazilian coast and its inhabitants.[12]

16th century

Year Date Event
1502 1 January Portuguese explorers, led either by Gaspar de Lemos or Gonçalo Coelho, sail into Guanabara Bay, Brazil, which they name Rio de Janeiro.
Beginning of the exploitation of brazilwood.[13]
The Trindade and Martin Vaz Islands are discovered in 1502 by Portuguese navigators led by Estêvão da Gama, and, along with Brazil, became part of the Portuguese Empire.
1503 10 August The Fernando de Noronha island is discovered by a Portuguese expedition, organized and financed by a private commercial consortium headed by the Lisbon merchant Fernão de Loronha. The expedition is under the overall command of captain Gonçalo Coelho and carries the Italian adventurer Amerigo Vespucci aboard, who writes an account of it.[14]
1516 The first sugar cane mills appear in Pernambuco.[15]
1527 Cristóvão Jacques imprisons three French galleons in Recôncavo, Bahia. But having acted with barbarity towards the prisoners, this gesture eventually caused him major problems with Dom João III.[16]
1530–1533 Martim Afonso de Sousa's expedition patrols the Brazilian coast, banishes the French, and creates the first colonial town: São Vicente.[17]
1531 Bertrand d'Ornesan tries to establish a French trading post at Pernambuco.[18]
1532 22 January São Vicente is established as the first permanent Portuguese settlement in Brazil.[19]
1534 The Captaincies of Brazil are established by King Dom João III. Colonial Brazil is divided into fifteen captaincies[20][21][22][23]
1534–1536 Iguape War in the region of São Vicente.[24]
1537 12 March The Portuguese establish Recife in Pernambuco, in the Northeast of Brazil.[25]
1539–1542 The first African slaves arrive in Pernambuco.[26]
1549 29 March The city of Salvador, Brazil's first capital, is founded by Tomé de Sousa.[27]
1551 Portugal founds a sugar colony at Bahia.
1554 25 January Missionaries Joseph of Anchieta and Manuel da Nóbrega establish São Paulo, then named São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga, in southeast Brazil.[19]
1557 German adventurer Hans Staden publishes a widely translated account of his detention by the Tupi people of Brazil, Warhaftige Historia und beschreibung eyner Landtschafft der Wilden Nacketen, Grimmigen Menschfresser-Leuthen in der Newenwelt America gelegen ("True Story and Description of a Country of Wild, Naked, Grim, Man-eating People in the New World, America").[28]
1560 17 March Fort Coligny on Villegagnon Island in Rio de Janeiro is attacked and destroyed during the Portuguese campaign against France Antarctique.[29]
1565 1 March Estácio de Sá founds Rio de Janeiro as São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro.[30]
1580 25 March Iberian Union: King Philip II of Spain becomes King of Portugal under the name Philip I, following the death without heirs of King Henry of Portugal, in a personal union of the crowns, thus maintaining Portuguese independence (in Europe and throughout the Portuguese Empire, including Brazil). The Philippine Dynasty rule lasts until 1640.[31]
1588–1591 English privateer Thomas Cavendish loots Santos and São Vicente before losing most of the crew in a battle against the Portuguese at the village of Vitória.[32][33]
1595 30 March – April Anglo–Spanish War: an English military expedition led by James Lancaster captures Recife.[34][35]

17th century

Year Date Event
1608 Thornton expedition: a Tuscan expedition under Captain Robert Thornton, sent by Ferdinando I of Tuscany to explore northern Brazil and the Amazon River and prepare for the establishment of a settlement in northern coastal South America, which would serve as a base to export Brazilian wood to Renaissance Italy.[36] which would be colonised by France in 1630. The expedition was the only attempt by an Italian state to colonise the Americas.[37]
1612 8 September São Luís is founded by the French, who intend to make it the center of the Equinoctial France. They build a fort named Saint-Louis de Maragnan after King Louis XIII and his Saintly ancestor Louis IX.[38][39]
1616 6-year-old António Vieira arrives from Portugal, with his parents, in Salvador in Colonial Brazil where he will become a diplomat, noted author, leading figure of the Church, and protector of local indigenous peoples.
Physician Aleixo de Abreu is granted a pension of 16,000 reis for services to the crown in Angola and Brazil by Philip III of Spain, who also appoints him physician of his chamber.[40]
A slave ship carries smallpox from the Kingdom of Kongo to Salvador.[41]
12 January The city of Belém, Brazil, is founded on the Amazon River delta by the Portuguese captain Francisco Caldeira Castelo Branco, who had previously taken the city of São Luís in Maranhão from the French.[42][43]
1624 The Dutch West India Company invades the Portuguese colony of Bahia in Brazil.[44]
1625 30 April The Portuguese recapture Salvador from the Dutch, with the help of a combined Spanish and Portuguese force, consisting of 52 ships and 12,500 men.[45]
1630 The Dutch West India Company invades the Portuguese colony of Pernambuco and founds Dutch Brazil.
1631 12 September Eighty Years' War: a Spanish fleet under the command of admiral Antonio de Oquendo defeats a Dutch fleet off the coast of Brazil in the Battle of Albrolhos.
1641 The first Rio Carnival happens to celebrate Dom João IV's coronation as king of Portugal.[46]
11 March Guaraní forces living in the Jesuit missions defeat bandeirantes loyal to the Portuguese Empire at the Battle of Mbororé in present-day Panambí, Argentina.
1642 Isaac Aboab da Fonseca is appointed rabbi in Pernambuco, thus becoming the first rabbi of the Americas.[47]
1644 6 May Johan Mauritius resigns as Governor of Dutch Brazil.[48]
1648 19 April First Battle of Guararapes: the Portuguese army defeats the Dutch army in northeast Brazil.[49]
1649 19 February Second Battle of Guararapes: decisive Portuguese victory against the Dutch in northeast Brazil.[50]
1654 After several years of open warfare, the Dutch withdraw from Brazil; the Portuguese paid off a war debt in payments of salt.
1661 Treaty of The Hague: the Dutch Republic recognizes Portuguese imperial sovereignty over New Holland (Dutch Brazil).[51]
1684 Beckman Revolt in Maranhão.[52]
1693 Gold is found near modern-day cities of Sabará, Caeté and Ouro Preto, beginning of the Brazilian Gold Rush.[53]
1694 6 February The runaway slave colony of Quilombo dos Palmares is destroyed.[54]
8 March The Casa da Moeda do Brasil is established by the Portuguese in Salvador.[55][56]
1695 20 November Quilombo dos Palmares ruler Zumbi is captured and beheaded.[57][58][59]

18th century

Year Date Event
1707–1709 War of the Emboabas in modern-day Minas Gerais.[60][61][62]
1710–1711 The Mascate War pits merchants of Recife against the planters of nearby Olinda.[63]
1711 São Paulo officially becomes a city.[64]
1720 28 June Vila Rica Revolt, also known as the Filipe dos Santos Revolt.[65]
12 September The Captaincy of Minas Gerais is established, after being separated from the Captaincy of São Paulo and Minas de Ouro.
1722 Expedition led by the second Anhanguera discovers gold in present-day Goiás.[66]
1727 Lt. Col. Francisco de Mello Palheta smuggles coffee seeds to Brazil in a bouquet, starting a coffee empire.
1750 13 January The Treaty of Madrid between Spain and Portugal authorizes a larger Brazil than had the Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494, which originally established the boundaries of the Portuguese and Spanish territories in South America.[67][68]
1756 February The Guaraní War takes place between the Guaraní tribes of seven Jesuit missions and joint Spanish-Portuguese forces.[69]
1759 Jesuits are expelled from Brazil by the Marquis of Pombal. Indians left without protection.[70]
1763 The capital of Colonial Brazil is transferred from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro, which is located closer to the mining region and provides a harbor to ship the gold to Europe.[71]
1772 The Kingdom of Portugal divides its colony of the State of Great-Pará and Maranhão into the State of Great-Pará (capital, Belém) and the State of Maranhão (capital, São Luis).
1775 The Kingdom of Portugal reunites its South American colonies of the State of Brazil, the State of Great-Pará, and the State of Maranhão into the Colony of Brazil. Rio de Janeiro is the capital.
1788–1789 Inconfidência Mineira, conspiracy against the colonial authorities in Brazil.[citation needed]
1792 21 April Tiradentes, prime figure in the Inconfidência Mineira plot, is executed in Rio de Janeiro.[72]
1798 Revolt of the Alfaiates in Bahia.[73]

