Timeline of Canadian history

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This is a brief timeline of the history of Canada, comprising important social, economic, political, military, legal, and territorial changes and events in Canada and its predecessor states.

Prehistory[edit]

Year Date Event Ref.
to 14,000 BCE At some unknown time prior to this date, Paleo-Indians moved across the Beringia land bridge from eastern Siberia into northwest North America, settling in some areas of Alaska and the Yukon,[1] but are blocked from further travel south into the continent by extensive glaciation.[2][3]
14,000 BCE Glaciers that covered Canada began melting, allowing Paleo-Indians to move south and east into Canada and beyond. [4]
3,000–2,000 BCE The Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands begin to cultivate different types of squash. [5]
3,000 BCE Paleo-Eskimos begin to settle the Arctic regions of North America from Siberia. [6]

8th century[edit]

Year Date Event Ref.
796 CE Council of Three Fires (also known as the Three Fires Confederacy) was formed. [7]

10th century[edit]

Year Date Event Ref.
900 A short-lived Norse settlement is founded at L'Anse aux Meadows. It is possibly connected with the attempted colony of Vinland, established by Leif Erikson around the same period or, more broadly, with Norse exploration of the Americas. [8][9]

12th century[edit]

Year Date Event Ref.
1142 31 August The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the League of Peace and Power) is formed. [10]

15th century[edit]

Year Date Event Ref.
1497 24 June Genoese navigator John Cabot lands the Matthew of Bristol somewhere on the northern Atlantic coast of North America, claiming the land for England by the Doctrine of discovery. The precise location of Cabot's landing is widely debated but generally believed to be on Newfoundland, already inhabited by the Beothuk people [11]

16th century[edit]

Year Date Event Ref.
1534 24 July Explorer Jacques Cartier claims the Gaspé Peninsula, already inhabited by Indigenous St. Lawrence Iroquoians, for France under the Doctrine of Discovery. He returns to France with two Iroquois captives. [12]
1583 Explorer Humphrey Gilbert lands in present-day St. John's and lays claim to the island of Newfoundland for the Kingdom of England under the Doctrine of Discovery. He dies at sea and permanent settlement by the British had to await better planned attempts. [13]

17th century[edit]

Year Date Event Ref.
1605 French colonists under Samuel de Champlain establish the first permanent European settlement in the future Canada at Port-Royal, founding the colony that would become known as Acadia. [14]
1608 3 July Quebec City founded by Champlain, becoming the capital of New France. [15]
1634 4 July Trois-Rivières founded, becoming the second permanent settlement in New France. [16]
1642 17 May Fort Ville-Marie -(Old Montreal) founded with the majority of immigrants coming directly from France led by Paul de Chomedey and Jeanne Mance, a lay woman. [17]
1666 First census of North America released. [18]
1670 2 May Hudson's Bay Company formed. It has an exclusive charter for trade in the Hudson's Bay watershed region known as Rupert's Land. The company administers the new colony on behalf of the King. [19]
1690 16-24 October The Battle of Québec was fought between the colonies of New France and Massachusetts Bay, then ruled by the kingdoms of France and England, respectively. It was the first time Québec's defences were tested, with the new Englander's hoping to seize Québec, then the capital of New France. [20]

18th century[edit]

