Timeline of Canadian history
|Part of a series on the|
|History of Canada|
|By Provinces and Territories|
This is a brief timeline of the history of Canada, comprising important social, economic, political, military, legal, and territorial changes and events in Canada and its predecessor states.
|to 14,000 BCE||At some unknown time prior to this date, Paleo-Indians moved across the Beringia land bridge from eastern Siberia into northwest North America, settling in some areas of Alaska and the Yukon, but are blocked from further travel south into the continent by extensive glaciation.|
|14,000 BCE||Glaciers that covered Canada began melting, allowing Paleo-Indians to move south and east into Canada and beyond.|||
|3,000–2,000 BCE||The Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands begin to cultivate different types of squash.|||
|3,000 BCE||Paleo-Eskimos begin to settle the Arctic regions of North America from Siberia.|||
|796 CE||Council of Three Fires (also known as the Three Fires Confederacy) is formed.|||
|900||A short-lived Norse settlement is founded at L'Anse aux Meadows. It is possibly connected with the attempted colony of Vinland, established by Leif Erikson around the same period or, more broadly, with Norse exploration of the Americas.|||
|1142||31 August||The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the League of Peace and Power) is formed.|||
|1497||24 June||Genoese navigator John Cabot lands the Matthew of Bristol somewhere on the northern Atlantic coast of North America, claiming the land for England. The precise location of Cabot's landing is widely debated but generally believed to be on Newfoundland.|||
|1534||24 July||Explorer Jacques Cartier claims the Gaspé Peninsula for France.|||
|1605||French colonists establish the first permanent European settlement in the future Canada at Port-Royal, founding the colony that would become known as Acadia.|||
|1608||3 July||Quebec City founded, becoming the capital of New France.|||
|1634||4 July||Trois-Rivières founded, becoming the second permanent settlement in New France.|||
|1642||17 May||Fort Ville-Marie -(Old Montreal) founded with the majority of immigrants coming directly from France led by Paul de Chomedey and Jeanne Mance, a lay woman.|||
|1666||First census of North America released.|||
|1670||2 May||Hudson's Bay Company formed creating a monopoly over the region (Rupert's Land).|||
|1701||4 August||The Great Peace of Montreal, between New France and 39 First Nations, is finalized.|||
|1713||11 April||The War of the Spanish Succession is ended by the Treaty of Utrecht. France cedes Acadia to Great Britain and renounces claims to some British territories in Canada, as well as its claim to a monopoly of trade with the Indigenous population, but retains control of Île Royale colony (present-day Cape Breton Island and Prince Edward Island).|||
|1749||21 June||Halifax is founded and settled by the British. The Indigenous Mi'kmaq believe Britain's unilateral action violates treaties signed after Father Rale's War in 1726, starting Father Le Loutre's War in which British colonists drive French and Mi'kmaq inhabitants from peninsular Nova Scotia but are repelled from Acadian settlements further north (present-day New Brunswick).|||
|1755||11 August||British Brigadier-General Charles Lawrence orders the Expulsion of the Acadians. Over the next decade an estimated 11,400 French Catholics are deported to the Thirteen Colonies and Europe. Many settle in Louisiana.|||
|1758||8 June – 26 July||The French naval fortress at Louisbourg is sieged for a second time by the British, having been returned to the French after a previous occupation in 1745. After being used to stage attacks on French Canada the following year, British soldiers reduce the fortress to rubble to prevent its return to the French a second time.|||
|1759||13 September||A three-month British siege of Quebec City culminates in the pivotal Battle of the Plains of Abraham just outside the city's walls. Both the British and French commanders are killed in the battle. Following a decisive British victory, the French evacuate the city.|||
|1763||10 February||The Seven Years' War is ended by the Treaty of Paris. France cedes New France to Great Britain, its colony Canada becoming the British Province of Quebec, and its remaining maritime colonies annexed by Nova Scotia.|||
|1769||14 July||St. John's Island is partitioned from Nova Scotia, becoming a separate colony from the mainland. The colony is renamed Prince Edward Island in 1798.|||
|1784||18 June||New Brunswick and Cape Breton Island are partitioned from Nova Scotia, becoming separate colonies. Cape Breton re-joins Nova Scotia in 1820.|||
|1791||The Constitutional Act of 1791 divides the Province of Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada (modern-day Ontario and Quebec).|||
