Timeline of Mars 2020

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Self-portrait of Mars 2020 containing Perseverance rover and Ingenuity helicopter located at the Ingenuity helicopter drop site (7 April 2021)
Perseverance rover on Mars (artist; 18 February 2021)

The Mars 2020 mission, consisting of the rover Perseverance and helicopter Ingenuity, was launched on July 30, 2020, and landed in Jezero crater on Mars on February 18, 2021.[1] As of April 12, 2024, Perseverance has been on the planet for 1118 sols (1149 total days; 3 years, 54 days). Ingenuity operated for 1042 sols (1071 total days; 1 year, 341 days) until its rotor blades, possibly all four, were damaged during the landing of flight 72 on January 18, 2024, causing NASA to retire the craft.[2][3]

Current weather data on Mars is being monitored by the Curiosity rover and the Insight lander.[4][5] The Perseverance rover is also collecting weather data. (See the External links section)

Overview of mission[edit]

Prelaunch (2012–2020)[edit]

Landing and initial tests (February–May 2021)[edit]

February 18: a new crater appears on Mars after impact of the 77-kg piece of tungsten thrown down during the EDL stage

After arriving on February 18, Perseverance focused on validating its systems. During this phase, it used its science instruments for the first time,[6] generated oxygen on Mars with MOXIE,[7] and deployed Ingenuity. Ingenuity began the technology demonstration phase of its mission, completing five flights before transitioning to the operations demonstration phase of its mission.

  • February 18, 2021: Landing in Jezero crater on Mars.
  • February 20, 2021: Perseverance records the first audio from the surface of another planet.[8]
  • March 4, 2021: Perseverance rover's first test drive.
  • March 5, 2021: NASA named the Perseverance rover landing site "Octavia E. Butler Landing".[9]
  • April 3, 2021: Deployment of Ingenuity.
  • April 8, 2021: NASA reported the first MEDA weather report on Mars: for 3–April 4, 2021, the high was "minus-7.6 degrees, and a low of minus-117.4 degrees ... [winds] gusting to ... 22 mph".[10]
  • April 19, 2021: First flight of Ingenuity.
  • April 20, 2021: MOXIE made 5.37 g of oxygen gas from carbon dioxide on its first test on Mars
  • April 22, 2021: Second flight test of Ingenuity[11]
  • April 25, 2021: Third flight test of Ingenuity.
  • April 30, 2021: Fourth flight test of Ingenuity.[12]
  • May 7, 2021: Fifth flight test of Ingenuity.[13] First one-way flight on Mars. Ingenuity's mission transitions from being a technology demonstration to being an operations demonstration.[14][15]
  • May 22, 2021: Sixth flight test of Ingenuity, first of the operations demonstration.[16] A glitch with the navigation system caused the helicopter to land 5 meters away from its intended landing site.[17]
Perseverance's first test drive (4 March 2021)
Rover's first wheel tracks
Rover's first test drive (animation-gif)
Rocket scour and tracks

Cratered floor campaign (June 2021-April 2022)[edit]

Perseverance rover - map of the first science campaign (yellow lines, below the landing site). The blue lines above the landing site correspond to the planned second campaign,[18] although the second campaign did not officially start until the arrival of the rover at Three Forks.

The Cratered Floor Campaign was the first science campaign.[19] It began on June 1, 2021, with the goal of exploring the Crater Floor Fractured Rough and Séítah geologic units. To avoid the sand dunes of the Séítah unit, Perseverance will mostly travel within the Crater Floor Fractured Rough geologic unit or along the boundary between the two units. The first of Perseverance's sample tubes are planned to be filled during this expedition.[18]

After collecting the samples, Perseverance will return to its landing site, before continuing to the delta for its second science campaign. At some point, it will store the filled sample tubes in a designated area for the upcoming NASA-ESA Mars Sample Return mission.[20] While Perseverance embarked on its first science campaign, Ingenuity continued to travel alongside the rover as part of its operations demonstration campaign.[14]

