Timeline of Eastern philosophers
|Timeline of Eastern | Western philosophers|
This is a wide-ranging alphabetical list of philosophers from the Eastern traditions of philosophy, with special interest in Indo-Chinese philosophy. The list stops at the year 1950, after which philosophers fall into the category of contemporary philosophy.
- 1 Chinese philosophers
- 1.1 Ancient Chinese philosophers
- 1.1.1 Before 256 BCE (until the end of the Zhou Dynasty)
- 1.1.2 221 BCE–220 CE (Qin, Han and Xin Dynasties)
- 1.1.3 220 CE–907 CE (Three Kingdoms period to Tang Dynasty)
- 1.1.4 907–1368 (Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period to Yuan Dynasty)
- 1.1.5 1368–1912 (Ming and Qing Dynasties)
- 1.2 Modern Chinese philosophers
- 1.1 Ancient Chinese philosophers
- 2 Indian philosophers
- 2.1 Ancient philosophers
- 2.1.1 3rd millennium - 2nd millennium BCE
- 2.1.2 Vedic Period
- 2.1.3 1000–600 BCE (Mahajanapadas)
- 2.1.4 600–400 BCE (Sectarianism)
- 2.1.5 321–184 BCE (Maurya Empire)
- 2.1.6 184 BCE–100 CE (Early Middle Kingdoms Begin – The Golden Age)
- 2.1.7 100–300 (Cholas, Cheras, Pandavas and Kushan Empire)
- 2.1.8 300–550 (Gupta Empire)
- 2.1.9 600–900 (Late Middle Kingdoms – The Classical Age)
- 2.1.10 900–1100 (The Islamic Sultanates)
- 2.1.11 1100–1500 (Vijaynagara Empire and Delhi Sultanate)
- 2.1.12 1500–1800 (The Mughals,Rajput Kingdoms and Marahtha Confederacy Era)
- 2.2 Modern Indian philosophers
- 2.1 Ancient philosophers
- 3 Japanese philosophers
- 4 Korean philosophers
- 5 Tibetan philosophers
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Ancient Chinese philosophers
Before 256 BCE (until the end of the Zhou Dynasty)
- Guan Zhong (died in 645 BCE)
- Confucius (traditionally 551–479 BCE) — founder of Confucianism
- Sun Tzu (c. 544–c. 496 BCE) — military philosopher
- Laozi (probably 6th century BCE) — founder of Taoism
475–221 BCE (Warring States period)
- Gaozi (c. 420 BCE)
- Liezi (c. 440–c. 360 BCE)
- Mencius (most accepted dates: 372–289 BCE; other possible dates: 385–303 BCE or 302 BCE) — political philosopher, social contract
- Mozi (c. 470–c. 390 BCE) — political and religious philosopher
- Gongsun Longzi (fl. 300 BCE) — School of Names
- Xu Xing (c. 315 BCE)
- Hui Shi (4th century BCE)—School of Names
- Shang Yang (died 338 BCE) — Legalist bureaucrat
- Shen Buhai (died 337 BCE) — Legalist bureaucrat
- Shen Dao (c. 350–275 BCE)
- Song Xing (360–290 BCE)
- Yang Zhu (370–319 BCE)— Usually classified as a Hedonist
- Zhuang Zhou (Zhuangzi, c. 4th century BCE) — major Taoist philosopher
- Han Feizi (died 233 BCE) — totalistic legalism
- Xunzi (c.310–237 BCE) — Confucianist, pessimistic about human nature
- Zou Yan (305?–240? BCE)— School of Naturalists, Yin-Yang, Five Elements
- Zheng Xuan (127–200 CE)
- Jia Yi (201–169 BCE)
- Dong Zhongshu (c.176–c.104 BCE)
- He Yan (190–249 CE)
- Liu An (179–122 BCE)
- Wang Chong (27–97 CE)
- Yang Xiong (53 BCE–18 CE)