|1813||21–22 June||During the War of 1812, Laura Secord learns of an American plan to launch a surprise attack on British forces and walks 20 miles to warn the defenders. The British defeat the American invaders at the Battle of Beaver Dams on 24 June.|||
|1818||20 October||The London Convention is signed, setting the boundary between the United States and British North America to the 49th parallel from the Northwest Angle in Minnesota west to the continental divide of the Rocky Mountains, and establishing joint control of the Oregon Country.|||
|1829||6 June||Shanawdithit, the last known living member of the Beothuk people native to Newfoundland, dies; she was about 29 years old.|||
|1846||15 June||The Oregon boundary dispute is settled with the signing of the Oregon Treaty, extending the boundary between British North America and the United States along the 49th parallel from the Rocky Mountains to the Juan de Fuca Strait, and defining the maritime boundary to the Pacific Ocean.|||
|1864||1 – 9 September||The Charlottetown Conference, the first of several meetings to discuss a Maritime Union and Canadian Confederation, is held in Charlottetown.|||
|1867||1 July||The British North America Act, 1867, divides the Province of Canada into Ontario and Quebec and joins them with New Brunswick and Nova Scotia to form a confederated state called the Dominion of Canada.|||
|1869–1870||11 October–12 May||A group of Métis led by Louis Riel mount the Red River Rebellion against Canadian intrusion and form the Red River Colony. The Canadian government regains control after acceding to many of Riel's demands, but he flees into exile in the United States after the government refused to grant him amnesty.|||
Concluding a series of agreements between Canada, the United Kingdom, and the Hudson's Bay Company, Canada acquires Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory, forming the North-West Territories. In the aftermath of the Red River Rebellion, Manitoba is subdivided from the new territory in the area around Winnipeg, becoming Canada's fifth province. Land rights are granted to the Métis.
|1871||20 July||The colonies of British Columbia and Vancouver Island amalgamate and then enter Confederation as the Province of British Columbia, Canada's the sixth province.|||
|1873||1 July||Prince Edward Island enters Confederation as the seventh province.|||
|1880||1 September||The British Arctic Territories are ceded to Canada, becoming part of the North-West Territories.|||
|1885||26 March – 3 June||Several hundred Catholic Francophone Métis led by Louis Riel and supported by Cree fighters mount the North-West Rebellion and establish the Provisional Government of Saskatchewan. Riel is captured at the Battle of Batoche (9–12 May), tried for treason, and hanged on 16 November 1885. Francophones bitterly denounce the sentence and Canada becomes deeply polarized along ethno-religious lines.|||
|7 November||The transcontinental Canadian Pacific Railway, then the longest in the world, is completed.|||
|1905||1 September||Alberta and Saskatchewan are partitioned out of the Northwest Territories to become the eighth and ninth provinces of Canada.|||
|1910||4 May||Royal Canadian Navy is established.|||
|1914||4 August||Great Britain declares war on Germany, bringing Canada into the First World War.|||
|1917||9–12 April||The four divisions of the Canadian Expeditionary Force fight together for the first time in the Battle of Vimy Ridge, which becomes celebrated as a national symbol of achievement and sacrifice and a formative milestone in the development of Canada's national identity.|||
|6 December||An explosion caused by an accidental collision between two merchant ships, one filled with explosives for the war, occurs in Halifax Harbour, resulting in 2000 people dead and 9000 injured.|||
|1918||24 May||Women gain the right to vote in federal elections.|||
|19 September||Canadian Air Force (after 1920, Royal Canadian Air Force) is established.|||
|1919||Canada sends a delegation to the Paris Peace Talks, the conference resolving war issues. Canada signs the Versailles treaty as part of the British Empire, with parliament's approval.|||
|1920||Canada is admitted as a full member of the League of Nations, independently of Britain. It joins the League Council (governing board) in 1927. Canada plays a minor role and opposes sanctions or military action by the League. The League is virtually defunct by 1939.|||
