Timeline of Canadian history
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This is a brief timeline of the history of Canada, comprising important social, economic, political, military, legal, and territorial changes and events in Canada and its predecessor states.
|to 14,000 BCE||At some unknown time prior to this date, Paleo-Indians moved across the Beringia land bridge from eastern Siberia into northwest North America, settling in some areas of Alaska and the Yukon, but are blocked from further travel south into the continent by extensive glaciation.|
|14,000 BCE||Glaciers that covered Canada began melting, allowing Paleo-Indians to move south and east into Canada and beyond.|
|3,000–2,000 BCE||The Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands begin to cultivate different types of squash.|||
|3,000 BCE||Paleo-Eskimos begin to settle the Arctic regions of North America from Siberia.|||
|796 CE||Council of Three Fires (also known as the Three Fires Confederacy) is formed.|||
|1000||A short-lived Norse settlement is founded at L'Anse aux Meadows. It is possibly connected with the attempted colony of Vinland, established by Leif Erikson around the same period or, more broadly, with Norse exploration of the Americas.|||
|1142||31 August||The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the League of Peace and Power) is formed.|||
|1497||24 June||Navigator John Cabot claims Newfoundland for England.|||
|1534||24 July||Explorer Jacques Cartier claims the Gaspé Peninsula for France.|||
|1608||3 July||Quebec City founded, becoming the capital of New France.|||
|1634||4 July||Trois-Rivières founded, becoming the second permanent settlement in New France.|||
|1666||First census of North America released.|||
|1670||2 May||Hudson's Bay Company formed creating a monopoly over the region (Rupert's Land).|||
|1701||4 August||The Great Peace of Montreal, between New France and 40 First Nations, is finalized.|||
|1713||11 April||The War of the Spanish Succession is ended by the Treaty of Utrecht. France cedes Acadia to Great Britain and renounces claims to some British territories in Canada, as well as its claim to a monopoly of trade with the indigenous population.|||
|1763||10 February||The Seven Years' War is ended by the Treaty of Paris. France cedes New France to Great Britain.|||
|1791||The Constitutional Act of 1791 divides the Province of Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada (modern-day Ontario and Quebec).|||
|1813||21–22 June||During the War of 1812, Laura Secord learns of an American plan to launch a surprise attack on British forces and walks 20 miles to warn the defenders. The British defeat the American invaders at the Battle of Beaver Dams on 24 June.|||
|1867||1 July||The British North America Act, 1867, divides the Province of Canada into Ontario and Quebec and joins them with New Brunswick and Nova Scotia to form a confederated state called the Dominion of Canada.|||
|1869–1870||11 October–12 May||A group of Métis led by Louis Riel mount the Red River Rebellion against Canadian intrusion and form the Red River Colony. The Canadian government regains control after acceding to many of Riel's demands, but he flees into exile in the United States after the government refused to grant him amnesty.|||
|1870||12 May||In the aftermath of the Red River Rebellion, Manitoba is formed from portions of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory, becoming Canada's fifth province. Land rights are granted to the Métis.|||
|1871||20 July||British Columbia enters Confederation as the sixth province.|||
|1873||1 July||Prince Edward Island enters Confederation as the seventh province.|||
|1885||26 March–3 June||Several hundred Catholic Francophone Métis led by Louis Riel and supported by Cree fighters mount the North-West Rebellion and establish the Provisional Government of Saskatchewan. Riel is captured at the Battle of Batoche (9–12 May), tried for treason, and hung on 16 November 1885. Francophones bitterly denounce the sentence and Canada becomes deeply polarized along ethno-religious lines.|||
|7 November||The transcontinental Canadian Pacific Railroad, then the longest in the world, is completed.|||
|1905||1 September||Alberta and Saskatchewan are partitioned out of the Northwest Territories to become the eighth and ninth provinces of Canada.|||
|1910||4 May||Royal Canadian Navy is established.|||
|1914||4 August||Great Britain declares war on Germany, bringing Canada into the First World War.|||
|1917||9–12 April||The four divisions of the Canadian Expeditionary Force fight together for the first time in the Battle of Vimy Ridge, which becomes celebrated as a national symbol of achievement and sacrifice and a formative milestone in the development of Canada's national identity.|||
|6 December||An explosion caused by an accidental collision between two merchant ships, one filled with explosives for the war, occurs in Halifax Harbour, resulting in 2000 people dead and 9000 injured.|||
|1918||24 May||Women gain the right to vote in federal elections.|||