19th century

Year Date Event
1807 29 November The Portuguese Queen Maria I and the Court embark at Lisbon bound for Brazil. Rio de Janeiro becomes the capital of the Portuguese Empire.[74]
1808 22 January The Braganza Royal Family arrives in Brazil, fleeing from the French army.[75][76]
13 June The Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden is founded by King John VI of Portugal.[77]
12 October Banco do Brasil is founded by then prince regent John (later King John VI of Portugal) to finance the kingdom's public debt.[78]
1809 6–14 January Napoleonic Wars: Brazilian and Portuguese forces conquer French Guiana.[79]
1812 The first official group of Chinese immigrants to Brazil for Tea planters in Rio de Janeiro during the period of the Portuguese Royal family in Brazil.
1815 The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves is established under Queen Maria I. Brazil is elevated from the status of Portuguese colony to a constituent kingdom of the united kingdom.
1817 March The French Artistic Mission in Brazil comes to Rio de Janeiro.[80]
13 May Prince Pedro is married by proxy to Maria Leopoldina of Austria.[81]
The Pernambuco Revolt breaks out.[82]
1819 4 November The first 1,400 non-Portuguese immigrants arrive from Switzerland.[83]
1821 Portugal enters a severe political crisis that obliges John VI and the royal family to return to Portugal.[84]
1822 9 January Prince regent Pedro of Braganza refuses to comply with the Portuguese cortes order to return to Portugal (Dia do Fico).[85]
7 September Prince Pedro proclaims the Brazilian independence on 7 September.
1 December Prince Pedro is crowned as emperor Pedro I of Brazil.
1822–1825 War of Independence of Brazil.[86]
1824 Confederation of the Equator rebellion in the Northeast.[87][88][89]
The Constitution of 1824 is adopted.[90]
26 May The United States become the first country to recognize the independence of Brazil.[91]
1825 13 January Frei Caneca and other leaders of the Confederation of the Equator rebellion are executed in Recife.[92]
25 August Uruguay is declared independent of the Empire of Brazil by the Thirty-Three Orientals, a militant revolutionary group led by Juan Antonio Lavalleja.
1826 11 December Empress Maria Leopoldina dies after suffering a miscarriage.[93]
1828 26 April Treaty of Commerce and Navigation signed between Brazil and Denmark, establishing diplomatic relations between the two countries.[94]
9–11 July Irish and German Mercenary Soldiers' revolt rebellion breaks out.[95]
2 August Dom Pedro I is married by proxy to Amélie of Leuchtenberg.[96][97]
27 August Treaty of Montevideo: Brazil and Argentina recognize the independence of Uruguay.[98]
1831 7 April Dom Pedro I abdicates in favor of his 5-year-old son Dom Pedro II, who will reign for almost 59 years. The regency period begins.
7 November Slave trading is forbidden in Brazil, the law is largely ignored.[99]
1834 12 August The Additional Act provides for the establishment of the Provincial Legislative Assemblies, extinction of the State Council, replacement of the Triumviral Regency, and introduction of a direct and secret ballot.[100]
24 September Former Brazilian emperor Pedro I dies in Lisbon.
1835 January Malê revolt in Salvador.[101]
20 September Ragamuffin War begins in Rio Grande do Sul with the capture of Porto Alegre.
1836 11 September The Riograndense Republic is proclaimed in southern Brazil following the battle of Seival.
1838–1841 Balaiada revolt in Maranhão.
1840 23 July Pedro II is prematurely declared "of age" and begins to reassert central control in Brazil.
Last remaining rebel group of the Cabanagem revolt, under the leadership of Gonçalo Jorge de Magalhães, surrenders.
1841 18 July Coronation ceremony of emperor Pedro II of Brazil in Rio de Janeiro.
1842 Liberal rebellions of 1842.[102][103][104]
1843 20 January Honório Hermeto Carneiro Leão, Marquis of Paraná, becomes de facto first prime minister of the Empire of Brazil.
4 September The Emperor Dom Pedro II of Brazil marries Dona Teresa Cristina of the Two Sicilies in a state ceremony in Rio de Janeiro Cathedral.
1845 1 March Ragamuffin War: peace negotiations led by Lima e Silva and Antônio Vicente da Fontoura conclude with the signing of the Ponche Verde Treaty between the two sides, in Dom Pedrito.
9 August The Aberdeen Act is passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom empowering the British Royal Navy to search Brazilian ships as part of the abolition of the slave trade from Africa.
1847 11 June Afonso dies at age two, leaving his father Pedro II without a male heir.[105][106]
1848–1849 Praieira revolt in Pernambuco.[107]
1850 4 September Eusébio de Queirós Law abolishes the international slave trade in the country.[108]
1851–1852 The Platine War ends and the Empire of Brazil has the hegemony over South America.[109][110]
1852 3 February Platine War: Battle of Caseros, Argentina: the Argentine provinces of Entre Rios and Corrientes allied with Brazil and members of Colorado Party of Uruguay, defeat the Argentine Confederation under Juan Manuel de Rosas.
1854 30 April The first railway in Brazil is inaugurated by Pedro II in Rio de Janeiro, built by industrialist Irineu Evangelista de Sousa.[111]
1859 5 May Border Treaty between Brazil and Venezuela: the two countries agree their borders should be traced at the water divide between the Amazon and the Orinoco basins.[112]
1862 26 June Brazil adopts the Metric system.[113]
1864 7 October American Civil War: Bahia incident: USS Wachusett illegally captures the CSS Florida Confederate raider while in port in Bahia, Brazil, in violation of Brazilian neutrality.
1864–1865 Uruguayan War: forces of the Empire of Brazil invade Uruguay in support of Venancio Flores' Colorado Party.
1865 1 May The Triple Alliance of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay against Paraguay is formally signed; the Paraguayan War begins.
11 June Paraguayan War: Battle of Riachuelo: the Imperial Brazilian Navy squadron defeats the Paraguayan Navy on the Riachuelo stream.
1867 27 March The Treaty of Ayacucho is signed between the Empire of Brazil and Bolivia,Brazil assigns the land of Acre to Bolivia in exchange for 102,400 sq kilometers of territory further annexed to the Amazonas.
1868 5 January Paraguayan War: Brazilian Army commander Luís Alves de Lima e Silva enters Asunción, Paraguay's capital. Some days later he declares the war is over. Nevertheless, Francisco Solano López, Paraguay's president, prepares guerrillas to fight in the countryside.
6 December Paraguayan War: Battle of Ytororó: Field-Marshal Luís Alves de Lima e Silva leads 13,000 Brazilian troops against a Paraguayan fortified position of 5,000 troops.
1870 1 March End of the Paraguayan War. Francisco Solano López is defeated and killed in the Battle of Cerro Corá.
1871 7 March José Paranhos, Viscount of Rio Branco, becomes Prime Minister of the Empire of Brazil, serving for 4 years.
28 September Law of Free Birth, or Rio Branco Law, is passed by the Brazilian Parliament, intending to provide freedom to all newborn children of slaves, and slaves of the state or crown.[114][115]
1872 9 January In the aftermath of the Paraguayan War, the new government of Paraguay makes peace with Brazil, granting reparations and territorial concessions.
Brazil conducts its first official census, the population is 9,930,478.[116]
1873–1874 Revolt of the Muckers in Rio Grande do Sul.[117]
1876 28 April Francisco, a slave, becomes the last person to be executed in Brazil, after murdering his masters, being hanged in Pilar, Alagoas.
1877–1878 Grande Seca (Great Drought) in Northeastern Brazil.[118]
1882 Brazilian Anthropological Exhibition of 1882.[119]
1883 30 September Mossoró, in the province of Rio Grande do Norte, is the first city in Brazil to abolish slavery.[120]
1885 28 September Sexagenarian Law, or Saraiva-Cotegipe Law, which frees slaves over the age of 60, is passed.
1888 13 May The Lei Áurea abolishes the last remnants of slavery.[114][115][121]
1889 15 November Field Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca organizes a military coup which deposes Emperor Pedro II of Brazil and abolishes the Brazilian monarchy. Deodoro da Fonseca proclaims Brazil a Republic and forms a Provisional Government.
17 November The Brazilian Imperial Family is forced into exile in France.
19 November The modern-day flag of Brazil is adopted by the Provisional Government of the Republic.
20 November Argentina is the first country to recognize the abolition of the monarchy in Brazil.
1891 November First revolt of the Armada.[122]
15 November The constitution of the First Brazilian Republic is promulgated.
23 November President Deodoro da Fonseca resigns as a consequence of the first revolt of the Armada, vice president Floriano Peixoto succeeds to the presidency.
5 December Deposed emperor Dom Pedro II dies in Paris, France aged 66.[123]
1893 American James Harden-Hickey claimed the Trindade island and declares himself as James I, Prince of Trinidad.[124][125][126] According to James Harden-Hickey's plans, Trinidad, after being recognized as an independent country, would become a military dictatorship and have him as dictator.[127] He designed postage stamps, a national flag, and a coat of arms; established a chivalric order, the "Cross of Trinidad"; bought a schooner to transport colonists; appointed M. le Comte de la Boissiere as Secretary of State; opened a consular office at 217 West 36th Street in New York; and even issued government bonds to finance construction of infrastructure on the island. Despite his plans, his idea was ridiculed or ignored by the world.[128][129][130][131][132][133]
1893–1894 November Second revolt of the Armada.[134]
1894 January Rio de Janeiro Affair: a series of incidents during the Brazilian Naval Revolt.
27 June Federalist Revolution: Battle of Passo Fundo in the state of Rio Grande do Sul
15 September Inauguration of Prudente de Morais as president.[135]
1895 The Federalist Revolution comes to an end.
July The British again tried to take possession of the strategic Trindade island in the Atlantic.[127] The British planned to use the island as a cable station.[127] However, Brazilian diplomatic efforts, along with Portuguese support, reinstated Trindade Island to Brazilian sovereignty.
5 November Japan establishes diplomatic relations with Brazil.[136][137]
17 November Flamengo, a well known professional football club in Brazil, is officially founded.[138]
1897 24 January In order to clearly demonstrate sovereignty over the Trindade island, now part of the State of Espírito Santo and the municipality of Vitória, a landmark is built. Nowadays, Brazilian presence is marked by a permanent Brazilian Navy base on the main island.
5 October Canudos War: after a long siege, Brazilian government troops take Canudos in Northeastern Brazil, crushing Antônio Conselheiro and his followers.
12 October The City of Belo Horizonte, Brazil is created. The construction of the second Brazilian planned city is completed successfully.
1898 1 March In the presidential election, Manuel Ferraz de Campos Sales of the Republican Party of São Paulo, is successful, with 90.9% of the vote.[139]
1899 14 July The First Republic of Acre is declared.
1900 25 April The Republic of Acre is reincorporated into Bolivia, with Brazilian help.[140]