  • June 1, 2021: Perseverance begins its first science campaign.[18]
  • June 8, 2021: Seventh flight of Ingenuity.[21]
  • June 21, 2021: Eighth flight of Ingenuity. The "watchdog issue", a recurring issue which occasionally prevented Ingenuity from taking flight, is fixed.[22]
  • July 5, 2021: Ninth flight of Ingenuity. This flight is the first to explore areas only an aerial vehicle can, by taking a shortcut over the Séítah unit. The sandy ripples of the Séítah unit would prove too difficult for Perseverance to travel through directly.[23][24][25]
  • July 7, 2021: To test its sampling system, the rover ran one sample tube through inspection, sealing and storing and the attempt was successful. Up to this point, the rover has now used 1 of its 43 sample tubes.[26]
  • July 24, 2021: Tenth flight of Ingenuity.[27]
  • August 4, 2021: Eleventh flight of Ingenuity.[28]
  • 5-August 6, 2021: Perseverance attempted to acquire its first sample from the ancient lakebed by drilling out "finger-size cores of Martian rock for return to Earth."[29][30][31] This attempt did not succeed, as the rock sampled was not sufficiently consolidated to produce an intact core and has turned to dust.[32] Up to this point, the rover has now used 2 of its 43 sample tubes.[33] Later on, the mission team confirmed that though soil samples were not cached, but in this process the rover cached the gas samples of the martian atmosphere in it, being the first gas samples cached by the rover.[34]
  • August 16, 2021: Twelfth flight of Ingenuity.[35]
  • September 1, 2021: A second sampling attempt on a rock, named "Rochette", was successful.[36][37]
  • September 4, 2021: Thirteenth flight of Ingenuity.[38]
  • September 8, 2021: A third sampling attempt, also on Rochette, was successful.[39]
Audio, imagery, and air pressure data acquired when a dust devil passed over the rover.
  • September 27, 2021: Perseverance records the first audio of a dust devil passing over the rover, along with air pressure data and imagery of the event.[40]
  • 1 to October 14, 2021: Mars Solar Conjunction.
  • October 24, 2021: Fourteenth flight of Ingenuity.
  • November 6, 2021: Fifteen flight of Ingenuity.[41]
  • November 15, 2021: A sample was taken from the Brac Outcrop in the South Séítah Unit.
  • November 21, 2021: Sixteenth flight of Ingenuity.[42][43]
  • November 24, 2021: Another sample was taken from the Brac Outcrop.
  • December 5, 2021: Seventeenth flight of Ingenuity. Full data from the flight was not received until later, as Ingenuity initially landed in an area which prevented communication with the rover.[44]
  • December 15, 2021: Eighteenth flight of Ingenuity.
  • December 18, 2021: A sample was taken from Issole in the South Séítah Unit.
  • December 29, 2021: Perseverance attempted to take another sample from Issole, but was unable to successfully cache it.
  • January 31, 2022: The failed sample attempt from Issole was abandoned, and a new, successful sample attempt was made on Issole.
  • February 8, 2022: Nineteenth flight of Ingenuity. It had been planned for earlier, but a dust storm in the area caused delays.
  • February 25, 2022: Twentieth flight of Ingenuity.
  • March 7, 2022: A sample was taken from Sid in the Séítah Unit.
  • March 10, 2022: Twenty-first flight of Ingenuity.
  • March 13, 2022: A second sample was taken from Sid in the Séítah Unit.
  • March 20, 2022: Twenty-second flight of Ingenuity.
  • March 24, 2022: Twenty-third flight of Ingenuity.
  • March 28, 2022: Perseverance enters rapid traverse mode, where it will remain for the rest of the science campaign.[45]
  • April 3, 2022: Twenty-fourth flight of Ingenuity.
  • April 8, 2022: Twenty-fifth flight of Ingenuity. This flight went faster than all previous flights, at a speed of 5.5 meters per second. It also travelled 704 meters, which was farther than all previous flights.[46]
  • April 13, 2022: Perseverance arrives at the Jezero Delta.[47]
Entry-descent-landing debris
Ingenuity photographed the spacecraft backshell and parachute (April 19).[48]
Perseverance photographed the spacecraft backshell and parachute (April 14).
Ingenuity photographed an apparent EDL debris (April 3).
Perseverance photographed a thermal blanket from the skycrane 2 km (1.2 mi) away from its crash site.

Delta front campaign (April 2022 - January 2023)[edit]

In blue, the planned traverse of Perseverance. The second science campaign began just before the background map transitions to black and white.

