This is a
timeline of Irish history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Ireland. To read about the background to these events, see History of Ireland. See also the list of Lords and Kings of Ireland and Irish heads of state and the list of years in Ireland.
Mesolithic and neolithic periods [ edit ]
c. 16,000 BC
Last Glacial Maximum, Ireland is covered in ice sheets
c. 12,000 BC
A narrow channel forms between
Ireland and southwest Scotland [1 ]
c. 8000 BC
Mesolithic hunter-gatherers migrate to Ireland
c. 6500 BC
Mesolithic hunter-gatherers occupy sites such as that at
Mount Sandel in Northern Ireland
c. 4000 BC
Agriculture (including the keeping of livestock, and crop farming) has its beginnings in Ireland, at sites such as the
Céide Fields in Mayo
c. 3500 BC
Neolithic peoples of the Boyne Valley build a complex of chamber tombs, standing stones and enclosures over a period of hundreds of years. ( Newgrange itself is dated to 3300-2900 BC).
Bronze and Iron ages [ edit ]
c. 2000 BC
Bronze Age technologies start to arrive in Ireland, including the moulding of Ballybeg type flat axes, and the beginnings of copper mining at Mount Gabriel in Co. Cork, and Ross Island in Co. Kerry. [2 ]
c. 500 BC
Iron Age in Ireland, Celtic influence in art, language and culture begins to take hold. [3 ]
c. 300 BC
Clonycavan Man, according to radiocarbon dating
c. 200 BC
La Tène influence from continental Europe influences carvings on the Turoe stone, Bullaun, Co. Galway. [4 ]
c. 100 BC
Additional works expand the site at
Emain Macha (first occupied in the neolithic period)
1st century [ edit ]
2nd century [ edit ]
c. 140 AD
Ptolemy's Geographia provides the earliest known written reference to habitation in the Dublin area, referring to a settlement in the area as Eblana Civitas
3rd century [ edit ]
4th century [ edit ]
c. 300 AD
Pollen data records from the late Iron Age indicate a resurgence in human activity after a
relatively stagnant period [9 ]
5th century [ edit ]
6th century [ edit ]
7th century [ edit ]
8th century [ edit ]
9th century [ edit ]
10th century [ edit ]
11th century [ edit ]
12th century [ edit ]
13th century [ edit ]
14th century [ edit ]
15th century [ edit ]
16th century [ edit ]
Thomas FitzGerald, the 10th Earl of Kildare, publicly renounced his allegiance to Henry VIII of England.
FitzGerald was hanged, drawn, and quartered at Tyburn.
Irish parliament passed the Crown of Ireland Act, which established a Kingdom of Ireland to be ruled by Henry VIII and his successors.
Pope Pius V issued a papal bull, , declaring Regnans in Excelsis Elizabeth I of England a heretic and releasing her subjects from any allegiance to her.
The Annals of the Four Masters record a drought, in which no rain fell "from Bealtaine to Lammas" (May 1 to August 1), which resulted in disease and plague.
The Annals of the Four Masters record that the
Great Comet of 1577 "was wondered at by all universally".
: Second Desmond Rebellion James FitzMaurice FitzGerald, a cousin of the 15th Earl of Desmond, landed a small force of rebels at Dingle.
Nine Years' War commences in Ulster, as Hugh O'Neill and Red Hugh O'Donnell rebel against Elizabeth I's authority in Ulster.
17th century [ edit ]
18th century [ edit ]
19th century [ edit ]
20th century [ edit ]
Dublin businessman, William Martin Murphy, fired forty workers he suspected of belonging to the Irish Transport and General Workers' Union (ITGWU).
: The Dublin Lockout ITGWU went on strike.
Dublin Lockout: The Trades Union Congress (TUC) rejected a call by the ITGWU to go on strike in their support. The strikers quit the union and returned to work.
, offering Government of Ireland Act Irish Home Rule, passed but application simultaneously postponed for the duration of World War I. [27 ]
: The Easter Rising Irish Republican Brotherhood led an action which seized key government buildings in Dublin, and issued the Proclamation of the Irish Republic.
Easter Rising: The leader of the uprising ordered his followers to surrender.
Acting on a resolution of Dublin Corporation, the Lord Mayor convenes a conference at the
Mansion House to devise plans to resist conscription.
general election returns a majority for Sinn Féin.
First Dáil of the Irish Republic meets and issues a Declaration of Independence from the UK.
: Volunteers of the Irish War of Independence Army of the Irish Republic kill two members of the Royal Irish Constabulary in what is considered to be the first act of the War of Independence.
Northern Ireland is established.
Irish War of Independence: The War of Independence ends when negotiations between the British government and representatives of the de facto Irish Republic conclude with the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty and the creation of the Irish Free State
: Bombardment by Irish Civil War Michael Collins of Anti-Treaty forces occupying the Four Courts marks the start of the Irish Civil War
Irish Civil War: IRA Chief of Staff Frank Aiken orders volunteers to dump arms - effectively ending the Civil War.
Constitution of Ireland comes into force replacing the Irish Free State with a new state called " 'Éire', or, in the English language, 'Ireland'"
Republic of Ireland Act is signed by the President of Ireland abolishing the remaining roles of the British monarch in the government of the Irish state.
Ireland joins the United Nations along with 16 other sovereign states.
Troops are deployed on the streets of Northern Ireland, marking the start of
The Parliament of Northern Ireland is prorogued (and abolished the following year).
Ireland joins the European Community along with Britain and Denmark.
Northern Ireland Assembly is elected.