Year Date Event Ref.
1701 4 August The Great Peace of Montreal, between New France and 39 First Nations, is finalized. [21]
1710 In the Siege of Port Royal, the capital of Acadia falls to the British, defeating the French garrison and their Wabanaki Confederacy Indigenous allies. This begins an expansion into present-day Nova Scotia by the British. [22]
1713 11 April The War of the Spanish Succession is ended by the Treaty of Utrecht. France cedes the territory of Acadia to Great Britain and renounces claims to some British territories in Canada, as well as its claim to a monopoly of trade with the Indigenous population, but retains control of Île Royale colony (present-day Cape Breton Island and Prince Edward Island). [23]
1717 The Indigenous settlement of Kanesatake is founded at the confluence of the St.Lawrence and Ottawa rivers. It is founded by the Sulpician Order under a royal charter as a home for Catholic converts of the Indigenous peoples of the region, including the Mohawk. The lands' ownership becomes disputed between the Order and the Indigenous residents over the original land grant and title. The settlement would later be the location of the Oka Crisis. The land remains disputed. [24]
1749 21 June Halifax is founded and settled by the British, marking the first time that public rather than private capital was used to settle a British colony in the Americas. The Indigenous Mi'kmaq consider Britain's unilateral action as a violation of treaties signed after Father Rale's War in 1726, starting Father Le Loutre's War. British colonists would drive French and Mi'kmaq inhabitants from peninsular Nova Scotia but are repelled from Acadian settlements further north (present-day New Brunswick). [25][26][20]
1755 11 August British Brigadier-General Charles Lawrence orders the Expulsion of the Acadians. Over the next decade an estimated 11,400 French Catholics are deported to the Thirteen Colonies and Europe. Many settle in Louisiana. [27]
1758 8 June – 26 July The French naval fortress at Louisbourg is sieged for a second time by the British, having been returned to the French after a previous occupation in 1745. After being used to stage attacks on French Canada the following year, British soldiers reduce the fortress to rubble to prevent its return to the French a second time. [28][29]
1759 13 September A three-month British siege of Quebec City culminates in the pivotal Battle of the Plains of Abraham just outside the city's walls. Both the British and French commanders are killed in the battle. Following a decisive British victory, the French evacuate the city. [30]
1760-1761 10 March 1760 – 12 October 1761 The Halifax Treaties are signed between the Wabanaki Confederacy and the British Crown to end warring between the Indigenous peoples of the Maritimes and the British. One by one, various First Nations signed treaties to pledge "peace and friendship" with the British. The issue of aboriginal title is not covered in the treaties. [31]
1763 10 February The Seven Years' War is ended by the Treaty of Paris. France cedes New France to Great Britain, its colony Canada becoming the British Province of Quebec, and its remaining maritime colonies annexed by Nova Scotia. [32]
7 October The Royal Proclamation of 1763 is issued by King George III, forbidding settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains, which was delineated as an Indian Reserve. The document is the first to recognize aboriginal title, a right included in the Canadian Constitution. Its banning of settlements west of the 13 British Colonies would eventually become one of the factors inciting the American Revolution. [33]
1769 14 July St. John's Island is partitioned from Nova Scotia, becoming a separate colony from the mainland. The colony is renamed Prince Edward Island in 1798. [34]
1774 Quebec Act of 1774 is passed by the Parliament of Great Britain outlining how the Province of Quebec would be governed as colony, in an attempt to address damage to the economy/society of Quebec. Old boundaries were restored, free practice of Catholicism was guaranteed, and property and civil laws were to be decided according to traditional Canadian laws (thus preserving the Seigneurial system of New France for land ownership), with other matters of law left to English Common Law. The province was left to be governed by a legislative council, with no provision for an elected assembly. [20]
1775 The Invasion of Quebec and the Battle of Quebec take place, during the American Revolutionary War against Great Britain. These became a failed attempt at seizing military control of the British Province of Quebec and convince the French-speaking Canadiens to join the revolution on the side of the Thirteen Colonies. [20]
1782-1783 A preliminary peace treaty between Great Britain and the United States of America is signed. Citing one of the clauses, General George Washington insisted on the return of any present or former slaves. As part of documenting and evacuation of former slaves to British North America, the Book of Negroes was compiled in New York City. Enslaved Africans in America who escaped to the British during the American Revolutionary War became the first settlement of Black Nova Scotians and Black Canadians. [20]
1783 3 September The Treaty of Paris (1783) was signed by representatives of King George III of Great Britain and representatives of the United States of America on September 3, 1783, officially ending the American Revolutionary War. The treaty set the boundaries between the British Empire in North America and the United States of America. Details included fishing rights and restoration of property and prisoners of war. [35]
1784 22 May Over 3,000,000 acres (1,200,000 ha) of land is purchased by the British Crown from the Mississaugas of the Credit First Nation in present-day Ontario for £1180.00 [36]
18 June New Brunswick and Cape Breton Island are partitioned from Nova Scotia, becoming separate colonies. Cape Breton re-joins Nova Scotia in 1820. [37]
25 October Under the terms of the Haldimand Proclamation, 550,000 acres (220,000 ha) of the lands purchased from the Mississaugas is granted to the Mohawks and the other Five Nations of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy. The land is a tract extending 6 miles (9.7 km) on either side of the Grand River from source to mouth. However, it is later determined that the head of the Grand River was outside of the lands purchased from the Mississaugas. In 1792, Governor Simcoe unilaterally reduces the land grant to 270,000 acres (110,000 ha). Later land sales, government actions, and the creation of the Six Nations of the Grand River reserve would reduce the lands under Indigneous possession to a small fraction of the original grant. The land grant and its management is the basis of the Grand River land dispute between the Six Nations and Canada.
1791 The Constitutional Act of 1791 divides the Province of Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada (modern-day Ontario and Quebec). [38]

19th century[edit]

Year Date Event Ref.
1811 Settlement began of the Red River Colony, a 300,000 square kilometres (120,000 sq mi; five times that of Scotland) area, by Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk via a land grant from the Hudson's Bay Company, of which he was a part-owner. The territory later became part of Manitoba and the Missouri Territory. [20]
1813 21–22 June During the War of 1812, Laura Secord learns of an American plan to launch a surprise attack on British forces and walks 20 miles to warn the defenders. The British defeat the American invaders at the Battle of Beaver Dams on 24 June. [39]
1818 20 October The London Convention is signed, setting the boundary between the United States and British North America to the 49th parallel from the Northwest Angle in Minnesota west to the continental divide of the Rocky Mountains, and establishing joint control of the Oregon Country. [40]
1821 Merger of Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company ending the Pemmican War, a series of armed skirmishes between the rival fur trading companies. As part of the merger, the monopoly of HBC is extended north to the Arctic Ocean and west to the Pacific Ocean. [41]: 369–370 
1829 6 June Shanawdithit, the last known full-blooded member of the Beothuk people native to Newfoundland, dies; she was about 29 years old. [42]
1841 10 February Under the terms of the Act of Union 1840, the British colonies of Lower Canada and Upper Canada are merged into the single Province of Canada. [43]
1846 15 June The Oregon boundary dispute is settled with the signing of the Oregon Treaty, extending the boundary between British North America and the United States along the 49th parallel from the Rocky Mountains to the Juan de Fuca Strait, and defining the maritime boundary to the Pacific Ocean. [44]
1850 7 September, 9 September The Robinson Treaties are signed between the Ojibwa and the British Crown, surrendering the northern shores of Lake Superior and Lake Huron for £2,160 and an annual payment of £600. [45][46]
1854 13 October The Surrender of the Saugeen Peninsula is signed between the Chippewa and the Crown, surrendering the lands of the Saugeen Peninsula (Bruce Peninsula) in Canada West in exchange for reserves and interest on the sale of the surrendered lands.
1862 18 March The first case of the 1862 Pacific Northwest smallpox epidemic is reported in Victoria, British Columbia. It spreads widely amongst the Indigenous populations, killing an estimated 20,000 or 2/3 of the Indigenous population. [47]
1864 1 – 9 September The Charlottetown Conference, the first of several meetings to discuss a Maritime Union and Canadian Confederation, is held in Charlottetown. [48]
1867 1 July The British North America Act, 1867, divides the Province of Canada into Ontario and Quebec and joins them with New Brunswick and Nova Scotia to form a confederated state called the Dominion of Canada. [49][50]
1869–1870 11 October–12 May A group of Métis led by Louis Riel mount the Red River Rebellion against Canadian intrusion and in the Red River Colony. The Canadian government regains control after acceding to many of Riel's demands, but he flees into exile in the United States after the government refused to grant him amnesty. [51]
1870 15 July

