Timeline of LGBT history
|Part of a series on|
The following is a timeline of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) history.
Before the Common Era
9th millennium BCE – 5th millennium BCE
100th century BCE – 50th century BCE
- c. 9,600 BCE – c. 5,000 BCE – Mesolithic rock art in Sicily depicts phallic male figures in pairs that have been interpreted variously, including as hunters, acrobats, religious initiates, and depictions of male homosexual intercourse.
9th millennium BCE
90th century BCE
- c. 9000 BCE – The Ain Sakhri lovers is sculpted, the oldest known representation of two persons engaging in sexual intercourse. The gender of both individuals in the sculpture is unknown.
8th millennium BCE – 2nd millennium BCE
70th century BCE – 17th century BCE
- c. 7,000 BCE – c. 1700 BCE – Among the sexual depictions in Neolithic and Bronze Age drawings and figurines from the Mediterranean are, as one author describes it, a "third sex" human figure having female breasts and male genitals or without distinguishing sex characteristics. In Neolithic Italy, female images are found in a domestic context, while images that combine sexual characteristics appear in burials or religious settings. In Neolithic Greece and Cyprus, figures are often dual-sexed or without identifying sexual characteristics.
3rd millennium BCE
29th century BCE – 25th century BCE
- c. 2900 BCE – c. 2500 BCE – A burial of a suburb of Prague, Czech Republic, a male is buried in the outfit usually reserved for women. Archaeologists speculate that the burial corresponds to a transgender person or someone of the third sex.
24th century BCE
- c. 2400 BCE – Khnumhotep and Niankhkhnum are believed to be the first recorded same-sex couple in history.
23rd century BCE or 23rd century BCE – 22nd century BCE
- 2284 BCE – 2246 BCE or 2184 BCE – Pepi II Neferkare, who ruled the Kingdom of Egypt as an absolute monarch under the title of Pharaoh of Egypt, is believed to have had a homosexual interpretation around nocturnal visits to his General Sasenet.
2nd millennium BCE
18th century BCE
- c. 1775 BCE – c. 1761 BCE – During the reign of King Zimri-Lim of the Kingdom of Mari, he is recorded to have male lovers.
15th century BCE – 12th century BCE
- c. 1500 BCE – c. 1101 BCE – The Code of Assura from either the Old Assyrian Empire or the Middle Assyrian Empire prescribes the following on male rape:
"If a man tells another man, either privately or in a brawl, “Your wife is promiscuous; I will bring charges against her myself,” but he is unable to substantiate the charge, and cannot prove it, he is to be caned, be sentenced to a month’s hard labor for the king, be cut off, and pay one talent of lead."— Code of Assura, §18
"If a man has secretly started a rumor about his neighbor saying, “He has allowed men to have sex with him,” or in a quarrel has told him in the presence of others, “Men have sex with you,” and then, “I will bring charges against you myself,” but is then unable to substantiate the charge, and cannot prove it, that man is to be caned, be sentenced to a month’s hard labor for the king, be cut off, and pay one talent of lead."— Code of Assura, §19
"If a man has had sex with his neighbor he has been charged and convicted, he is to be considered defiled and made into a eunuch."— Code of Assura, §20
"If a man violates his own mother, it is a capital crime. If a man violates his daughter, it is a capital crime. If a man violates his son, it is capital crime."— Code of Assura, §189
1st millennium BCE
10th century BCE – 6th century BCE
- c. 1000 BCE – c. 500 BCE – The Vendidad dates from this period and within the text it states the following:
"Ahura Mazda answered: 'The man that lies with mankind as man lies with womankind, or as woman lies with mankind, is the man that is a Daeva; this one is the man that is a worshipper of the Daevas, that is a male paramour of the Daevas, that is a female paramour of the Daevas, that is a wife to the Daeva; this is the man that is as bad as a Daeva, that is in his whole being a Daeva; this is the man that is a Daeva before he dies, and becomes one of the unseen Daevas after death: so is he, whether he has lain with mankind as mankind, or as womankind."
7th century BCE
- c. 700 BCE – The custom of castrating homosexual (and straight) slaves and house servants is introduced into Anshan from conquered territories of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and the Median Empire.
- c. 630 BCE – Dorian aristocrats in Crete adopt formal relations between adult aristocrats and adolescent boys; an inscription from Crete is the oldest record of the social institution of paiderastia among the Greeks (see Cretan pederasty). Marriage between men in Greece was not legally recognized, but men might form lifelong relationships originating in paiderastia ("pederasty," without the pejorative connotations of the English word). These partnerships were not dissimilar to heterosexual marriages except that the older person served as educator or mentor.
- Sappho, a Greek lyric poet born on the island of Lesbos, was born between 630–612 BCE, and died around 570 BCE. The Alexandrians included her in the list of nine lyric poets. She was famous for her lesbian themes, giving her name and that of her homeland to the very definition of lesbianism (and the lesser used term of "sapphism"). She was exiled c. 600 BCE unrelated to lesbianism. She was later permitted to return.
6th century BCE
- c. 540 – 530 BCE – Wall paintings from the Etruscan Tomb of the Bulls (Italian: Tomba dei Tori), found in 1892 in the Monterozzi necropolis, Tarquinia, depict homosexual intercourse. The tomb is named for the pair of bulls who watch human sex scenes, one between a man and a woman, and the other between two men; these may be apotropaic, or embody aspects of the cycle of regeneration and the afterlife. The three-chamber tomb was inscribed with the name of the deceased for whom it was originally built, Aranth Spurianas or Arath Spuriana, and also depicts Achilles killing the Trojan prince Troilus, along with indications of Apollo cult.
- 521 – The Achaemenid Empire crucifies Polycrates and suppresses pederasty in Samos, which causes pederastic poets Ibycus and Anacreon to flee Samos.
6th century BCE – 4th century
- c. 538 – 330 BCE – The Book of Leviticus is written during this period and within the text it states the following:
"You shall not lie with a male as with a woman; it is an abomination."
"If a man lies with a male as with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination; they shall be put to death; their blood is upon them."