|1926||25 June – 14 September||A constitutional crisis, known as the King-Byng Affair, is precipitated when Governor General Byng refused Prime Minister King's request to dissolve parliament and call an election, instead asking opposition leader Meighen to form a government, which in turn was quickly defeated. King framed the dispute as one of Britain, represented by the Governor General, interfering with Canadian affairs. Consequently, the affair played a role in the Balfour Declaration of 1926, in which each Dominion of the British Empire was declared to be of equal status with Britain.|||
|1927||25 November||Canada appoints Vincent Massey as its first fully accredited envoy to a foreign capital.|||
|1929||1929 - 1939||Great Depression in Canada begins, resulting in widespread poverty and unemployment for the next decade.|||
|1931||11 December||The Statute of Westminster 1931 is enacted in Britain, officially ending the power of the British parliament to pass and nullify laws in a Dominion without the Dominion's request and consent. The statute formally recognized the de facto independence attained by Canada following the First World War.|||
|1939||10 September||Canada, with its parliament's support, enters the Second World War by declaring war on Germany. The Dominion of Newfoundland had entered the war as a British colony upon the United Kingdom's declaration of war one week earlier.|||
|1939||1939 - 1945||During the war, the government mobilizes Canadian money, supplies, and volunteers to support Britain while boosting the economy and maintaining home front morale. Canada plays a military role protecting convoys against German submarines and fighting the German Army in Western Europe, while helping to liberate the Netherlands. Canada expands its small navy into the third largest in the world, after the U.S. and U.K. It had 363 ships and 100,000 sailors (of whom 6700 were women.)|||
|1945||24 October||Canada joins the United Nations, seeking to play a world role as a "middle power", with interest in the UN Charter and in relief agencies.|||
|1949||31 March||Newfoundland, the last British colony in North America, enters Confederation as the tenth province following a pair of contentious referenda on whether the island should remain a British Crown Colony, become fully independent, or join Canada.|||
|1959||27 June||The Saint Lawrence Seaway, a joint project between Canada and the United States, is officially opened.|||
|1960||1 July||First Nations people are granted the right to vote in federal elections without having to give up their status and treaty rights.|||
|1967||Canada celebrates its centennial.|||
|27 April||Expo 67 opens in Montreal and goes on to be considered most successful World's Fair of the 20th century and a landmark moment in Canadian history.|||
|1970||5 October||The government invokes the War Measures Act to apprehend the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ), a separatist paramilitary group in Quebec that was responsible for over 160 violent incidents that killed eight people and in October 1970 had kidnapped a British official (later released) and Quebec labour minister Pierre Laporte, who they killed. The FLQ collapses.|||
|1980||20 May||A referendum on Quebec independence is held, resulting in a majority (59.56%) of the province voting to remain in Canada.|||
|1981||Workers in British Columbia Telephone takeover all of the provinces telephone exchanges for five days and run them under workers' control.|||
|1982||17 April||Canada achieves total independence from Great Britain through Patriation of its Constitution with the enactment of the Constitution Act, 1982 (which includes the Charter of Rights and Freedoms), by royal proclamation. The Government of Quebec refuses to sign the deal and attempts to veto the Act; the Supreme Court of Canada rules that Quebec's assent is not required.|||
|1990||11 July – 26 September||The Oka Crisis occurs as Indigenous Mohawk activists protest the construction of a golf course on a burial ground, barricading roads and the Mercier Bridge. In August, after a series of violent standoffs between protesters and the Sûreté du Québec (SQ, Quebec's provincial police) which led to the death of one officer, Premier Robert Bourassa requests aid from the Canadian Armed Forces. In September, facing military invasion of their community, the protesters surrender and many leaders are arrested. Construction of the golf course is later cancelled.|||
|1995||30 October||Another referendum on Quebec independence is held. A majority (50.58%) of the province votes to remain in Canada.|||
|1995||4 September||Members of an Indigenous Ojibwe band occupy Camp Ipperwash in southwestern Ontario, on land which had been expropriated from the band for a military base during World War II under the War Measures Act, setting off the Ipperwash Crisis. Two days later, unarmed Ojibwe protester Dudley George is shot and killed by an Ontario Provincial Police officer.|||
