Timeline of Cornish history

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This timeline summarizes significant events in the History of Cornwall

Pre-Roman occupation[edit]

4000 BC[edit]

Rooms in a building within Chysauster village
The Mên-an-Tol, a small formation of standing stones in Penwith
Castle an Dinas, St Columb Major just visible at the summit of Castle Downs as viewed from St. Columb Major

2000 BC[edit]

  • Mining in Cornwall has existed from the early Bronze Age around 2150 BC and it is thought that Cornwall was visited by metal traders from the eastern Mediterranean. It has been suggested that the Cassiterides or "Tin Islands" as recorded by Herodotus in 445 BC may have referred to the Scilly Islands and Cornwall as when first discovered they were both thought to have been islands.[2][3]

1600 BC[edit]

  • Cornwall experiences a trade boom driven by the export of tin across Europe.

750 BC[edit]

  • The Iron Age reaches Cornwall, permitting greater scope of agriculture through the use of new iron ploughs and axes.

330 BC[edit]

  • Pytheas of Massilia (now Marseilles), a Greek merchant and explorer, circumnavigated the British Isles between about 330 and 320 BC and produced the first written record of the islands. He described the Cornish as civilised, skilled farmers, usually peaceable, but formidable in war.[4]

100 BC[edit]

  • 60 BC: Greek historian Diodorus Siculus named Cornwall "Belerion" – "The Shining Land", the first recorded place name in the British Isles.
  • 43 BC: First attempted invasion of British Mainland by Julius Caesar. Over the next century, the Romans come to rule Cornwall, then part of Dumnonia.

1st millennium[edit]

Roman invasion and occupation[edit]

The Roman inscribed stone at Trethevy (251–253 AD)
  • 19 AD: Total eclipse in Cornwall.[1]
  • 43 AD: Claudian invasion of Britain begins. Roman control of Cornwall comes much later, but at an uncertain date.
  • 55–60 AD: Construction of Nanstallon Roman fort near Bodmin, one of only a few Roman sites in Cornwall.
  • Roman villa at Magor Farm near Camborne occupied.[5]
  • 360 and after: various Germanic peoples came to Roman Britain: raiders, Roman armies recruited from among German tribes, authorized settlers: ref. Aelle of Sussex

5th century[edit]

"King Mark of Cornwall", illustrated by Howard Pyle (1905)
  • Cornwall's native name (Kernow) appeared on record as early as 400. The Ravenna Cosmography, compiled c. 700 from Roman material 300 years older, lists a route running westward into Cornwall and on this route is a place then called Durocornovio (Latinised from British Celtic duno-Cornouio-n – "fortress of the Cornish people"). In Latin, 'V' represented and was pronounced as a 'W' and the fortress name refers to Tintagel.[6]
  • 410: Emperor Honorius recalls the last legions from Britain. There is some uncertainty: some say that this "rescript" refers not to Britannia (= Britain) but to Bruttium in Italy.
  • Mid-5th century: first waves of settlers from Cornwall, and Devon, go to Brittany
  • 433: The Britons call the Angles to come and help them [as mercenaries ] against the Picts.[7]
  • about 446: The "Groans of the Britons" last appeal (possibly to the Consul Aetius) for the Roman army to come back to Britain.
  • King Mark, of Tristan and Iseult fame, probably ruled in the late 5th century. According to Cornish folklore, he held court at Tintagel. King Salomon, father of Saint Cybi, ruled after Mark.

6th century[edit]

Map of area of settlement of the Britons in the 6th century

7th century[edit]

  • 658 Battle of Peonnum drives the Britons from the area around Glastonbury abbey down to the River Parret.
  • 664: The Synod of Whitby determines that England is again an ecclesiastical province of Rome, with its formal structure of dioceses and parishes. The Celtic Church in Dumnonia is not party to the decision and the Cornish Church remains monastic in nature.
  • 682: Centwine, King of Wessex drove the Britons of the West at the sword's point as far as the sea. (ASC) Difficult to place due to the nature of the South-West as a Peninsula but likely to be the North Coast around Bridgewater in Somerset as the border had been set at the River Parret by the Battle of Peonnum

8th century[edit]