220 CE–907 CE (Three Kingdoms period to Tang Dynasty)
- Ruan Ji (210–263)
- Wang Bi (226–249) — commentator on the Tao Te Ching and the I Ching
- Guo Xiang (died 312)
- Zhi Dun (314–366)
- Sengzhao (384–414)
- Ge Hong (4th century)
- Zhiyi (538–597)
- Jizang (549–623)
- Huineng (638–713)
- Fazang (643–712)
- Li Ao (722–841)
- Han Yu (768–824)
- Zongmi (780–841)
- Linji Yixuan (died 866)
907–1368 (Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period to Yuan Dynasty)
- Chang Tsai (1020–1077)
- Cheng Hao (1032–1085) — established the Confucian "School of Mind"
- Cheng Yi (1033–1107)
- Zhou Dunyi (1017–1073)
- Hu Yuan (993–1059) — revived Confucianism
- Shao Yung (1011–1077)
- Zhu Xi (1130–1200) — thinker of the Confucianist "School of Principle"
- Hu-Hung (1100–1155)
- Lu Jiuyuan (1139–1193)
- Chang Hsueh-ch'eng (1738–1801)
- Ch'en Hsien-chang (1428–1500)
- Chiao Hung (1540–1620)
- Huang Zongxi (1610–1695)
- Kang Youwei (1858–1927)
- Liang Qichao (1873–1929)
- Liu Tsung-chou (1578–1645)
- Sun Yat-sen (1866–1925)
- Tai Chen (1724–1777)
- T'an Ssu-t'ung (1864–1898)
- Wang Fuzhi (1619–1692)
- Wang Yangming (1472–1529)
- Yen Yuan (1635–1704)
- Yü Cheng-hsieh (1775-1840) — prominent scholar and male feminist, philosopher, philologist, astrologer
Modern Chinese philosophers
- Ch'ien Mu (1895–1990)
- Thome H. Fang (1899–1976)
- Feng Youlan (1895–1990)
- Hsiung Shih-li (1885–1968)
- Hsu Fu-kuan (1903–1982)
- Hu Shih (1891–1962)
- Liang Shuming (1893–1988)
- Zhang Dongsun (1886–1973)
- Liu Shaoqi (1898–1969)
- Mao Zedong (1893–1976)
- Mou Tsung-san (1909–1995)
- T'ang Chun-i (1909–1978)
- Hao Wang (1921–1995)
3rd millennium - 2nd millennium BCE
- Krishna — the source of the wisdom and knowledge mentioned in Bhagavad Gita and not only limited to that; the one who Identified and shared Karma Yog, Bhakti Yog, Gyan Yog with Arjuna
- Parashara — writer of Viṣṇu Purāṇa.
- Vyasa — author of the Mahabharata, as well as a character in it.
- Rishi Narayana — seer of the Purusha Sukta of the Rig Veda.
- Seven Rishis — Atri, Bharadwaja, Gautama, Jamadagni, Kasyapa, Vasishtha, Viswamitra.
- Other Vedic Rishis — Gritsamada, Sandilya, Kanva etc.
- Rishaba — Rishi mentioned in Rig Veda and later in several Puranas, and believed by Jains to be the first official religious guru of Jainism, as accredited by later followers.
- Yajnavalkya — one of the Vedic sages, greatly influenced Buddhistic thought.
- Angiras — one of the seers of the Atharva Veda and author of Mundaka Upanishad.
1000–600 BCE (Mahajanapadas)
- Uddalaka Aruni — an Upanishadic sage who authored major portions of Chāndogya Upaniṣad.
- Ashvapati — a King in the Later Vedic age who authored Vaishvanara Vidya of Chāndogya Upaniṣad.
- Ashtavakra — an Upanishadic Sage mentioned in the Mahabharata, who authored Ashtavakra Gita.
- Parshva — a Jain guru.
600–400 BCE (Sectarianism)
- Pāṇini (Between 600-500 BCE) — made contributions to Philosophy of language and Sanskrit grammar.