|1995||18 August - 17 September||Indigenous Shuswap and non-Indigenous supporters fire on Royal Canadian Mounted Police officers after a British Columbia rancher attempts to evict them from land being used for a traditional ceremony, beginning the Gustafsen Lake standoff. After the largest and costliest paramilitary operation in the province's history, the Ts'peten Defenders surrender to police.|||
|1999||1 April||Nunavut is partitioned from the Northwest Territories to become Canada's third territory, following a series of plebiscites in 1982 and 1992, and establishment of the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement in 1993.|||
|2005||20 July||The Civil Marriage Act legalizes same-sex marriage throughout Canada.|||
|2012||February||Students in Quebec protest and stop proposed increases in university tuition.|||
|4 May||The Royal Canadian Mint strikes the last Canadian penny. The coin is removed from circulation a few months later, though existing pennies remain legal tender.|||
|2018||17 October||The Cannabis Act becomes law, making recreational cannabis use legal throughout the country. Canada is the second country (after Uruguay in 2013) to legalize recreational cannabis use nationwide.|||
- History of Canada
- Historiography of Canada
- Events of National Historic Significance
- List of years in Canada
- Heritage Minutes
- National Historic Sites of Canada
- Persons of National Historic Significance
- Timeline of Ontario history
- Timeline of Quebec history
- List of Canadian monarchs
- List of Governors General of Canada
- List of Prime Ministers of Canada
- Goebel, Ted; Waters, Michael R.; O'Rourke, Dennis H. (2008). "The Late Pleistocene Dispersal of Modern Humans in the Americas" (PDF). Science. 319 (5869): 1497–502. Bibcode:2008Sci...319.1497G. doi:10.1126/science.1153569. PMID 18339930. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 January 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2010.
- Wynn, Graeme (2007). Canada And Arctic North America: An Environmental History. ABC-CLIO. p. 20. ISBN 978-1-85109-437-0. Archived from the original on 10 May 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- Jacques Cinq-Mars (2001). "The Significance of the Bluefish Caves in Beringian Prehistory". Hull: Canadian Museum of Civilization. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2015. Cite journal requires
Laurel Sefton MacDowell (2012). An Environmental History of Canada. UBC Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-7748-2104-9. Archived from the original on 23 April 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
Guy Gugliotta (February 2013). "When Did Humans Come to the Americas?". Smithsonian Magazine. Archived from the original on 15 May 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
- Mark Nuttall (2012). Encyclopedia of the Arctic. Routledge. p. 238. ISBN 978-1-136-78680-8.
- Emory Dean Keoke; Kay Marie Porterfield (2009). Encyclopedia of American Indian Contributions to the World: 15,000 Years of Inventions and Innovations. Infobase Publishing. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-4381-0990-9.
- Mark M. Jarzombek (2014). Architecture of First Societies: A Global Perspective. MIT - John Wiley & Sons. p. 331. ISBN 978-1-118-42105-5.
- James B. Minahan (2013). Ethnic Groups of the Americas: An Encyclopedia: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 271. ISBN 978-1-61069-164-2.
- Linda S. Cordell; Kent Lightfoot; Francis McManamon; George Milner (30 December 2008). Archaeology in America: An Encyclopedia: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 82–. ISBN 978-0-313-02189-3. Archived from the original on 30 December 2016. Retrieved 6 October 2016.
- Axel Kristinsson (2010). Expansions: Competition and Conquest in Europe Since the Bronze Age. ReykjavíkurAkademían. p. 216. ISBN 978-9979-9922-1-9. Archived from the original on 30 December 2016. Retrieved 6 October 2016.
- Jordan E. Kerber (2007). Archaeology of the Iroquois: Selected Readings and Research Sources. Syracuse University Press. p. 388. ISBN 978-0-8156-3139-2.
- Roger E. Riendeau (2007). A Brief History of Canada. Infobase Publishing. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-4381-0822-3.
- Alan Gordon (2010). The Hero and the Historians: Historiography and the Uses of Jacques Cartier. UBC Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-7748-5920-2.
- Morton, Desmond (30 November 1999). Canada: A Millennium Portrait. Dundurn. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-4597-1085-6. Archived from the original on 18 January 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
- Rene Chartrand (2013). French Fortresses in North America 1535-1763: Quebec, Montreal, Louisbourg and New Orleans. Osprey Publishing. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-4728-0317-7.