  • 710: Battle of Llongborth (probably Langport in Somerset) fought to try and prevent further English expansion into Devon.King Geraint of Cornwall's led the fighting and his death is recorded in the Elegy for Geraint in the Black Book of Carmarthen. Tensions possibly exacerbated by Geraints refusal to allow the Celtic church to follow the call of the English church (which was perhaps 300 years younger) to conform to the standards of Rome. The battle was fought against the West Saxon King Ine and his kinsman, Nonna.[9]
  • 722: Battle of Hehil – The Cornish Britons together with their friends and allies, push back a West-Saxon offensive at "Hehil", unlocated, but probably somewhere in modern Devon.
  • 753 Cuthred of Wessex fights 'Against the Welsh (Cornish)' according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
  • 755 Cynewulf fights 'Hard battles against the Welsh (Cornish)'

9th century[edit]

  • 807: Unsuccessful Cornish alliance with Danes.[1]
  • 815: The Anglo Saxon Chronicle states "& þy geare gehergade Ecgbryht cyning on West Walas from easteweardum oþ westewearde."...and in this year king Ecgbryht harried the Cornish from east to west.[10]
The Doniert Stone which may refer to King Dungarth
  • 825: The Battle of Gafulforda, at an uncertain location, thought to be Galford, near Lewdown in West Devon. The Anglo Saxon Chronicle only states: "The Wealas (Cornish) and the Defnas (men of Devon) fought at Gafalforda".[6][11]
  • 838: Battle of Hingston Down: the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reports that the Cornish in alliance with the Danes were defeated by Egbert of Wessex at "Hengestesdun", generally considered to be Hingston Down in eastern Cornwall.[12]
  • 850: Settlement at Mawgan Porth occupied. Archaeological excavations revealed a settlement comprising three groups of buildings ('courtyard houses') and a burial ground dating from around 850–1050. Finds included pottery and stone artefacts.[13]
  • 875: King Dungarth (Donyarth) of Cerniu ("id est Cornubiae") drowns in what is thought to be the River Fowey.
  • 880s: the Church in Cornwall is having more Saxon priests appointed to it and they control some church estates like Polltun, Caellwic and Landwithan (Pawton, in St Breock; perhaps Celliwig (Kellywick in Egloshayle?); and Lawhitton). Eventually they passed these over to Wessex kings. However, according to Alfred the Great's will the amount of land he owned in Cornwall was very small.[14]
  • late 9th century: The earliest known example of written Cornish is a gloss in a late 9th century Latin manuscript of De Consolatione Philosophiae by Boethius, which used the words ud rocashaas. The phrase means "it (the mind) hated the gloomy places".[15][16]

10th century[edit]

