|Traded as||NASDAQ: LYFT (Class A)|
|Industry||Transportation network company|
|Founded||June 9, 2012Zimride)(as|
|United States, Canada|
|Logan Green, CEO|
John Zimmer, President
Jon McNeill, COO
Brian Roberts, CFO
|Revenue||US$2.157 billion (2018)|
|−US$975.1 million (2018)|
|−US$911.3 million (2018)|
|Total assets||US$3.76 billion (2018)|
|Total equity||US$1.832 billion (2018)|
General Motors (6.6%)
Fidelity Investments (6.5%)
Andreessen Horowitz (5.3%)
Number of employees
|Footnotes / references|
Lyft, Inc. is a transportation network company (TNC) based in San Francisco, California and operating in 640 cities in the United States and 9 cities in Canada. It develops, markets, and operates the Lyft mobile app, offering car rides, scooters, and a bicycle-sharing system.
Lyft is the second-largest TNC with a 28% market share in the United States, according to Second Measure.
Most jurisdictions regulate TNCs and TNCs are banned from operating in some jurisdictions. For more information, see Legality of transportation network companies by jurisdiction.
- 1 Product overview
- 2 History
- 3 Criticism
- 3.1 Criticism by the taxi industry
- 3.2 Classification of drivers as independent contractors
- 3.3 Driver criticism of compensation
- 3.4 Dynamic pricing
- 3.5 Increased traffic congestion
- 3.6 Reduced usage of public transportation
- 3.7 Lack of wheelchair accessible vans
- 3.8 Drivers using their phones while driving
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Riders must download the Lyft mobile app to their iOS or Android-based phone, sign up, enter a valid phone number, and enter a valid form of payment (either a credit card, or link to an Apple Pay, Google Wallet, or PayPal account). Once the trip is completed, funds are debited from the funding source.
Passengers can then request a ride from a nearby driver. Once confirmed, the app shows the driver's name, ratings by past passengers, and photos of the driver and car. Drivers and passengers can add personal information to their profiles about their hometown, music preferences, and other details to encourage drivers and passengers to converse during the ride. After the ride is over, the rider is given the opportunity to provide a tip to the driver, which is also billed to the rider's payment method.
Lyft offers five types of rides within the app:
- Shared Ride, which is not available in all cities, is the cheapest option and will match passengers with other riders if they are going in the same direction.
- Lyft is the basic and most popular offering that matches passengers with nearby drivers.
- Lyft XL matches passengers with a vehicle that can seat at least six passengers.
- Lux matches passengers with a luxury vehicle that seats at least four passengers.
- Lux Black matches passengers with a luxury black exterior vehicle ride that seats at least four passengers.
- Lux Black XL matches passengers with a black exterior luxury car that seats up to six (i.e.: SUVs with highly rated drivers).
Lyft scooters cost US$1 to unlock and 15 cents per minute to ride.
- All drivers undergo background checks including Department of Motor Vehicles, sex offender registries in the United States, and personnel-type criminal background checks. The criminal background check goes back seven years and includes national and county-level databases, as well as national sex offender registries.
- Drivers must be 21 years or older and have had a driver's license for more than one year.
- Lyft has a zero-tolerance drug and alcohol policy.
Government data requests
After a ride is completed, drivers and passengers are given the opportunity to rate each other on a scale of one to five stars. Any driver averaging a low rating by a passenger will not be matched with that passenger again. Lyft does not allow passengers to know their rating. The ratings establish the reputations of both drivers and passengers within the network.
Although Lyft drivers are classified as independent contractors, Lyft also insures each driver with a US$1 million commercial liability policy that is primary to a driver's personal policy. Additional coverage includes:
- Contingent comprehensive and collision coverage up to $50,000 with a $2,500 deductible. It applies from the time a driver accepts a ride request until the time the ride is ended in the app.
- Contingent liability coverage up to $50,000 per person/$100,000 per accident/$25,000 property damage. It applies from the time when a driver flips into driver mode until the driver accepts a ride request.