5th century BCE
- c. 486 BCE – King Darius I adopts the Holiness Code of Leviticus for Persian Jews of the Achaemenid Empire, enacting the first ever state sanctioned death penalty for male same-sex relationships.
- c. 440 BCE – Herodotus publishes Histories, stating in the book that Persians welcomed foreign customs, including adopting pederasty from the Greeks.
4th century BCE
- 385 BCE – Plato publishes Symposium in which Phaedrus, Eryximachus, Aristophanes and other Greek intellectuals argue that love between males is the highest form, while sex with women is lustful and utilitarian. Socrates, however, differs. He demonstrates extreme self-control when seduced by the beautiful Alcibiades.
- 350 BCE – Plato publishes Laws in which the Athenian stranger and his companions criticize homosexuality as being lustful and wrong for society because it does not further the species and may lead to irresponsible citizenry.
- 346 BCE - Aeschines' speech against Timarchus, who was on trial for male prostitution, reveals Athenian attitudes to homosexuality.
- 338 BCE – The Sacred Band of Thebes, a previously undefeated elite battalion made up of one hundred and fifty pederastic couples, is destroyed by the forces of Philip II of Macedon who bemoans their loss and praises their honour.
- 330 BCE – Bagoas, favorite catamite to King Darius III, becomes catamite to King Alexander III of Macedon.
3rd or 2nd century BCE
- 227 BCE, 226 BCE, 216 BCE, or 149 BCE – During the Roman Republic, the Lex Scantinia imposed penalties on those who committed a sex crime (stuprum) against a freeborn youth; infrequently mentioned or enforced, it may also have been used to prosecute male citizens who willingly took the passive role in homosexual relations. It is unclear whether the penalty was death or a fine. For an adult male citizen to desire and engage in same-sex relations was considered natural and socially acceptable, as long as his partner was a male prostitute, slave or infamis, a person excluded from the legal protections accorded a citizen. In the Imperial period, the Lex Scantinia was revived by Domitian as part of his program of judicial and moral reform.
1st century BCE
- c. 90s – 80s BCE – Quintus Lutatius Catulus was among a circle of poets who made short, light Hellenistic poems fashionable in the late Republic. Both his surviving epigrams address a male as an object of desire, signaling a new homoerotic aesthetic in Roman culture.
- 57 – 54 BCE – Catullus writes the Carmina, including love poems to Juventius, boasting of sexual prowess with youth and violent invectives against "passive" homosexuals.
- c. 50 BCE – The Lex Julia de vi publica, a Roman Republic law, was passed to define rape as forced sex against "boy, woman, or anyone" and the rapist was subject to execution. Men who had been raped were exempt from the loss of legal or social standing suffered by those who submitted their bodies to use for the pleasure of others; a male prostitute or entertainer was infamis and excluded from the legal protections extended to citizens in good standing. As a matter of law, a slave could not be raped; he was considered property and not legally a person. The slave's owner, however, could prosecute the rapist for property damage.
- 46 – Lucius Antonius, the brother of Mark Antony, accuses Gaius Octavius for having "given himself to Aulus Hirtius in Spain for three hundred thousand sesterces."
- 44 – After the assassination of Dictator and Consul Gaius Julius Caesar, Gaius Octavius is publicly named in Caesar's will as his adopted son and heir. According to Mark Antony, he charged that Octavius had earned his adoption by Caesar through sexual favors.
- 42 – 39 BCE – Virgil writes the Eclogues, with Eclogue 2 a notable example of homoerotic Latin literature.
- 27 BCE – The Roman Empire is established under the rule of Augustus. The first recorded same-sex marriage occurs during his reign, homosexual prostitution is taxed, and if someone is caught being sexually passive with another male, a Roman citizen could lose his citizenship.
- 26, 25 and 18 BCE – Tibullus writes his elegies, with references to homosexuality.
- 5 –15 CE – The Warren Cup is made – a Roman silver drinking cup decorated in relief with two images of male same-sex acts.
- 37 – 41 – Under the reign of Roman emperor Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, taxation on prostitution is enacted throughout the Roman Empire. Caligula also either exiled or contemplated exiling spintriae from Rome. Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus reports that Caligula could only be restrained with difficulty, after lengthy pleadings, from having the spintriae thrown into the sea.
- 54 – Nero becomes Emperor of Rome. Nero married two men, Pythagoras and Sporus, in legal ceremonies, with Sporus accorded the regalia worn by the wives of the Caesars. Juvenal and Martial note (with disapproval) that male couples are having traditional marriage ceremonies.
- 79 – The eruption of Mount Vesuvius buries the coastal resorts of Pompeii and Herculaneum, preserving a rich collection of Roman erotic art, including representations of male-male and female-female.
- 98 – Trajan, one of the most beloved of Roman emperors, begins his reign. Trajan was well known for his homosexuality and fondness for young males. This was used to advantage by the king of Edessa, Abgar VII, who, after incurring the anger of Trajan for some misdeed, sent his handsome young son to make his apologies, thereby obtaining pardon.
- Publius Cornelius Tacitus writes Germania. In Germania, Tacitus writes that the punishment for those who engage in "bodily infamy" among the Germanic peoples is to "smother in mud and bogs under an heap of hurdles." Tacitus also writes in Germania that the Germanic warrior-chieftains and their retinues would "in times of peace, beauty, and in times of war, a defense". Tacitus later wrote in Germania that priests of the Swabian sub-tribe, the Naharvali or Nahanarvali, who "dress as women" to perform their priestly duties.
- c. 200 – The Outlines of Pyrrhonism is published. In the book, Sextus Empiricus states that "amongst the Persians it is the habit to indulge in intercourse with males, but amongst the Romans it is forbidden by law to do so". He also stated in the book that "amongst us sodomy is regarded as shameful or rather illegal, but by the Germanic they say, it is not looked on as shameful but as a customary thing. It is said, too, that in Thebes long ago this practice was not held to be shameful, and they say that Meriones the Cretan was so called by way of indicating the Cretans' customed and some refer to this the burning love of Achilles for Patroclus. And what wonder, when both the adherents of the Cynic philosophy and the followers of Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes and Chrysippus, declare that this practice is indifferent?".