Olaf Tryggvason, who supposedly visited the Isles of Scilly in 986. It is said an encounter with a cleric there led him to Christianise Norway.
  • 926: The entry in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reads....'This year fiery lights appeared in the north part of the heavens. And Sihtric perished: and king Aethelstan obtained the kingdom of the North-humbrians. And he ruled all the kings who were in this island: first, Huwal king of the West-Welsh (Cornish or Deheubarth); and Constantine king of the Scots; and Uwen king of the people of Guent; and Ealdred, son of Ealdulf, of Bambrough: and they confirmed the peace by pledge, and by oaths, at the place which is called Eamot, on the 4th of the ides of July [12 July]; and they renounced all idolatry, and after that submitted to him in peace.
  • 927: William of Malmesbury, writing around 1120, says that Athelstan evicted the Cornish from Exeter and perhaps the rest of Devon: "Exeter was cleansed of its defilement by wiping out that filthy race".[17] The area inside the city walls still known today as 'Little Britain' is the quarter where most of the Cornish Romano-British aristocracy had their town houses, from which the Cornish were expelled. Under Athelstan's statutes it eventually became unlawful for any Cornishman to own land, and lawful for any Englishman to kill any Cornishman (or woman or child).[citation needed]
  • 928: It is thought that the King Huwal, "King of the West Welsh" (Cornwall or Hywel Dda of Deheubarth) was one of several kings who signed a treaty with Aethelstan of Wessex at Egmont Bridge.
  • 930: Armes Prydein, (the Prophecy of Britain), this early Welsh poem mentions 'Cornyw', the Celtic name for Cornwall. It foretells that the Welsh together with Cornwall, Brittany, Ireland and Cumbria would expel the English from Britain. This poem also demonstrates any early allegiance between the Celtic people of Britain.[18]
  • 936: Athelstan fixed Cornwall's eastern boundary as the east bank of the Tamar.[6] There is no record of Athelstan taking his campaigns into Cornwall and it seems probable that Huwal, King of the Cornish, agreed to pay tribute thus avoiding further attacks and maintaining a high degree of autonomy. Prior to this the West Saxons had pushed their frontier across the Tamar as far west as the River Lynher, but this was only temporary. It was long enough, however, for Saxon settlement and land charters to influence our modern day inheritance of placenames: between Lynher and Tamar there are today many more English than Cornish place names, as is also the case in that other debatable land between Ottery and Tamar in north Cornwall.
  • 944: Athelstan's successor, Edmund I of England, styled himself "King of the English and ruler of this province of the Britons" [19]
  • 981: The Vikings lay waste "Petroces stow" (probably Padstow) according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.[20]
  • 986: Olaf Tryggvason allegedly visits the Isles of Scilly
  • 997: The Dartmoor town of Lydford, near the Cornish/Wessex border just east of the Tamar is completely destroyed by an angry mob of Danish Vikings. The surprise attack on Lydford is ordered by the King of Denmark and Viking leader Sweyn Forkbeard (previously, Lydford was believed to be impregnable against Viking attack). However, Cornwall is left alone as Sweyn Forkbeard has no intention of crushing Cornwall—unlike Wessex.

2nd millennium[edit]

11th century[edit]

Beginning of Domesday Book for Cornwall; the first few lines list: I. Rex Willelmus; II. Episcopus de Execestre; III. Ecclesia de Tavestoch; IIII. Ecclesiae aliquorum sanctorum; V. Comes Moritoniensis; VI. Judhail de Totenais; VII. Goscelmus
  • 1013: Cornwall's enemy and Anglo-Saxon neighbour, Wessex is crushed and conquered by a Danish army under the leadership of the Viking leader and King of Denmark Sweyn Forkbeard. Sweyn annexes Wessex to his Viking empire which includes Denmark and Norway. He does not, however, annex Cornwall, Wales and Scotland, allowing these "client nations" self-rule in return for an annual payment of tribute or "danegeld".
  • 1014–1035: The Kingdom of Cornwall, Wales, much of Scotland and Ireland were not included in the territories of King Canute the Great
  • 1016: Famine throughout Europe.[21]
  • 1066: Norman Conquest brings many Bretons into Cornwall. The Cornish and Breton languages are mutually intelligible at this point.
  • 1066: According to William of Worcester, writing in the 15th century, Cadoc, was described as the last survivor of the Cornish royal line at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066.[17]
  • 1066: William the Conqueror may have granted Cornwall to Brian of Brittany.[22]
  • 1067: Harold Godwinson's sons, who have taken refuge in Ireland, raid Somerset, Devon and Cornwall from the sea.[23]
  • 1068: The Battle of Exeter – the Cornish attacked the Saxon stronghold of Exeter but were eventually driven back by an Anglo-Norman army sent to mop up pockets of resistance.
  • 1069: Brian of Brittany, lord of Cornwall, defeats the sons of Harold near the River Taw
  • 1070: (ca.) Robert, Count of Mortain made Earl of Cornwall.
  • 1086: Domesday Survey: the major landholders in Cornwall are Robert, Count of Mortain, King William, the Bishop of Exeter, and Tavistock Abbey[24]
  • 1099: Mount's Bay inundated by the sea making St Michael's Mount an island

12th century[edit]

St German's priory church, St Germans
  • 1120: Ingulph's Chronicle records Cornwall as a nation distinct from England.
  • 1154–1214: (effective)/1242 (formal) Angevin Empire, which includes other Brythonic areas such as Brittany and parts of Wales.
  • 1173: Reginald de Dunstanville, 1st Earl of Cornwall, grants a charter to his 'free burgesses of Triueru' and he addresses his meetings at Truro to: "All men both Cornish and English" suggesting a continuing differentiation. Subsequently, for Launceston, Reginald's Charter continues that distinction – "To all my men, French, English and Cornish".
  • 1198: William de Wrotham (Lord Warden of the Stannaries) writes of those working tin in Cornwall paying twice the taxation of their Devon counterparts.