- Uninsured/underinsured motorist coverage that comply with local regulations and/or state laws. It applies from the time a driver accepts a ride request in the app until the time the ride is ended in the app.
Green had the inspiration for Zimride after sharing rides from the University of California, Santa Barbara campus to visit his girlfriend in Los Angeles. He had used Craigslist’s ride boards but wanted to eliminate the anxiety of not knowing the passenger or driver. When Facebook opened its API to third-party developers, Green said he thought "Here’s the missing ingredient." Zimride linked drivers and passengers through the Facebook Connect application. By using Facebook profile information, student drivers and passengers could learn about each other. Zimride eventually became the largest carpool company in the United States. Green was introduced to John Zimmer through a mutual friend and the pair initially met on Facebook. The company name came from the country Zimbabwe, where, during a trip in 2005, Green observed locals sharing minivan taxis. Zimride launched at Cornell University, where, after six months, the service had signed up 20% of the campus.
In May 2013, the company officially changed its name from Zimride to Lyft. The change from Zimride to Lyft was the result of a hackathon that sought a means of daily engagement with its users, instead of once or twice a year.
Whereas Zimride was focused on college campuses, Lyft launched as a TNC for shorter trips within cities.
Lyft became known for the large pink furry mustaches drivers attached to the front of their cars. Riders were also encouraged to sit in the front seat and fist bump with drivers upon meeting. In November 2014, the company distanced itself from the fist bump.
In January 2015, Lyft introduced a small, glowing plastic dashboard mustache it called a "glowstache" as an alternative to the large fuzzy mustaches on the front of cars. The transition was to help overcome the resistance of some riders to arrive at destinations, such as business meetings, in a car with a giant mustache.
In April 2014, Lyft launched in 24 new U.S. cities in 24 hours, bringing its total to 60 U.S. cities.
In April 2014, Lyft hired two lobbying firms, TwinLogic Strategies and Jochum Shore & Trossevin, to address the regulatory barriers and opposition it had received since its launch.
Due to regulatory hurdles in New York City, the company altered its business model when establishing Lyft on the East Coast of the United States. Lyft’s launch in New York City occurred on the evening of July 25, 2014 and, in accordance with the Taxi and Limousine Commission (TLC) and the approval of the Manhattan Supreme Court, only drivers registered with the TLC were permitted to drive Lyft-branded vehicles in New York City.
In August 2014, the company introduced a shared ride concept, which provides cheaper fares.
In September 2015, Lyft announced a relocation of its customer service operations to Nashville and mentioned that a full relocation would be possible in the future from San Francisco.
In December 2015, Lyft became the first TNC allowed to pick up passengers at Los Angeles International Airport.
In May 2016, Lyft began offering a service to let clients schedule rides up to 24-hours in advance.
In January 2017, the company announced its 160 millionth ride.
In January 2017, Lyft announced it would add 100 U.S. cities, bringing its total to 300 U.S. cities served.
In July 2017, the company announced that the Walt Disney World Resort "Minnie Van" service will be powered by Lyft. Users staying at select Walt Disney World Resort hotels are given the option to hail a "Minnie Van" via the Lyft app. A Minnie Van, a Chevrolet Traverse with Minnie Mouse inspired exterior theming, driven by a Walt Disney World Cast Member can take guests to and from any destination within the Walt Disney World Resort for a flat fee of $20 per ride. Lyft Founder John Zimmer said of the partnership "Playing a part in a family’s experience at the most magical place on earth is a dream come true."
In March 2018, Lyft partnered with Allscripts to create a platform allowing healthcare providers to arrange rides for patients who lack transportation to appointments. The service would be available to 2,500 hospitals, 180,000 physicians, and approximately 7 million patients.
In November 2018, Lyft acquired Motivate, a bicycle-sharing system and the operator of Capital Bikeshare and Citi Bike. The company also announced plans to add 28,000 Citi Bikes and expand its service.
In December 2018, Lyft launched additional scooter fleets in Arlington County, Virginia, Atlanta, Austin, Texas, Los Angeles, Nashville, Tennessee, San Diego, Santa Monica, California and Washington, D.C..