20th century

Year Date Event
1901 19 October Aviator Alberto Santos-Dumont wins the Deutsch de la Meurthe prize with a flight that rounds the Eiffel Tower.[141]
1902 1 March Presidential election: Rodrigues Alves of the Republican Party of São Paulo receives 91.7% of the vote.[142] Francisco Silviano de Almeida Brandão is elected vice president, but dies suddenly before the start of his term of office.
26 October The first season of competitive football in Brazil concludes with a victory for São Paulo Athletic Club.
3 December José Paranhos, Baron of Rio Branco, is appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs. His ten-year tenure would be the longest in the country's history.[143]
1903 11 November The Treaty of Petrópolis ends tension between Brazil and Bolivia over the then-Bolivian territory of Acre (today the Acre state).[144]
1904 14 October The National Congress of Brazil approves a large naval acquisition programme.[145]
10–16 November Vaccine Revolt in Rio de Janeiro.[146]
The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Brazil is founded in Rio Grande do Sul.[147]
Ford begin selling cars in Brazil.
1905 30 December Law no. 1452 is passed by the National Congress of Brazil, authorizing expenditure of £4,214,550 for new warship construction (£1,685,820 in 1906).[148]
1906 21 January The Brazilian battleship Aquidabã sinks, after its powder magazines explode, near the Jacuacanga strait, in Angra dos Reis bay. A total of 212 people are killed, including three admirals and most of the ship's officers; 98 survive.[149]
1 March In the presidential election, Afonso Pena of the Minas Gerais Republican Party receives 97.9% of the vote.[150]
5 May The Treaty of Limits between Brazil and the Netherlands is signed in Rio de Janeiro, establishing the international boundary between Brazil and the Dutch colony of Suriname.[151]
23 October An aeroplane of Alberto Santos-Dumont takes off at Bagatelle in France and flies 60 meters (200 feet). This is the first officially recorded powered flight in Europe.[152]
9 November The Brazilian Flag Anthem ("Hino à Bandeira Nacional"), with lyrics by Olavo Bilac and music by Francisco Braga, is performed for the first time.
1907 Construction of the Madeira-Mamoré Railroad begins, linking the cities of Porto Velho and Guajará-Mirim.[153]
24 April The Vásquez Cobo–Martins treaty between Brazil and Colombia is signed, establishing the border from the Rio Negro northwestward along the Amazon River-Orinoco watershed divide, "then generally southward along various river courses and straight-line segments to the mouth of the Apaporis River".[154][155]
1908 16 June The Kasato Maru arrives at the Port of Santos with the first official group of Japanese immigrants to Brazil.[156][157]
10 September The first Minas Geraes-class Dreadnought battleship for Brazil, Minas Geraes, is launched at Armstrong Whitworth's yard on the River Tyne in England, catalysing the "South American dreadnought race".
30 October Pedro de Alcântara, Prince of Grão-Pará, renounces his claim on the Brazilian throne in order to marry Countess Elisabeth Dobržensky de Dobrženicz.[158]
1909 8 September The Velarde-Río Branco treaty [es] between Brazil and Peru is signed, establishing borders south of the Yavarí.
1910 1 March In the presidential election, Hermes da Fonseca receives 57.1% of the vote. Fonseca is supported by several of the most influential Republican parties, whilst his main opponent, Ruy Barbosa, is supported by the Civilist Campaign.[159]
22 November Revolt of the Lash: the mostly black crews of four Brazilian warships, led by João Cândido Felisberto, mutiny shortly after a sailor receives 250 lashes. The crews depose their white officers and threaten to bombard Rio de Janeiro.[160]
1911 10 January The cargo ship 'SS São Luiz runs aground off the coast of Rio Grande do Norte.[161]
1912 October Beginning of the Contestado War, a dispute between settlers and landowners.[162]
29 December The federal government sends in 200 federal troops to deal with ongoing trouble in the State of Santa Catarina.
1913 12 December Roosevelt–Rondon Scientific Expedition: following a speaking tour in Brazil and Argentina, former US President Theodore Roosevelt meets up with Cândido Rondon to embark on a joint exploration of the "River of Doubt".[163]
1914 1 March In the presidential election, incumbent Vice President Venceslau Brás, of the Minas Gerais Republican Party, receives 91.6% of the vote.[164]
8 June The Brazilian Football Confederation is founded, with Álvaro Zamith as its first president. The Brazilian Olympic Committee is founded on the same day.
14 September The British Royal Navy auxiliary cruiser HMS Carmania fought the German SMS Cap Trafalgar off Trindade in the Battle of Trindade. Carmania sank Cap Trafalgar, but sustained severe damage herself.[165]
1915 29 January Heitor Villa-Lobos gives the first in a series of chamber concerts; one of the new works he introduces during this year is his Cello Concerto no 1.[166]
1916 5 March The liner Príncipe de Asturias runs aground in fog on the shoals out of Ponta do Boi, in the island of Sao Sebastião, while trying to approach the port of Santos. At least 445 people out of the 588 aboard are killed.[167]
3 May Brazilian merchant ship Rio Branco is sunk by a German submarine. Because the ship is in restricted waters and registered under the British flag, and most of its crew is Norwegian, it is not considered an illegal attack by the Brazilian government, despite public protests.
August Brazilian Naval Aviation is established, in preparation for the country's participation in the First World War.[168]
The capture of rebel leader Deodato Manuel Ramos ("Adeodato") marks the effective end of the Contestado War.
1917 5 April The steamship Paraná, loaded with coffee and travelling in accordance with the demands made on neutral countries, is torpedoed by a German submarine; three Brazilians are killed.
11 April Brazil breaks off diplomatic relations with Germany.
7 May Foreign Minister Lauro Müller is obliged to resign because of his German origins.
May–November Several Brazilian vessels are torpedoed by the Germans.[169]
26 October World War I: Brazil declares war on the Central Powers.[170]
1 November A mob damages German property in Petrópolis, including the restaurant Brahma (completely destroyed), the Gesellschaft Germania, the German school, the company Arp, and the German Journal.
1918 30 January Ministerial Notice No. 501 is issued, establishing the Naval Division for War Operations (Divisão Naval em Operações de Guerra – DNOG).[171]
1 March Brazilian general election, 1918:[139] former President Rodrigues Alves receives 99.1% of the vote.
18 August The Brazilian Medical Mission, led by Dr. Nabuco Gouveia and directed by General Aché, is established with 86 doctors.
24 September The Brazilian Medical Mission lands at Marseilles, France, and supports the local population during a flu outbreak, ensuring the continuity of logistical support to the troops at the front.
15 November President-elect Rodrigues Alves, suffering from influenza, is unable to take office on the scheduled date, and is replaced by Vice President Delfim Moreira.
1919 13 April In the presidential election brought about by the death of Rodrigues Alves,[139] Epitácio Pessoa of the Paraíba Republican Party receives 71.0% of the vote.
24 April Ford Brasil, a subsidiary of the Ford Motor Company, is founded.
11–29 May The 1919 South American Championship football tournament is held in Rio de Janeiro. It is won by the home country.[172]
28 July Epitácio Pessoa takes office as president, replacing acting President Delfim Moreira, who continues as vice president.
1920 20 April Opening ceremony of the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp, at which Brazil competes for the first time.[173] Sport shooter Guilherme Paraense is the first Brazilian to win a gold medal.
1921 October The government implements a new policy in defense of coffee, for the third time in the history of the Republic.[174]
1922 11–18 February Modern Art Week is held in São Paulo, marking the beginning of Brazilian Modernism.[175]
1 March In the Brazilian presidential election, Artur Bernardes of the Mineiro Republican Party receives 56.0% of the vote.[176]
5 July The 18 of the Copacabana Fort revolt occurs in Rio de Janeiro, then Federal District of Brazil. It is the first revolt of the tenentista movement, in the context of the Brazilian Old Republic.
1923 3 May Brazil sign the Pan-American Treaty.[177]
The Brazilian Society of Chemistry is founded.
Brazil's first radio broadcasting station, the Radio Society of Rio de Janeiro, is founded; it is still working under the name Rádio MEC.
1924 5–28 July Military revolt in São Paulo.[178]
1925 12 April The Coluna Prestes movement is launched at a meeting in Foz do Iguaçu.[179]
29 May British explorer Percy Fawcett sent a last telegram to his wife, before he disappears in the Amazon.
1926 1 March In the presidential election, Washington Luís of the Republican Party of São Paulo, who received 98.0% of the vote.[139]
1927 11 June The Brazilian submarine Humaytá is launched at the Odero-Terni-Orlando shipyard at La Spezia, Italy.
1928 10 August The ETA – Empresa de Transporte Aéreo airline is founded; it remains in operation for only a year.[180]
The Liberator Party (Brazil) is founded for the first time, by members of the Rio Grande do Sul Federalist Party, notably Joaquim Francisco de Assis Brasil.[181]
1929 August Minas Gerais, Rio Grande do Sul, and Paraíba join the political opposition from several states, including the Democratic Party of São Paulo, to oppose the presidential candidacy of Washington Luís's nominated successor, Júlio Prestes, and form the Liberal Alliance.
20 September The Liberal Alliance nominates its candidates for the presidential elections: Getúlio Vargas as president and João Pessoa Cavalcanti de Albuquerque as vice president.
29 October The US stock market crash causes a fall in coffee quotations to 60%.
1930 1 March A general election is held; in the presidential elections, the result is a victory for Júlio Prestes of the Republican Party of São Paulo, who receives 57.7% of the vote.[139] Vital Soares is elected vice president, but never takes office.
26 July The assassination of João Pessoa Cavalcânti de Albuquerque, governor of Paraíba, by João Duarte Dantas, stirs up a wave of bad feeling toward the federal government and the outgoing president Washington Luís, who is accused of bearing the "moral responsibility".[182]
13 August 1930 Curuçá River event: the area of Curuçá River near latitude 5° S and longitude 71.5° W experiences a meteoric air burst (also known as the Brazilian Tunguska event).[183]
September The state capital of Paraíba, formerly Parahyba, is renamed João Pessoa, in memory of its assassinated governor.[184]
3 October Brazilian Revolution of 1930.[185]
24 October Incumbent President Washington Luís is deposed.[186] A military junta, led by General Augusto Tasso Fragoso, temporarily takes control of the country.
1 November Beginning of the Vargas Era: the ruling junta hands power and the presidential palace to Getúlio Vargas.
The National Institute of Metrology Standardization and Industrial Quality (INMETRO) is founded.
1931 16 September Frente Negra Brasileira, Brazil's first black political party, is created.[187]
12 October The statue of Christ the Redeemer, overlooking Rio de Janeiro, is consecrated.[188][189]
1932 24 February The Justiça Eleitoral do Brasil is created by Decreto nº 21.076.[190]
24 February Women win the right to vote.[191]
April Peter Fleming joins the expedition to find missing Englishman Colonel Percy Fawcett; the following year he publishes an account of the expedition, entitled Brazilian Adventure.
23 May Four protesting students (Martins, Miragaia, Dráusio and Camargo) are killed by government troops, sparking off the "Paulista War".
June São Paulo rebels take control of the state.[192]
9 July Constitutionalist Revolution: the population of the state of São Paulo revolt against the 1930 coup d'état.[193]
2 October The São Paulo rebels are defeated by government forces.[194]
October Brazilian Integralism, a Fascist movement, is founded by Plínio Salgado.[195]
1933 10 October The Anti-war Treaty of Non-aggression and Conciliation, an inter-American treaty, is signed in Rio de Janeiro by representatives of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Paraguay and Uruguay.[196]
1934 16 July The Vargas government introduces what will be the shortest-lived Constitution of Brazil, lasting only 3 years (until 1937).[197] It is the first time a Brazilian constitution has been written from scratch by directly elected deputies in multi-party elections, and incorporates a number of improvements to Brazilian political, social and economical life.
17 July In the presidential election, carried out by the Constituent Assembly, acting President Getúlio Vargas receives 175 of the 248 votes.[198]
The University of São Paulo is established.
The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics is founded under the title of the National Institute of Statistics.
1935 November A Communist insurrection, the "Red Revolt of 35",[199] or the Intentona Comunista, fails to unseat President Vargas. Olga Benário Prestes and her husband Luís Carlos Prestes are among the conspirators arrested.[200]
1936 16 October President Vargas signed the decree, which gives the name of the aviator Alberto Santos Dumont Airport, located in Ponta do Calabouço, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, named Santos Dumont Airport, Brazil's first civilian airport.[201]
1937 7 May One of the leaders of the communist revolution, Luis Carlos Prestes, is sentenced to 16 years and eight months in prison.[202]
10 June National Democratic Union, ahead of support for the candidacy of Armando Sales de Oliveira for president in the 1938 elections is created.[203]
14 June President Getúlio Vargas signed the decree establishing the Itatiaia National Park, the first national park in Brazil.[204][205]
13 August The National Union of Students is founded in Rio de Janeiro.
10 November The fourth Brazilian Constitution is granted by President Vargas, starting the Estado Novo.[206]
21 December President Vargas signs the ordinance which extinguishes all political parties in the country.[207]
1938 May The Brazilian integralist movement attempt a coup d'état, supported by the Axis powers. The failure of the "Pajama Putsch" leads to the dissolution of the AIB.[208]
28 July Folk hero Lampião and his band are ambushed in one of his hideouts, the Angicos farm, in the state of Sergipe.
1939 30 November Serra dos Órgãos National Park is created.
5 December The Imperial Mausoleum is officially inaugurated at the Cathedral of Petrópolis.[209]
1942 28 January Brazil breaks diplomatic relations with the Axis countries.[210]
July–August Several Brazilian vessels are torpedoed by the Germans.
22 August President Getúlio Vargas signs the declaration of war against Germany and Italy.[211][212]
1 November The Cruzeiro "antigo" is adopted as the official currency.[213]
1943 11 June The Order of Military Merit is established by President Getúlio Vargas.[214]
13 July On the recommendation of the National Petroleum Council, Brazil bans the use of private motorcycles throughout the nation in order to conserve fuel. Use of gasoline-powered automobiles had been prohibited the year before.[215]
31 July The Brazilian passenger ship and freighter Bagé, largest commercial ship in Brazil's fleet, is torpedoed and sunk off the coast of the Sergipe state. The Bagé, carrying 129 passengers and 102 crew, was en route from Belém to Rio de Janeiro when it was struck by a German U-boat. Seventy-eight people (41 passengers and 37 crew) are lost.[216]
1944 1 January The former Royal Military Academy expends into the city of Resende.
2 July Second World War: the first five thousand Brazilian Expeditionary Force soldiers, the 6th RCT, leave Brazil for Europe aboard the USNS General Mann.