The Delta Front Campaign was the second science campaign of the Mars 2020 mission. Ingenuity continued to travel alongside the rover as part of its operations demonstration campaign. After Perseverance traversed to the top of the delta, it began the third science campaign - the Delta Top Campaign.[49]

  • April 18, 2022: Perseverance officially begins the Delta Front Campaign.[49]
  • April 19, 2022: Twenty-sixth flight of Ingenuity.[48]
  • April 21, 2022: Perseverance leaves rapid traverse mode.[50]
  • April 23, 2022: Twenty-seventh flight of Ingenuity.
  • April 27, 2022: NASA released images of the backshell that detached from the vehicle containing the Perseverance rover (and companion Ingenuity helicopter) during the landing phase on Mars in February 2021. The backshell and associated parachute were found about a mile from the landing site and images were taken by the companion helicopter during its 26th flight.[48]
  • May 3, 2022: NASA loses contact with Ingenuity due to it running out of power during the night.[51]
  • May 5, 2022: Contact with Ingenuity is regained. To avoid depleting the power, Ingenuity's heaters will not activate when battery temperature drops below -15 °Celsius. Ingenuity instead will turn off all electronics when the temperature drops below -40°.[52]
  • July 7, 2022: Perseverance takes the first sample of the Delta Front Campaign.[53]
  • July 12, 2022: Perseverance takes the second sample of the Delta Front Campaign.[53]
  • 16 July 2022: The second witness tube is created.[53]
  • July 27, 2022: Perseverance takes the third sample of the Delta Front Campaign.[53]
  • August 3, 2022: Perseverance takes the fourth sample of the Delta Front Campaign.[53]
  • August 22, 2022: MOXIE produced a peak of 10.44 g (0.368 oz) per hour of oxygen. This represented a new record for Martian oxygen production. The team surpassed the design goal of 6 g (0.21 oz) per hour by over 4.4 g (0.16 oz). The peak rate was held for 1 minute of the 70 minutes oxygen was produced during the run.
  • October 2, 2022: Perseverance takes the fifth sample of the Delta Front Campaign.[53]
  • October 14, 2022: The third witness tube is created.[53]
  • November 5, 2022: Perseverance at Yuri Pass in Jezero Crater.
  • December 16, 2022: Perseverance takes the sixth sample of the Delta Front Campaign.[53]
  • November 23, 2022: NASA reported that the Perseverance rover was now in an area within Jezero crater where life-friendly molecules were found in nearly every rock studied but, so far, no sign of an expected lake bed at this location.[54][55][56]
  • November 29, 2022: Perseverance takes the seventh sample of the Delta Front Campaign.[53]
  • December 2, 2022: Perseverance takes the eighth sample of the Delta Front Campaign.[53]
  • December 7, 2022: Perseverance takes the ninth and final sample of the Delta Front Campaign.[53]
  • December 21, 2022: Perseverance begins making the first sample depot.[57]
  • January 29, 2023: The first sample depot is completed.[58]

Upper fan campaign (January 2023 - September 2023)[edit]

The possible route for second science campaign

The Upper Fan Campaign, also called the Delta Top Campaign, is the third science campaign of the Mars 2020 mission. Whereas prior campaigns investigated areas that are believed to have been submerged in an ancient lake, this campaign will investigate one of the riverbeds that used to feed into the lake.[58][59]

  • March 30, 2023: Perseverance collects the first sample of the Upper Fan Campaign.[60]
  • April 13, 2023: Ingenuity completes its 50th flight.[61]
  • June 23, 2023: Perseverance collects the second sample of the Upper Fan Campaign.[53]
Perseverance navigates (AutoNav) a boulder field (28 June 2023)
Perseverance navigates (AutoNav) a boulder field (29 June 2023)
  • July 22, 2023: Ingenuity's 53rd flight. For the first time since its 6th flight, in May 2021, Ingenuity's flight contingency system was triggered, causing it to land out of range of the rover.[62]
  • August 3, 2023: Ingenuity's 54th flight, the first flight since it landed out of range of the rover.[62]
  • August 30, 2023: Whirlwind captured by Perseverance.
    Whirlwind in motion (Gif animation; 30 August 2023)
  • September 6, 2023: MOXIE completes its 16th, and final, oxygen generation test.[63]
  • September 15, 2023: Perseverance reaches the margin carbonate unit.[64] The third and final sample of the Upper Fan Campaign is taken.[53][65]

Margin campaign (September 2023 - present)[edit]

The Margin Campaign is the fourth, currently ongoing science campaign of the Mars 2020 mission. The campaign expected to last around 8 months, after which point Perseverance is expected to begin the Inner Rim Campaign.[66] The campaign gets its name from the geological unit it aims to explore - the margin carbonate unit. Rocks in this unit are capable of containing traces of life, and their formation is tied to the presence of liquid water.[67]