Concluding a series of agreements between Canada, the United Kingdom, and the Hudson's Bay Company, Canada acquires Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory, forming the Northwest Territories. In the aftermath of the Red River Rebellion, Manitoba is subdivided from the new territory in the area around Winnipeg, becoming Canada's fifth province. Land rights are granted to the Métis.

[52][53]
1871 20 July The colonies of British Columbia and Vancouver Island amalgamate and then enter Confederation as the Province of British Columbia, Canada's sixth province. [54]
3 August Treaty 1 is signed between the Chippewa and Swampy Cree First Nations and the Crown surrendering lands in Manitoba [55]
21 August Treaty 2 is signed between the Chippewa Cree First Nation and the Crown surrendering lands in Manitoba and Saskatchewan [55]
1873 23 May The North-West Mounted Police is established to enforce Canadian sovereignty of the Northwest Territories. [56]
1 July Prince Edward Island enters Confederation as the seventh province. [57]
3 October Treaty 3 is signed between the Ojibwe First Nations and the Canadian Crown, surrendering lands in Northwestern Ontario (present-day) and Manitoba [58]
1874 15 September Treaty 4 is signed between the Cree First Nations and the Crown of Canada, surrendering lands in present-day Saskatchewan, Alberta and Manitoba. [59]
1875 20 September Treaty 5 is signed between the Saulteaux and Swampy Cree First Nations and the Canadian Crown, surrendering lands in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Ontario. [60]
1876 12 April The Indian Act is passed. The Act updates previous legislation of the Province of Canada addressing the relationship between the Government of Canada and officially recognized First Nations. It establishes official definitions of "Indian status" and defines Indigenous government. [61]
23, 28 August, 9 September Treaty 6 is signed between the Plain and Wood Cree First Nations and the Canadian Crown, surrendering lands in present-day Alberta and Saskatchewan. [62]
1877 22 September Treaty 7 is signed by the Nakoda and Blackfoot First Nations and the Canadian Crown, surrendering lands in southern present-day Alberta. [63]
1880 1 September The British Arctic Territories are ceded to Canada, becoming part of the Northwest Territories. [64]
1885 26 March – 3 June Several hundred Catholic Francophone Métis led by Louis Riel and supported by Cree fighters mount the North-West Rebellion and establish the Provisional Government of Saskatchewan. Riel is captured at the Battle of Batoche (9–12 May), tried for treason, and hanged on 16 November 1885. Francophones bitterly denounce the sentence and Canada becomes deeply polarized along ethno-religious lines. [65][66]
7 November The transcontinental Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR), then the longest in the world, is completed. [67]
1896 16 August Gold is discovered in the Klondike region of the Yukon Territory, sparking the Klondike Gold Rush. Tens of thousands flood into the Klondike region during 1897 and 1898. [68]
1899 8 July Treaty 8 is signed by the Cree, Beaver, Chipewyan First Nations and the Canadian Crown, surrendering 840,000 square kilometres (320,000 sq mi) of lands in present-day British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan. [69]

20th century[edit]