13th century[edit]

The opening verses of Origo Mundi, the first play of the Ordinalia (the magnum opus of mediaeval Cornish literature), written by an unknown monk in the late 14th century
  • 1265: Work starts on the Lostwithiel Stannary Palace. It is reputed to be the oldest non-ecclesiastical building in Cornwall and was said to have been built as a replica of the Great Hall of Westminster. Its original function was as a court dealing with the Cornish tin industry.
  • 1265: Glasney College is founded at Penryn by the Bishop of Exeter.
  • c. 1280: The Hereford Mappa Mundi highlights Cornwall.

14th century[edit]

15th century[edit]

St Petroc's Church, Bodmin, from the southwest
Commemorative plaque in Cornish and English for Michael Joseph the Smith (An Gof) and Thomas Flamank mounted on the north side of Blackheath common, south east London, near the south entrance to Greenwich Park

16th century[edit]

Cranmer's Prayer Book of 1549
Route taken by the Spanish Armada
  • 1508: By the 'Charter of Pardon', Henry VII confirms that relevant legislation in Cornwall requires the consent of the stannators.[28]
  • 1509: King Henry VIII's coronation procession includes "nine children of honour" representing "England and France, Gascony, Guienne, Normandy, Anjou, Cornwall, Wales and Ireland."
  • 1509–1510: Plague
  • 1529: King Henry VIII severs ties with the Catholic Church and declares himself head of the church in England.
  • 1531: From the court of King Henry VIII, the Italian diplomat Lodovico Falier writes in a letter that "The language of the English, Welsh and Cornish men is so different that they do not understand each other". He also claims it is possible to distinguish the members of each group by alleged "national characteristics".
  • 1533–1540: Henry VIII founds the Church of England and begins the Reformation in England.
  • 1536–1545: Dissolution of the Monasteries including most religious houses in Cornwall
  • 1538: Writing to his government, the French ambassador in London, Gaspard de Coligny Châtillon, indicates ethnic differences thus: "The kingdom of England is by no means a united whole, for it also contains Wales and Cornwall, natural enemies of the rest of England, and speaking a [different] language".
  • 1542: Andrew Borde writes in the Boke of the Introduction of Knowledge, "In Cornwall is two speches, the one is naughty Englysshe, and the other is Cornysshe speche. And there be many men and women the which cannot speake one worde of Englysshe, but all Cornyshe."[29]
  • 1548: Glasney College is closed and much of the cultural heritage held there is destroyed
  • 1549: The Cornish rise up in the Prayer Book Rebellion—some 5,000 "rebels" were killed by mercenary forces. The main confrontations are the siege of Exeter, the battles of Fenny Bridges, Woodbury Common, Clyst St Mary, Clyst Heath (where 900 unarmed Cornish prisoners are killed) and Sampford Courtenay. Following this, Provost Marshal Sir Anthony Kingston is sent into Cornwall to seek retribution.[30] The Book of Common Prayer is enforced resulting in a decline in the use of the Cornish language.
  • 1555: Famine
  • 1578: Plague in Penzance.[31]
  • 1585–1604: Anglo-Spanish War, intermittent conflict, never declared, many raids on shipping; coastal defences strengthened.
  • 1585: The Green Book of St Columb has one of the earliest references to Morris dancing.[32]
  • 1586: Famine[21]
  • 1588: Spanish Armada; the first sighting is on July 19, when it appears off St Michael's Mount. Soon afterwards, 55 English ships set out in pursuit from Plymouth under the command of Lord Howard of Effingham, with Sir Francis Drake as Vice Admiral. There is an inconclusive skirmish off Eddystone Rocks, and the Spanish fleet sails eastwards up the Channel.
  • 1595: Raid on Mount's Bay. Spanish forces under Don Carlos de Amesquita, land in Penzance area raiding and sacking settlements, including Newlyn[33][34]
  • 1596: Attack on Cawsand. A Spanish raid is seen off by local militia at Cawsand before they have sunk two boats and burned several houses.
  • 1597: 3rd Spanish Armada. Storms off The Lizard put paid to the operation with a number being wrecked. It's possible Spanish soldiers landed near Falmouth in Helford Creek before withdrawing.[35] A number of Spanish ships were captured off the Scilly isles and St Ives by English ships.[36]