September Brazilian air-land forces go into action in Italy.[217]
13 October Brazilian pilots begin operations, as individual elements of flights attached to 350th FG squadrons.
1944–1945 25 November 1944 – 21 February 1945 Second World War, Battle of Monte Castello: the battle marks the Brazilian Expeditionary Force's entry into the land war in Europe.[218][219]
1945 February A fourth transport of troops of the Brazilian Expeditionary Force reaches Italy, in preparation for the Spring 1945 offensive.
12 May Brazilian troops arrive in Turin on the same day that the cessation of hostilities is announced.
May Bishop Carlos Duarte Costa, an outspoken critic of the regime of President Getúlio Vargas and of the Vatican's alleged relationship with fascist regimes,[220] gives newspaper interviews accusing Brazil's Papal nuncio of Nazi-Fascist spying, and accusing Rome of having aided and abetted Hitler. Shortly afterwards he establishes the Brazilian Catholic Apostolic Church.
29 October President Vargas resigns. José Linhares becomes acting president, beginning the period known as the Fourth Brazilian Republic at the end of his term.
2 December A general election is held, the first since the establishment of Getúlio Vargas' Estado Novo.[139] The presidential election is won by Eurico Gaspar Dutra of the Social Democratic Party (PSD), which also wins a majority of seats in both the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate.
1946 18 September A new constitution is introduced, and the position of Vice President of Brazil is recreated; Nereu Ramos is selected as the first incumbent.
1947 19 January Parliamentary elections are held, for 19 vacant seats in the Chamber of Deputies, one additional Senator for each state (except Santa Catarina, which elected two), and for all state Governors and legislatures.[139] The Brazilian Communist Party wins nearly 10% of the vote in the state elections, becoming the third party in the state of São Paulo (ahead of the UDN) and the single largest party in the federal capital, Rio de Janeiro.
6 August The Brazilian Socialist Party is founded.
2 October The São Paulo Museum of Art opens to the public.
1949 The Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas is founded by Cesar Lattes, José Leite Lopes, and Jayme Tiomno.
1950 16 June The Maracanã Stadium opens in Rio de Janeiro.
24 June – 16 July Brazil hosts the 1950 FIFA World Cup. The local national team is beaten 1–2 by Uruguay in the final game.
18 September First television broadcasting in Brazil by TV Tupi.[221]
3 October The Brazilian general election[139] is won by the Social Democratic Party, who remain the largest party in both the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate, although they lose their majority in the former. The presidential election is won by former President Getúlio Vargas of the Brazilian Labour Party.
1951 The Brazilian Medical Association is founded.[222]
The Escola Superior de Propaganda e Marketing is founded in São Paulo.[223]
1952 4 March Anchieta rail disaster: a crowded steam-powered passenger train derails while crossing a bridge over the Pavuna River near Anchieta station,[224] sending two old wooden carriages broadside onto the adjacent line. A modern high-speed electric freight train, travelling in the opposite direction, ploughs into the wooden carriages, telescoping them upwards. The severity of the accident was compounded by the fact that the suburban train is overloaded, with passengers clinging to the sides, underneath and between the carriages. A witness says they saw "passengers flying in all directions when the crash occurred". 119 people are killed and the resulting outcry prompts major new investment in Brazilian railways.
28 April Pan Am Flight 202 crashes in the Amazon Basin approximately 220 nautical miles (410 km) southwest of Carolina, Brazil. All 50 people on board are killed in the worst-ever accident involving the Boeing 377.[225]
12 August 1952 Transportes Aéreos Nacional Douglas C-47 mid-air explosion: a Douglas C-47A registered PP-ANH is destroyed after an in-flight fire causes it to crash near Palmeiras de Goiás. All 24 people on board are killed.[226]
Bob's, Brazil's first fast food chain, opens in Rio de Janeiro.
1954 24 August Brazilian President Getúlio Vargas commits suicide after being accused of involvement in a conspiracy to murder his chief political opponent, Carlos Lacerda.[227]
3 October Brazilian legislative election, 1954
1955 3 October The presidential election results in victory for Juscelino Kubitschek, who receives 35.7% of the vote.[139]
3 November Café Filho is forced to give up the presidency of Brazil on health grounds.[228] Kubitschek does not take office until the following year.
The Museum of Modern Art, Rio de Janeiro, is completed, a Modernist concrete museum building, designed by Affonso Eduardo Reidy, with gardens designed by Burle Marx.[229]
1956 31 January Juscelino Kubitschek is inaugurated as the 21st President of Brazil.
1957 October The Africanized bee is accidentally released in Brazil.
16 October Antônio Vilas Boas, a Brazilian farmer, claims to have been abducted by extraterrestrials; the first famous alien abduction case.
1958 29 June Brazil beats Sweden 5–2 in the final game to win the football World Cup in Sweden.[230]
1960 21 April The country's capital (Federal District) is relocated from the city of Rio de Janeiro to the new city, Brasília, in the highlands. The actual city of Rio de Janeiro becomes the State of Guanabara.
3 October Jânio Quadros is elected President of Brazil for a five-year term.
1961 25 August João Goulart replaces Jânio Quadros as President of Brazil
17 December A circus tent fire in Niterói, Brazil, kills 323.[231]
1962 17 June Brazil beats Czechoslovakia 3–1 to win the 1962 FIFA World Cup.
The first official group of Korean immigrants to Brazil. There has been a large flow of documented Korean migrants to Brazil.
1964 31 March The military overthrows Brazilian President João Goulart in a coup, starting 21 years of dictatorship in Brazil.
1 April Deployed military rule in Brazil ended the then government of President João Goulart.
11 April Brazilian presidential election, 1964: the Brazilian Congress elects Field Marshal Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco as President of Brazil.[232]
1965 26 April Rede Globo, the 3rd largest TV broadcaster of the world, is founded, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
27 October Brazilian President Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco removes power from parliament, legal courts and opposition parties.
1966 5 March A massive theft of nuclear materials is revealed in Brazil.
1967 24 January New constitution is promulgated.[233]
1 March Brazilian police arrest Franz Stangl, ex-commander of Treblinka and Sobibór extermination camps.
15 March The Republic of the United States of Brazil is renamed the Federative Republic of Brazil.
1968 28 March Brazilian high school student Edson Luís de Lima Souto is shot by the police in a protest for cheaper meals at a restaurant for low-income students. The aftermath of his death is one of the first major events against the military dictatorship.
13 December Prompted by growing unrest and proliferation of pro-communist terrorist actions, Brazilian President Artur da Costa e Silva enacts the so-called "AI-5", the fifth of a series of non-constitutional emergency decrees that helped stabilize the country after the turmoils of the early 1960s.
1969 31 August – 30 October Brazilian Military Junta of 1969 rules the country following sudden illness and resignation of President da Costa e Silva. The junta consists of Army General Aurélio de Lyra Tavares, Navy Admiral Augusto Hamann Rademaker Grunewald and Air Force Brigadier Márcio de Souza e Mello.
19 November Playing for Santos against Vasco in Rio de Janeiro, Brazilian footballer Pelé scored his 1,000th goal.[234]
1970 11 March Japanese consul-general in São Paulo Nobuo Okuchi is kidnapped by the leftist guerrilla group Vanguarda Popular Revolucionária.[235]
15 March Japanese consul-general in São Paulo Nobuo Okuchi is ransomed by the Brazilian government, he is released in exchange for five political prisoners.[235]
11 June West German ambassador Ehrenfried von Holleben is kidnapped by the Vanguarda Popular Revolucionária and by the Ação Libertadora Nacional.[236]
21 June Brazil defeats Italy 4–1 to win the 1970 FIFA World Cup in Mexico.
1 December Giovanni Enrico Bucher, the Swiss ambassador to Brazil, is kidnapped by the Ação Libertadora Nacional in Rio de Janeiro; kidnappers demand the release of 70 political prisoners.[237]
1971 14 January Seventy Brazilian political prisoners are released in Santiago, Chile; Giovanni Enrico Bucher is released 16 January.
16 January Giovanni Enrico Bucher is released by the Ação Libertadora Nacional.
20 November A bridge still in construction, called "Elevado Engenheiro Freyssinet", falls over the Paulo de Frontin Avenue, in Rio de Janeiro; 48 people are killed and several injured. Reconstructed, the bridge is a part of the Linha Vermelha elevate.
1974 1 February Fire breaks out in the Joelma Building in São Paulo, Brazil; 177 die and 293 are injured; 11 die later of their injuries.[238][239]
4 March The Rio–Niterói Bridge opens.[240]
1975 15 March Guanabara State merges into the state of Rio de Janeiro. The state's capital moves from the city of Niterói to the city of Rio de Janeiro.
1977 President Geisel closed Congress briefly to control presidential succession as conflict erupted between Geisel, the duristas, Congress, the Church, and the media.
1977–1978 Operação Prato.[241][242][243][244][245][246]
1979 7 February Nazi criminal Josef Mengele suffers a stroke and drowns while swimming in Bertioga, Brazil. His remains are found in 1985.
1980 1 June Mauro Milhomem, a pilot, attempted to crash his Sertanejo-721 into the Hotel Presidente owned by his mother-in-law, after he had an argument with his wife the previous day after he discovered that she cheated him. The plane failed to hit the target and hit into several objects and ultimately crashed into an accounting office in front to a forum. Six people were killed and four were wounded.
9 July Pope John Paul II visits Brazil; 7 people are crushed to death in a crowd meeting him.
1981 20 September The Brazilian river boat Sobral Santos capsizes in the Amazon River, Óbidos, Brazil, killing at least 300.
1983 19 December The Jules Rimet Trophy is stolen from the Brazilian Soccer Confederation building in Rio de Janeiro.
1984 16 April More than one million people, led by Tancredo Neves, occupy the streets of São Paulo to demand direct presidential elections during the Brazilian military government of João Figueiredo. It is the largest protest during the Diretas Já civil unrest, as well as the largest public demonstration in the history of Brazil. The elections are granted in 1989.
May The Itaipu Dam is inaugurated on the border of Brazil and Paraguay after 9 years of construction, making it the largest hydroelectric dam in the world at the time.
1985 15 January Tancredo Neves is elected President of Brazil by the Congress, ending the 21-year military rule.
15 March Vice President José Sarney, upon becoming vice president, assumes the duties of President of Brazil, as the new President Tancredo Neves had become severely ill, the day before. Sarney will become Brazil's first civilian President in 21 years, upon Neves' death on 21 April.
21 April Brazilian President Tancredo Neves dies, he is succeeded by Vice President José Sarney. The vice president post is left vacant until 1990.
6 June The remains of Josef Mengele, the physician notorious for Nazi human experimentation on inmates of Auschwitz concentration camp, buried in 1979 under the name of Wolfgang Gerhard, are exhumed in Embu das Artes, Brazil.
1987 13 September Goiânia accident: a radioactive object is stolen from an abandoned hospital in Goiânia, Brazil, contaminating many people in the following weeks and causing some to die from radiation poisoning.[247][248]
1988 25 June PSDB is founded by members of the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party linked to the European social democratic movement as an attempt to clarify their ideals.[249]
5 October Brazil adopts a new constitution.[250]
22 December Brazilian union and environmental activist Chico Mendes is assassinated.[251]
31 December The Bateau Mouche cruise ship capsized and sank in the South Atlantic off Rio de Janeiro with the loss of at least 51 of the 149 people on board.[252]
1989 12 November Brazil holds its first free presidential election since 1960. This marks the first time that all Ibero-American nations, excepting Cuba, have elected constitutional governments simultaneously.
15 November Brazil holds the first round of its first free election in 29 years; Fernando Collor de Mello and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva advance to the second round, to be held the following month.
17 December Brazil holds the second round of its first free election in 29 years; Fernando Collor de Mello is elected to serve as president from 1990.
1990 15 March Fernando Collor de Mello takes office as President of Brazil, Brazil's first democratically elected president since Jânio Quadros in 1961. The next day, he announces a currency freeze and freezes large bank accounts for 18 months.
1991 26 March Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay sign the Treaty of Asunción, establishing the South Common Market (Mercosur is its acronym in Spanish).
30 September A tornado destroys parts of Itu, a city in southeastern Brazil, killing 16 and leaving 176 injured.
1992 8 June The first World Oceans Day is celebrated, coinciding with the Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
24 August A special commission in Brazil concludes that there is sufficient evidence to begin impeachment proceedings against President of Brazil Fernando Collor de Mello, finding he had accepted millions of dollars worth of illegal payments from business interests.
29 September The Chamber of Deputies of Brazil votes to impeach President of Brazil Fernando Collor de Mello, the country's first democratically elected leader in 29 years. Vice President Itamar Franco becomes acting president.
2 October A riot breaks out in the Carandiru Penitentiary in São Paulo, Brazil, resulting in the Carandiru massacre.[253][254]
29 December Brazil's President Fernando Collor de Mello is found guilty on charges that he stole more than $32 million from the government, preventing him from holding any elected office for 8 years.
1993 21 April A constitutional referendum is held to determine the form of government of the country.[255]
23 July Candelária massacre: Brazilian police officers kill eight street kids in Rio de Janeiro.
29 August Vigário Geral massacre.[256]
16 December Brazil's Supreme Court rules that former President Fernando Collor de Mello may not hold elected office again until 2000 due to political corruption.
1994 1 May Brazilian Three time Formula One World Champion, Ayrton Senna is killed in a crash during the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix.
1 July Brazil introduces its new currency, the Real.[257]
17 July Brazil wins the 1994 FIFA World Cup, defeating Italy by 3–2 in penalties (full-time 0–0).
1995 1 January Fernando Henrique Cardoso becomes President of Brazil.
1996 20 January Varginha UFO incident in Minas Gerais.[258][259]
2 March A Learjet 25 (registration PT-LSD) carrying the Brazilian satirical rock band Mamonas Assassinas attempts a go-around at São Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport in São Paulo, Brazil, but crashes in the Serra da Cantareira mountain range, killing all eight people on board including all five members of the band.[260]
17 April Eldorado dos Carajás massacre.[261]
1999 6 June In São José dos Campos, 345 prisoners escape from Putim prison through the front gate.[262]