2nd century – 3rd century
- 193 – 211 – Roman emperor Septimius Severus prescribed capital punishment for homosexual rape throughout the Roman Empire.
- 218 – 222 – Roman emperor Elagabalus's reign begins. At different times, Elagabalus marries five women and a man named Zoticus, an athlete from Smyrna, in a lavish public ceremony at Rome; but the Syrian's most stable relationship is with the chariot driver Hierocles, and Cassius Dio says Elagabalus delighted in being called Hierocles' mistress, wife, and queen. The emperor wears makeup and wigs, prefers to be called a lady and not a lord, and offers vast sums to any physician who can provide them with a vagina; for this reason, the emperor is seen by some writers as an early transgender figure and one of the first on record as seeking sex reassignment surgery.
- 222 – 235 – Roman emperor Severus Alexander deported homosexuals who were active in public life. According to Christius, Alexander increased the penalties for homosexuality throughout the Roman Empire. According to Augustan History, Alexander decreed that the taxes on pimps, prostitutes, and exoleti should not be deposited in the public purse; instead, he ordered that these taxes should be used for restoring the theatre of Marcellus, the Circus Maximus, the amphitheatre, and the stadium build by Domitian in the Campus Martius. According to Ælius Lampridus, Alexander even contemplated making male prostitution illegal.[self-published source]
- 244 – 249 – Roman emperor Marcus Julius Philippus either attempted to or did outlaw male prostitution throughout the Roman Empire.
- 305 – 306 – Council of Elvira (now Granada, Spain). This council was representative of the Western European Church and among other things, it barred pederasts the right to Communion.
- 314 – Council of Ancyra (now Ankara, Turkey). This council was representative of the Eastern European Church and it excluded the Sacraments for 15 years to unmarried men under the age of 20 who were caught in homosexual acts, and excluded the man for life if he was married and over the age of 50.
- 306 – 337 – The Life of Constantine mentions a temple at Aphaca in Phoenicia, on a remote summit of Mount Libanus, being used by effeminate homosexual pagan priests, and says that this temple was destroyed by the command of Roman emperor Constantine I. It also states that Constantine passed a law ordering the extermination of effeminate homosexual pagan priests in Egypt.
- 337 – Constantius II and Constans I become the 62nd Emperor of the Roman Empire. During their reigns, they both engaged in same-sex relationships.
- 342 – The Roman emperors Constantius II and Constans I issue the following imperial decree for the Roman Empire:
"When a man marries in the manner of a woman, a woman about to renounce men, what does he wish, when sex has lost all its significance; when the crime is one which it is not profitable to know; when Venus is changed to another form; when love is sought and not found? We order the statutes to arise, the laws to be armed with an avenging sword, that those infamous persons who are now, or who hereafter may be, guilty may be subjected to exquisite punishment."— Theodosian Code 9.7.3
- 350 – Roman emperor Constans I is assassinated.
- 361 – Roman emperor Constantius II dies.
- c. 380s – Ammianus Marcellinus publishes Res Gestae. In Res Gestae, Marcellinus writes that the Persians "are extravagantly given to venery, and are hardly contented with a multitude of concubines; they are far from immoral relations with boys." Also in Res Gestae, Marcellinus writes that "We have learned that these Taifali were a shameful folk, so sunken in a life of shame and obscenity, that in their country the boys are coupled with the men in a union of unmentionable lust, to consume the flower of their youth in the polluted intercourse of those paramours."
- 390 – The Roman emperors Valentinian II, Theodosius I and Arcadius issue the following imperial decrees for the Roman Empire:
"We cannot tolerate the city of Rome, mother of all virtues, being stained any longer by the contamination of male effeminacy, nor can we allow that agrarian strength, which comes down from the founders, to be softly broken by the people, thus heaping shame on the centuries of our founders and the princes, Orientius, dearly and beloved and favoured. Your laudable experience will therefore punish among revenging flames, in the presence of the people, as required by the grossness of the crime, all those who have given themselves up to the infamy of condemning their manly body, transformed into a feminine one, to bear practices reserved for the other sex, which have nothing different from women, carried forth – we are ashamed to say – from male brothels, so that all may know that the house of the manly soul must be sacrosanct to all, and that he who basely abandons his own sex cannot aspire to that of another without undergoing the supreme punishment."— Collatio Mosaic and Roman Laws
"All persons who have the shameful custom of condemning a man's body, acting the part of a woman's to the sufferance of alien sex (for they appear not to be different from women), shall expiate a crime of this kind in avenging flames in the sight of the people."— Theodosian Code 9.7.6
- 390 – 405 – Nonnus' Dionysiaca is the last known piece of Western literature for nearly 1,000 years to celebrate homosexual passion.
- 506 – The Visigothic Code of Alaric II decreed burning at the stake for same-sex couples in the Visigothic Kingdom. Other punishments included public ostracism, shaving of the head, whipping, and castration.
- 533 – The Body of Civil Law goes into effect in the Byzantine Empire, enacting the following:
"In criminal cases public prosecutions take place under various statutes, including the Lex Julia de adulteris, "...which punishes with death, not only those who violate the marriages of others, but also those who dare to commit acts of vile lust with men."
- 576 – Death of Anastasia the Patrician who left life as a lady-in-waiting in the court of Justinian I in Constantinople to spend twenty-eight years (until death) dressed as a male monk in seclusion in Egypt, and has been adopted by today's LGBT community as an example of a "transgender" saint.
- 589 – The Visigothic kingdom in Spain, is converted from Arianism to Catholicism. This conversion leads to a revision of the law to conform to those of Catholic countries. These revisions include provisions for the persecution of gays and Jews.
- 654 – The Visigothic Kingdom criminalized sodomy and the punishment for it is castration. This is the first European secular law to criminalize sodomy.
- 693 – In Iberia, Visigothic ruler Egica of Hispania and Septimania, demanded that a Church council confront the occurrence of homosexuality in the Kingdom. The Sixteenth Council of Toledo issued a statement in response, which was adopted by Egica, stating that homosexual acts be punished by castration, exclusion from Communion, hair shearing, one hundred lashes, and banishment into exile.