|19 September||Canadian Air Force (after 1920, Royal Canadian Air Force) is established.|||
|1919||Canada sends a delegation to the Paris Peace Talks, the conference resolving war issues. Canada signs the Versailles treaty as part of the British Empire, with parliament's approval.|||
|1920||Canada is admitted as a full member of the League of Nations, independently of Britain. It joins the League Council (governing board) in 1927. Canada plays a minor role and opposes sanctions or military action by the League. The League is virtually defunct by 1939.|||
|1926||25 June–14 September||A constitutional crisis, known as the King-Byng Affair, is precipitated when Governor General Byng refused Prime Minister King's request to dissolve parliament and call an election, instead asking opposition leader Meighen to form a government, which in turn was quickly defeated. King framed the dispute as one of Britain, represented by the Governor General, interfering with Canadian affairs. Consequently, the affair played a role in the Balfour Declaration of 1926, in which each Dominion of the British Empire was declared to be of equal status with Britain.|||
|1927||25 November||Canada appoints Vincent Massey as its first fully accredited envoy to a foreign capital.|||
|1929||1929 - 1939||Great Depression in Canada begins, resulting in widespread poverty and unemployment for the next decade.|||
|1931||11 December||The Statute of Westminster 1931 is enacted in Britain, officially ending the power of the British parliament to pass and nullify laws in a Dominion without the Dominion's request and consent. The statute formally recognized the de facto independence attained by Canada following the First World War.|||
|1939||10 September||Canada, with its parliament's support, enters the Second World War by declaring war on Germany, one week after Britain and France.|||
|1939||1939 - 1945||During the war, the government mobilizes Canadian money, supplies, and volunteers to support Britain while boosting the economy and maintaining home front morale. Canada plays a military role protecting convoys against German submarines and fighting the German Army in Western Europe, while helping to liberate the Netherlands.||
|1939-45||During the war Canada expands its small navy into the third largest in the world, after the U.S. and U.K. It had 363 ships and 100,000 sailors (of whom 6700 were women.)|||
|1945||24 October||Canada joins United Nations, seeking to play a world role as a "middle power", with interest in the UN Charter and in relief agencies.|||
|1949||31 March||Newfoundland enters Confederation as the tenth province following a pair of contentious referenda on whether the island should remain a British Crown Colony, become fully independent, or join Canada.|||
|1959||27 June||The Saint Lawrence Seaway, a joint project between Canada and the United States, is officially opened.|||
|1967||Canada celebrates its centennial.|||
|27 April||Expo 67 opens in Montreal and goes on to be considered most successful World's Fair of the 20th century and a landmark moment in Canadian history.|||
|1970||5 October||The government invokes the War Measures Act to apprehend the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ), a separatist paramilitary group in Quebec that was responsible for over 160 violent incidents that killed eight people and in October 1970 had kidnapped a British official (later released) and Quebec labour minister Pierre Laporte, who they killed. The FLQ collapses.|||
|1980||20 May||A referendum on Quebec independence is held, resulting in a majority (59.56%) of the province voting to remain in Canada.|||
|1982||17 April||Canada achieves total independence from Great Britain with the enactment of the Constitution Act, 1982 (which includes the Charter of Rights and Freedoms), by royal proclamation.|||
|1995||30 October||Another referendum on Quebec independence is held. A majority (50.58%) of the province votes to remain in Canada.|||
|2005||20 July||The Civil Marriage Act legalizes same-sex marriage throughout Canada.|||
- History of Canada
- Historiography of Canada
- Events of National Historic Significance (Canada)
- List of years in Canada
- Heritage Minutes
- National Historic Sites of Canada
- Persons of National Historic Significance
- Timeline of Ontario history
- Timeline of Quebec history
- List of Canadian monarchs
- List of Governors General of Canada
- List of Prime Ministers of Canada
- List of years by country
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- Wynn, Graeme (2007). Canada And Arctic North America: An Environmental History. ABC-CLIO. p. 20. ISBN 978-1-85109-437-0.
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Laurel Sefton MacDowell (2012). An Environmental History of Canada. UBC Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-7748-2104-9.
Guy Gugliotta (February 2013). "When Did Humans Come to the Americas?". Smithsonian Magazine (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution). Retrieved June 25, 2015.