- Siddhartha Gautama (c. 563–483 BCE) — founder of Buddhism.
- Mahavira (599–527 BCE) — heavily influenced Jainism, the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism.
- Badarayana (lived between 500 BCE and 400 BCE) — Author of Brahma Sutras.
- Kapila (c. 500 BCE) founder of Sankhya philosophy.
321–184 BCE (Maurya Empire)
- Shvetashvatara — Author of earliest textual exposition of a systematic philosophy of Shaivism.
- Chanakya (c. 350–275 BCE) — A pioneer in the field of economics and political science.
- Jaimini (c. 300-200 BCE) — Author of Purva Mimamsa Sutras.
- Aksapada Gautama (c. 2nd century BCE) — founder of Nyaya philosophy.
- Kanada - founder of Vaisheshika.
- Pingala - Renowned for his work on Combinatorics and Sanskrit prosody.
184 BCE–100 CE (Early Middle Kingdoms Begin – The Golden Age)
100–300 (Cholas, Cheras, Pandavas and Kushan Empire)
- Nagarjuna (c. 150–250) — founder of Madhyamaka Buddhism.
- Kundakunda (c. 2nd Century), exponent of Jain mysticism and Jain nayas.
- Umāsvāti or Umasvami (c. 2nd Century), author of first Jain work in Sanskrit Tattvārthasūtra.
300–550 (Gupta Empire)
- Vasubandhu (c. 4th century) — one of the main founders of the Yogacara school.
- Asanga (c. 4th century) — one of the main founders of the Yogacara school.
- Bodhidharma (c. 440–528) — founder of Zen Buddhism.
- Vatsyayana (c. 450–500) — author of commentary on Nyāya Sūtras.
- Bhartrhari (450–510) — contributed to lingusitic theory.
- Buddhaghosa (c. 5th century)
- Siddhasena Divākara (c. 5th Century) — Jain logician and author of important works in Sanskrit and Prakrit.
- Dignāga (c. 5th century) — one of the Buddhist founders of Indian logic.
- Uddyotakara (c. 6th–7th century) — Nyaya Philosopher.
600–900 (Late Middle Kingdoms – The Classical Age)
- Candrakirti (born c. 600) — Madhyamaka Buddhist
- Kumārila Bhaṭṭa (c. 7th century) — Mimansa Philosopher
- Udyanacharya (c. 7th century)— Nyaya Philosopher
- Prabhākara (c. 7th century) — Grammarian and Mimansa Philosopher
- Dharmakirti (c. 7th century)
- Gaudapadacharya (c. 7th century) — Advaita Philosopher
- Adi Shankara (c. 788–820) — Advaita Vedanta school
- Anandavardhana (c. 820–890) — Philosopher of Aesthetics
- Vasugupta (860-925) — Author of Shiva Sutras
- Vācaspati Miśra (c. 9th century) — Nyaya Philosopher
- Jayanta Bhatta (c. 9th century) — Nyaya Philosopher
900–1100 (The Islamic Sultanates)
- Abhinavagupta (c. 975–1025)
- Ramanuja (c. 1017–1137) — founder of Vishishtadvaita or Qualified Non-dualism.
1100–1500 (Vijaynagara Empire and Delhi Sultanate)
- Basaveshwara (1134–1196) — founder of Lingayatism
- Shri Madhvacharya (1238–1317)
- Gangeśa Upādhyāya (c. 13th century)
- Nimbarka (c. 13th century)
- Mādhava Vidyāranya (c. 1268–1386)
- Vyasatirtha (c. 1460–1539)
- Raghunatha Siromani (c. 1477–1547) — founder of Navya Nyāya philosophy.