Year Date Event Ref.
1903 The United Kingdom and the United States settle the Alaska boundary dispute on the border with British Columbia. Canadians are disappointed by the lack of a sea-water port to connect to the Yukon. [70][71]
1905 1 September Alberta and Saskatchewan are partitioned out of the Northwest Territories to become the eighth and ninth provinces of Canada. [72]
6 November Treaty 9 is signed by the Anishinaabe (Algonquin and Ojibway) and Omushkegowuk Cree communities and the Crown, surrendering land in Northern Ontario and Northwestern Quebec to James Bay [73]
1906 28 August Treaty 10 is signed between several First Nations, including the Cree and Chipewyan, and the Crown, surrendering 220,000 square kilometres (85,000 sq mi) in northern Saskatchewan and Alberta. Additional nations signed on later in 1906 and 1907. [74]
1910 4 May Royal Canadian Navy is established. [75]
1914 4 August Great Britain declares war on Germany, bringing Canada into the First World War. [76]
1917 9–12 April The four divisions of the Canadian Expeditionary Force fight together for the first time in the Battle of Vimy Ridge, which becomes celebrated as a national symbol of achievement and sacrifice and a formative milestone in the development of Canada's national identity. [77]
6 December An explosion caused by an accidental collision between two merchant ships, one filled with explosives for the war, occurs in Halifax Harbour, resulting in 2000 people dead and 9000 injured. [78]
1918 1 April Prohibition in Canada enacted federally by an Order in Council. [79]
24 May Women gain the right to vote in federal elections. [80][81]
19 September Canadian Air Force (after 1920, Royal Canadian Air Force) is established. [82]
1919 Canada sends a delegation to the Paris Peace Talks, the conference resolving war issues. Canada signs the Versailles treaty as part of the British Empire, with parliament's approval. [83]
Prohibition in Canada ends federally. [84]
1920 Canada is admitted as a full member of the League of Nations, independently of Britain. It joins the League Council (governing board) in 1927. Canada plays a minor role and opposes sanctions or military action by the League. The League is virtually defunct by 1939. [85]
1921 27 June 1921 until 22 August 1921 Treaty 11, the last of the Numbered Treaties, is signed by the Slavey, Dogrib, Loucheux, Hare First Nations and the Canadian Crown. It covers a region within the Northwest Territories. [86]
1926 25 June – 14 September A constitutional crisis, known as the King-Byng Affair, is precipitated when Governor General Byng refused Prime Minister King's request to dissolve parliament and call an election, instead asking opposition leader Meighen to form a government, which in turn was quickly defeated. King framed the dispute as one of Britain, represented by the Governor General, interfering with Canadian affairs. Consequently, the affair played a role in the Balfour Declaration of 1926, in which each Dominion of the British Empire was declared to be of equal status with Britain. [87]
1927 25 November Canada appoints Vincent Massey as its first fully accredited envoy to a foreign capital. [88]
1929 1929 - 1939 Great Depression in Canada begins, resulting in widespread poverty and unemployment for the next decade. [89]
1931 11 December The Statute of Westminster 1931 is enacted in Britain, officially ending the power of the British parliament to pass and nullify laws in a Dominion without the Dominion's request and consent. The statute formally recognized the de facto independence attained by Canada following the First World War. [90]
1939 10 September Canada, with its parliament's support, enters the Second World War by declaring war on Germany. The Dominion of Newfoundland had entered the war as a British colony upon the United Kingdom's declaration of war one week earlier. [91][92]
1939 1939 - 1945 During the war, the government mobilizes Canadian money, supplies, and volunteers to support Britain while boosting the economy and maintaining home front morale. Canada plays a military role protecting convoys against German submarines and fighting the German Army in Western Europe, while helping to liberate the Netherlands. Canada expands its small navy into the third largest in the world, after the U.S. and U.K. It had 363 ships and 100,000 sailors (of whom 6700 were women.) [93][94]
[95][96]
1945 9 November Canada joins the United Nations, seeking to play a world role as a "middle power", with interest in the UN Charter and in relief agencies. [97]
1947 1 January The Canadian Citizenship Act, 1946 comes into force creating a new, separate, Canadian legal citizenship for all British subjects born, raised, or resident in Canada and automatic citizenship for all those born in Canada after this date. [98][99]
1949 31 March Newfoundland, the last British colony in North America, enters Confederation as the tenth province following a pair of contentious referenda on whether the island should remain a British Crown Colony, become fully independent, or join Canada. [100]
1959 27 June The Saint Lawrence Seaway, a joint project between Canada and the United States, is officially opened. [101]
1960 1 July First Nations people are granted the right to vote in federal elections without having to give up their status and treaty rights. [102]
1965 15 February Canada adopts the maple leaf for the national flag.
1967 27 April Expo 67 opens in Montreal and goes on to be considered most successful World's Fair of the 20th century and a landmark moment in Canadian history.
1970 5 October The government invokes the War Measures Act to apprehend the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ), a separatist paramilitary group in Quebec that was responsible for over 160 violent incidents that killed eight people and in October 1970 had kidnapped a British official (later released) and Quebec labour minister Pierre Laporte, who they killed. The FLQ collapses. [103]
1973 31 January The Supreme Court of Canada rules in the Calder v British Columbia (AG) case that aboriginal title existed prior to the existence of the colonial government and was not a matter of Canadian law alone. The case recognized Nisga'a Nation aboriginal title. The ruling would lead the Government of Canada to update its land claims negotiation process. [104]
15 November The Quebec Superior Court blocks the James Bay Hydroelectric Project by ruling that the Indigenous peoples of the region had not extinguished their aboriginal title to the lands and that Quebec and Canada must negotiate for such title in order to build the project. The final accord is signed 11 November 1975 by Canada, Quebec, Hydro-Quebec and the Cree of Quebec. The treaty becomes enshrined in the 1982 Canadian Constitution. [105]
1980 20 May A referendum on Quebec independence is held, resulting in a majority (59.56%) of the province voting to remain in Canada. [106]
1981 Workers in British Columbia Telephone take over all of the provinces telephone exchanges for five days and run them under workers' control. [107]
1982 17 April The enactment of the Constitution Act, 1982, by royal proclamation. Canada achieves total independence from Great Britain through Patriation of its Constitution. The Constitution includes the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, guaranteeing individual human rights. The Act also guarantees all treaty rights of Indigenous peoples in Canada. The Government of Quebec refuses to sign the deal and attempts to veto the Act; the Supreme Court of Canada rules that Quebec's assent is not required. [108][109]
1987 3 June The Meech Lake Accord is signed by all ten provincial premiers and Prime Minister Brian Mulroney. The accord is intended to grant further powers to all provinces and grant distinct society status to Quebec, which had opposed the repatriation of the Canadian Constitution. The Accord is not ratified by all provincial parliaments within the required three years, heightening national unity tensions.
1989 January 1 The Canada–United States Free Trade Agreement comes into force. Under the agreement, the countries start to reduce or eliminate trade barriers between the two countries. [110]
1990 11 July – 26 September The Oka Crisis occurs as Indigenous Mohawk activists protest the construction of a golf course on a burial ground, barricading roads and the Mercier Bridge. In August, after a series of violent standoffs between protesters and the Sûreté du Québec (SQ, Quebec's provincial police) which led to the death of one officer, Premier Robert Bourassa requests aid from the Canadian Armed Forces. In September, facing military invasion of their community, the protesters surrender and many leaders are arrested. Construction of the golf course is later cancelled. [111]
1992 28 August The Charlottetown Accord, a second attempt to settle constitutional grievances, is agreed to by leaders of all provincial governments and the federal government and Indigenous groups. However, a 26 October national referendum on the accord is defeated. [112]
1994 January 1 The North American Free Trade Agreement came into force, creating a free trade zone between Canada, Mexico and the United States, superseding the 1988 Canada-US Agreement. [113]
1995 18 August - 17 September Indigenous Shuswap and non-Indigenous supporters exchange fire with Royal Canadian Mounted Police officers after a British Columbia rancher attempts to evict them from land being used for a traditional ceremony, beginning the Gustafsen Lake standoff. After the largest and costliest paramilitary operation in the province's history, the Ts'peten Defenders surrender to police. [114][115]
4 September Members of an Indigenous Ojibwe band occupy Camp Ipperwash in southwestern Ontario, on land which had been expropriated from the band for a military base during World War II under the War Measures Act, setting off the Ipperwash Crisis. Two days later, unarmed Ojibwe protester Dudley George is shot and killed by an Ontario Provincial Police officer. The land is transferred to the Ojibwe, but agreements to remove ordinance on the site is not reached, leaving the site only partially habitable. [116]
30 October Another referendum on Quebec independence is held. A majority (50.58%) of the province votes to remain in Canada. [117]
1997 11 December The Delgamuukw v British Columbia decision is rendered by the Supreme Court of Canada, determining that aboriginal title had not been distinguished in British Columbia. This ended the decades-long refusal of the BC government to participate in land claims to settle with First Nations, claiming that aboriginal title had been extinguished. [118]
1999 1 April Nunavut is partitioned from the Northwest Territories to become Canada's third territory, following a series of plebiscites in 1982 and 1992, and establishment of the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement in 1993. [119]