  • September 15, 2023: The Margin Campaign begins.[66]
  • September 16, 2023: Perseverance creates the "Amherst Point" abrasion batch at the Mandu Wall, beginning its first series of studies in the Margin Campaign.[66] Ingenuity sets a new height record of 20 meters, on its 59th flight.[68]
  • September 25, 2023: Perseverance makes its first sample of the Margin Campaign, at Pelican Point.[53] Ingenuity made its 60th flight, achieving a speed record of 8 meters per second.[69]
  • October 5, 2023: Ingenuity sets a new height record of 24 meters on its 61st flight.[68]
  • October 12, 2023: Ingenuity sets a new speed record of 10 meters per second on its 62nd flight.[68]
  • October 21, 2023: Perseverance collects the second sample of the Margin Campaign, and its 23rd overall.[53]
  • November 1, 2023: Perseverance arrives at the intersection of three geological units; the upper fan unit, margin unit, and curvilinear unit.[70]
  • November 8, 2023: Mars experiences solar conjunction, interfering with the ability to communicate with Perseverance and Ingenuity.[70]
  • November 28, 2023: Solar conjunction ends.[70]
  • December 2, 2023: Ingenuity completed 2 hours of flight in Martian atmosphere after its 67th flight.
  • December 12, 2023: Both of Mars 2020 spacecraft completed 1,000 sols on Mars since their landing day.
  • January 25, 2024: NASA announces the end of the Ingenuity mission. After flight 72, examination of images of shadows of the rotor blades taken by Ingenuity's navigation and horizon cameras showed that one or more of the blades, possibly all four, were damaged during the landing, which followed a temporary communications blackout with Perseverance.[71] NASA said the damage would prevent Ingenuity from flying again and retired the craft. The helicopter flew 72 times in a period spanning almost three years; final system tests and data gathering are expected to continue for several months.[2] Ingenuity Team have named the final landing spot and resting place of Ingenuity in Airfield Chi (χ) as "Valinor Hills Station", after the fictional location in J.R.R. Tolkien’s fantasy novels.[72]
  • March 5, 2024: NASA released images of transits of the moon Deimos, the moon Phobos and the planet Mercury as viewed by the Perseverance rover on the planet Mars.
Transits viewed from Mars by the Perseverance rover
Transit of Deimos
(January 19, 2024)
Transit of Phobos
(February 8, 2024)
Transit of Mercury
(October 28, 2023)
  • March 11, 2024: Perseverance uses its 24th sample tube to capture the third rock sample of the Margin Campaign. The sample, "Comet Geyser", is the 21st rock core overall, and unlike the previous samples it is a silica-cemented carbonate rock.[73]

Samples cached for the Mars sample-return mission[edit]

In the frame of the NASA-ESA Mars Sample Return around 0.5 kilograms (1.1 lb) of soil samples along with some Martian gas samples from the atmosphere will be cached. Currently, samples are being cached by Mars 2020 Perseverance Rover on the surface of Mars. Out of 43 sample tubes, igneous rock sample tubes cached-8, sedimentary rock sample tubes cached-12,[74] silica-cemented carbonate rock sample tubes cached-1, gas sample tubes cached-1,[34] regolith sample tubes cached: 2, witness tubes cached-3,[26] tubes due to be cached-16. Before launch, 5 of the 43 tubes were designated "witness tubes" and filled with materials that would capture particulates in the ambient environment of Mars.[75]

Mars sample-return mission - Sampling Process
Context
MidView
CloseUp
Sample in drill
Sampling drill
Sample Tube 233
First Sample
Perseverance rover – cored rock smple collection at 1000 sols (12 December 2023)
Mapping Perseverance's samples collected to date (The 10 duplicate samples to be left behind at Three Forks Sample Depot are framed in green colour.)
Perseverance at Rochette rock (10 September 2021)
"Rochette" rock − successful borehole sampling of a second rock (1 September 2021)
Perseverance analyzes Rochette rock (August 2021)
After abrading rock
Bellegarde patch
WATSON view
PIXL view

Location and Current Status[edit]

  • June 8, 2023: Perseverance rover – Quadrant Themes - Gale Crater
    Mars Perseverance Rover - Quadrant Themes (8 June 2023)

Perseverance rover near ancient river delta[edit]

Gallery[edit]

Mars – Perseverance rover – landing site panoramic view (18 February 2021)
Mars – Perseverance rover – EDL overview (18 February 2021)
Mars Helicopter Route Options out of 'Séítah' with EDL hardware