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- Emory Dean Keoke; Kay Marie Porterfield (2009). Encyclopedia of American Indian Contributions to the World: 15,000 Years of Inventions and Innovations. Infobase Publishing. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-4381-0990-9.
- Mark M. Jarzombek (2014). Architecture of First Societies: A Global Perspective. MIT - John Wiley & Sons. p. 331. ISBN 978-1-118-42105-5.
- James B. Minahan (2013). Ethnic Groups of the Americas: An Encyclopedia: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 271. ISBN 978-1-61069-164-2.
- Linda S. Cordell; Kent Lightfoot; Francis McManamon; George Milner (30 December 2008). Archaeology in America: An Encyclopedia: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 82–. ISBN 978-0-313-02189-3.
- Axel Kristinsson (2010). Expansions: Competition and Conquest in Europe Since the Bronze Age. ReykjavíkurAkademían. p. 216. ISBN 978-9979-9922-1-9.
- Jordan E. Kerber (2007). Archaeology of the Iroquois: Selected Readings and Research Sources. Syracuse University Press. p. 388. ISBN 978-0-8156-3139-2.
- Roger E. Riendeau (2007). A Brief History of Canada. Infobase Publishing. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-4381-0822-3.
- Alan Gordon (2010). The Hero and the Historians: Historiography and the Uses of Jacques Cartier. UBC Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-7748-5920-2.
- Rene Chartrand (2013). French Fortresses in North America 1535-1763: Quebec, Montreal, Louisbourg and New Orleans. Osprey Publishing. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-4728-0317-7.
- David B. Knight (1991). Choosing Canada's Capital: Conflict Resolution In a Parliamentary System. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-88629-148-8.
- "Censuses of Canada 1665 to 1871: Jean Talon". Statistics Canada. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
- Elle Andra-Warner (2011). Hudson's Bay Company Adventures: Tales of Canada's Fur Traders. Heritage House. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-926613-14-7.
- Colin G. Calloway (2013). Treaties and Treaty Making in American Indian History. Oxford University Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-19-998686-6.
- Saliha Belmessous (2011). Native Claims: Indigenous Law Against Empire, 1500-1920. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-19-979485-0.
- Spencer C. Tucker (2014). The Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Early American Republic, 1783–1812: A Political, Social, and Military History [3 volumes]: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 782. ISBN 978-1-59884-157-2.
- Terry A. Crowley (2015). Canadian History: Pre-Colonization to 1867 Essentials. Research & Education Assoc. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-7386-7205-2.
- Bonikowsky, Laura Nielson (2011-03-24), Laura Secord, The Canadian Encyclopedia, retrieved 2015-10-27
- Gillmor & Turgeon 2000, p. 277
- Christopher Moore, 1867: How the Fathers Made a Deal (2011)
- Gillmor & Turgeon 2000, pp. 284–287
- Gillmor & Turgeon 2000, p. 287
- W. George Shelton, ed. British Columbia & Confederation (1967)
- Francis Bolger, "Prince Edward Island and Confederation" CCHA, Report, 28 (1961), 25-30 online
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- George F.G. Stanley, Louis Riel: Patriot or Rebel? Canadian Historical Association Booklet No. 2 (1979) online
- Canadian Pacific Facts and Figures. Canadian Pacific Foundation Library. 1946. p. 15.
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- Richard H. Gimblett (2009). The Naval Service of Canada, 1910-2010: The Centennial Story. Dundurn. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-4597-1322-2.
- David MacKenzie (2015). Canada and the First World War: Essays in Honour of Robert Craig Brown. University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division. p. 174. ISBN 978-1-4426-5879-0.
- Inglis 1995, p. 2
- Janet F. Kitz, Shattered city: the Halifax explosion & the road to recovery (Nimbus, 2008.)
- Cleverdon, Catherine (1974). The woman suffrage movement in Canada: The Start of Liberation, 1900-20 (2 ed.). Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 9780802021083.
- Parliament of Canada. "Women's Right to Vote in Canada". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
- Sydney F. Wise (1980). The Official History of the Royal Canadian Air Force: Canadian airmen and the first world war. University of Toronto Press. p. ix. ISBN 978-0-8020-2379-7.
- Alan Bowker (2014). A Time Such as There Never Was Before: Canada After the Great War. Dundurn. pp. 28–29.