- c. 750 – With the creation of the Abbasid Caliphate, Muslim poets writing emerges describing homoerotic verse to beautiful youths, such as Persian-Arab poet Abu Nuwas.
- 800 – 900 – During the Carolingian Renaissance, Alcuin of York, an abbot, wrote love poems to other monks in spite of numerous Church laws condemning homosexuality.
- 1007 – The Decretum of Burchard of Worms equates homosexual acts with sexual transgressions such as adultery and argues, therefore, that it should have the same penance (generally fasting).
- 1051 – Peter Damian writes the treatise Liber Gomorrhianus, in which he argues for stricter punishments for clerics failing their duty against "vices of nature."
- 1061 – Pedro Dias and Muño Vandilas are married by a priest at a chapel in the Kingdom of León.
- 1100 – Ivo of Chartres tries to convince Pope Urban II about homosexuality risks. Ivo accused Rodolfo, archbishop of Tours, of convincing the King of France to appoint a certain Giovanni as bishop of Orléans. Giovanni was well known as Rodolfo's lover and had relations with the king himself, a fact of which the king openly boasted. Pope Urban, however, didn't consider this as a decisive fact: Giovanni ruled as bishop for almost forty years, and Rodolfo continued to be well known and respected.
- 1102 – The Council of London took measures to ensure that the English public knew that homosexuality was sinful.
- 1120 – Baldwin II of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, convenes the Council of Nablus to address the vices within the Kingdom. The Council calls for the burning of individuals who perpetually commit sodomy.
- 1140 – The Italian Monk Gratian compiles his work Concordia discordantium canonum in which he argues that sodomy is the worst of all the sexual sins because it involves using the member in an unnatural way.
- 1164 – The English monk, Aelred of Rievaulx writes his De spiritali amicitia giving love between persons of the same gender a profound expression.
- 1179 – The Third Lateran Council of Rome issues a decree for the excommunication of sodomites.
- 1232 – Pope Gregory IX starts the Inquisition in the Italian City-States. Some cities called for banishment and/or amputation as punishments for 1st- and 2nd-offending sodomites and burning for the 3rd or habitual offenders.
- 1260 – In the Kingdom of France, first-offending sodomites lost their testicles, second offenders lost their member, and third offenders were burned. Women caught in same-sex acts could be mutilated and executed as well.
- 1265 – Thomas Aquinas argues that sodomy is second only to bestiality in the ranking of sins of lust.
- 1283 – The Coutumes de Beauvaisis dictats that convicted sodomites should not only be burned but also that their property would be forfeited.
- 1308–14 – Philip IV of France orders the arrest of all Templars on charges of heresy, idolatry and sodomy, but these charges are only a pretext to seize the riches of the order. Order leaders are sentenced to death and burned at the stake on 18 March 1314 by Notre Dame.
- 1321 – Dante's Inferno places sodomites in the Seventh Circle.
- 1327 – The deposed King Edward II of England is killed, allegedly by forcing a red-hot poker through his rectum. Edward II had a history of conflict with the nobility, who repeatedly banished his former lover Piers Gaveston, the Earl of Cornwall.
- 1347 – Rolandino Roncaglia is tried for sodomy, an event that caused a sensation in Italy. He confessed he "had never had sexual intercourse, neither with his wife nor with any other woman, because he had never felt any carnal appetite, nor could he ever have an erection of his virile member". After his wife died of plague, Rolandino started to prostitute himself, wearing female dresses because "since he has female look, voice and movements – although he does not have a female orifice, but has a male member and testicles – many persons considered him to be a woman because of his appearance".
- 1370s – Jan van Aersdone and Willem Case were two men executed in Antwerp in the 1370s. The charge against them was same sex intercourse which was illegal and strenuously vilified in medieval Europe. Aersdone and Case stand out because records of their names have survived. One other couple still known by name from the 14th century were Giovanni Braganza and Nicoleto Marmagna of Venice.
- 1395 – John Rykener, known also as Johannes Richer and Eleanor, was a transvestite prostitute working mainly in London (near Cheapside), but also active in Oxford. He was arrested in 1395 for cross-dressing and interrogated.
- 1424 – Bernardino of Siena preached for three days in Florence, Italy, against homosexuality and other forms of lust, culminating in a pyre in which burned cosmetics, wigs and all sorts of articles for the beautification. He calls for sodomites to be ostracized from society, and these sermons alongside measures by other clergy of the time strengthens opinion against homosexuals and encourages the authorities to increase the measures of persecution
- 1431 – Nezahualcoyotl, Tlatoani of Texcoco, enacted laws making homosexuality a capital punishment by hanging in Texcoco.
- 1432 – In Florence the first organization specifically intended to prosecute sodomy is established, the "Night Officials", which over the next 70 years arrest about 10,000 men and boys, succeeding in getting about 2,000 convicted, with most then paying fines.
- 1436 – Royal Noble Consort Sun is banished from the Joseon court after it is discovered that she has been sleeping with her maid. The official decree blames her demotion on receiving visitors without her husband's permission and instructing her maids to sing men's songs.
- 1451 – Pope Nicholas V enables the papal Inquisition to persecute men who practice sodomy.
- 1471 – 1493 – According to Garcilaso de la Vega's Real Reviews of the Incas, during the reign of Sapa Inca Topa Inca Yupanqui or Túpac Inca Yupanqui, he persecuted homosexuals. Yupanqui's general, Auqui Tatu, burned alive in public square all those for whom there was even circumstantial evidence of sodomy in [H]acari valley, threatening to burn down whole towns if anyone engaged in sodomy. In Chincha, Yupanqui burned alive large numbers, pulling down their houses and any trees they had planted.
- 1475 – In Peru, a chronicle written under the Capac Yupanqui government describes the persecution of homosexuals with public burnings and destruction of homes (a practice usually reserved for conquered tribes).
- 1476 – Florentine court records of 1476 show that Leonardo da Vinci and three other young men were charged with sodomy twice, and acquitted.