Self-portraits[edit]

Mars 2020 rover – Selfie process (animated; 2:04; 6 April 2021)
Mars 2020 in Jezero crater on Mars — self-portraits
Wright Brothers Field
(April 2021)
Van Zyl[a] (April 2021)
Ingenuity views Perseverance
(August 2021)
Rochette
(September 2021)
Three Forks
(January 2023)

Videos[edit]

Images[edit]

Perseverance rover on Mars[edit]

Ingenuity helicopter's flights on Mars[edit]

Flights on Mars – viewed by the Perseverance rover
Ingenuity's first flight
(19 April 2021)
Ingenuity's first flight after 30 secs flying
Ingenuity's second flight
(22 April 2021)
Ingenuity's third fight
(25 April 2021)
Ingenuity's fourth flight
(30 April 2021)
Ingenuity's successful fifth flight to "Airfield B"
(7 May 2021)[77]

Ingenuity helicopter on Mars[edit]

Images from Ingenuity helicopter[b][c]
Ingenuity's first color image after deployment
(4 April 2021)[d]
Ingenuity on sol 45
Ingenuity's first image on first flight – altitude 1.2 m (3 ft 11 in)
Ingenuity landing from its first flight (19 April 2021)
First color aerial image taken – altitude 5.2 m (17 ft) (22 April 2021)
Ingenuity views rover (left-up) from 5.0 m (16.4 ft) (25 April 2021)
Rover from 5.0 m (16.4 ft) high
Ingenuity's shadow during third test flight (25 April 2021)
Ingenuity's fourth flight (30 April 2021)
Ingenuity finds new Airfield B on fourth flight (30 April 2021)
Ingenuity during anomaly survivor sixth flight on sol 91
Ingenuity's fifth flight from 10 m (33 ft) high (7 May 2021)
Ingenuity's sixth flight from 10 m (33 ft) high (22 May 2021)
Ingenuity flight six navcam imagery showing last 29 seconds in flight along with navigation anomaly
The Ingenuity helicopter views the Perseverance rover (left) about 85 m (279 ft) away from 5.0 m (16.4 ft) in the air (25 April 2021)

Ingenuity deployment and pre-flight operations on Mars[edit]

Mars Ingenuity helicopter tests
Wright Brothers Field flight zone and rover locations
Map of Wright Brothers Field
Rover view of the field
Flight zone activities
Rover track and Wright Brothers Field
Ingenuity helicopter deployment: out from under the Perseverance rover and pre-flight testing operations
Successful deployment on Mars
Ingenuity helicopter rotor blades unlocked for flying
Ingenuity on sol 48[e]
Ingenuity gives its blades a slow-speed spin up test or 50 rpm test spin on sol 48
Ingenuity gives high-speed spin up test or 2400 rpm test spin on sol 55[e]
Ingenuity base station on rover
Debris shield removed
Legs deployed

Landing[edit]

Launch[edit]

Prelaunch[edit]

Other images[edit]

Wide images[edit]