17th century[edit]

  • 1603: Following Queen Elizabeth I's death, the Venetian ambassador writes that the "late queen had ruled over five different 'peoples'--English, Welsh, Cornish, Scottish and Irish".
  • 1616: Arthur Hopton (ambassador to Madrid) writes that "England is ... divided into three great Provinces, or Countries ... speaking a several and different language, as English, Welsh and Cornish".
Sir Bevil Grenville's memorial, in Kilkhampton church
Pendennis Castle keep
Sites of the battles of the First Anglo-Dutch War
  • 1616: Pocahontas may have visited Indian Queens, although this is disputed.
  • 1618–1648: Thirty Years' War
  • 1620: The Mayflower, en route to America with the Pilgrim Fathers, stops off at Newlyn to take on water.[37]
  • 1640: Charles I recalls Parliament in order to obtain money to finance his military struggle with Scotland. Parliament agrees to fund Charles, but only on condition he answer their grievances relating to his 11-year "personal rule" or "tyranny". Charles refuses and dissolves Parliament after a mere 3 weeks, hence the name of the "Short Parliament"
  • 1642: The Cornish play a significant role Civil War as Cornwall was a Royalist stronghold in the generally Parliamentarian south-west. The reason for this was that Cornwall's rights and privileges were tied up with the royal Duchy and Stannaries and the Cornish saw the Civil War as a fight between England and Cornwall as much as a conflict between King and Parliament.[17]
  • 1642–1646: The First "English" Civil War
  • 1642: First Battle of Lostwithiel.
  • 1643 January 19: Cornish Royalist victory at the Battle of Braddock
  • 1643 May 15: Cornish Royalist victory at the Battle of Stratton.
  • 1643 autumn: King Charles I issues a letter to the people of Cornwall thanking them for their support for the Royalist campaign which he wrote at Sudeley Castle. (Copies of the letter were made for permanent public display in each Cornish parish church and some are still extant.)
  • 1644 August 1: King Charles I arrived in Cornwall and spent the night at Trecarrel near Launceston[38]
  • 1644 August 31: Cornish Royalist victory at the Second Battle of Lostwithiel.
  • 1645 Cornish Royalist leader Sir Richard Grenville, 1st Baronet makes Launceston his base and he stations Cornish troops along the River Tamar and issues them with instructions to keep "all foreign troops out of Cornwall". Grenville tries to use "Cornish particularist sentiment" to muster support for the Royalist cause and puts a plan to the Prince which would, if implemented, have created a semi-independent Cornwall.[39][40][41][42]
  • 1646: Following the Roundhead victory at the Battle of Naseby in 1645 they had proceeded towards Cornwall reaching Launceston on 25 February 1646 and Bodmin by 2 March 1646. There were skirmishes but the Cornish were vastly outnumbered. Fairfax offered Hopton terms and the surrender took place at Tresillian Bridge, near Truro, on 15 March 1646.
  • 1646: The siege of Pendennis Castle began in April 1646 and lasted for five months. Parliamentary forces attacked the castle from both land and sea and it finally surrendered on 17 August 1646.
  • 1648: The Gear Rout – the last Cornish armed uprising involving some 500 rebels.
  • 1648–1649: Second English Civil War
  • 1649–1651: Third English Civil War
  • 1651: June: Capture of the Isles of Scilly by Admiral Robert Blake
  • 1652: Battle of Plymouth off Cornish coast, part of First Anglo-Dutch War
  • 1676: Chesten Marchant supposedly the last Cornish monoglot, dies.
  • 1699: Joel Gascoyne's map of Cornwall is published in London.[43]

18th century[edit]

Richard Trevithick's statue by the public library at Camborne, Cornwall

19th century[edit]