21st century

Year Date Event
2001 10 September Antônio da Costa Santos, mayor of Campinas, is assassinated.
11 September Three Brazilians are killed in the September 11 attacks in the United States.[263]
2002 30 June Brazil wins its 5th FIFA World Cup title by defeating Germany 2–0 in the 2002 FIFA World Cup Final.
27 October Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva wins the Brazilian general election, 2002 with 52.7 million votes (61.3% of the total).[264]
2003 1 January Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva is inaugurated as president of Brazil.[265]
30 January The Fome Zero program is introduced by president Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva.[265]
19 August A car-bomb attack on United Nations headquarters in Iraq kills the agency's top envoy Sérgio Vieira de Mello and 21 other employees.[266][267][268]
2004 28 March The first ever reported South Atlantic hurricane makes landfall in southern Brazil in the state of Santa Catarina – the hurricane is dubbed Cyclone Catarina.
1 June The United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) is established, its military component is led by Brazil.[269]
2005 6 June Mensalão scandal threatens to bring down the government of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva.[270]
6 August Banco Central burglary at Fortaleza
23 October Brazilian firearms and ammunition referendum, 2005
2006 30 March Marcos Pontes becomes the first Brazilian and the first native Portuguese-speaking person to go into space, where he stays on the International Space Station for a week. During his trip, Pontes carries out eight experiments selected by the Brazilian Space Agency. He lands in Kazakhstan on 8 April 2006, with the crew of Expedition 12.[271]
May May 2006 São Paulo violence
July July 2006 São Paulo violence
7 August Lei Maria da Penha is sanctioned by president Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva.
29 September Gol Transportes Aéreos Flight 1907 leads to the 2006–07 Brazilian aviation crisis.
29 October Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva is re-elected as president.
2007 18 March Cesare Battisti, convicted in absentia of two murders in Italy in the 1970s and who later became a crime writer in France, is arrested in Brazil.[272]
May Pope Benedict XVI visits Brazil to reaffirm Catholicism in the country.[273]
11 May Pope Benedict XVI canonizes Brazil's first native-born saint, Frei Galvão, an 18th-century Franciscan friar.
26 June Bolivia reclaims two oil refineries from Brazilian state-owned energy company Petrobras.[274]
27 June Complexo do Alemão massacre.
7 July The New Seven Wonders of the World are announced. These are The Great Wall of China, Petra in Jordan, the Christ the Redeemer statue in Brazil, Machu Picchu in Peru, Mexico's Chichen Itza Mayan site, the Colosseum in Rome and the Taj Mahal in India.[275]
July The Fifteenth Pan American Games take place in Rio de Janeiro.
17 July TAM Linhas Aéreas Flight 3054 carrying 186 people crashes in Congonhas International Airport, São Paulo, Brazil. The death toll is estimated to be at least 200 people.[276][277][278][279][280]
4 November At least six people are killed as a Learjet 35 crashes into a residential district in São Paulo, Brazil.[281]
25 November At least eight football fans die when part of the Fonte Nova stadium in Salvador, Brazil, collapses.[282]
2 December Brazil starts free-to-air digital television transmissions in São Paulo, but broadcasting companies must transmit signals in both analogue and digital formats until June 2016.[283]
20 December The Portrait of Suzanne Bloch (1904), by the Spanish artist Pablo Picasso, and O Lavrador de Café by Brazilian modernist painter Cândido Portinari, are stolen from the São Paulo Museum of Art.[284]
17 December The leaders of Brazil, Bolivia, and Chile agree to build a highway by 2009 that will link the Atlantic (in Santos, Brazil) and the Pacific (in Iquique, Chile) coasts of South America.[285]
2008 9 January The police recovered the Portrait of Suzanne Bloch (1904), by the Spanish artist Pablo Picasso, and O Lavrador de Café by Brazilian modernist painter Cândido Portinari, which had been stolen in December 2007.[286]
24 November The 2008 Santa Catarina floods in Santa Catarina, Brazil, kill 126 and force the evacuation of over 78,000 people.
2009 1 June Air France Flight 447, en route from Rio de Janeiro, to Paris, crashes into the Atlantic Ocean, killing all 228 on board.
2 October The International Olympic Committee awards the 2016 Summer Olympics to Rio de Janeiro.
16 October Brasil de Pelotas bus crash: two players and a coach die.[287]
2010 January January 2010 Rio de Janeiro floods and mudslides
17 February Sinking of the Concordia.[288]
April April 2010 Rio de Janeiro floods and mudslides
June 2010 Northeastern Brazil floods[289]
21–28 November 2010 Rio de Janeiro Security Crisis
2011 1 January Inauguration of Dilma Rousseff as the 36th President of Brazil.[290]
11 January January 2011 Rio de Janeiro floods and mudslides: over 900 people are killed[291] as a result of freak weather conditions.
7 April Rio de Janeiro school shooting: 12 children aged between 12 and 14 are killed[292] and 12 others seriously wounded after an armed man opens fire at an elementary school in Realengo
13 July Noar Linhas Aéreas Flight 4896: a Noar Linhas Aéreas Let L-410 Turbolet crashes in Boa Viagem, Recife, killing all 16 people on board.[293]
7 November Campos Basin oil spill: a Chevron-owned oil well began leaking causing 32,000 to 52,000 litres (200 to 330 bbl) of crude oil to enter the ocean every day. The leak took place in Campos Basin, Brazil 120 kilometres (75 mi) off the coast of Rio de Janeiro.[294]
2012 13 February Lindemberg Alves begins to be tried for the death of ex-girlfriend Elóa Pimentel, in the city of Santo André.[295]
2013 27 January A nightclub fire in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul kills at least 242 people.[296]
April – July 2013 protests in Brazil.[297]
23 July World Youth Day began in Rio de Janeiro.[298]
2014 17 March Operation Car Wash begins.[299][300]
May – July 2014 protests in Brazil.[301][302]
12 June – 13 July The 2014 FIFA World Cup is held in Brazil, and is won by Germany.
3 July Belo Horizonte overpass collapse
13 August Governor Eduardo Campos, a candidate in the upcoming Brazilian presidential election, dies in a plane crash in Santos, São Paulo, together with six other people on board the aircraft. It also sparks a large fire.[303]
13 August 2014 Cessna Citation 560 XLS+ crash
October Brazilian general election, 2014,[304] with reelection of Dilma Rousseff.
10 December 26-year-old Sailson José das Graças is arrested for the serial murder as many as 41 people in a string of suspected racist hate crimes.
2015 6 January Two commuter trains collide at Mesquita, Rio de Janeiro, injuring 158 people.[305]
15 March Hundreds of thousands of people in Brazil protest against corruption and denounce the government of President Dilma Rousseff.[306]
5 November An iron ore tailings dam in Bento Rodrigues, a subdistrict of Mariana, Brazil, suffered a catastrophic failure, causing flooding, killing 17 and injuring 16.[307]
2016 13 March Hundreds of thousands of people all over Brazil protest against corruption and denounce the government of President Dilma Rousseff.[308]
9 June A bus plunges over a ravine in Brazil's São Paulo state, resulting in at least 18 people killed and 28 injured.[309]
5–21 August The 2016 Summer Olympics are held in Rio de Janeiro.[310]
31 August The Senate votes 61–20 in favor of removing Dilma Rousseff from office as President of Brazil. Acting President Michel Temer will serve out the remainder of the term, which ends 1 January 2019.[311]
15 October A wildlife sanctuary for rescued elephants opens in Mato Grosso.[312]
17 October Clashes between rival gangs in at least two prisons, leave at least 18 people killed.[313]
29 November A chartered Avro RJ85 plane carrying 77 people, including the Chapecoense football team, crashes near Medellín, Colombia. Rescuers report at least six survivors have been found in the wreckage. The 2016 Copa Sudamericana Finals are suspended.[314] The title is later awarded to Chapecoense.[315][316]
2017 2 January At least 56 people are killed in rebellion at Anisio Jobim penitentiary complex in Amazonas state.[317][318]
6 January Members of the Primeiro Comando da Capital prison gang kill 31 inmates in the Monte Cristo prison in the state of Roraima. This action was revenge for an earlier massacre in a prison in Amazonas that killed 56 inmates.[319]
6 February A police strike leads to a wave of violence and looting in Espírito Santo, including dozens of murders in the state capital, Vitória.[320][321]
17 March Operation Carne Fraca starts.[322]
28 April A general strike is held in the country, the first one in twenty years.[323]
2018 8 April Former President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva begins serving a 12-year sentence for corruption.[324]
1 May Edifício Wilton Paes de Almeida, a 26-story tower block in São Paulo, Brazil, is destroyed by a fire and consequent collapse. Neighbouring buildings are also damaged by fire.[325]
2 September A massive fire destroys most of the Paço de São Cristóvão, which houses the National Museum of Brazil, in Rio de Janeiro. The museum holds important archaeological and anthropological objects, including the remains of the Luzia Woman, Marajoara vases and Egyptian mummies.[326][327]
6 September Presidential candidate Jair Bolsonaro is stabbed while campaigning in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais.[328]
28 October Brazilians elect Jair Bolsonaro of the Social Liberal Party as president, with 55% of the votes, in the second round of the presidential election.[329]
2019 1 January Inauguration of Jair Bolsonaro as the 38th President of Brazil.[330]
25 January The Brumadinho dam disaster, when a mining dam owned by Vale, collapses in Minas Gerais, leaving 203 dead and one hundred and five individuals missing.[331]
8 February A fire on Flamengo youth academy training camp leaves ten people dead and three injured in Rio de Janeiro[332]
13 March Two men, of 17 and 25 years old, attack a school in the city of Suzano, São Paulo, with a revolver and a knife, killing eight and wounding 23 people, among students and staff. The two shooters committed suicide after the attack. Police have found a crossbow, Molotov cocktails and a "suitcase with wires" at the scene.[333]
August - September A great fire destroys part of the Amazon Rain Forest, including Brazilian portion, leading to international commotion for the sake of Amazonia.[334]
2021 17 January The first vaccine against Covid-19 is applied in the country.[335]
2022 30 October Brazilians elect Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva of the Workers' Party as president, with 50.9% of the vote, in the second round of the presidential election, thereby making him the first person to defeat an incumbent running for a second term, the first person to run for a third non-consecutive term, and the oldest person to assume the office of president, at the age of 77.[336][337][338]
2023 8 January 2023 invasion of the Brazilian Congress.[339][340][341]