On July 19, 2019, Lyft added real time public transport and subway information for New York City, amidst battles with the city.
Unwanted text messages
In November 2018, Lyft settled a class action suit filed in 2014 alleging that the company had sent large numbers of unwanted commercial text messages. In addition to $4 million in payments to consumers, the plaintiffs sought $1 million in legal fees.
Self-driving car research
As early as 2012, Green wanted to pitch investors on self-driving cars as part of Lyft's future offering. Green envisioned a few big networks of self-driving cars, similar to AT&T and Verizon.
In January 2016, Lyft announced an autonomous car partnership with General Motors. On May 5, 2016, Lyft and General Motors announced, as part of their partnership, that they planned to begin testing self-driving cars within the next year. They were considering using a self-driving Chevrolet Bolt for this purpose.
On June 6, 2017, Lyft announced a new partnership with Boston-based autonomous self-driving car start-up NuTonomy with the aim of eventually putting thousands of autonomous, on-demand vehicles on the road.
On March 14, 2018, Lyft partnered with the largest auto part suppliers in North America, Magna International, with the motive to co-fund, develop, and manufacture autonomous vehicle systems which will help to produce self driving technology that will be available to all car manufacturers.
In October 2018, Lyft acquired Blue Vision Labs, a London-based augmented reality startup, for an initial $72 million price. This expertise is expected to help autonomous cars to extract useful information from street-level images.
Criticism by the taxi industry
The taxi industry has claimed that TNCs skirt regulations that apply to passenger transport and TNCs are therefore illegal taxicab operations. This has resulted in additional regulations imposed on TNCs and, in some jurisdictions, certain TNCs are banned from operating.
In New York City, use of TNCs has reduced the value of taxi medallions, transferable permits or licenses authorizing the holder to pick up passengers for hire. After soaring in value after the Great Recession due to their perceived safety, New York City taxi medallions were again trading for around $170,000 each in 2018. Annual rental rates were $30,000. A couple of credit unions that lent money secured by medallions suffered from bank failure.
Classification of drivers as independent contractors
Unless otherwise required by law, TNC drivers are independent contractors and not employees. This designation may affect taxation, work hours, and overtime benefits and lawsuits have been filed by drivers alleging that they are entitled to the rights and remedies of being considered "employees" under employment law. In response, TNCs say they provide "flexible and independent jobs" for drivers.
In O'Connor v. Uber Technologies, a lawsuit filed in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California on August 16, 2013, Uber drivers pleaded that according to the California Labor Code they should be classified as employees and receive reimbursement of business expenses such as gas and vehicle maintenance costs. In March 2019, Uber agreed to pay $20 million to settle the case.
On October 28, 2016, in the case of Aslam v Uber BV, the Central London Employment tribunal ruled that Uber drivers are "workers", rather than self-employed individuals, and are entitled to the minimum wage under the National Minimum Wage Act 1998, paid holiday, and other normal worker entitlements. Two Uber drivers had brought the test case to the employment tribunal with the assistance of the GMB Union, on behalf of a group of drivers in London. Uber appealed the decision. In December 2018, Uber lost an appeal of the case at the Court of Appeal, but was granted permission to appeal to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom.
In March 2018, the Federal Department of Economic Affairs, Education and Research of Switzerland, gave the legal opinion that under the conditions that bind drivers to Uber that they should be classified as employees.
In April 2018, the California Supreme Court ruled in Dynamex Operations v. Superior Court that document delivery company Dynamex has misclassified its delivery drivers as independent contractors rather than employees. This ultimately led to California passing Assembly Bill 5 on September 11, 2019, which would require many jobs, to be classified as employees, with the according minimum wage protections and unemployment benefits, beginning in 2020. Uber and Lyft both pledged to keep drivers classified as contractors, saying they could meet the requirements of the new test, and both pledged $30 million on a 2020 ballot initiative against AB 5.