21st century[edit]

Year Date Event Ref.
2005 20 July The Civil Marriage Act legalizes same-sex marriage throughout Canada. [120]
2008 1 June As part of the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) is established to document the history and lasting impacts of the Canadian Indian residential school system on Indigenous persons and their families. [121]
11 June In the House of Commons, Prime Minister Harper formally apologizes to the survivors of the Residential School System on behalf of the Government of Canada. [122]
2012 February Students in Quebec protest and stop proposed increases in university tuition. [123]
4 May The Royal Canadian Mint strikes the last Canadian penny. The coin is removed from circulation a few months later, though existing pennies remain legal tender. [124]
2018 17 October The Cannabis Act becomes law, making recreational cannabis use legal throughout the country. Canada is the second country (after Uruguay in 2013) to legalize recreational cannabis use nationwide. [125]
2020 7 January - March Widespread popular protests occur across Canada after the RCMP forcibly remove a peaceful protest blocking a pipeline construction project in British Columbia. The protests block several rail lines, forcing the shutdown of much of the Canadian rail network. [126]
2020 January 25 First presumptive case of COVID-19 is identified; a man who travelled in China. The COVID-19 pandemic spreads widely in Canada.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Goebel, Ted; Waters, Michael R.; O'Rourke, Dennis H. (2008). "The Late Pleistocene Dispersal of Modern Humans in the Americas" (PDF). Science. 319 (5869): 1497–502. Bibcode:2008Sci...319.1497G. doi:10.1126/science.1153569. PMID 18339930. S2CID 36149744. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 January 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2010.
  2. ^ Wynn, Graeme (2007). Canada And Arctic North America: An Environmental History. ABC-CLIO. p. 20. ISBN 978-1-85109-437-0. Archived from the original on 10 May 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
  3. ^ Jacques Cinq-Mars (2001). "The Significance of the Bluefish Caves in Beringian Prehistory". Hull: Canadian Museum of Civilization. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2015. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    Laurel Sefton MacDowell (2012). An Environmental History of Canada. UBC Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-7748-2104-9. Archived from the original on 23 April 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
    Guy Gugliotta (February 2013). "When Did Humans Come to the Americas?". Smithsonian Magazine. Archived from the original on 15 May 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  4. ^ Mark Nuttall (2012). Encyclopedia of the Arctic. Routledge. p. 238. ISBN 978-1-136-78680-8.
  5. ^ Emory Dean Keoke; Kay Marie Porterfield (2009). Encyclopedia of American Indian Contributions to the World: 15,000 Years of Inventions and Innovations. Infobase Publishing. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-4381-0990-9.
  6. ^ Mark M. Jarzombek (2014). Architecture of First Societies: A Global Perspective. MIT - John Wiley & Sons. p. 331. ISBN 978-1-118-42105-5.
  7. ^ James B. Minahan (2013). Ethnic Groups of the Americas: An Encyclopedia: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 271. ISBN 978-1-61069-164-2.
  8. ^ Linda S. Cordell; Kent Lightfoot; Francis McManamon; George Milner (30 December 2008). Archaeology in America: An Encyclopedia: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 82–. ISBN 978-0-313-02189-3. Archived from the original on 30 December 2016. Retrieved 6 October 2016.
  9. ^ Axel Kristinsson (2010). Expansions: Competition and Conquest in Europe Since the Bronze Age. ReykjavíkurAkademían. p. 216. ISBN 978-9979-9922-1-9. Archived from the original on 30 December 2016. Retrieved 6 October 2016.
  10. ^ Jordan E. Kerber (2007). Archaeology of the Iroquois: Selected Readings and Research Sources. Syracuse University Press. p. 388. ISBN 978-0-8156-3139-2.
  11. ^ Roger E. Riendeau (2007). A Brief History of Canada. Infobase Publishing. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-4381-0822-3.
  12. ^ Alan Gordon (2010). The Hero and the Historians: Historiography and the Uses of Jacques Cartier. UBC Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-7748-5920-2.
  13. ^ T., Cell, Gillian (1982). Newfoundland discovered : English attempts at colonisation, 1610-1630. Hakluyt Soc. ISBN 0-904180-13-1. OCLC 252245184.
  14. ^ Morton, Desmond (30 November 1999). Canada: A Millennium Portrait. Dundurn. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-4597-1085-6. Archived from the original on 18 January 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  15. ^ Rene Chartrand (2013). French Fortresses in North America 1535-1763: Quebec, Montreal, Louisbourg and New Orleans. Osprey Publishing. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-4728-0317-7.
  16. ^ David B. Knight (1991). Choosing Canada's Capital: Conflict Resolution In a Parliamentary System. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-88629-148-8.
  17. ^ Terence J. Fay (2002). History of Canadian Catholics. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-7735-2313-5. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
  18. ^ "Censuses of Canada 1665 to 1871: Jean Talon". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