See also



  1. ^ Araujo Costa, Costa (2014). "Marajó". Grove Art Online. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  2. ^ Tharoor, Shashi (8 December 2014). "Trying to discover India". Outlook India. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
  3. ^ Davenport, ed., 107–111.
  4. ^ Leslie Ronald Marchant, The Papal Line of Demarcation and Its Impact in the Eastern Hemisphere on the Political Division of Australia, 1479–1829 (Greenwood, Western Australia: Woodside Valley Foundation, 2008) ISBN 978-1-74126-423-4.
  5. ^ "Pinzón ou Cabral: quem chegou primeiro ao Brasil?". 14 October 2011.
  6. ^ Geo Brasil Granito do Cabo de Santo Agostinho, Pernambuco, Brasil
  7. ^ Direito 2 Archived 9 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine Projeto pode mudar data do descobrimento do Brasil
  8. ^ [1] Archived 29 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine Quem descobriu o Brasil?
  9. ^ COUTO, Jorge: A Construção do Brasil, Edições Cosmos, 2ª Ed., Lisboa, 1997.primeiro
  10. ^ Vianna 1994, p. 44.
  11. ^ Fonseca (1908: p.225)
  12. ^ Pohl, Frederick J. (1944). Amerigo Vespucci: Pilot Major. New York: Columbia University Press.
  13. ^ Flavin, Susan Flavin (2014). Consumption and Culture in Sixteenth-century Ireland: Saffron, Stockings and Silk. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. p. 128. ISBN 978-1843839507.
  14. ^ The Coelho expedition is also known as the "Fourth Voyage" of Vespucci, and is related in the letter of Amerigo Vespucci to Piero Soderini, c. 1504–05. See the English translation of the account in Letter to Soderini
  15. ^ "Recife—A City Made by Sugar". Awake! (in Portuguese). Retrieved 30 April 2017.
  16. ^ Henderson, James D. (2000). A Reference Guide to Latin American History. M.E. Sharpe. p. 91. ISBN 1563247445. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
  17. ^ Taques, Pedro. História da Capitania de São Vicente. Brasília: Edições do Senado Federal, 2004. Available at http://www.dominiopublico.gov.br/download/texto/sf000043.pdf%7Caccessdate=24/10/2011[permanent dead link]
  18. ^ R. J. Knecht, Renaissance Warrior and Patron: The Reign of Francis I p.375 [2]
  19. ^ a b Rachel Lawrence: 2010, Page 183
  20. ^ "donatario (Portuguese history)". britannica. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  21. ^ "Discovery and Colonization (1500 – 1808)". soulbrasileiro.com. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  22. ^ "International Workshop on Ultracold Rydberg Physics". Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  23. ^ "American Colonies - Brazil". historyfiles.co.uk. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  24. ^ Donato, Hernâni. Dicionário das batalhas brasileiras. Ibrasa.
  25. ^ Marley, D. (2005). Historic Cities of the Americas: North America and South America. Vol. 2. ABC-CLIO. p. 683. ISBN 978-1576070277.
  26. ^ "Cronologia do Cultivo do Dendezeiro na Amazônia" (PDF). Embrapa (in Portuguese). Retrieved 30 April 2017.
  27. ^ Graham, Sandra Lauderdale (2002). Caetana Says No: Women's Stories from a Brazilian Slave Society (PDF). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 3. ISBN 0-521-89353-4. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
  28. ^ Staden, Hans (2008). Hans Staden's True History: An Account of Cannibal Captivity in Brazil. Duke UP. p. 17. ISBN 9780822342311.
  29. ^ Marley, David (2008). Wars of the Americas: A Chronology of Armed Conflict in the Western Hemisphere, 1492 to the Present. ABC-CLIO. p. 90. ISBN 978-1-59884-100-8. Retrieved 19 May 2013.
  30. ^ "História da Fundação da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro". Rio de Janeiro Aqui (in Portuguese). Retrieved 4 January 2017.
  31. ^ António Henrique R. de Oliveira Marques, History of Portugal. 1972, page 322. Boris Fausto, A Concise History of Brazil, page 40.
  32. ^ Dória, Palmério (2013). ""Só um bobo dá a telefonia para estrangeiros"". O Príncipe da Privataria (in Portuguese) (1 ed.). São Paulo: Geração Editorial. p. 274. ISBN 978-85-8130-201-0.
  33. ^ "Um ataque dos piratas na noite de Natal - II". Novo Milênio (in Portuguese). Retrieved 30 April 2017.
  34. ^ Hakluyt, Richard (2006). Voyages and Discoveries. Penguin UK. pp. 375–85. ISBN 9780141922003.
  35. ^ Bicheno pg 308-09
  36. ^ Ridolfi, R. Pensieri medicei di colonizzare il Brasile p. 14
  37. ^ Ridolfi, R. Pensieri medicei di colonizzare il Brasile, in «Il Veltro», Roma, luglio-agosto 1962, pp. 1-18
  38. ^ "Os franceses no Maranhão". pitoresco.com. Archived from the original on 15 July 2011. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
  39. ^ "Invasões francesas em São Luís do Maranhão". portalsaofrancisco.com.br. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
  40. ^ Guerra, Francisco. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 25–26. ISBN 0-684-10114-9.
  41. ^ Dobyns, Henry F. (1993). "Disease Transfer at Contact". Annual Review of Anthropology. 22: 273–291. doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.22.1.273.
  42. ^ "Veja como foi a fundação de Belém em 1616 e conheça sua história". G1 (in Portuguese). 9 January 2016. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  43. ^ "A FORMAÇÃO TERRITORIAL DO ESPAÇO PARAENSE: dos fortes à criação de municípios". Revista UFRR (in Portuguese). Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  44. ^ Francis A. Dutra, "Dutch in Colonial Brazil" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons 1996, vol. 2, p. 415.
  45. ^ Dutra, "Dutch in Colonial Brazil" p. 415.
  46. ^ "Carnival Around the World: Brazil". Where Y'at. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
  47. ^ "Isaac Aboab de Fonseca". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  48. ^ "What Happened in 1644". hisdates.com. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
  49. ^ Marley, David (1998). ars of the Americas: a chronology of armed conflict in the New World, 1492 to the present. Abc-Clio. ISBN 978-0-87436-837-6.
  50. ^ Marley, David (1998). Wars of the Americas: a chronology of armed conflict in the New World, 1492 to the present. Abc-Clio. ISBN 978-0-87436-837-6.
  51. ^ Facsimile of the treaty:Articulen van vrede en Confoederarie, Gheslooten Tusschen den Doorluchtighsten Comingh van Portugael ter eenre, ende de Hoogh Mogende Heeren Staten General ...;
  52. ^ "History of Colonial Brazil". The Brazil Business. 8 May 2014. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  53. ^ de Almeida Prado, J.F. (1 January 1987). As Bandeiras. IBRASA. p. 134. ISBN 8534801770. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  54. ^ Guerra dos Palmares InfoEscola.
  55. ^ "Casa da Moeda do Brasil - Overview". Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 18 February 2009.
  56. ^ "Casa da Moeda do Brasil - External Market". Retrieved 18 February 2009.[permanent dead link]
  57. ^ Zumbi dos Palmares, O Guerreiro da Liberdade Archived 6 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Grandes Personagens da História do Brasil. Museu da Cruzada.
  58. ^ "Da invisibilidade à afirmação" Archived 27 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Número 27, janeiro/março de 2000. Revista do Legislativo.
  59. ^ João José Reis & Flávio dos Santos Gomes, "Quilombo: Brazilian Maroons during slavery" Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine, 31 January 2002, Cultural Survival Quarterly, Issue 25.4.
  60. ^ NAVARRO, EA (2013). Dicionário de tupi antigo: a língua indígena clássica do Brasil [Dictionary of Old Tupi: the classical Indian language of Brazil] (in Portuguese). São Paulo: Global. p. 560.
  61. ^ "Há controvérsias" (in Portuguese). Biblioteca Nacional. 1 October 2008. Archived from the original on 15 March 2015.
  62. ^ FURTADO, Júnia Ferreira. José Rodrigues Abreu e a geografia imaginária emboaba da conquista do ouro. In: Modos de Governar - Ideias e práticas políticas no Império Português séculos XVI a XIX. BICALHO, Maria Fernanda & FERLINI, Vera Lúcia do Amaral (Orgs.). 1ª ed. São Paulo: Alameda, 2005, p.278
  63. ^ Cabral de Mello, Evaldo (2001). Coleção Formadores do Brasil. Editora 34. ISBN 85-7326-213-3.
  64. ^ "The History of São Paulo". ThoughCo. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  65. ^ "Revolta de Vila Rica de 1720". Historia.net. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
  66. ^ de Mendonça Rodrigues, Patrícia. Tany˜xiwe's Journey: A Javae Theory of History. ISBN 9780549742388.
  67. ^ Bethell, Leslie, ed. (1987). Colonial Brazil. Cambridge University Press. p. 186. ISBN 978-0521349253.
  68. ^ Savelle, Max (1974). Empires to Nations: Expansion in America, 1713–1824. Univ of Minnesota Press. pp. 132–33. ISBN 978-0816607815.
  69. ^ Jeffrey D. Burson; Wright, Jonathan (29 October 2015). The Jesuit Suppression in Global Context: Causes, Events, and Consequences. Cambridge University Press. p. 84. ISBN 978-1-107-03058-9.
  70. ^ Sbardelotto, Moisés. "A supressão da Companhia de Jesus: episódio-chave de sua ação nas fronteiras da fé". www.ihuonline.unisinos.br.
  71. ^ "Em 1763 a capital do Brasil foi transferida de Salvador para o Rio de Janeiro". Rádio Câmara (in Portuguese). Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  72. ^ "Tiradentes". Brasil Escola. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
  73. ^ Allen, Judith Lee (2001). Tailors, Soldiers, and Slaves: The Social Anatomy of a Conspiracy. Pleasant Mountain Press. ISBN 096797710X.
  74. ^ Cristóvão Aires de Magalhães Sepúlveda. História Orgânica e Política do Exército Português - Provas, volume XVII, Invasão de Junot em Portugal. Coimbra: Imprensa da Universidade, 1932. p. 130-131.
  75. ^ Rosana Barbosa Nunes, Portuguese Migration to Rio de Janeiro, 1822-1850. The Americas, 2001.
  76. ^ Kirsten Schultz, Tropical Versailles: Empire, Monarchy, and the Portuguese Royal Court in Rio de Janeiro, 1808-1821. Routledge, 2001.
  77. ^ "Jardim Botânico".
  78. ^ Steven Topik, "Banco do Brasil" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons 1996, vol. 1, p. 278.
  79. ^ LEIVAS, Luís Cláudio Pereira; GOYCOCHÊA, Luís Felipe de Castilhos. A Conquista de Caiena. In: História Naval Brasileira. v.2. t..II.
  80. ^ "Missão Artística Francesa – Coleção Museu Nacional de Belas Artes". Portal Brazil. Archived from the original on 15 February 2014. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
  81. ^ "Maria Leopoldina". UOL (in Portuguese). Retrieved 27 April 2017.
  82. ^ Revolução Pernambucana, Brazil Escola.com. Retrieved 30 June 2006.
  83. ^ Sanglard, Gisele (1 April 2003). "From Nova Friburgo to Fribourg in writing: Swiss colonization seen by the immigrants". História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos. 10 (1): 173–202. doi:10.1590/S0104-59702003000100006.
  84. ^ Birmingham, 111–113; Nowell, 182–184.
  85. ^ Renata William Santos do Vale, Presidência da República, Ministério da Justiça, Arquivo Nacional, História Luso-Brasileira, Independência do Brasil, Do reino unido a Estado emancipado: comentário acerca do processo de independência do Brasil [3]Archived 19 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine [em linha]
  86. ^ (in Portuguese) Laurentino Gomes; 1822 Nova Fronteira, Brasil 2010 ISBN 85-209-2409-3 Chapter 10 pg 161
  87. ^ NOSSA HISTÓRIA. Year 3 issue 35. São Paulo: Vera Cruz, 2006, p.44
  88. ^ Enciclopédia Barsa. Volume 5: Camarão, Rep. Unida do – Contravenção. Rio de Janeiro: Encyclopædia Britannica do Brasil, 1987, p.464
  89. ^ VAINFAS, Ronaldo. Dicionário do Brasil Imperial. Rio de Janeiro: Objetiva, 2002, p.161
  90. ^ Cf. arts. 5 and 6 of the Constitution of 1824, available at
  91. ^ "A Guide to the United States' History of Recognition, Diplomatic, and Consular Relations, by Country, since 1776: Brazil". Office of the Historian. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  92. ^ "Frei Caneca - Biografia - UOL Educação". Retrieved 25 December 2016.
  93. ^ Gloria Kaiser: Dona Leopoldina – Habsburg Princess, Empress of Brazil, 2009, p. 15 [retrieved 14 July 2015].
  94. ^ British and Foreign State Papers. Great Britain. Foreign Office. 1829 – via Harvard University.
  95. ^ Walsh, p. 280
  96. ^ Costa 1995, p. 94.
  97. ^ Sousa 1972, Vol 3, p. 8.
  98. ^ SCHEINA, Robert L. Latin America's Wars: the age of the caudillo, 1791-1899, Brassey's, 2003.
  99. ^ Argemiro Eloy Gurgel. "Uma lei para inglês ver:a trajetória da lei de 7 de novembro de 1831" (PDF). Retrieved 9 October 2013.
  100. ^ "Acto Adicional of 1834". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Retrieved 29 April 2009.
  101. ^ João José Reis, Slave Rebellion in Brazil: The Muslim Uprising of 1835 in Bahia, Johns Hopkins University Press, London 1993. pp. 118
  102. ^ Barman, Roderick J. (1988). Brazil: The Forging of a Nation, 1798–1852. p. 209
  103. ^ Needell, Jeffrey D. (2006). The Party of Order: the Conservatives, the State, and Slavery in the Brazilian Monarchy, 1831–1871. p.102
  104. ^ Barman, Roderick J. (1988). Brazil: The Forging of a Nation, 1798–1852. p. 214
  105. ^ Calmon 1975, p. 317.
  106. ^ Schiavo 1953, p. 181.
  107. ^ Barman (1999), p.124
  108. ^ Graden, Dale T. (May 1996). "An Act "Even of Public Security": Slave Resistance, Social Tensions, and the End of the International Slave Trade to Brazil, 1835-1856" (PDF). The Hispanic American Historical Review.
  109. ^ Furtado 2000, p. 10.
  110. ^ Golin 2004, p. 42.
  111. ^ City of Petropolis, Rio de Janeiro, "Fundação de Cultura e Turismo Petrópolis - FCTP". Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2010.
  112. ^ http://html.rincondelvago.com/venezuela_4.html Problemas Limítrofes de Venezuela (In Spanish)
  113. ^ "Histórico do Inmetro". Inmetro.gov.br. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
  114. ^ a b Teresa A. Meade, A Brief History of Brazil (2009), p. 83.
  115. ^ a b Robert M. Levine, The History of Brazil (2003), p. 68.
  116. ^ Brasil, Portal. "Censo de 1872 é disponibilizado ao público". Portal Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 11 December 2015.
  117. ^ "História do Brasil - Pré-Vestibular - 1874 - Revolta dos Muckers". Scribd.
  118. ^ "Drought, Smallpox, and Emergence of Leishmania braziliensis in Northeastern Brazil." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
  119. ^ Lopes, Maria Margaret (1 January 2009). O Brasil descobre a pesquisa científica: os museus e as ciências naturais no século XIX. Editora Hucitec/Editora UnB. ISBN 978-85-27104-25-8.
  120. ^ Mossoró se destaca como cidade pioneira (página 8) Jornal do Senado. Rio de Janeiro (14 de maio de 1888). Página acessada em 30 de setembro de 2012.
  121. ^ A abolição (página 1 do único caderno), O Paiz (14 de maio de 1888). Ano V, n° 1316.
  122. ^ Smallman; Shall C. Fear & Memory in the Brazilian Army & Society, 1889–1954 The University of North Carolina Press 2002 ISBN 0807853593 Page 20 2nd paragraph
  123. ^ See:
  124. ^ "To Be Prince of Trinidad: He Is Baron Harden-Hickey", New York Tribune, 5 November 1893, p 1