Driver criticism of compensation
Drivers have complained that in some cases, after expenses, they earn less than minimum wage. As a result, in some jurisdictions, such as New York City, drivers are guaranteed a minimum wage. The New York City minimum wage was set at $26.51 before expenses or $17.22 after expenses in 2019, and an analysis by the NYC Taxi and Limousine Commission revealed that 85% of drivers made less than the minimum wage prior to the law.
TNCs use dynamic pricing models; prices for the same route vary based on the supply and demand for rides at the time the ride is requested. When rides are in high demand in a certain area and there are not enough drivers in such area, fares increase to get more drivers to that area. The rate quoted to the rider reflects such dynamic pricing.
TNCs were criticized for extreme surcharges during emergencies such as Hurricane Sandy, the 2014 Sydney hostage crisis, and the June 2017 London Bridge attack, especially when taxis offered to transport riders for free; however, in many cases, the surcharges were refunded by the TNCs and TNCs later agreed to either not charge surcharges, or in some cases, offer free rides, during certain emergencies.
Increased traffic congestion
TNCs have been criticized for increasing traffic congestion in New York City and San Francisco. A report published by Schaller Consulting in July 2018 showed that, as a result of TNCs, traffic congestion increased both cities, which already had comprehensive public transport systems in place. A main reason was that a large number of people, who would otherwise have used public transport, shifted to services offered by transportation network companies.
Reduced usage of public transportation
Studies have shown that TNCs have led to a reduction in use of public transportation.
Lack of wheelchair accessible vans
In some areas, TNCs are required by law to have a certain amount of wheelchair accessible vans (WAVs) on the road at any given time. This can be a difficult requirement for TNCs to meet because TNCs don't provide vehicles and most drivers do not own a WAV, causing a shortage.
Drivers using their phones while driving
When a customer makes a pick-up request, a driver is notified via mobile app and is provided the customer's location. The driver has approximately 15 seconds to tap the phone to accept the request. In many jurisdictions, tapping a phone while driving is against the law as it could result in distracted driving.
- Transportation network company
- Collaborative consumption
- Mobility as a service
- Sharing economy
- "Lyft, Inc. FORM S-1 REGISTRATION STATEMENT". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. March 1, 2019.
- "Lyft: Cities". Lyft.
- Gessner, Kathryn. "Rideshare Industry Overview". Second Measure.
- "How to add or update payment info". Lyft.
- Lane, Patrick (October 27, 2012). "A Sense of Place". The Economist.
- "How to pay for a Lyft ride". Lyft.
- "Lyft Help". Lyft.
- "Meet Lyft Profiles". Lyft.
- "How to Tip Your Driver". Lyft.
- "Choose a Ride Type". Lyft.
- "About Shared Rides". Lyft.
- "Lyft XL for Up To Six Passengers". Lyft.
- "Lyft Lux, Lux Black, and Lux Black XL rides for passengers". Lyft.
- "It's time to reinvent the wheels. Want Lyft Scooters in your city?". Lyft.
- "We Go the Extra Mile For Safety". Lyft.
- REITMAN, RAINEY (July 10, 2017). "Who Has Your Back? Government Data Requests 2017". Electronic Frontier Foundation.
- "Driver and Passenger Ratings". Lyft.
- Kerr, Dara (September 25, 2014). "Should Uber and Lyft keep passenger ratings secret?". CNET.
- Gustin, Sam (May 23, 2013). "Lyft-Off: Car-Sharing Start-Up Raises $60 Million Led by Andreessen Horowitz". Time.
- "Insurance Policy". Lyft.
- Farr, Christina (May 23, 2013). "Lyft team gets $60M more; now it must prove ride-sharing can go global". VentureBeat.
- Green, Tomio (May 23, 2013). "Lyft Raises $60 Million As Ride Sharing Competition Heats Up". Forbes.
- Bell, Josh (February 11, 2009). "Facebook's New Twist on Transportation". ABC News.
- Kincaid, Jason (March 25, 2009). "Zimride: A Carpooling Startup That Actually Makes Money". TechCrunch.