Northern Ireland Executive takes office, but resigns in May as a result of the Ulster Workers' Council strike. The Assembly is suspended and later abolished.
The governments of Ireland and the United Kingdom sign the
Mary Robinson becomes the first female President of Ireland.
Ireland enters the
Celtic Tiger period which marks great economic growth for Ireland - which continues until 2007.
Belfast Agreement is signed. As a result, the Northern Ireland Assembly is elected, to which powers are devolved in 1999 and a power-sharing Executive takes office.
Ireland yields its official currency the
Irish pound and adopts the Euro.
21st century [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ Bradley, Richard (2007). The prehistory of Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University Press. p. 8. ISBN 0-521-84811-3.
^ O'Brian, William (2005). Ross Island: Mining, Metal and Society in Early Ireland. Oxbow books. ISBN 978-0-9535620-3-9.
^ Johnston, Wesley; Abbot, Patrick. "Celtic Ireland in the Iron Age". History of Ireland. WesleyJohnston.com . Retrieved . 17 November 2012
^ Moody, T.W; Martin, F.X; Byrne, F.J, eds. (1982). A New History of Ireland VIII: A Chronology of Irish History to 1976 - A Companion to Irish History Part I. Oxford Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-821744-7.
^ Geoffrey Keating, Foras Feasa ar Éirinn 1.42, 43, 44, 45, 46
^ Francis J. Byrne, Irish Kings and High Kings, Four Courts press, 2001, p. 65-69
^ . Wikisource - Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 12 Wikisource.
^ Welch, Robert (2003). The Concise Oxford Companion to Irish Literature. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192800800.
^ Charles-Edwards, Thomas M (2000). Early Christian Ireland. Cambridge University Press. p. 145. ISBN 978-0521037167.
^ Foster, RF (1989). The Oxford Illustrated History of Ireland. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
^ Annals. Annals of Ulster and Annals of the Four Masters. Palladius, having been consecrated by Celestine, bishop of the city of Rome, is sent to Ireland [...] in the eighth year of Theodosius.
^ . Annals of Ulster - U432 Annals of Ulster . Retrieved . November 17, 2012 Year U432: Patrick arrived in Ireland in the ninth year of the reign of Theodosius the Less and in the first year of the episcopate of Xistus, 42nd bishop of the Roman Church. So Bede, Maxcellinus and Isidore compute in their chronicles.
^ R. B. Stothers (26 January 1984). "Mystery cloud of AD 536". Nature magazine. pp. 307, 344–345. doi: 10.1038/307344a0 . Retrieved . 17 November 2012
^ . Annals of Ulster - Part 105 Annals of Ulster . Retrieved . November 17, 2012 U536.3 Failure of bread
^ a b Duffy, S (2005). The Concise History of Ireland. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan. ISBN 9780717138104.
^ . Annals of the Four Masters - Part 49 Annals of the Four Masters . Retrieved . November 17, 2012
^ Weston Joyce, Patrick (1903). . Longmans. Medicine and Medical Doctors
^ Ó Corráin, Donnchadh. "Vikings & Ireland" (PDF). Cork, Ireland: University College Cork . Retrieved . 17 November 2012
^ Ó Corráin, Donnchadh (1972). Ireland Before the Normans. The Gill history of Ireland. Gill and MacMillan.
^ . Wikisource - Treaty of Windsor Wikisource. "Text reads: This is the agreement which was made at Windsor in the octaves of Michaelmas [October 6] in the year of Our Lord 1175"
^ . Annals of the Four Masters - Part 9 Annals of the Four Masters . Retrieved . November 17, 2012 Great heat and drought prevailed in this Summer, so that people crossed the beds of the principal rivers of Ireland with dry feet. The reaping of the corn crops of Ireland was going on twenty days before Lammas 1 August, and the trees were scorched by the heat of the sun.
^ Moody, TW & Martin, FX (eds) (1967). The Course of Irish History. Cork, Ireland: The Mercier Press. p. 370.
^ . Annals of the Four Masters - Part 10 Annals of the Four Masters . Retrieved . November 17, 2012 A wonderful animal was sent to Ireland by the King of England. She resembled a mare, and was of a yellow colour, with the hoofs, of a cow, a long neck, a very large head, a large tail, which was ugly and scant of hair. She had a saddle of her own. Wheat and salt were her usual food. She used to draw the largest sled-burden by her tail. She used to kneel when passing under any doorway, however high, and also to let her rider mount.
^ . Annals of the Four Masters - Part 12 Annals of the Four Masters . Retrieved . November 17, 2012 There was an earthquake at Sliabh Gamh, by which a hundred persons were destroyed, among whom was the son of Manus Crossagh O'Hara. Many horses and cows were also killed by it, and much putrid fish was thrown up; and a lake, in which fish is now caught, sprang up in the place.
^ . Annals of the Four Masters - Part 13 Annals of the Four Masters . Retrieved . November 17, 2012 Great famine prevailed through all Ireland in this and the following year, so that people ate of food unbecoming to mention, and never before heard of as having been introduced on human dishes.
^ Vaughan, W.E; Fitzpatrick, A.J, eds. (1978). Irish Historical Statistics, Population, 1821/1971. Royal Irish Academy. ISBN 0901714100.
^ Cottrell, Peter (2009). The War for Ireland, 1913-1923. Oxford: Osprey. pp. 14–15. ISBN 978-1-84603-9966.
^ "Ireland becomes first country to approve same-sex marriage by popular vote". Irish Times. 24 May 2015.