  19. ^ Elle Andra-Warner (2011). Hudson's Bay Company Adventures: Tales of Canada's Fur Traders. Heritage House. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-926613-14-7.
  20. ^ a b c d e f Bumsted, J. M. (1992). The peoples of Canada. Toronto: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-540690-7. OCLC 28183025.
  21. ^ Colin G. Calloway (2013). Treaties and Treaty Making in American Indian History. Oxford University Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-19-998686-6.
  22. ^ Prins, Harald E.L. (1996). The Mi'kmaq: Resistance, Accommodation, and Cultural Survival. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace. ISBN 0-03-053427-5.
  23. ^ Saliha Belmessous (2011). Native Claims: Indigenous Law Against Empire, 1500-1920. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-19-979485-0.
  24. ^ Alanis Obomsawin, Kanehsatake: 270 Years of Resistance, National Film Board of Canada, 1993, accessed 30 January 2010
  25. ^ Grenier, John. The Far Reaches of Empire. War in Nova Scotia, 1710-1760. Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 2008; Thomas Beamish Akins. History of Halifax, Brookhouse Press. 1895. (2002 edition). p 7
  26. ^ "Fort Vieux Logis". Northeast Archaeological Research. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013.
  27. ^ White, Stephen A. (2005). "The True Number of Acadians". In Ronnie Gilles LeBlanc (ed.). Du Grand Dérangement à la Déportation: nouvelles perspectives historiques. Université de Moncton. pp. 21–56. ISBN 978-1-897214-02-2.
  28. ^ "Siege of Louisbourg: 30 May-27 July 1758". The Loyal Edmonton Regiment Military Museum. Archived from the original on 15 January 2019. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
  29. ^ "Fortress of Louisbourg National Historic Site: History". Parks Canada. 11 April 2017. Archived from the original on 6 January 2019. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
  30. ^ Montgomery, Marc (11 September 2015). "Sept 13, 1759 the battle that changed North America and the world". Radio Canada. Archived from the original on 15 January 2019. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
  31. ^ https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/nova-scotia/treaty-day-nova-scotia-mikmaq-peace-and-friendship-treaties-1.5304137[bare URL]
  32. ^ Spencer C. Tucker (2014). The Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Early American Republic, 1783–1812: A Political, Social, and Military History [3 volumes]: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 782. ISBN 978-1-59884-157-2.
  33. ^ Fenge, Terry; Aldridge, Jim (1 November 2015). Keeping promises : the Royal Proclamation of 1763, aboriginal rights, and treaties in Canada. McGill–Queen's University Press. pp. 4, 38, 51, 201, 212, 257. ISBN 978-0-7735-9755-6. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  34. ^ Office of the Lieutenant Governor. "The Honourable Walter Patterson". Government of Prince Edward Island. Archived from the original on 27 January 2019. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  35. ^ Paterson, Thomas; Clifford, Garry J.; Maddock, Shane J. (2014). American foreign relations: A history, to 1920. Cengage Learning. p. 20. ISBN 978-1305172104.
  36. ^ "Between the Lakes Treaty No. 3 (1792)". Mississaugas of the Credit First Nation. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
  37. ^ "Winslow Papers: The Partition of Nova Scotia". University of New Brunswick Libraries. 21 June 2005. Archived from the original on 28 April 2018. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  38. ^ Terry A. Crowley (2015). Canadian History: Pre-Colonization to 1867 Essentials. Research & Education Assoc. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-7386-7205-2.
  39. ^ Bonikowsky, Laura Nielson (24 March 2011), Laura Secord, The Canadian Encyclopedia, archived from the original on 20 September 2015, retrieved 27 October 2015
  40. ^ United States Department of State (1 November 2007). Treaties In Force: A List of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States in Force on November 1, 2007. Section 1: Bilateral Treaties (PDF). Compiled by the Treaty Affairs Staff, Office of the Legal Adviser, U.S. Department of State. (2007 ed.). Washington, DC. p. 320. Retrieved 23 May 2008.
  41. ^ Newman, Peter C. (1988). Caesars of the wilderness. Markham, Ont.: Penguin. ISBN 978-0140086300.
  42. ^ Howley, James Patrick (1915). The Beothucks or Red Indians : the aboriginal inhabitants of Newfoundland. Cambridge: University Press. p. 231. Archived from the original on 4 May 2017. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
  43. ^ Monet, Jacques (27 September 2019). "Act of Union". The Canadian Encyclopedia (online ed.). Historica Canada.
  44. ^ "Treaty between Her Majesty and the United States of America, for the Settlement of the Oregon Boundary". Canado-American Treaties. Université de Montréal. 1999. Archived from the original on 13 November 2009. Retrieved 12 January 2007.
  45. ^ Indian and Northern Affairs Canada: Robinson Huron Treaty text
  46. ^ Indian and Northern Affairs Canada: Robinson Superior Treaty text
  47. ^ Boyd, Robert; Boyd, Robert Thomas (1999). "A final disaster: the 1862 smallpox epidemic in coastal British Columbia". The Coming of the Spirit of Pestilence: Introduced Infectious Diseases and Population Decline Among Northwest Coast Indians, 1774–1874. University of British Columbia Press. pp. 172–201. ISBN 978-0-295-97837-6. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