- Carlson, Nicholas (May 23, 2013). "Lyft, A Year-Old Startup That Helps Strangers Share Car Rides, Just Raised $60 Million From Andreessen Horowitz And Others". Business Insider.
- Boyd Myers, Courtney (June 16, 2012). "2012: The Summer of Ridesharing with Zimride, Ridejoy, Carpooling and more". The Next Web.
- Kim, Larry (February 25, 2016). "15 Surprising Facts About $5.5 Billion Rideshare Giant Lyft". Inc.
- Cohen, Deborah (September 15, 2010). "Former Lehman's banker drives startup Zimride". Reuters.
- Warren, Katie (March 29, 2019). "Zimmer, went from organizing carpools on college campuses to running a ride-hailing company worth $29 billion". Business Insider.
- Shontell, Alyson; Lebowitz, Shana (October 18, 2017). "Lyft's cofounders met on Facebook and lived on opposite coasts — here's how they launched a $7.5 billion startup long-distance". Business Insider.
- Sullivan, Colin (July 29, 2009). "Startup Bets that Social Networking Will Spur Carpool Craze". The New York Times.
- Schomer, Stephanie (January 5, 2011). "Zimride: Carpooling for College Students". Fast Company.
- Lagorio-Chafkin, Christine (June 24, 2017). "How Lyft's Founders Listened to Their Gut (and Not Their Mentor)". Inc.
- "How Lyft Learned to Stop Worrying and Embrace the Pivot". Inc. August 12, 2017.
- Gannes, Liz (July 12, 2013). "Lyft Sells Zimride Carpool Service to Rental-Car Giant Enterprise". All Things Digital.
- Fiegerman, Seth (December 22, 2014). "Why Lyft is trimming its pink mustache". Mashable.
- DEAMICIS, CARMEL (November 26, 2014). "Lyft distances itself from the fist bump". GigaOm.
- LIEN, TRACEY (November 28, 2014). "Lyft distances itself from fist bump during busiest week yet". Los Angeles Times.
- VanHemert, Kyle (January 20, 2015). "Lyft Is Finally Ditching the Furry Pink Mustache". Wired.
- Trop, Jaclyn (December 31, 2016). "You'll Never Get Into The Wrong Lyft Again". Forbes.
- STINSON, ELIZABETH (November 15, 2016). "LYFT DITCHES ITS ICONIC PINK MUSTACHE TO HELP YOU FIND YOUR RIDE FASTER". Wired.
- J.B. Wogan (October 2013). "How Will the Sharing Economy Change the Way Cities Function?". Governing.
- Bercovici, Jeff (April 24, 2014). "Lyft Pips Uber By Launching 24 Cities In One Day". Forbes.
- Wilkie, Christina (April 16, 2014). "Lyft Prepares To Fight Ride Share Regulation By Hiring GOP-Linked Lobbyists". The Huffington Post.
- Lagorio-Chafkin, Christine (July 25, 2014). "Lyft in New York City: Let's Try This One More Time". Inc.
- Lawler, Ryan (August 6, 2014). "With Lyft Line, Passengers Can Split Fares For Shared Rides". TechCrunch.
- "Lyft to Open Customer Experience Operations in Nashville". Insurance Journal. October 7, 2015.
- Cooper, Daniel (December 23, 2015). "Lyft beats Uber in race to offer rides from LAX". Engadget.
- Bhuiyan, Johana (May 23, 2016). "Lyft riders can finally schedule rides". Recode.
- "Now Live: Add an Extra Stop to Your Lyft Ride". Lyft. November 1, 2016.
- Hawkins, Andrew J. (August 8, 2016). "Lyft is adding the ability to make multiple stops on a trip". The Verge.
- Carson, Biz (January 5, 2017). "Lyft tripled its rides in 2016". Business Insider.
- "Lyft Is Now Operating in 54 New U.S. Cities". Fortune. February 23, 2017.
- Etherington, Darrell (November 13, 2017). "Lyft's first market outside the U.S. will be Canada with a December launch in Toronto". TechCrunch.
- "Lyft-Powered Minnie Van™ Service Launches at Walt Disney World". Lyft. July 31, 2017.