- 1483 – The Spanish Inquisition begins. Sodomites were stoned, castrated, and burned. Between 1540 and 1700, more than 1,600 people were prosecuted for sodomy.
- 1492 – Desiderius Erasmus writes a series of love letters to a fellow monk while at a monastery in Steyn in the Netherlands.
- 1494 – Girolamo Savonarola criticizes the population of Florence for its "horrible sins" (mainly homosexuality and gambling) and exhorts them to give up their young and beardless lovers.
- 1497 – In Spain, the King of Aragon Ferdinand and Queen of Castile and León Isabella strengthen the sodomy laws hitherto applied only in the cities. An increase is made in the severity of the crime equating to treason or heresy, and the amount of evidence required for conviction is lowered, with torture permitted to extract confession. The property of the defendant is also confiscated.
15th century – 16th century
- 1493 – 1525 – According to Garcilaso de la Vega's Real Reviews of the Incas, during his reign, Sapa Inca Huayna Capac merely "bade" the people of Tumbez to give up sodomy and did not take any measures against the Matna, who "practiced sodomy more openly and shamelessly than all the other tribes."
- 1502 – A charge is brought against the Italian artist Sandro Botticelli on the grounds of sodomy.
- 1512 – Revolt of the Compagnacci in Florence
- 1513 – Vasco Núñez de Balboa, a conquistador in modern-day Panama is described as throwing forty homosexual Indians to his dogs.
- 1523 – First of several charges of sodomy brought against the Florentine artist Benvenuto Cellini.
- 1532 – The Holy Roman Empire makes sodomy punishable by death. The Florentine artist Michelangelo begins writing over 300 love poems dedicated to Tomasso dei Cavalieri.
- 1533 – King Henry VIII passes the Buggery Act 1533 making anal intercourse and zoophilia punishable by death throughout England.
- 1542 – Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca documents same sex marriages and men "who dress like women and perform the office of women, but use the bow and carry big loads" among a Native American tribe in his publication, The Journey of Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca and His Companions from Florida to the Pacific 1528–1536.
- 1543 – Henry VIII gives royal assent to the Laws in Wales Act 1542, extending the buggery law into Wales.
- 1553 – Mary Tudor ascends the English throne and removes all of the laws that had been passed by Henry VIII during the English Reformation of the 1530s.
- 1558–1563 – Elizabeth I reinstates Henry VIII's old laws, including the Buggery Act 1533.
- 1561 – process of Wojciech z Poznania, who married Sebastian Słodownik, and lived with him for 2 years in Poznań. Both had female partners. On his return to Kraków, he married Wawrzyniec Włoszek. Wojciech, considered in public opinion as a woman, was burned for 'crimes against nature'.
- 1610 – The Colony of Virginia enacts a military order that criminalizes male sodomy, making it punishable by death. This order ends later the same year, when martial law is terminated upon the change in control of the Virginia Colony.
- 1620 – Brandenburg-Prussia criminalizes sodomy, making it punishable by death.
- 1624 – Richard Cornish of the Virginia Colony is tried and hanged for sodomy.
- 1648 – In Canada's first-ever criminal trial for the crime of homosexuality, a gay military drummer stationed at the French garrison in Ville-Marie, New France is sentenced to death by the local Sulpician priests. After an intervention by the Jesuits in Quebec City, the drummer's life is spared on the condition that he accept the position of New France's first permanent executioner.
- 1649 – The first known conviction for lesbian activity in North America occurs in March when Sarah White Norman is charged with "Lewd behaviour with each other upon a bed" with Mary Vincent Hammon in Plymouth, Massachusetts. Hammon was under 16 and not prosecuted.
- 1655 – The Connecticut Colony passes a law against sodomy, which includes a punishment for lesbian intercourse as well.
- 1661 – The Colony of Virginia enacts English common law, thus criminalizing male-to-male sodomy again.
- 1683 – The Kingdom of Denmark criminalizes "relations against nature", making it punishable by death.
- 1688 – 1704 – Kagemachaya(ja), a Japanese gay bar, first opens in Japan.
- 1721 – Catharina Margaretha Linck is executed for female sodomy in Germany.
- 1726 – Mother Clap's molly house in London is raided by police, resulting in the execution of three men.
- 1785 – Jeremy Bentham is one of the first people to argue for the decriminalization of sodomy in England.
- 1791 – The Kingdom of France (Andorra, and Haiti) adopts a new penal code which no longer criminalizes sodomy. France thus becomes the first West European country to decriminalize homosexual acts between consenting adults.
- 1791 – The novel Dream of the Red Chamber by Cao Xueqin is published in China. It includes an openly bisexual character as well as an account of a gay bashing.
- 1793 – Monaco decriminalizes sodomy.
- 1794 – The Kingdom of Prussia abolishes the death penalty for sodomy.
- 1794 – Luxembourg decriminalizes sodomy.
- 1795 – Belgium decriminalizes sodomy.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to LGBT history by century.|
- Gay and Lesbian Kingdom of the Coral Sea Islands
- Bisexuality in the United States
- Gay men in American history
- History of bisexuality
- History of human sexuality
- History of LGBTQ in policing
- History of lesbianism
- History of lesbianism in the United States
- History of transgender people in the United States
- Intersex in history
- LGBT history
- LGBT history in Turkey
- List of LGBT actions in the United States prior to the Stonewall riots
- List of LGBT firsts by year
- Table of years in LGBT rights
- Timeline of African and diasporic LGBT history
- Timeline of asexual history
- Timeline of Asian and Pacific Islander diasporic LGBT history
- Timeline of intersex history
- Timeline of LGBT history in Canada
- Timeline of LGBT history in New York City
- Timeline of LGBT history in South Africa
- Timeline of LGBT history in Turkey
- Timeline of LGBT history in the United Kingdom
- Timeline of LGBT history in the United States
- Timeline of LGBT Jewish history
- Timeline of LGBT Mormon history
- Timeline of same-sex marriage
- Timeline of same-sex marriage in the United States
- Timeline of sexual orientation and medicine
- Timeline of transgender history
- Mussi, Margherita (31 October 2001). Earliest Italy: An Overview of the Italian Paleolithic and Mesolithic. Kluwer Academic. pp. 343–344. ISBN 978-0-306-46463-8.