  125. ^ Bryk, William, "News & Columns", New York Press, v 15 no 50 (10 December 2002) Archived 30 April 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  126. ^ "Principality of Trinidad: John H. Flagler's Son-in-Law Is Its Sovereign, Self-Proclaimed as James I", New York Times, 10 June 1894, p 23
  127. ^ a b c Bryk (2002) Archived 30 April 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  128. ^ "Trinidad's Prince Awake: An Appeal to Washington Against Brazil and Great Britain", New York Times, 1 August 1895, p 1
  129. ^ "Grand Chancellor of Trinidad: Significant Phases in the Ascent of Male Comte de la Boissiere to His Elevated Diplomatic Post", New York Times, 2 August 1895, p 9
  130. ^ "Trinidad's Case in Washington: Courteously, the Chancellor Would Permit Britain's Cable Station and Use It, but There Is Graver Trouble", New York Times, 7 August 1895, p 1
  131. ^ "Trinidad's Diplomat in Action: M. de la Boissiere Asks that His Sovereign's Land Be Recognized as a Neutral Principality", New York Times, 9 August 1895, p 5
  132. ^ "Trinidad's Prince at Work: Grand Chancellor de la Boissiere Tells How the War Between Great Britain and Brazil Will Be Averted", New York Times, 24 January 1896, p 9
  133. ^ Flags of the World - Trindade and Martins Vaz Islands (Brazil) (sic)
  134. ^ "Ironcladpirate: Brazilian Civil War/Naval Mutiny 1893-4 (Revolta de Armada)". Archived from the original on 19 February 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
  135. ^ À nação brazileira (página 1 do único caderno), O Paiz (16 de novembro de 1891). Ano XI, n° 3699.
  136. ^ Kodansha encyclopedia of Japan, 1983
  137. ^ Prince Akishino, Princess Kiko meet with Japanese immigrants in Brazil, The Japan Times, published on 6 November 2015.
  138. ^ "A Fundação". Flamengo's official site (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 10 April 2017. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
  139. ^ a b c d e f g h i Nohlen, D (2005) Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume II, p173 ISBN 978-0-19-928358-3
  140. ^ "Brazil". World Statesmen.org. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
  141. ^ "M. Santos Dumont Rounds Eiffel Tower." The New York Times, 20 October 1901. Retrieved: 12 January 2009.
  142. ^ Nohlen, D (2005) Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume II, p173 ISBN 978-0-19-928358-3, p229
  143. ^ FUNAG – International Seminar Baron of Rio Branco – 100 years of memory, September 2012 Archived 24 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 24 March 2014
  144. ^ Freitas Dutra, Eliana Regina (2005). Rebeldes literários da república: história e identidade nacional no Almanaque brasileiro Garnier (1903–1914) (in Portuguese). Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais: Editora UFMG. ISBN 8570414811.
  145. ^ Grant, Jonathan A. Rulers, Guns, and Money: The Global Arms Trade in the Age of Imperialism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007. ISBN 0-674-02442-7.
  146. ^ "The Vaccine Riots and the Difficulty of Modernization in Rio de Janeiro". Brown. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  147. ^ Official website
  148. ^ Martins Filho, João Roberto. A marinha brasileira na era dos encouraçados, 1895–1910 [The Brazilian Navy in the Era of Dreadnoughts, 1895–1910]. Rio de Janeiro: Fundãçao Getúlio Vargas, 2010. ISBN 8-5225-0803-8. OCLC 679733899, pp 75, 78
  149. ^ "Warship Blown Up, 212 Lost" (PDF). The New York Times. 23 January 1906. p. 1. Retrieved 27 October 2009.
  150. ^ Nohlen, D (2005) Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume II, p173 ISBN 978-0-19-928358-3, p230
  151. ^ Surya P. Sharma (1997). Territorial Acquisition, Disputes and International Law. (M. Nijhoff Publishers: The Hague, ISBN 90-411-0362-7)
  152. ^ Gibbs-Smith, Charles H. "Hops and Flights: A roll call of early powered take-offs." Flight, Volume 75, Issue 2619, 3 April 1959, p. 469. Retrieved: 24 August 2013.
  153. ^ "Construction Facts: The Sourcebook of Statistics, Records and Resources". Engineering News Record. 14. McGraw Hill: 48–49. November 2003.
  154. ^ "Treaty between Colombia and Brazil". The American Journal of International Law. 3 (2). New York City: American Society of International Law: 97–101. April 1909. doi:10.2307/2212130. ISSN 0002-9300. JSTOR 2212130. S2CID 246003403. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  155. ^ "Tratados" [Treaties] (in Spanish). Geographic Society of Colombia. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  156. ^ "Columns "The Ship Kasato-maru"". www.ndl.go.jp. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  157. ^ Baily, Samuel L.; Míguez, Eduardo José (9 December 2016). Mass Migration to Modern Latin America. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780842028318.
  158. ^ BARMAN, Roderick J., Princesa Isabel do Brasil: gênero e poder no século XIX, UNESP, 2005
  159. ^ Nohlen, D (2005) Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume II, ISBN 978-0-19-928358-3, p230
  160. ^ Andrews, George Reid (2004). Afro-Latin America, 1800–2000. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515232-8. OCLC 52478388., p 149
  161. ^ "Nubia SS (1882~1906) São Luiz SS (+1911)". Wrecksite.eu. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
  162. ^ Diacon, Todd A. Millenarian Vision, Capitalist Reality: Brazil's Contestado Rebellion, 1912–1916 (Duke University Press 1991), ISBN 0-8223-1167-4
  163. ^ Theodore Roosevelt timeline Archived 11 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 19 January 2014
  164. ^ Dieter Nohlen (2005) Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume II, ISBN 978-0-19-928358-3. p 230
  165. ^ "'Carmania' sinking the 'Cap Trafalgar' off Trinidade Island in the South Atlantic, 14 September 1914". Royal Museums Greenwich (Collections). National Maritime Museum. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
  166. ^ Appleby, David P. 1988. Heitor Villa-Lobos: A Bio-Bibliography. New York: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-25346-3
  167. ^ García Novell, Francisco (2009). Naufragio, la historia olvidada del Titanic español. Madrid: La esfera de los libros. ISBN 978-84-9734-881-2.
  168. ^ Command of the Aeronaval Forces Archived 7 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine Official website
  169. ^ Maia, Prado (1961). D.N.O.G. (Divisão Naval los Operações de Guerra), 1914–1918: UMA page esquecida da História da Marinha Brasileira. Serviço de Documentação Geral da Marinha.
  170. ^ Faria, Ivan Rodrigues de. "Participação do Brasil na Primeira Guerra Mundial" (Portuguese) ('Brazil's participation in World War I') Brazilian Army Journal, Rio – DPHCEx, 1996 (Page 67)
  171. ^ Francisco Verras; "D.N.O.G.: contribuicao da Marinha Brasileira na Grande Guerra" ("DNOG; the role of Brazilian Navy in the Great War") (in Portuguese) "A Noite" Ed. 1920
  172. ^ 1919 South American Championship at RSSSF
  173. ^ Official Olympic Reports Archived 22 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  174. ^ Presidential Library: Biography of Pessoa. Accessed 14 February 2014
  175. ^ Amaral, Aracy; Hastings, Kim Mrazek (1995). "Stages in the Formation of Brazil's Cultural Profile". Journal of Decorative and Propaganda Arts. 21: 9–25. doi:10.2307/1504129. JSTOR 1504129.
  176. ^ Dieter Nohlen (2005) Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume II, p173 ISBN 978-0-19-928358-3
  177. ^ League of Nations Treaty Series, vol. 33, pp. 26-45.
  178. ^ Fausto, Boris; Brakel, Arthur (1999). A Concise History of Brazil. Cambridge University Press. p. 184. ISBN 0-521-56526-X.
  179. ^ PRESTES, Anita Leocádia. A Coluna Prestes- Uma Epopeia Brasileira Archived 20 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  180. ^ Palhano Barbosa, Nair (1996). Nas asas da história: Lembranças da Panair do Brasil (in Portuguese). Rio de Janeiro: Agir. p. 10. ISBN 85-220-0467-6.
  181. ^ Redação. "Partido Libertador (PL - 1945-1965)". CPDOC FGV. Retrieved 22 June 2016.
  182. ^ Font, Mauricio A. (9 July 2010). Coffee and Transformation in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Lexington Books. pp. 225–6. ISBN 9781461633167.
  183. ^ Reza, Ramiro de la. O evento do Curuçá: bólidos caem no Amazonas (The Curuçá Event: Bolides Fall in the Amazon) (in Portuguese), Rio de Janeiro: National Observatory. Retrieved from the Universidade Estadual de Campinas website.
  184. ^ "João Pessoa" (in Portuguese). Netsaber. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  185. ^ "A Revolução de 1930. Principais fatos da Revolução de 1930". Brasil Escola.
  186. ^ http://www.infoescola.com/historia-do-brasil/governo-de-washington-luis/ (Portuguese language)
  187. ^ Kimberly Jones-de-Oliveira, "The Politics of Culture or the Culture of Politics: Afro-Brazilian Mobilization, 1920–1968," Journal of Third World Studies, v. 20, part I (2003)
  188. ^ "Brazil: Crocovado mountain – Statue of Christ". Travel Channel. Archived from the original on 16 May 2007. Retrieved 7 July 2007.
  189. ^ "Sanctuary Status for Rio landmark". BBC. 13 October 2006. Archived from the original on 12 January 2008. Retrieved 7 July 2007.
  190. ^ Angelim, Augusto N. Sampaio (20 May 2004). "Justiça Eleitoral:Passado e Futuro". Portal Boletim Jurídico. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
  191. ^ "82 anos da conquista do voto feminino no Brasil". Tribunal Regional Eleitoral do Espírito Santo (in Portuguese). 24 February 2014. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
  192. ^ Wilson History and Research Center: Paulista War Archived 3 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 25 April 2014
  193. ^ Hilton, Stanley (1982). A Guerra Civil Brasileira. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira.
  194. ^ Stanley Hilton. A Guerra Civil Brasileira. Río de Janeiro. Nova Fronteira, 1982.
  195. ^ Ricardo Benzaquém de Araújo, Totalitarismo e Revolução: o Integralismo de Plínio Salgado, Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar Editor, 1988, ISBN 85-85061-83-9
  196. ^ League of Nations Treaty Series, vol. 163, pp. 394–413.
  197. ^ "Portuguese text available at". Archived from the original on 29 March 2010. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  198. ^ Getúilo Vargas in Brazil World History Chronology
  199. ^ Silva, Hélio (1969). O Ciclo de Vargas - Volume VIII (in Portuguese). Civilização Brasileira.
  200. ^ "A revolta comunista de 1935" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  201. ^ "Semana da asa" (página 3 da primeira seção), Folha da Manhã (18 de outubro de 1936).
  202. ^ "Foram julgados hontem os principaes chefes da revolução communista de 1935" (primeira página da primeira seção), Folha da Manhã (8 de maio de 1937).
  203. ^ "A convenção hontem realizada pelas correntes politicas que apoiam o sr. Armando de Salles Oliveira" (primeira página da primeira seção), Folha da Manhã (11 de junho de 1937).
  204. ^ "O Parque Nacional de Itatiaya" (página 2 do caderno único), Folha da Noite (16 de junho de 1937).
  205. ^ Helton Perillo Ferreira Leite, Planalto do Itatiaia (2007), p. 20.
  206. ^ "Promulgada hontem nova Constituição para o paiz" (primeira página da primeira seção), Folha da Manhã (11 de novembro de 1937).
  207. ^ "Extinctos todos os partidos politicos do paiz" (primeira página da primeira seção), Folha da Manhã (4 de dezembro de 1937).
  208. ^ R.S. Rose (2000), One of the Forgotten Things: Getúlio Vargas and Brazilian Social Control, 1930–1954, Westport: Greenwood, p. 86
  209. ^ Williams, Daryle (12 July 2001). Culture Wars in Brazil: The First Vargas Regime, 1930–1945. Duke University Press. ISBN 0822327198 – via Google Books.
  210. ^ "O Brasil rompeu com os paises do "Eixo"". Folha da Noite. 29 January 1942. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  211. ^ "O Brasil na Guerra". Folha da Noite. 22 August 1942. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  212. ^ "O Brasil em estado de beligerância com a Alemanha e a Itália". O Estado de S. Paulo. 23 August 1942. Retrieved 25 May 2014.
  213. ^ Cédulas do Cruzeiro (1942–1967). Accessed 24 May 2014
  214. ^ Robertson, Megan C. (5 July 2007). "The Federative Republic of Brazil: Order of Military Merit". Medals of the World. Retrieved 6 December 2012.
  215. ^ "Ban Motorcycles in Brazil", Milwaukee Journal, 23 July 1943, p3
  216. ^ "Big Brazilian Ship Sunk; 78 Are Missing", Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 8 August 1943, p1
  217. ^ Command Magazine, issue 51, page 34
  218. ^ Brooks, 2003. Pages 305-06.
  219. ^ Bohmler, 1964. Chapter IX
  220. ^ "Rebel in Rio", Time Magazine, 23 July 1945
  221. ^ Folha da Noite (18 September 1950). "A televisão poderá tornar-se a voz e o olhar das Américas". Retrieved 5 August 2014.
  222. ^ "Brazilian doctor takes office as the new president of the World Medical Association", 21 October 2011 Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 13 August 2014
  223. ^ "ESPM - Quem faz transforma". ESPM.
  224. ^ The Times, 5 March 1952, page 4
  225. ^ Accidents and Incidents involving the Boeing 377. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
  226. ^ Germano da Silva, Carlos Ari César (2008). "Palmeiras de Goiás". O rastro da bruxa: história da aviação comercial brasileira no século XX através dos seus acidentes 1928–1996 (in Portuguese) (2 ed.). Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS. pp. 118–125. ISBN 978-85-7430-760-2.
  227. ^ "1954: Brazilian president found dead". British Broadcasting Corporation. 24 August 1954. Retrieved 19 April 2009.
  228. ^ InfoEscola – Governo de Café Filho (Portuguese). Accessed 4 December 2014
  229. ^ Mimoa.eu: MAM—Modern Arts Museum of Rio de Janeiro . accessed 23 November 2013.
  230. ^ "World Cup 1958: Final". Planetworldcup.com. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  231. ^ "Incêndio Gran-Circus Norte-Americano 1961". Blogger. Retrieved 1 June 2011.
  232. ^ Thomas E. Skidmore (1988) The Politics of Military Rule in Brazil, 1964-85, Oxford University Press, p21
  233. ^ "Constituições brasileiras — Senado Notícias". Senado Federal (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 21 September 2019.
  234. ^ "Pelé marcou seu milésimo gol no Maracanã, num pênalti contra o Vasco". O Globo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 20 January 2017.
  235. ^ a b Skidmore, Thomas (8 March 1990). The Politics of Military Rule in Brazil, 1964–1985. Oxford University Press. pp. 117–118. ISBN 9780195063165. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
  236. ^ Baumann, Carol (July 1973). The Diplomatic Kidnappings: A Revolutionary Tactic of Urban Terrorism. Brill Archive. pp. 78–79. ISBN 9024714664.
  237. ^ "LEFTISTS IN BRAZIL SEIZE SWISS ENVOY". The New York Times. 8 December 1970. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