- David B. Knight (1991). Choosing Canada's Capital: Conflict Resolution In a Parliamentary System. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-88629-148-8.
- Terence J. Fay (2002). History of Canadian Catholics. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-7735-2313-5. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- "Censuses of Canada 1665 to 1871: Jean Talon". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- Elle Andra-Warner (2011). Hudson's Bay Company Adventures: Tales of Canada's Fur Traders. Heritage House. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-926613-14-7.
- Colin G. Calloway (2013). Treaties and Treaty Making in American Indian History. Oxford University Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-19-998686-6.
- Saliha Belmessous (2011). Native Claims: Indigenous Law Against Empire, 1500-1920. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-19-979485-0.
- Grenier, John. The Far Reaches of Empire. War in Nova Scotia, 1710-1760. Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 2008; Thomas Beamish Akins. History of Halifax, Brookhouse Press. 1895. (2002 edition). p 7
- "Fort Vieux Logis". Northeast Archaeological Research. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013.
- White, Stephen A. (2005). "The True Number of Acadians". In Ronnie Gilles LeBlanc (ed.). Du Grand Dérangement à la Déportation: nouvelles perspectives historiques. Université de Moncton. pp. 21–56. ISBN 978-1-897214-02-2.
- "Siege of Louisbourg: 30 May-27 July 1758". The Loyal Edmonton Regiment Military Museum. Archived from the original on 15 January 2019. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
- "Fortress of Louisbourg National Historic Site: History". Parks Canada. 11 April 2017. Archived from the original on 6 January 2019. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
- Montgomery, Marc (11 September 2015). "Sept 13, 1759 the battle that changed North America and the world". Radio Canada. Archived from the original on 15 January 2019. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
- Spencer C. Tucker (2014). The Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Early American Republic, 1783–1812: A Political, Social, and Military History [3 volumes]: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 782. ISBN 978-1-59884-157-2.
- Office of the Lieutenant Governor. "The Honourable Walter Patterson". Government of Prince Edward Island. Archived from the original on 27 January 2019. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
- "Winslow Papers: The Partition of Nova Scotia". University of New Brunswick Libraries. 21 June 2005. Archived from the original on 28 April 2018. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
- Terry A. Crowley (2015). Canadian History: Pre-Colonization to 1867 Essentials. Research & Education Assoc. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-7386-7205-2.
- Bonikowsky, Laura Nielson (24 March 2011), Laura Secord, The Canadian Encyclopedia, archived from the original on 20 September 2015, retrieved 27 October 2015
- United States Department of State (1 November 2007). Treaties In Force: A List of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States in Force on November 1, 2007. Section 1: Bilateral Treaties (PDF). Compiled by the Treaty Affairs Staff, Office of the Legal Adviser, U.S. Department of State. (2007 ed.). Washington, DC. p. 320. Retrieved 23 May 2008.
- Howley, James Patrick (1915). The Beothucks or Red Indians : the aboriginal inhabitants of Newfoundland. Cambridge: University Press. p. 231. Archived from the original on 4 May 2017. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
- "Treaty between Her Majesty and the United States of America, for the Settlement of the Oregon Boundary". Canado-American Treaties. Université de Montréal. 1999. Archived from the original on 13 November 2009. Retrieved 12 January 2007.
- The Charlottetown Conference, Dictionary of Canadian Biography, http://biographi.ca/en/theme_conferences_1864.html?p=8 Archived 10 November 2018 at the Wayback Machine
- Gillmor & Turgeon 2000, p. 277 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFGillmorTurgeon2000 (help)
- Christopher Moore, 1867: How the Fathers Made a Deal (2011)
- Gillmor & Turgeon 2000, pp. 284–287 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFGillmorTurgeon2000 (help)
- Rupert's Land and North-Western Territory Order Archived 20 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- Gillmor & Turgeon 2000, p. 287 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFGillmorTurgeon2000 (help)
- W. George Shelton, ed. British Columbia & Confederation (1967)
- Francis Bolger, "Prince Edward Island and Confederation" CCHA, Report, 28 (1961), 25-30 online Archived 4 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- Wikisource. . 31 July 1880 – via
- Wallace, W. Stewart, North-West Rebellion, Marianopolis College, archived from the original on 3 March 2016, retrieved 6 November 2015
- George F.G. Stanley, Louis Riel: Patriot or Rebel? Canadian Historical Association Booklet No. 2 (1979) online Archived 6 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- Canadian Pacific Facts and Figures. Canadian Pacific Foundation Library. 1946. p. 15.