- della Cava, Marco (March 5, 2018). "Lyft deal with Allscripts lets 180,000 doctors call rides for their patients". USA Today.
- LaVito, Angelica (March 5, 2018). "Lyft and Allscripts want to make it easier to get people to the doctor's office". CNBC.
- McFarland, Matt (September 7, 2018). "Lyft launches a scooter service. Uber is close behind". CNN.
- Hawkins, Andrew J. (September 6, 2018). "Lyft rolls out its first electric scooters in Denver". The Verge.
- Ghose, Carrie (December 3, 2018). "Lyft completes acquisition of Portland's bike-share program operator". American City Business Journals.
- STAMPLER, LAURA (November 29, 2018). "Lyft Inks Deal With N.Y.C. and Becomes Largest Bike-Share Service in U.S." Fortune.
- Berger, Paul (November 29, 2018). "Lyft to Add 28,000 Citi Bikes and Expand Service". The Wall Street Journal.
- "Lyft valued at $24.3 billion in first ride-hailing IPO". Reuters. March 29, 2019. Retrieved September 10, 2019.
- "Lyft Announces Driver Bonuses and Directed Share Program Opportunity" (Press release). PR Newswire. March 1, 2019.
- Newcomer, Eric (July 19, 2019). "Lyft Is Adding New York Subway Info to App, Even as It Fights With the City". Bloomberg News. Retrieved July 26, 2019.
- Pennington, Laura; Honaker, Brigette; Antell, Amanda; Davis, Christina; Gale, Kim; Honaker, Brigette; Datko, Sage; Davis, Christina; Actions, Top Class; Honaker, Brigette; Sortor, Emily; Szabo, Joanna; Honaker, Brigette; Honaker, Brigette; Pennington, Laura; Datko, Sage; Antell, Amanda; Pennington, Laura; Colman, Tracy; Antell, Amanda; Gale, Kim (November 9, 2018). "Lyft, Consumers Seek Approval of $4M Texting Class Action Settlement". Top Class Actions. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
- Sinay, Reenat (February 14, 2019). "2 Firms In $4M Lyft TCPA Deal Seek Nearly $1M Attys' Fees". Law360.
- McFarland, Matt (March 5, 2018). "Lyft's quiet CEO Logan Green opens up on his wild ride". CNN.
- Trousdale, Steve (January 5, 2016). "GM invests $500 million in Lyft, sets out self-driving car partnership". Reuters.
- Kokalitcheva, Kia (May 5, 2016). "GM and Lyft Will Test Self-Driving Taxis Within the Next Year". Fortune.
- Hawkins, Andrew J. (June 6, 2017). "Lyft teams up with NuTonomy to put 'thousands' of self-driving cars on the road". The Verge.
- Isaac, Mike (September 27, 2017). "Lyft Adds Ford to Its List of Self-Driving Car Partners". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.
- Hawkins, Andrew J. (September 27, 2017). "Ford and Lyft will work together to deploy autonomous cars". The Verge.
- Crum, Rex (March 8, 2018). "Lyft's self-driving technology finds momentum in Concord". The Mercury News.
- Kerr, Dara (March 14, 2018). "Lyft is building self-driving tech that can go in any car". CNET.
- Somerville, Heather (August 22, 2018). "Lyft surpasses 5,000 self-driving rides with Aptiv fleet". Reuters.
- Mogg, Trevor (August 22, 2018). "Lyft's self-driving taxis have made 5,000 trips for paying riders in Las Vegas". Digital Trends.
- Hawkins, Andrew J. (October 23, 2018). "Lyft unveils a new self-driving car and acquires an AR startup". The Verge.
- Dowling, Savannah (October 23, 2018). "Lyft Acquires Blue Vision Labs To Elevate Its Moves In Self-Driving". TechCrunch.
- Dickenson, Greg (June 26, 2018). "How the world is going to war with Uber". The Daily Telegraph.
- Berger, Paul; Gottfried, Miriam (January 17, 2018). "Hedge Fund Bets on Beaten-Up New York Taxi Business". The Wall Street Journal.