  238. ^ Craighead, Geoff. High-Rise Security and Fire Life Safety. 3rd ed., illustrated. Butterworth-Heinemann, 2009: 129-30. Print.
  239. ^ Dutton, Ted. "Bold new tactics for fighting high-rise fires". Popular Mechanics Sep 1977: 67-71. Print.
  240. ^ de Vasconcelos, Augusto Carlos; Marchesini, Gilson L.; Timerman, Júlio (2014). "4.4 Steel Box Bridges". In Chen, Wai-Fah; Duan, Lian (eds.). Handbook of International Bridge Engineering. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. pp. 184–186. ISBN 978-1-4398-1029-3. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
  241. ^ EFE (10 August 2010). "FAB cria normas para pilotos em caso de contato com ovnis". Terra (in Portuguese). Telefónica. Retrieved 13 December 2013.
  242. ^ Rodrigues, Fernando (11 January 2009). "SNI investigou óvnis durante a ditadura" [SNI investigated UFOs during the dictatorship]. Folha de S. Paulo (in Portuguese). 29138. Brasília: Grupo Folha: A10–A11. Retrieved 13 December 2013.
  243. ^ Cardoso, Rodrigo (22 July 2013). "A história oficial dos ÓVNIS no Brasil". ISTOÉ (in Portuguese). Editora Três. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  244. ^ Abbud, Bruno (24 January 2011). "Objetos voadores quase identificados". Veja.com (in Portuguese). Grupo Abril. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  245. ^ Charleaux, João Paulo (17 December 2013). "No princípio era um chuchu". piauí (in Portuguese). São Paulo: Editora Alvinegra. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  246. ^ Dantas, Pedro (14 August 2010). "Aeronáutica libera documentos sobre aparição de óvnis". O Estado de S. Paulo (in Portuguese). Rio de Janeiro: Grupo Estado. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
  247. ^ The Radiological accident in Goiânia (PDF). Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency. 1988. ISBN 92-0-129088-8.
  248. ^ Foderaro, Lisa (8 July 2010). "Columbia Scientists Prepare for a Threat: A Dirty Bomb". The New York Times.
  249. ^ "História". PSDB (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 6 February 2016. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  250. ^ "Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil". WIPO. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  251. ^ Hall, Anthony L. (1997). Sustaining Amazonia: grassroots action for productive conservation. Manchester University Press. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-7190-4698-8.
  252. ^ Margolis, Mac (3 January 1989). "Rio ship operators charged as toll from sinking rises". The Times. No. 63281. London. col C-E, p. 5.
  253. ^ Manuel, Anne (1998). Behind bars in Brazil. Human Rights Watch. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-56432-195-4.
  254. ^ Carandiru, das Gefaengnissmassaker in Sao Paulo (Ger.), 1995, Editor: Amnesty International FDCL-Verlag, Author: Elói Pietá & Justino Pereira, ISBN 3-923020-15-5
  255. ^ (in Portuguese) Nunes, Branca. "Entre o parlamentarismo e a monarquia, o Brasil resolveu continuar presidencialista" Archived 15 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Blog Caça ao Voto. Veja. 15 October 2010.
  257. ^ Site Presidência. "Legislação Brasileira" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 29 June 2009.
  258. ^ "ET de Varginha ainda instiga imaginário brasileiro 20 anos depois". EBC. 19 January 2016.
  259. ^ "A história oficial do ET de Varginha". 15 October 2010.
  260. ^ "Famous people who died in aviation accidents". www.planecrashinfo.com.
  261. ^ Amnesty.org Library
  262. ^ "334 fogem do Putim". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). 7 June 1999. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
  263. ^ "Lembranças de dor e perplexidade: Emoção marca cerimônia pelos mortos em 11 de setembro". Jornal do Brasil (in Portuguese). 11 September 2003. Archived from the original on 19 September 2003. Retrieved 19 September 2003. Dentre eles, os de três brasileiros: Anne Marie Sallerin Ferreira, Sandra Fajardo Smith e Ivan Kyrillos Barbosa
  264. ^ Banco de Dados Eleitorais do Brasil Archived 29 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  265. ^ a b Retrospectiva 2003, a edição especial do jornal O Estado de S. Paulo, publicado em 31 de dezembro de 2003.
  266. ^ Ghattas, Kim (11 August 2007). "Mixed feelings over UN Iraq role". BBC News. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
  267. ^ United Nations (21 August 2003). "Press Briefing by Manoel de Almeida e Silva, Spokesman for the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Afghanistan". United Nations. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
  268. ^ United Nations (19 August 2004). "UN wrestling with security questions one year after Baghdad bombing – Annan". United Nations. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
  269. ^ "Haiti - MINUSTAH - Mandate". United Nations. Retrieved 15 August 2007.
  270. ^ BBC. "Q&A: Brazil's 'big monthly' corruption trial". 21 November 2012. Retrieved on 10 March 2013
  271. ^ "Marcos Pontes inicia primeira viagem espacial de um brasileiro". UOL (in Portuguese). Retrieved 29 September 2016.
  272. ^ "Italian Fugitive-Turned-Writer Found, Arrested". Fox News. 18 March 2007. Archived from the original on 13 April 2008. Retrieved 2 March 2008.
  273. ^ "Pope kicks off anti-abortion mission in Brazil". ABC News Australia. Retrieved 2 March 2008.[permanent dead link]
  274. ^ "Bolivia reclaims oil refineries". BBC. 27 June 2007. Retrieved 2 March 2008.
  275. ^ "Opera House snubbed as new Wonders unveiled". ABC News Australia. Retrieved 2 March 2008.
  276. ^ "Toll in Brazil plane crash could climb past 189". MSNBC. Archived from the original on 9 August 2007. Retrieved 2 March 2008.
  277. ^ "Fiery plane crash at São Paulo airport kills at least 200". CNN. Archived from the original on 24 December 2007. Retrieved 2 March 2008.
  278. ^ "Brazilian plane crash 'kills 200'". BBC. 18 July 2007. Retrieved 2 March 2008.
  279. ^ "Plane Crash in Brazil Leaves at Least 189 Dead". Fox News. 19 July 2007. Archived from the original on 13 April 2008. Retrieved 2 March 2008.
  280. ^ "At least 200 feared dead in Brazil air crash". ABC News Australia. Retrieved 2 March 2008.
  281. ^ "Six killed in Brazil air crash". News Limited. Retrieved 2 March 2008. [dead link]
  282. ^ "Seven Brazil football fans killed". BBC. 26 November 2007. Retrieved 2 March 2008.
  283. ^ ""TV digital vai estrear para ninguém", diz diretor da TVA". Folha de S.Paulo. Retrieved 2 March 2008.
  284. ^ "Em 3 minutos, ladrões levam obras de Picasso e Portinari do Masp, em SP". UOL (in Portuguese). Retrieved 20 December 2016.
  285. ^ "Nations agree S American highway". BBC News. 17 December 2007. Retrieved 2 March 2008.
  286. ^ "Polícia localiza telas de Portinari e Picasso furtadas do Masp". Migalhas (in Portuguese). 9 January 2008. Retrieved 20 December 2016.
  287. ^ "Two players and coach die in bus crash in Brazil". USA Today. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
  288. ^ "Students safe after capsizing of N.S.-based ship". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 19 February 2010. Retrieved 21 February 2010.
  289. ^ "Floods in north-east Brazil kill dozens of people". British Broadcasting Corporation. 23 June 2010. Retrieved 23 June 2010.
  290. ^ (in Portuguese) Araújo, Glauco. "Professora critica cerimonial por iniciar desfile de Dilma sob chuva". G1. 1 January 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
  291. ^ "Número de mortos na Região Serrana já passa de 900 após chuvas de janeiro" (in Portuguese). 15 February 2011.
  292. ^ "Brazil mourns Rio school shooting victims". BBC News. 8 April 2011. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
  293. ^ "Accident description PR-NOB". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
  294. ^ "Brazilian police probe Chevron oil spill". CNN.com. 17 November 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
  295. ^ Tiros aconteceram entre explosão e entrada da PM, diz amiga de Eloá (primeira página do caderno Cotidiano), Folha de S.Paulo (14 de fevereiro de 2012).
  296. ^ "Death toll rises to 245 in Brazil club fire". Myfox New York. Archived from the original on 18 October 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
  297. ^ "Protests in Brazil". The Economist. 18 June 2013. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
  298. ^ "Roman Catholics attend mass in Rio for World Youth Day". BBC News. 24 July 2013. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
  299. ^ Connors, Will (6 April 2015). "How Brazil's 'Nine Horsemen' Cracked a Bribery Scandal". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
  300. ^ "Operação Lava Jato".
  301. ^ "Brazil police, protesters clash as World Cup begins". Reuters. 12 June 2014.
  302. ^ Watts, Jonathan (10 June 2014). "Brazil braces for uneasy start to World Cup as strikers' protests hit São Paulo". The Guardian.
  303. ^ "Brazil presidential candidate dies in plane crash". Yahoo. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  304. ^ Gopaldas, Ronak (15 April 2014). "SA, Brazil and India face key elections to restart growth". iol.co.za/business. Independent Newspapers (Pty) Limited. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
  305. ^ "Brazil train collision leaves 158 injured". 6 January 2015. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
  306. ^ Magalhaes, Luciana; Jelmayer, Rogerio (15 March 2015). "Protesters Across Brazil Demonstrate Against President on Sunday". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
  307. ^ Rifai, Ryan (22 November 2015). "Toxic sludge reaches Atlantic after Brazil dams burst". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  308. ^ "Protesters in Brazil push to impeach President Dilma Rousseff". CNN. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
  309. ^ "Sobe o número de mortos em grave acidente na rodovia Mogi Bertioga". Globo.com (in Portuguese). 9 June 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  310. ^ "Rio 2016 Olympic Games". Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
  311. ^ "Brazil President Dilma Rousseff removed from office by Senate". BBC News. 31 August 2016. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
  312. ^ "Brazil opens Latin America's first elephant sanctuary". BBC News. 14 October 2016. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  313. ^ "Prison clashes in Brazil kill 18: media". Reuters. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
  314. ^ "Brazil's Chapecoense football team in Colombia plane crash". BBC News. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  315. ^ "Chape é declarada campeã e garante ao menos US$ 4,8 mi em premiações" (in Portuguese). Atlético Nacional de Medellín. 5 December 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
  316. ^ "CONMEBOL otorga el título de Campeón de la Sudamericana 2016 a Chapecoense y reconoce a Atlético Nacional con el premio del Centenario de la Conmebol al Fair Play". CONMEBOL.com. 5 December 2016. Archived from the original on 6 December 2016.
  317. ^ "Dozens killed in prison riot in Brazil city of Manaus". Al-Jazeera. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
  318. ^ "Around 60 killed as drug gangs clash in Brazil prison massacre". Reuters. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
  319. ^ "Brazil gang kills 31, many hacked to death, as prison violence explodes". Reuters. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
  320. ^ "Brazil sends troops to state torn by violence due to police strike". Reuters. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  321. ^ "Brazil sends 200 troops to control lethal violence sparked by police strike". The Guardian. 6 February 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  322. ^ Agência Brasil, ed. (17 March 2017). "Justiça Federal no Paraná bloqueia R$1 bilhão dos maiores frigoríficos do país" (in Portuguese). EBC. Retrieved 18 March 2017.
  323. ^ "In Brazil, protesters clash with police as a general strike empties schools and brings business to a halt". LA Times. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  324. ^ "Brazil judge orders ex-president Lula jailed by Friday afternoon". Reuters. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  325. ^ "Block of flats collapses in Sao Paulo, Brazil, after fire rips through building". Metro. May 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  326. ^ "Incêndio de grandes proporções destrói o Museu Nacional, na Quinta da Boa Vista". G1 (in Portuguese). 2 September 2018. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  327. ^ "Brazil mourns blaze at National Museum, seeks answers to 'tragedy foretold'". Reuters. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  328. ^ Londoño, Ernesto (6 September 2018). "Brazil Presidential Candidate Jair Bolsonaro Is Stabbed at Campaign Rally". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
  329. ^ "Jair Bolsonaro: Far-right candidate wins Brazil poll". BBC. 28 October 2018. Retrieved 28 October 2018.
  330. ^ "Brazil's new president, Jair Bolsonaro, takes office". BBC. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  331. ^ "Brumadinho dam collapse: 'Little hope' of finding missing in Brazil". BBC. 25 January 2019. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  332. ^ "Atletas da base do Flamengo morrem em incêndio no CT Ninho do Urubu". G1 (in Portuguese). 8 February 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  333. ^ "Dupla ataca escola em Suzano, mata oito pessoas e se suicida". G1 (in Portuguese). 13 March 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  334. ^ "Agosto tem recorde de focos de incêndio na Amazônia em nove anos, aponta Inpe". O Globo (in Brazilian Portuguese). 1 September 2019. Retrieved 21 September 2019.
  335. ^ "Logo após aprovação da Anvisa, governo de SP aplica em enfermeira a 1ª dose de vacina contra Covid-19 no Brasil". G1 (in Brazilian Portuguese). 17 January 2021. Retrieved 14 October 2021.
  336. ^ Rocha, Camilo (31 October 2022). "Lula da Silva will return to Brazil's presidency in stunning comeback". CNN. Retrieved 31 October 2022.
  337. ^ Boadle, Anthony (31 October 2022). "Brazil leftist Lula wins third presidential term to redeem tarnished legacy". Reuters. Retrieved 31 October 2022.
  338. ^ Gomes, Rossini (31 October 2022). "Lula será o presidente mais velho do Brasil e o 2° por mais tempo no cargo". R7 (in Portuguese). Retrieved 31 October 2022.
  339. ^ Phillips, Tom (8 January 2023). "Jair Bolsonaro supporters storm Brazil's presidential palace and supreme court". The Guardian.
  340. ^ Rocha, Lucas. "Manifestantes furam bloqueio, entram na Esplanada e invadem o Congresso Nacional" [Protesters break through the blockade, enter the Esplanade and invade the National Congress]. CNN Brazil.
  341. ^ "Bolsonaro supporters storm Brazilian Congress". BBC News. 8 January 2023. Retrieved 8 January 2023.


in English
in Portuguese