European strategic situation in 1805 before the War of the Third Coalition
Royal Albert Bridge: the first span and centre pier under construction in 1854, seen from Saltash

20th century[edit]

Truro Cathedral
"Arthur", The world's first parabolic satellite communications antenna, based at Goonhilly
Tate St Ives









William Golding


  • 1990: Storm winds of 177 mph recorded at Falmouth; power loss to 50,000 Cornish residents.
  • 1991: First windfarm in Cornwall.[47]
  • 1992: Pirate FM launched, the first commercial station in Cornwall.
  • 1993: Tate St Ives art gallery in St Ives, opened
  • 1993: The joint Cornwall and Devon bid for Objective One funds fails because of Devon's high GDP.;[47] ITV Westcountry starts broadcasting.
  • 1995: Wreck of the Maria Asumpta, a 19th-century sailing ship.
  • 1996: Statistics reveal that out of 56 deprived communities in Cornwall, Devon and Somerset, 51 are in Cornwall.
  • 1997: Keskerdh Kernow 500 march to London.
  • 1998: South Crofty tin mine closes in March 1998 when ores began to be produced more cheaply abroad.
  • 1999: English China Clays taken over by French owned company, Imerys, in a £756m deal.
  • 1999: South West Regional Assembly established, but is not elected.

3rd millennium[edit]

21st century[edit]