  48. ^ The Charlottetown Conference, Dictionary of Canadian Biography, http://biographi.ca/en/theme_conferences_1864.html?p=8 Archived 10 November 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  49. ^ Gillmor & Turgeon 2000, p. 277
  50. ^ Christopher Moore, 1867: How the Fathers Made a Deal (2011)
  51. ^ Gillmor & Turgeon 2000, pp. 284–287
  52. ^ "Rupert's Land and North-Western Territory Order". www.solon.org. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011.
  53. ^ Gillmor & Turgeon 2000, p. 287
  54. ^ W. George Shelton, ed. British Columbia & Confederation (1967)
  55. ^ a b Albers, Gretchen (24 September 2015). "Treaties 1 and 2". Historica Canada.[dead link]
  56. ^ Graybill 2007, pp. 9–12
  57. ^ Francis Bolger, "Prince Edward Island and Confederation" CCHA, Report, 28 (1961), 25-30 online Archived 4 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  58. ^ McNab, David (1990). "Nicolas Chatelain". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. University of Toronto Press. pp. 187–88.
  59. ^ "First Nations Communities and Treaty Boundaries in Saskatchewan". Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. 30 March 2009. Archived from the original on 2 December 2009.
  60. ^ Tough, Frank (1997). As Their Natural Resources Fail: Native Peoples and the Economic History of Northern Manitoba, 1870-1930 (Digitized online by Google books). UBC Press. p. 148. ISBN 978-0-7748-0571-1. Retrieved 28 December 2008.
  61. ^ John F. Leslie (2002). "The Indian Act: An Historical Perspective". Canadian Parliamentary Review. 25 (2).
  62. ^ Chalmers (1977), p. 23.
  63. ^ Tesar, Alex (9 August 2016). "Treaty 7". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 5 February 2018.
  64. ^ Adjacent Territories Order . 31 July 1880 – via Wikisource.
  65. ^ Wallace, W. Stewart, North-West Rebellion, Marianopolis College, archived from the original on 3 March 2016, retrieved 6 November 2015
  66. ^ George F.G. Stanley, Louis Riel: Patriot or Rebel? Canadian Historical Association Booklet No. 2 (1979) online Archived 6 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  67. ^ Canadian Pacific Facts and Figures. Canadian Pacific Foundation Library. 1946. p. 15.
  68. ^ Berton 2001, pp. 38–39.
  69. ^ "Treaty 8". Government of Canada. Library and Archives Canada. 2009. Archived from the original on 20 September 2009. Retrieved 1 August 2009.
  70. ^ Farr, D. M. L. (6 February 2006). "Alaska Boundary Dispute". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
  71. ^ Gibson 1943.
  72. ^ Stout, C. H. (1 January 1955), "Alberta born 50 years ago to start new era", Calgary Herald, archived from the original on 21 November 2015, retrieved 5 November 2015
  73. ^ Morrison, James (8 January 2009). "Treaty Research Report - Treaty No. 9 (1905-1906)". Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada. Government of Canada. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
  74. ^ "Treaty 10". Office of the Treaty Commissioner. Retrieved 23 February 2010.
  75. ^ Richard H. Gimblett (2009). The Naval Service of Canada, 1910-2010: The Centennial Story. Dundurn. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-4597-1322-2.
  76. ^ David MacKenzie (2015). Canada and the First World War: Essays in Honour of Robert Craig Brown. University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division. p. 174. ISBN 978-1-4426-5879-0.
  77. ^ Inglis 1995, p. 2
  78. ^ Janet F. Kitz, Shattered city: the Halifax explosion & the road to recovery (Nimbus, 2008.)
  79. ^ Bumsted, J.M. (2008). The Peoples of Canada: A Post-Confederation History, Third Edition. Oxford: University Press. pp. 218, 219. ISBN 978-0-19-542341-9.
  80. ^ Cleverdon, Catherine (1974). The woman suffrage movement in Canada: The Start of Liberation, 1900-20 (2 ed.). Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 9780802021083.
  81. ^ Parliament of Canada. "Women's Right to Vote in Canada". Queen's Printer for Canada. Archived from the original on 21 November 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  82. ^ Sydney F. Wise (1980). The Official History of the Royal Canadian Air Force: Canadian airmen and the first world war. University of Toronto Press. p. ix. ISBN 978-0-8020-2379-7.
  83. ^ Alan Bowker (2014). A Time Such as There Never Was Before: Canada After the Great War. Dundurn. pp. 28–29. ISBN 9781459722828.
  84. ^ Maquis, Greg (2004). "Brewers and Distillers Paradise: American Views of Canadian Alcohol Policies". Canadian Review of American Studies. 34 (2): 136, 139.
  85. ^ Anique H. M. van Ginneken (2006). Historical Dictionary of the League of Nations. p. 54. ISBN 9780810865136.
  86. ^ "Treaty No. 11 (27 June 1921) and Adhesion (17 July 1922) with Reports, etc".
  87. ^ Tattrie, Jon (30 July 2013), King-Byng Affair, The Canadian Encyclopedia, archived from the original on 5 November 2015, retrieved 3 November 2015
  88. ^ Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. "About the Department > Canadian Heads of Posts Abroad from 1880 > Massey, Hon. Vincent (Non-career)". Queen's Printer for Canada. Archived from the original on 22 March 2012. Retrieved 15 March 2009.
  89. ^ Pierre Berton (2012). The Great Depression: 1929-1939. Doubleday Canada. pp. 9–11. ISBN 978-0-307-37486-8.
  90. ^ Giving Canada its own voice, Government of Canada, archived from the original on 19 October 2015, retrieved 3 November 2015
  91. ^ Jack L. Granatstein, and Robert Bothwell, "‘A self-evident national duty’: Canadian foreign policy, 1935–1939." The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 3#2 (1975): 212-233.