- Stout, C. H. (1 January 1955), "Alberta born 50 years ago to start new era", Calgary Herald, archived from the original on 21 November 2015, retrieved 5 November 2015
- Richard H. Gimblett (2009). The Naval Service of Canada, 1910-2010: The Centennial Story. Dundurn. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-4597-1322-2.
- David MacKenzie (2015). Canada and the First World War: Essays in Honour of Robert Craig Brown. University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division. p. 174. ISBN 978-1-4426-5879-0.
- Inglis 1995, p. 2 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFInglis1995 (help)
- Janet F. Kitz, Shattered city: the Halifax explosion & the road to recovery (Nimbus, 2008.)
- Cleverdon, Catherine (1974). The woman suffrage movement in Canada: The Start of Liberation, 1900-20 (2 ed.). Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 9780802021083.
- Parliament of Canada. "Women's Right to Vote in Canada". Queen's Printer for Canada. Archived from the original on 21 November 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
- Sydney F. Wise (1980). The Official History of the Royal Canadian Air Force: Canadian airmen and the first world war. University of Toronto Press. p. ix. ISBN 978-0-8020-2379-7.
- Alan Bowker (2014). A Time Such as There Never Was Before: Canada After the Great War. Dundurn. pp. 28–29. ISBN 9781459722828.
- Anique H. M. van Ginneken (2006). Historical Dictionary of the League of Nations. p. 54. ISBN 9780810865136.
- Tattrie, Jon (30 July 2013), King-Byng Affair, The Canadian Encyclopedia, archived from the original on 5 November 2015, retrieved 3 November 2015
- Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. "About the Department > Canadian Heads of Posts Abroad from 1880 > Massey, Hon. Vincent (Non-career)". Queen's Printer for Canada. Archived from the original on 22 March 2012. Retrieved 15 March 2009.
- Pierre Berton (2012). The Great Depression: 1929-1939. Doubleday Canada. pp. 9–11. ISBN 978-0-307-37486-8.
- Giving Canada its own voice, Government of Canada, archived from the original on 19 October 2015, retrieved 3 November 2015
- Jack L. Granatstein, and Robert Bothwell, "‘A self-evident national duty’: Canadian foreign policy, 1935–1939." The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 3#2 (1975): 212-233.
- Neary, Peter. "The History of Newfoundland and Labrador During the Second World War". Canadian War Museum. Archived from the original on 14 January 2019. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
- Tim Cook, Warlords: Borden Mackenzie King And Canada's World Wars (2012)
- Jeffrey A. Keshen, Saints, Sinners, and Soldiers: Canada's Second World War (2004)
- J.L. Granatstein, The last good war: An illustrated history of Canada in the Second World War, 1939-1945 Archived 3 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine (2005)
- Spencer Tucker (2011). World War II at Sea: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 142. ISBN 9781598844573.
- Adam Chapnick, The middle power project: Canada and the founding of the United Nations (UBC Press, 2007)
- Gillmor 2001, pp. 222–223 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFGillmor2001 (help)
- St. Lawrence Seaway opening, CBC, archived from the original on 12 June 2014, retrieved 20 November 2015
- Rita J. Simon; Vassia Gueorguieva (2008). Voting and Elections the World Over. Lexington Books. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-7391-3092-6.
- Peter H Aykroyd (1992). The Anniversary Compulsion: Canada's Centennial Celebrations, A Model Mega-Anniversary. Dundurn. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-55488-307-3.
- "The Most Successful World Fair—Expo 67", Voices of East Anglia, 22 November 2011, archived from the original on 21 November 2015, retrieved 20 November 2015
- Tu Thanh Ha (26 April 2007). "Expo 67 Saw 'The World Coming To Us, In A Joyous Fashion'". The Globe and Mail. p. A3. Archived from the original on 5 September 2007. Retrieved 24 August 2009.
