Timeline of Cardiff history
The word Caerdyf has its origins in post-Roman Brythonic words meaning "the fort of the Taff". The fort probably refers to that established by the Romans. Caer is Welsh for fort and -dyf is in effect a form of Taf (Taff), the river which flows by Cardiff Castle.
The Roman settlement
380s: The Romans abandoned Cardiff.
The Viking settlement
445: The first written mention of Cardiff was made in the Annates Cambriae (The Welsh Annals).
The Norman town
1126: Ralph "Prepositus de Kardi" took up office as the first Mayor of Cardiff.
1294: The Glamorgan Welsh attacked Cardiff Castle.
The county town of Glamorganshire
1536: The legislative union of England and Wales (Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542) was established. The shire of Glamorgan was established and Cardiff became the county town and the Herbert family became the most powerful family in Cardiff.
1542: Cardiff became a free borough.
1595: The first shipment of coal was exported from Cardiff docks.
1648: The Battle of St. Fagans was fought between the Parliamentarian Army and the Royalists. It was the last major battle to occur in Wales; some 8,000 Royalists were defeated in a two-hour fight by 3,000 Parliamentarian troops of the New Model Army with about 200 soldiers, mainly Royalists, killed.
1776: John Stuart was created Baron Cardiff of Cardiff Castle.
The building of the docks
1819: Cardiff Free School for boys and girls was opened.
1821: Cardiff Gas Works was established.
1826: The first theatre in Cardiff, the Theatre Royal, was opened.
1835: Thomas Revel Guest became the first elected Mayor of Cardiff and also Judge of the Borough Court of Record.
1839: West Bute Dock opened.
1840: The first railway station in Cardiff opened at Crockherbtown, owned by the Taff Vale Railway. The service ran from Cardiff to Navigation House (now Abercynon). The line was extended from Navigation House to Merthyr Tydfil in 1841 (the Taff Vale Railway, DSM Barrie 1969).
1850: Cardiff Water Company was established to provide water for Cardiff.
1853: The new Town Hall opened.
1857: The last public execution in Cardiff was held.
1879: The Cardiff Town Council took over responsibility of the water supply from the Cardiff Water Company.
1881: The first grandstand was built at Cardiff Arms Park; it held 300 spectators.
1882: Opening of the new Cardiff Free Library, Museum and Schools for Science and Art in The Hayes.
1884: The Cardiff Arms Park hosted its first international match, a rugby union encounter between Wales and Ireland.
1894: Cardiff Masonic Hall Company Ltd was established after purchasing the thirty-year-old Methodist chapel at Guildford Street.
The city of Cardiff - the largest coal port in the world
1913: The record amount of around 107 million tons of coal were exported through Cardiff docks. This was the high point of the docks.
The decline of the docks
1930: Cardiff Round Table, the local branch of Round Table Britain & Ireland, was founded, being the 26th table in the organisation.
1931: Cardiff Municipal Airport was opened on Pengam Moors.
1947: The Bute family gave Cardiff Castle to the city.
1955: Cardiff was officially recognised as the capital city of Wales.
1956: Cardiff ceased being a fishing port after 70 years.
1970: Bute East Dock was closed.
1973: John Desmond Brayley MC DL was nominated for a peerage as Baron Brayley of the City of Cardiff and County Glamorgan.
The regeneration of Cardiff Bay and the city
2008: Cardiff International Pool opened to the public at the International Sports Village in Cardiff Bay on 12 January, replacing the Wales Empire Pool that had been demolished in 1997 to make way for the Millennium Stadium. The National Eisteddfod was held in Cardiff.
2009: Cardiff City Stadium and Cardiff International Sports Stadium both opened, while Ninian Park was demolished, which was part of the Leckwith development. The new Central Library opened in March.
2011: Wales voted in favour of extending the lawmaking powers of the Welsh Assembly in a national referendum. This time Cardiff also voted "yes" to more powers, with over 61% of its people supporting the change. The 2011 Census showed that the population of Cardiff was 346,100, its highest actual recorded figure.
2013: Cardiff City was promoted in the 2012–13 to football's Premier League, 51 years since they were last in football's top tier in 1962, but the first since the Premier League came into being. They were relegated at the end of the 2013–14 season.
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