- Anique H. M. van Ginneken (2006). Historical Dictionary of the League of Nations. p. 54.
- Tattrie, Jon (2013-07-30), King-Byng Affair, The Canadian Encyclopedia, retrieved 2015-11-03
- Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. "About the Department > Canadian Heads of Posts Abroad from 1880 > Massey, Hon. Vincent (Non-career)". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 15 March 2009.
- Pierre Berton (2012). The Great Depression: 1929-1939. Doubleday Canada. pp. 9–11. ISBN 978-0-307-37486-8.
- Giving Canada its own voice, Government of Canada, retrieved 2015-11-03
- Jack L. Granatstein, and Robert Bothwell, "‘A self‐evident national duty’: Canadian foreign policy, 1935–1939." The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 3#2 (1975): 212-233.
- Tim Cook, Warlords: Borden Mackenzie King And Canada's World Wars (2012)
- Jeffrey A. Keshen, Saints, Sinners, and Soldiers: Canada's Second World War (2004)
- J.L. Granatstein, The last good war: An illustrated history of Canada in the Second World War, 1939-1945 (2005)
- Spencer Tucker (2011). World War II at Sea: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 142.
- Adam Chapnick, The middle power project: Canada and the founding of the United Nations (UBC Press, 2007)
- Gillmor 2001, pp. 222–223
- St. Lawrence Seaway opening, CBC, retrieved 20 November 2015
- Peter H Aykroyd (1992). The Anniversary Compulsion: Canada's Centennial Celebrations, A Model Mega-Anniversary. Dundurn. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-55488-307-3.
- "The Most Successful World Fair—Expo 67", Voices of East Anglia, retrieved 20 November 2015
- Tu Thanh Ha (26 April 2007). "Expo 67 Saw 'The World Coming To Us, In A Joyous Fashion'". The Globe and Mail. p. A3. Archived from the original on September 5, 2007. Retrieved 24 August 2009.
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- Anne F. Bayefsky (2000). Self-determination in International Law: Quebec and Lessons Learned : Legal Opinions. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 5. ISBN 90-411-1154-9.
- Joel Krieger; Margaret E. Crahan (2001). The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 105. ISBN 978-0-19-511739-4.
- John Courtney; David Smith (2010). The Oxford Handbook of Canadian Politics. OUP USA. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-19-533535-4.
- Edward Hedican (2012). Social Anthropology: Canadian Perspectives on Culture and Society. Canadian Scholars’ Press. p. 130. ISBN 978-1-55130-407-6.
Main article: Bibliography of Canadian history
- Francis, RD; Jones, Richard; Smith, Donald B (2009). Journeys: A History of Canada. Nelson Education. ISBN 978-0-17-644244-6.
- Crowley, Terence Allan; Terry Crowley; Rae Murphy (1993). The Essentials of Canadian History: Pre-colonization to 1867—the Beginning of a Nation. Research & Education Assoc. ISBN 978-0-7386-7205-2.
- Felske, Lorry William; Beverly Jean Rasporich (2004). Challenging Frontiers: the Canadian West. University of Calgary Press. ISBN 978-1-55238-140-3.
- Hill, Brian H. W. Canada, 875-1973: A Chronology and Fact Book (1973)
- Lower, Arthur R. M. (1958). Canadians in the Making: A Social History of Canada. Longmans, Green.
- Morton, Desmond (2001). A short history of Canada. McClelland & Stewart Limited. ISBN 978-0-7710-6509-5.
- Morton, Desmond (1999). A Military History of Canada : from Champlain to Kosovo. McClelland & Stewart Limited. ISBN 978-0-7710-6514-9.
- Norrie, Kenneth, Douglas Owram and J.C. Herbert Emery. (2002) A History of the Canadian Economy (4th ed. 2007)
- Riendeau, Roger E. (2007). A Brief History of Canada. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4381-0822-3.
- Taylor, Martin Brook; Owram, Doug (1994). Canadian History. 1 & 2. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-5016-8, ISBN 978-0-8020-2801-3
- Taylor, Martin Brook; Douglas Owram (1994). Canadian History: A Reader's Guide: Beginnings to Confederation. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-6826-2.
- Primary sources
- Reid, J.H.Stewart ed.; et al. (1959). A Source-book of Canadian History: Selected Documents and Personal Papers. Longmans Canada.
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