- Schott, Landon (2016). "In the Beginning: Sexual History". Gay Awareness: Discovering the Heart of the Father and the Mind of Christ On Sexuality. Austin, Texas: Famous Publishing. ISBN 978-1942306481.
- A History of the World −7, BBC.co.uk, accessed July 2010
- Talalay, Lauren E. (2005). "The Gendered Sea: Iconography, Gender, and Mediterranean Prehistory". The Archaeology of Mediterranean Prehistory. Blackwell. pp. 130–148, especially p. 136. ISBN 978-0-631-23267-4.
- "Grave of stone age transsexual excavated in Prague". Archeology News Network. Czech Positions. 5 April 2011. Archived from the original on 4 February 2014.
- Greenberg, David F. (2008). The Construction of Homosexuality. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-21981-3.
- Parkinson, R.B. (1995). "'Homosexual' Desire and Middle Kingdom Literature". Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. 81: 57–76. JSTOR 3821808.
- Montserrat, Dominic (2000). Akhenaten: History, Fantasy and Ancient Egypt. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-69034-3.
- When writing about homosexuality, Meskell calls it "Another well documented example" Meskell, Lynn (1999). Archaeologies of Social Life: Age, Sex, Class Etcetra in Ancient Egypt. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-631-21298-0.
- More details at  & 
- "[PDF] The Construction of Homosexuality - Free Download PDF". pdfsecret.com.
- Homoeroticism in the Biblical World: A Historical Perspective, by Martti Nissinen, Fortress Press, 2004, p. 24–28
- Halsall, Paul. "The Code of the Assura". Internet History Sourcebooks Project. Fordham University. Archived from the original on 11 September 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- The Nature Of Homosexuality, Erik Holland, page 334, 2004
- "Internet History Sourcebooks".
- Wilhelm, Amara Das (18 May 2010). Tritiya-Prakriti: People of the Third Sex. ISBN 9781453503164.
- Pritchard, p. 181.
- Gay Rights Or Wrongs: A Christian's Guide to Homosexual Issues and Ministry, by Mike Mazzalonga, 1996, p.11
- "Homosexuality in the Ancient Near East, beyond Egypt by Bruce Gerig in the Ancient Near East, beyond Egypt". epistle.us.
- Rose, Jenny (2014). "Appendix 1". Zoroastrianism: An Introduction. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 9780857735485.
- Boyce, Mary (2001). Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Psychology Press. p. 40. ISBN 9780415239028.
- "Vendidad: Fargard 8" [Section V (32) Unlawful lusts.]. Avesta.
- Wilhelm, Amara Das (8 May 2014). "A Timeline of Gay World History". Gay & Lesbian Vaishnava Association. Archived from the original on 25 February 2017.
- Kenneth Dover, Greek Homosexuality (Harvard University Press, 1978, 1898), pp. 205–7
- Boswell, John (1994). Same-Sex Unions in Pre-Modern Europe. New York: Vintage Books
- Stephan Steingräber, Abundance of Life: Etruscan Wall Painting (Getty Publications, 2006), pp. 67, 70, 91–92; Otto Brendel, Etruscan Art, translated by R. Serra Ridgway (Yale University Press, 1978, 1995), pp. 165–170; Fred S. Kleiner, A History of Roman Art (Wadsworth, 2007, 2010), p. xxxii.
- Dynes, Wayne R.; Donaldson, Stephen (20 October 1992). Homosexuality in the Ancient World. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780815305460 – via Google Books.
- Dynes, Wayne R. (22 March 2016). Encyclopedia of Homosexuality. Routledge. ISBN 9781317368120 – via Google Books.
- Leviticus 18:22
- Leviticus 20:13
- Dynes, Wayne R. (22 March 2016). Encyclopedia of Homosexuality. Routledge. ISBN 9781317368120 – via Google Books.
- Herodotus (15 May 2010). The History. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226327754 – via Google Books.
- Plato. "Symposium". Symposium 189c. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
- Plato. "Symposium 201d". Symposium.
- Plato. "Symposium 214e". Symposium.
- Fone, Byrne R. S. (2000). Homophobia: a history. New York: Metropolitan Books. ISBN 0-8050-4559-7.
- Joseph Roisman, Ancient Greece from Homer to Alexandria, Blackwell, 2011
- Haggerty, George E. (2000). Gay histories and cultures: an encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. p. 418. ISBN 978-0-8153-1880-4.
- ...with whom Darius was intimate and with whom Alexander would later be intimate... "Quintus Curtius Rufus"(BOOK VI. 5.23)
- Thomas A.J. McGinn, Prostitution, Sexuality and the Law in Ancient Rome (Oxford University Press, 1998), pp. 140–141; Amy Richlin, The Garden of Priapus: Sexuality and Aggression in Roman Humor (Oxford University Press, 1983, 1992), pp. 86, 224; John Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality: Gay People in Western Europe from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Fourteenth Century (University of Chicago Press, 1980), pp. 63, 67–68; Craig Williams, Roman Homosexuality: Ideologies of Masculinity in Classical Antiquity (Oxford University Press, 1999), p. 116.
- Ben Nusbaum, "Some Myths and Anomalies in the Study of Roman Sexuality," in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition (Haworth Press, 2005), p. 231.
- Cantarella, Eva (20 October 2017). Bisexuality in the Ancient World. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300093025 – via Google Books.
- Digest 22.214.171.124 and 126.96.36.199.
- Richlin, "Not before Homosexuality," pp. 562–563. See also Digest 48.5.35  on legal definitions of rape that included boys.
- Richlin, "Not before Homosexuality," pp. 558–561.
- Suetonius, Augustus 68, 71
- Myers, JoAnne (19 September 2013). Historical Dictionary of the Lesbian and Gay Liberation Movements. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810874688 – via Google Books.
- Younger, John (7 October 2004). Sex in the Ancient World from A to Z. Routledge. ISBN 9781134547029 – via Google Books.