- H. D. Munroe, "The October Crisis revisited: Counterterrorism as strategic choice, political result, and organizational practice." Terrorism and Political Violence 21.2 (2009): 288-305.
- Anne F. Bayefsky (2000). Self-determination in International Law: Quebec and Lessons Learned : Legal Opinions. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 5. ISBN 978-90-411-1154-8.
- Ness, Immanuel (2010). Ours to Master and to own: Workers' Control from the Commune to the Present. p. 350.
- Joel Krieger; Margaret E. Crahan (2001). The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 105. ISBN 978-0-19-511739-4.
- Russell, Peter H. (2011). "The Patriation and Quebec Veto References: The Supreme Court Wrestles with the Political Part of the Constitution". Supreme Court Law Review: 75–76. ISSN 0228-0108.
- Montgomery, Marc (9 July 2018). "Canada History: July 11, 1990, the crisis and death at Oka". Radio Canada. Archived from the original on 14 January 2019. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
- John Courtney; David Smith (2010). The Oxford Handbook of Canadian Politics. OUP USA. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-19-533535-4.
- Salomons, Tanisha. "Ipperwash Crisis". First Nations & Indigenous Studies, University of British Columbia. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
- Patterson, Brent (14 January 2016). "Wolverine asks Trudeau for inquiry into Gustafsen Lake Standoff". Council of Canadians. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
- Wonders, Karen. "Ts'peten". First Nations: Land Rights and Environmentalism in British Columbia. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
- "Creation of a New Northwest Territories". Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories. Archived from the original on 22 November 2018. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
- Edward Hedican (2012). Social Anthropology: Canadian Perspectives on Culture and Society. Canadian Scholars’ Press. p. 130. ISBN 978-1-55130-407-6.
- Gelderloos, Peter (2015). The Failure of Nonviolence.
- "Canada's Last Penny: Final Cent Struck In Winnipeg Friday As Currency Killed". Canadian Press/Huffington Post Canada. 4 May 2012. Archived from the original on 7 May 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- "Cannabis is legal in Canada — here's what you need to know". CBC News. CBC. 17 October 2018. Archived from the original on 25 October 2018. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
- Francis, RD; Jones, Richard; Smith, Donald B (2009). Journeys: A History of Canada. Nelson Education. ISBN 978-0-17-644244-6.
- Crowley, Terence Allan; Terry Crowley; Rae Murphy (1993). The Essentials of Canadian History: Pre-colonization to 1867—the Beginning of a Nation. Research & Education Assoc. ISBN 978-0-7386-7205-2.
- Felske, Lorry William; Beverly Jean Rasporich (2004). Challenging Frontiers: the Canadian West. University of Calgary Press. ISBN 978-1-55238-140-3.
- Hill, Brian H. W. Canada, 875-1973: A Chronology and Fact Book (1973)
- Lower, Arthur R. M. (1958). Canadians in the Making: A Social History of Canada. Longmans, Green.
- Morton, Desmond (2001). A short history of Canada. McClelland & Stewart Limited. ISBN 978-0-7710-6509-5.
- Morton, Desmond (1999). A Military History of Canada : from Champlain to Kosovo. McClelland & Stewart Limited. ISBN 978-0-7710-6514-9.
- Norrie, Kenneth, Douglas Owram and J.C. Herbert Emery. (2002) A History of the Canadian Economy (4th ed. 2007)
- Riendeau, Roger E. (2007). A Brief History of Canada. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4381-0822-3.
- Taylor, Martin Brook; Owram, Doug (1994). Canadian History. 1 & 2. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-5016-8, ISBN 978-0-8020-2801-3
- Taylor, Martin Brook; Douglas Owram (1994). Canadian History: A Reader's Guide: Beginnings to Confederation. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-6826-2.
- Primary sources
- Reid, J.H.Stewart ed.; et al. (1959). A Source-book of Canadian History: Selected Documents and Personal Papers. Longmans Canada.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Canada Year Book (CYB) annual 1867–1967
- Events of National Historic Significance
- National Historic Sites of Canada
- Persons of National Historic Significance in Canada[permanent dead link]
- The Dictionary of Canadian Biography
- Canada`` – UCB Libraries GovPubs
- Canadian Studies – Guide to the Sources
- The Historica-Dominion Institute