The Eden Project




See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c "Timeline of Cornish History 400,000 BC – 1066 AD". Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved October 14, 2007.
  2. ^ Sharon Turner (1852). The history of the Anglo-Saxons. p. 46. Retrieved 2015-11-19 – via Internet Archive. Cassiterides cornwall.
  3. ^ "Cornwall, Great Britain, Cornish Stannary Parliament, Cornish government, Cornish politics, culture, constitution, Cornish history books". Cornwallgb.com. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
  4. ^ "History : British History Timeline". BBC. 1970-01-01. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
  5. ^ O'Neill, B. St. J. (1933) The Roman Villa at Magor Farm, near Camborne, Cornwall
  6. ^ a b c Payton, Philip (1996). Cornwall. Fowey: Alexander Associates
  7. ^ Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
  8. ^ Ellis, P. B. (1993) Celt and Saxon. London: Constable
  9. ^ Weatherhill, Craig, Cornovia; p. 10
  10. ^ [1][dead link]
  11. ^ Pearce, Susan M. (1978) The Kingdom of Dumnonia: studies in history and tradition in south western Britain, AD 350 – 1150. Padstow: Lodenek Press ISBN 0-902899-68-6
  12. ^ Higham, Robert (2008). Making Anglo-Saxon Devon. Exeter: The Mint Press. p. 64. ISBN 978-1-903356-57-9.
  13. ^ Bruce-Mitford, R. Mawgan Porth; a settlement of the Late Saxon Period on the North Cornish Coast: Excavations 1949–52, 1954 and 1974. London: English Heritage ISBN 978-1-85074-613-3
  14. ^ Keynes, Simon; Lapidge, Michael (tr.) (1983), Alfred the Great – Asser's Life of King Alfred and other contemporary sources. London: Penguin, p. 175; cf. ibid, p. 89.
  15. ^ [2] Archived May 27, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ Sims-Williams, P. (2005) "A New Brittonic Gloss on Boethius: ud rocashaas, in: Cambrian Medieval Celtic Studies; 50 (Winter 2005), pp. 77–86
  17. ^ a b c Payton, Philip (1996). Cornwall: a history. Fowey: Alexander Associates
  18. ^ "Armes Prydein Vawr : The Prophecy of Prydein the Great : Book of Taliesin VI : From The Four Ancient Books of Wales". Webcitation.org. Archived from the original on October 25, 2009. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
  19. ^ Todd, Malcolm (1987); p. 289
  20. ^ Orme, Nicholas (2007) Cornwall and the Cross. Chichester: Phillimore; p. 10 "[either Padstow or Bodmin] ... presumably by a Viking attack"
  21. ^ a b Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Famine" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 10 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 167.
  22. ^ Golding, Brian (1991). Robert of Mortain. Anglo-Norman Studies; XIII. pp. 119–44. ISBN 9780851152868. Retrieved 5 May 2010.; p. 126
  23. ^ The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, ed. and tr. Michael Swanton (2000), London: Phoenix, ISBN 1-84212-003-4, p. 203; Florence, vol. 3, pp. 6–9
  24. ^ Thorn, Caroline, et al. (eds.) Cornwall. Chichester: Phillimore
  25. ^ a b "Timeline of Cornish History 1066–1700 AD". Archived from the original on October 25, 2007. Retrieved April 26, 2008.
  26. ^ W. B. Bartle Agincourt: Henry V, the Man at Arms & the Archer
  27. ^ "Siege of St. Michael's Mount, 30 September 1473-February 1474".
  28. ^ "Sources of Cornish History – Charter of Pardon – 1508". Archived from the original on June 29, 2006. Retrieved December 9, 2007.
  29. ^ Jenner, Henry (1904) A Handbook of the Cornish Language chiefly in its latest stages with some account of its history and literature
  30. ^ "Cornwall history – ancient and modern". Cornishworldmagazine.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
  31. ^ Jennings, Canon. Notes on the Madron Parish Registers
  32. ^ "Trigg Ring Meeting". Triggmorris.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-10-23.
  33. ^ Trelease, G. M. A History of the Church in Paul Parish
  34. ^ "West Penwith Resources – The Spanish Attack – 1595". West-penwith.org.uk. 2003-03-30. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
  35. ^ Graham, Winston (2013). The Spanish Armadas. Pan Macmillan. pp. 214–15. ISBN 9781447256847.
  36. ^ Schomberg, Isaac (1802). Naval Chronology, Or an Historical Summary of Naval and Maritime Events from the Time of the Romans, to the Treaty of Peace 1802: With an Appendix, Volume 1. pp. 32–33.
  37. ^ "The Mayflower plaque, Newlyn". Archived from the original on October 15, 2008. Retrieved November 19, 2008.
  38. ^ "Parishes: Lawhitton – Luxulion | British History Online". British-history.ac.uk. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
  39. ^ Stoyle, Mark (2002) West Britons. Exeter: University of Exeter Press
  40. ^ Burne, A. H. & Young, Peter (1959) The Great Civil War, a military history
  41. ^ Gardiner, S. R. (1988) History of the Great Civil War; Vol. i
  42. ^ Gaunt, Peter (1987) The Cromwellian Gazetteer
  43. ^ Gascoyne, Joel (1699) A Map of the County of Cornwall newly surveyed by Joel Gascoyne; I. Harris sculp[sit]. London: Sold by I. Thornton [et al.]; Exon: by Chas. Ye, Bookseller; Plimouth: by Fr. Hill, Grocer; Lanceston: by Cha. Blith at the White Hart, [1699]
  44. ^ a b [3] Timeline of Cornish History 1700 to 1800 AD at the Wayback Machine (archived April 6, 2007)
  45. ^ Tolchard, C. (1965) The Humble Adventurer. Melbourne: Lansdowne Press
  46. ^ a b "Utopian Cornwall". Utopia-britannica.org.uk. 2007-01-03. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
  47. ^ a b c d e "Timeline of Cornish History 1800 AD to date". Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved October 14, 2007.
  48. ^ Department of the Official Report (Hansard), House of Commons, Westminster. "House of Commons Hansard Written Answers for 29 Mar 2007 (pt 0004)". Parliament.the-stationery-office.com. Archived from the original on 2015-11-20. Retrieved 2015-11-19.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  49. ^ "UK | England | Cornwall | Goonhilly satellite dishes threat". BBC News. 2006-09-12. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
  50. ^ "Health | Poisoning disaster 'caused brain damage'". BBC News. 1999-09-23. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
  51. ^ "ENGLAND | Blair gets Cornish assembly call". BBC News. 2001-12-11. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
  52. ^ "UK | England | Cornish gains official recognition". BBC News. 2002-11-06. Retrieved 2015-11-19.
  53. ^ "Cash boost for Cornish language". BBC News. 14 June 2005. Retrieved 5 August 2008.
  54. ^ [4][dead link]
  55. ^ "Olympic torch: Flame arrives at Land's End". BBC News. Retrieved 26 May 2012.

External links[edit]