- Vallabhacharya (c. 1479–1531)
- Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (c. 1486–1534)
1500–1800 (The Mughals,Rajput Kingdoms and Marahtha Confederacy Era)
- Nanak (c. 1469-1539) — Bhakti Philosopher, Founder of Sikhism
- Madhusūdana Sarasvatī (c. 1540-1640)
- Vijñānabhikṣu (c. 1550-1600) — synthesized Vedānta, Sāṃkhya, and Yoga into avibhagādvaita ("indistinguishable non-dualism").
- Gadadhara Bhattacharya (17th century) — Nyaya philosopher
Modern Indian philosophers
1800–1947 (Colonial and Postcolonial Era)
- Devendranath Tagore (1817–1905)
- Narayana Guru (1856–1928)
- Rabindranath Tagore (1861–1941)
- Brajendranath Seal (1864–1938)
- Sri Aurobindo (1872–1950)
- Allama Iqbal (1877–1938)
- Ramana Maharshi (1879–1950)
- Nigamananda (1880–1935)
- Vinayak Damodar Savarkar (1883–1966)
- Gopinath Kaviraj (1887–1976)
- Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1888–1975)
- Nolini Kanta Gupta (1889–1983)
- Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (1891–1956)
- Jiddu Krishnamurti (1895–1986)
- A. C. Bhaktivedanta (1896–1977) — founder/acharya of ISKCON (Hare Krishna movement)
- Nisargadatta Maharaj (1897–1981)
- Haridas Chaudhuri (1913–1975)
- U. G. Krishnamurti (1918–2007)
- Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar (1921–1990)
- Swami Krishnananda (1922–2001)
- Osho (1931–1990)
- Amartya Sen (born 1933)
- Bimal Krishna Matilal (1935–1991)
- Pandurang Shastri Athavale (1920–2003)
Ancient Japanese philosophers
Until 1185 CE (until the end of the Heian Period)
1185–1333 (Kamakura Period)
1333–1867 (Muromachi Period to Edo Period)
- Zeami Motokiyo (c. 1363–c. 1443)
- Fujiwara Seika (1561–1619)
- Miyamoto Musashi (1584–1645)
- Kumazawa Banzan (1619–1691)
- Ito Jinsai (1627–1705)
- Kaibara Ekiken (1630–1714)
- Ogyū Sorai (1666–1728)
- Hakuin Ekaku (1686–1769)
- Tominaga Nakamoto (1715–1746)
- Motoori Norinaga (1730–1801)
- Nishi Amane (1829–1897)
Modern Japanese philosophers
- Nishida Kitaro (1870–1945)
- D. T. Suzuki (1870–1966)
- Tanabe Hajime (1885–1962)
- Kuki Shūzō (1888–1941)
- Watsuji Tetsuro (1889–1960)
- Sakurazawa Yukikazu (George Ohsawa) (1893–1966)
- Miki Kiyoshi (1897–1945)
- Nishitani Keiji (1900–1990)
Ancient Korean philosophers
Until 676 CE (until the end of the Three Kingdoms period)
- Seungrang (c. 6th century)
676–935 (Unified Silla period)
935–1392 (Goryeo period)
1392–1910 (Joseon period)
- Jeong Do-jeon (1342–1398)
- Seo Gyeong-deok (1489–1546)
- Yi Eon-jeok (1491–1553)
- Jo Sik (1501–1572)
- Yi Hwang (1501–1570)
- Yi I (1536–1584)
- Jeong Je-du (1649–1736)
- Jeong Yak-yong (1762–1836)
- Kim Jeong-hui (1786–1856)
- Choi Han-gi (1803–1879)
- Choi Je-u (1824–1864)
- Yi Je-ma (1838–1900)
Modern Korean philosophers
- Sa skya pandita (1182–1251)
- Je Tsongkhapa (1357–1419)
- Gyeltsap Darma Rinchen (1364–1432)
- Kaydrup glek belsangbo (1385–1438)
- Mikyo Dorje (1507–1554)
- "Daily Invocations" by Swami Krishnananda
- P. 285, Indian sociology through Ghurye, a dictionary by S. Devadas Pillai