  92. ^ Neary, Peter. "The History of Newfoundland and Labrador During the Second World War". Canadian War Museum. Archived from the original on 14 January 2019. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
  93. ^ Tim Cook, Warlords: Borden Mackenzie King And Canada's World Wars (2012)
  94. ^ Jeffrey A. Keshen, Saints, Sinners, and Soldiers: Canada's Second World War (2004)
  95. ^ J.L. Granatstein, The last good war: An illustrated history of Canada in the Second World War, 1939-1945 Archived 3 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine (2005)
  96. ^ Spencer Tucker (2011). World War II at Sea: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 142. ISBN 9781598844573.
  97. ^ Adam Chapnick, The middle power project: Canada and the founding of the United Nations (UBC Press, 2007)
  98. ^ "Forging Our Legacy". Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Archived from the original on 10 June 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
  99. ^ "Canadian Citizenship Act and current issues -BP-445E". Government of Canada - Law and Government Division. 2002. Retrieved 11 July 2010.
  100. ^ Gillmor 2001, pp. 222–223
  101. ^ St. Lawrence Seaway opening, CBC, archived from the original on 12 June 2014, retrieved 20 November 2015
  102. ^ Rita J. Simon; Vassia Gueorguieva (2008). Voting and Elections the World Over. Lexington Books. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-7391-3092-6.
  103. ^ H. D. Munroe, "The October Crisis revisited: Counterterrorism as strategic choice, political result, and organizational practice." Terrorism and Political Violence 21.2 (2009): 288-305.
  104. ^ Full text of Supreme Court of Canada decision at LexUM and CanLII
  105. ^ The Canadian Press (16 November 1973). "Chretien hopes James Bay ruling will mean quick resumption of talks". The Globe and Mail. p. 9.
  106. ^ Anne F. Bayefsky (2000). Self-determination in International Law: Quebec and Lessons Learned : Legal Opinions. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 5. ISBN 978-90-411-1154-8.
  107. ^ Ness, Immanuel (2010). Ours to Master and to own: Workers' Control from the Commune to the Present. p. 350.
  108. ^ Joel Krieger; Margaret E. Crahan (2001). The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 105. ISBN 978-0-19-511739-4.
  109. ^ Russell, Peter H. (2011). "The Patriation and Quebec Veto References: The Supreme Court Wrestles with the Political Part of the Constitution". Supreme Court Law Review: 75–76. ISSN 0228-0108.
  110. ^ "Canada–United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA)". Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada. Archived from the original on 6 December 2014. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  111. ^ Montgomery, Marc (9 July 2018). "Canada History: July 11, 1990, the crisis and death at Oka". Radio Canada. Archived from the original on 14 January 2019. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
  112. ^ "Rejection of Charlottetown accord ended era of constitutional reform". Toronto Star, By John D. Whyte. Oct. 26, 2012
  113. ^ NAFTA Secretariat Archived April 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Nafta-sec-alena.org (June 9, 2010). Retrieved on July 12, 2013.
  114. ^ Patterson, Brent (14 January 2016). "Wolverine asks Trudeau for inquiry into Gustafsen Lake Standoff". Council of Canadians. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  115. ^ Wonders, Karen. "Ts'peten". First Nations: Land Rights and Environmentalism in British Columbia. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  116. ^ Salomons, Tanisha. "Ipperwash Crisis". First Nations & Indigenous Studies, University of British Columbia. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  117. ^ John Courtney; David Smith (2010). The Oxford Handbook of Canadian Politics. OUP USA. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-19-533535-4.
  118. ^ Delgamuukw v British Columbia, [1997] 3 SCR 1010.
  119. ^ "Creation of a New Northwest Territories". Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories. Archived from the original on 22 November 2018. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  120. ^ Edward Hedican (2012). Social Anthropology: Canadian Perspectives on Culture and Society. Canadian Scholars’ Press. p. 130. ISBN 978-1-55130-407-6.
  121. ^ "The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada". link.galegroup.com. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  122. ^ Harper, Stephen (11 June 2008). "Statement of apology to former students of Indian Residential Schools". Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Archived from the original on 16 May 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
  123. ^ Gelderloos, Peter (2015). The Failure of Nonviolence.
  124. ^ "Canada's Last Penny: Final Cent Struck In Winnipeg Friday As Currency Killed". Canadian Press/Huffington Post Canada. 4 May 2012. Archived from the original on 7 May 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
  125. ^ "Cannabis is legal in Canada — here's what you need to know". CBC News. CBC. 17 October 2018. Archived from the original on 25 October 2018. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  126. ^ "Hamilton: Simultaneous Rail Sabotage at Bottlenecks in Solidarity with Wet'suwet'en Land Defenders – North Shore Counter-Info". Retrieved 22 September 2020.

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]