- Ornamentis Augustarum: Suetonius, Life of Nero 28–29, discussed by Craig A. Williams, Roman Homosexuality (Oxford University Press, 1999), p. pp. 284, 400, 424.
- Dio Cassius, Epitome of Book 68.6.4; 68.21.2–6.21.3
- For the spelling, see Hans-Werner Goetz, Jörg Jarnut, Walter Pohl (eds.), Regna and Gentes: The Relationship Between Late Antique and Early ... (2003, ISBN 9004125248), page 62.
- "Homosexuality and the Weerdinge Bog Men". www.connellodonovan.com. Archived from the original on 27 October 2016.
- "Internet History Sourcebooks Project". sourcebooks.fordham.edu. Archived from the original on 19 October 2016.
- Younger, John (7 October 2004). Sex in the Ancient World from A to Z. Routledge. ISBN 9781134547029 – via Google Books.
- Prioreschi, Plinio (20 October 1996). A History of Medicine: Roman medicine. Horatius Press. ISBN 9781888456035 – via Google Books.
- Augustan History, Life of Elagabalus 10
- Varner, Eric (2008). "Transcending Gender: Assimilation, Identity, and Roman Imperial Portraits". Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome. Supplementary Volume. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press. 7: 200–201. ISSN 1940-0977. JSTOR 40379354. OCLC 263448435.
Elagabalus is also alleged to have appeared as Venus and to have depilated his entire body. ... Dio recounts an exchange between Elagabalus and the well-endowed Aurelius Zoticus: when Zoticus addressed the emperor as 'my lord,' Elagabalus responded, 'Don't call me lord, I am a lady.' Dio concludes his anecdote by having Elagabalus asking his physicians to give him the equivalent of a woman's vagina by means of a surgical incision.
- Tess deCarlo, Trans History (ISBN 1387846353), page 32
- Godbout, Louis (2004). "Elagabalus" (PDF). GLBTQ: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Culture. Chicago: glbtq, Inc. Retrieved 6 August 2007.
- Benjamin, Harry; Green, Richard (1966). The Transsexual Phenomenon, Appendix C: Transsexualism: Mythological, Historical, and Cross-Cultural Aspects. New York: The Julian Press, Inc. Archived from the original on 17 July 2007. Retrieved 3 August 2007.
- "A History of Homophobia: 3 The Later Roman Empire & The Early Middle Eages". rictornorton.co.uk. Archived from the original on 21 January 2017.
- Hirschfeld, Magnus (20 October 2017). The Homosexuality of Men and Women. Prometheus Books. ISBN 9781615926985 – via Google Books.
- "Internet History Sourcebooks". sourcebooks.fordham.edu. Archived from the original on 19 October 2016.
- DiMaio, Constans I (337–350 A.D.)
- Canduci, pg. 131
- "The Historic Origins of Church Condemnation of Homosexuality". Well.com. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
- Theodosian Code 9.7.3: "When a man marries and is about to offer himself to men in womanly fashion (quum vir nubit in feminam viris porrecturam), what does he wish, when sex has lost all its significance; when the crime is one which it is not profitable to know; when Venus is changed to another form; when love is sought and not found? We order the statutes to arise, the laws to be armed with an avenging sword, that those infamous persons who are now, or who hereafter may be, guilty may be subjected to exquisite punishment.
- "Internet History Sourcebooks Project". sourcebooks.fordham.edu.
- "LacusCurtius • Ammianus Marcellinus — Book XXIII". penelope.uchicago.edu.
- "LacusCurtius • Ammianus Marcellinus — Book XXXI". penelope.uchicago.edu.
- (Theodosian Code 9.7.6): All persons who have the shameful custom of condemning a man's body, acting the part of a woman's to the sufferance of alien sex (for they appear not to be different from women), shall expiate a crime of this kind in avenging flames in the sight of the people.
- Dynes, Wayne R. (22 March 2016). Encyclopedia of Homosexuality. Routledge. ISBN 9781317368113 – via Google Books.
- "Corpus Iuris Civilis: The Digest and Codex: Marriage Laws" (PDF).
- Laura Swan, The Forgotten Desert Mothers (2001, ISBN 0809140160), pages 72–73
- Dale Albert Johnson, Corpus Syriacum Johnsoni I (2015, ISBN 1312855347), page 344-8
- Conner, Randy P.; Sparks, David Hatfield; Sparks, Mariya; Anzaldúa, Gloria (1997), Cassell's Encyclopedia of Queer Myth, Symbol, and Spirit: Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Lore, Cassell, p. 57, ISBN 0-304-33760-9
- Visigothic Code 3.5.5, 3.5.6; "The doctrine of the orthodox faith requires us to place our censure upon vicious practices, and to restrain those who are addicted to carnal offences. For we counsel well for the benefit of our people and our country, when we take measures to utterly extirpate the crimes of wicked men, and put an end to the evil deeds of vice. For this reason we shall attempt to abolish the horrible crime of sodomy, which is as contrary to Divine precept as it is to chastity. And although the authority of the Holy Scriptures, and the censure of earthly laws, alike, prohibit offences of this kind, it is nevertheless necessary to condemn them by a new decree; lest if timely correction be deferred, still greater vices may arise. Therefore, we establish by this law, that if any man whosoever, of any age, or race, whether he belongs to the clergy, or to the laity, should be convicted, by competent evidence, of the commission of the crime of sodomy, he shall, by order of the king, or of any judge, not only suffer emasculation, but also the penalty prescribed by ecclesiastical decree for such offences, and promulgated in the third year of our reign."
- "SGS – Europe and homosexuality".
- "Burned for Sodomy". Queer Saints and Martyrs. 9 October 2012. Archived from the original on 13 March 2016.
- (Fone, 2000)
- David Bromell. Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History, London, 2000 (Ed. Wotherspoon and Aldrich)
- PETRI DAMIANI Liber gomorrhianus, ad Leonem IX Rom. Pon. in Patrologiae Cursus completus...accurante J.P., MIGNE, series secunda, tomus CXLV, col. 161; CANOSA, Romano, Storia di una grande paura La sodomia a Firenze e a Venezia nel quattrocento, Feltrinelli, Milano 1991, pp.13–14
- M.J.A. "El primer matrimonio homosexual de Galicia se ofició en 1061 en Rairiz de Veiga". Retrieved 27 February 2011.