- Tansey, Bernadette (July 17, 2015). "Sharing Economy Companies Sharing the Heat in Contractor Controversy". Xconomy.
- "The gig-economy: Uber good or Uber bad?". Canadian Labour Congress. May 12, 2015. Archived from the original on May 18, 2015.
- Hawkins, Andrew J. (March 12, 2019). "Uber settles driver classification lawsuit for $20 million". The Verge.
- Griswold, Alison (October 28, 2016). "A British court rules Uber drivers have workers' rights in the "employment case of the decade"". Quartz.
- Between (1) Mr Y Aslam (2) Mr J Farrar & Others and (1) Uber B.V. (2) Uber London Ltd (3) Uber Britannia Ltd (PDF) (Report). Employment Tribunals. October 28, 2016. Case Nos: 2202550/2015 & Others.
- "Uber loses latest legal bid over driver rights". BBC News. December 19, 2018.
- "Swiss authorities say Uber drivers should be treated as 'employees'". Swissinfo. March 19, 2018.
- "California's top court makes it more difficult for employers to classify workers as independent contractors". Los Angeles Times. May 1, 2018. Retrieved September 10, 2019.
- "The Dynamex Decision: The California Supreme Court Restricts Use of Independent Contractors". Labor & Employment Law Blog. May 1, 2018. Retrieved September 10, 2019.
- Conger, Kate; Scheiber, Noam (September 11, 2019). "California Passes Landmark Bill to Remake Gig Economy". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 11, 2019.
- Canon, Gabrielle. "California's controversial labor bill has passed. Experts forecast more worker rights, higher prices for services". USA TODAY. Retrieved September 11, 2019.
- "A bill giving workplace protection to a million Californians moves one step closer to law". Los Angeles Times. August 30, 2019. Retrieved September 10, 2019.
- "Uber defiant as gig workers on verge of becoming employees under AB 5". The Mercury News. September 11, 2019. Retrieved September 12, 2019.
- Brustein, Joshua (December 4, 2018). "New York Sets Nation's First Minimum Wage for Uber, Lyft Drivers". www.bloomberg.com. Retrieved September 10, 2019.
- Newcomer, Eric (May 15, 2017). "Uber Starts Charging What It Thinks You're Willing to Pay". Bloomberg News.
- Kerr, Dara (August 23, 2015). "Detest Uber's surge pricing? Some drivers don't like it either". CNET.
- Carson, Biz (June 23, 2016). "Uber will stop showing the surge price that it charges for rides". Business Insider.
- Bosker, Bianca (October 31, 2012). "Uber Rethinks New York 'Surge Pricing,' But Doubles Driver Pay". The Huffington Post.
- Mazza, Ed (December 15, 2014). "Uber Raises Fares During Sydney Hostage Crisis, Then Offers Free Rides". The Huffington Post.
- "Uber has refunded passengers after London Bridge terror attack". BBC News. June 5, 2017.
- Fitzgerald Rodriguez, Joe (December 11, 2016). "SF blasts Uber, Lyft for downtown traffic congestion". The San Francisco Examiner.
- Fitzsimmons, Emma G.; Hu, Winnie (March 6, 2017). "The Downside of Ride-Hailing: More New York City Gridlock". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.
- "The New Automobility: Lyft, Uber and the Future of American Cities" (PDF). Schaller Consulting. July 25, 2018.
- Wolfe, Sean (July 27, 2018). "Uber and Lyft are creating more traffic and congestion instead of reducing it, according to a new report". Business Insider.
- Badger, Emily (October 16, 2017). "Is Uber Helping or Hurting Mass Transit?". The New York Times.
- Said, Carolyn (February 27, 2018). "Uber does not have enough wheelchair-accessible vehicles, new lawsuit says". San Francisco Chronicle.
- Jacks, Timna (January 11, 2019). "Uber drivers complain they are forced to break the law to do their job.So that means that the drivers put the passenger in danger to which is against the law". Sydney Morning Herald.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lyft.|