- Opera Omnia. Archived 22 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- "storia completa qui". Archived from the original on 11 May 2015. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- Crompton, Louis. Homosexuality and Civilization. Cambridge & London: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2003
- Louis Crompton, Homosexuality and civilisation, Harvard University, 2003. For more documented detail about Bernardino's lengthy campaign against homosexuality, see Franco Mormando, The Preacher's Demons: Bernardino of Siena and the Social Underworld of Early Renaissance Italy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999), Chapter 3: "Even The Devil Flees in Horror at the Sight of This Sin:' Sodomy and Sodomites."
- Lee, Jongsoo (2008). The Allure of Nezahualcoyotl: Pre-Hispanic History, Religion, and Nahua Poetics. ISBN 978-0826343376.
- "Nezahualcoyotl's Law Code (1431)". Duhaime.org - Learn Law. Archived from the original on 27 February 2017.
- 世宗實錄 [Veritable Records of Sejong]. 75. 1454.
- Dynes, Wayne R. (22 March 2016). Encyclopedia of Homosexuality. Routledge. ISBN 9781317368151 – via Google Books.
- della Chiesa, Angela Ottino (1967). The Complete Paintings of Leonardo da Vinci. p. 83.
- Diarmaid MacCulloch (2003). Reformation: A History. pg. 95. MacCulloch says "he fell in love" and further adds in a footnote "There has been much modern embarrassment and obfuscation on Erasmus and Rogerus, but see the sensible comment in J. Huizinga, Erasmus of Rotterdam (London, 1952), pp. 11–12, and from Geoffrey Nutuall, Journal of Ecclesiastical History 26 (1975), 403"
- Michael Rocke, Forbidden Friendships: Homosexuality and Male culture in Renaissance Florence, Oxford University Press, 1996
- Alfonso G. Jiménez de Sandi Valle, Luis Alberto de la Garza Becerra and Napoleón Glockner Corte. LGBT Pride Parade in Mexico City. National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), 2009. 25 p.
- I. Arnaldi, La vita violenta di Benvenuto Cellini, Bari, 1986
- Michelangelo Buonarroti, 1475-1564; Symonds, John Addington (1904). Sonnets. now for the first time translated into rhymed English. Cornell University Library. London, Smith, Elder, & Co.; New York, C. Scribner's Sons.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- R v Jacobs (1817) Russ & Ry 331 confirmed that buggery related only to intercourse per anum by a man with a man or woman or intercourse per anum or per vaginum by either a man or a woman with an animal. Other forms of "unnatural intercourse" may amount to indecent assault or gross indecency, but do not constitute buggery. See generally, Smith & Hogan, Criminal Law (10th ed), ISBN 0-406-94801-1
- Lewandowski, Piotr (2014). Grzech sodomii w przestrzeni politycznej, prawnej i społecznej Polski nowożytnej. e-bookowo. ISBN 9788378594239.
- "The History of Sodomy Laws in the United States – Virginia".
- Godbeer, Richard (2002). Sexual revolution in early America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6800-9. p.123
- "Looking back at Quebec queer life since the 17th century" Archived 14 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Xtra!, 15 December 2009.
- Borris, Kenneth (2004). Same-sex desire in the English Renaissance: a sourcebook of texts, 1470–1650. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-8153-3626-8. p.113
- Foster, Thomas (2007). Long Before Stonewall: Histories of Same-Sex Sexuality in Early America. New York University Press.
- "DENMARK, PIONEER IN RIGHTS FOR THE LGBT". Denmark Today. 4 December 2014. Archived from the original on 9 February 2016.
- オトコノコのためのボーイフレンド (1986)
- Norton, Rictor (5 February 2005). "The Raid of Mother Clap's Molly House". Retrieved 12 February 2010.
- Gunther, Scott (2009). "The Elastic Closet: A History of Homosexuality in France, 1942–present" Archived 3 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine Book about the history of homosexual movements in France (sample chapter available online). Palgrave-Macmillan, 2009. ISBN 0-230-22105-X.
- Jan Wong's China: Reports From A Not-So-Foreign Correspondent, Jan Wong. Doubleday Canada, 2011. 
- Archer, Bert (2004). The End of Gay: And the Death of Heterosexuality. Thunder's Mouth Press. ISBN 1-56025-611-7.
- Bullough, Vern L. (2002). Before Stonewall: Activists for Gay and Lesbian Rights in Historical Context. New York, Harrington Park Press, an imprint of The Haworth Press. ISBN 1-56023-193-9.
- Chauncey, George (1995). Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Making of the Gay Male World, 1890–1940 (Reprint ed.). Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-02621-4.
- Burleson, William E. (2005). Bi America: Myths, Truths, and Struggles of an Invisible Community. United Kingdom, Routledge. ISBN 978-1560234791
- Fone, Byrne R. S. (2000). Homophobia: a history. New York: Metropolitan Books. ISBN 0-8050-4559-7.
- Gallo, Marcia M. (2007) Different Daughters: A History of the Daughters of Bilitis and the Rise of the Lesbian Rights Movement. California: Seal Press. ISBN 1580052525
- Hogan, Steve and Lee Hudson (1998). Completely Queer: The Gay and Lesbian Encyclopedia. New York, Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 0-8050-3629-6.
- Miller, Neil (1995). Out of the Past: Gay and Lesbian History from 1869 to the Present. New York, Vintage Books. ISBN 0-09-957691-0.
- Percy III, William Armstrong (1996). Pederasty and pedagogy in archaic Greece. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-02209-2.
- Stryker, Susan (2008). Transgender History. New York, Seal Press. ISBN 978-1-58005-224-5
Dapin, Mark, "If at first you don't secede...", The Sydney Morning Herald – Good Weekend, 12 February 2005, pp 47–50 Lattas, Judy, "Queer Sovereignty: the Gay & Lesbian Kingdom of the Coral Sea Islands", Cosmopolitan Civil Societies journal, UTS September 2009