Valinor Hills in the Airfield Chi (χ), Mars, Ingenuity's final airfield (see SQUARE near off-center right of image) as viewed by the Perseverance rover on February 4, 2024.
Scarps Of Jezero Crater - viewed from space (7 October 2021)
Panorama from Perseverance viewing the South Séítah geologic unit (12 September 2021)
Perseverance viewing first drill site (enhanced color; 28 July 2021)
Perseverance views Santa Cruz Hill in Jezero Crater (29 April 2021)
The Ingenuity helicopter views the Perseverance rover (left) about 85 m (279 ft) away from 5.0 m (16.4 ft) in the air (25 April 2021)
Perseverance views Kodiak Hill (18 April 2021)
Panorama from Perseverance - scarps of Jezero Crater (17 April 2021)
Perseverance views "Delta Scarp" from over a mile away (17 March 2021)
Panorama of Perseverance views Santa Cruz (16 February 2022)
Panorama from Perseverance's landing site (21 February 2021)
Panorama from Perseverance's landing site (ultra-high-rez; 22 February 2021)
Perseverance views "Pinestand" in Jezero Crater (enhanced color; 26 February 2023)
Mars sunset viewed by the Perseverance rover (9 November 2021)
Map of Mars
Interactive image map of the global topography of Mars, overlaid with the position of Martian rovers and landers. Coloring of the base map indicates relative elevations of Martian surface.
Clickable image: Clicking on the labels will open a new article.
Legend:   Active (white lined, ※)  Inactive  Planned (dash lined, ⁂)
Bradbury Landing
Deep Space 2
Mars Polar Lander
Perseverance
Schiaparelli EDM
Spirit
Viking 1
Map of MarsAcheron FossaeAcidalia PlanitiaAlba MonsAmazonis PlanitiaAonia PlanitiaArabia TerraArcadia PlanitiaArgentea PlanumArgyre PlanitiaChryse PlanitiaClaritas FossaeCydonia MensaeDaedalia PlanumElysium MonsElysium PlanitiaGale craterHadriaca PateraHellas MontesHellas PlanitiaHesperia PlanumHolden craterIcaria PlanumIsidis PlanitiaJezero craterLomonosov craterLucus PlanumLycus SulciLyot craterLunae PlanumMalea PlanumMaraldi craterMareotis FossaeMareotis TempeMargaritifer TerraMie craterMilankovič craterNepenthes MensaeNereidum MontesNilosyrtis MensaeNoachis TerraOlympica FossaeOlympus MonsPlanum AustralePromethei TerraProtonilus MensaeSirenumSisyphi PlanumSolis PlanumSyria PlanumTantalus FossaeTempe TerraTerra CimmeriaTerra SabaeaTerra SirenumTharsis MontesTractus CatenaTyrrhen TerraUlysses PateraUranius PateraUtopia PlanitiaValles MarinerisVastitas BorealisXanthe Terra
The image above contains clickable links Interactive image map of the global topography of Mars, overlain with locations of Mars Memorial sites. Hover your mouse over the image to see the names of over 60 prominent geographic features, and click to link to them. Coloring of the base map indicates relative elevations, based on data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. Whites and browns indicate the highest elevations (+12 to +8 km); followed by pinks and reds (+8 to +3 km); yellow is 0 km; greens and blues are lower elevations (down to −8 km). Axes are latitude and longitude; Polar regions are noted.
(   Named  Debris  Lost )
Beagle 2
Curiosity
Deep Space 2
InSight
Mars 2
Mars 3
Mars 6
Mars Polar Lander
Opportunity
Pereverance
Phoenix
Schiaparelli EDM lander
Pathfinder
Spirit
Viking 1
Viking 2


See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Aerial image by the helicopter Ingenuity
  2. ^ All images taken by Ingenuity are taken from black-and-white downward-facing navigation camera or horizon-facing terrain camera[78]
  3. ^ Ingenuity legs are seen clearly on the corners of the each image
  4. ^ Perseverance rover wheels are clearly seen in top corners
  5. ^ a b Please see the difference between the image on high-speed spin up test and the one on sol 48, that is the image on sol 48 has the upper blade in diagonal position while the high-speed spin up test has lower blade in diagonal position
  6. ^ a b note the difference: the twin rover on Earth is powered by electric cables, while Perseverance on Mars is powered by MMRTG

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chang, Kenneth (February 15, 2022). "On Mars, a NASA Rover and Helicopter's Year of Surprise and Discovery - The past 12 months on Mars have been both "exciting" and "exhausting" for scientists and engineers minding Perseverance and Ingenuity. And the mission is only really getting started". The New York Times. Retrieved February 5, 2022.
  2. ^ a b "After Three Years on Mars, NASA's Ingenuity Helicopter Mission Ends". Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
  3. ^ NASA Science Live: Ingenuity Mars Helicopter Tribute & Legacy, retrieved February 1, 2024
  4. ^ Dvorsky, George (February 20, 2019). "You Can Now Check the Weather on Mars Every Day". Gizmodo. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
  5. ^ Berger, Eric (February 20, 2019). "With the best air pressure sensor ever on Mars, scientists find a mystery". Ars Technica. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
  6. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "Perseverance Rover's SuperCam Science Instrument Delivers First Results". NASA's Mars Exploration Program. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
  7. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "NASA's Perseverance Mars Rover Extracts First Oxygen From Red Planet". NASA's Mars Exploration Program. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
  8. ^ "NASA's Perseverance Rover Microphone Captures Sounds from Mars". NASA. February 22, 2021. Retrieved December 14, 2022.
  9. ^ a b Staff (March 5, 2021). "Welcome to 'Octavia E. Butler Landing'". NASA. Retrieved March 5, 2021.
  10. ^ Cappucci, Matthew (April 8, 2021). "NASA receives first weather reports from Perseverance rover on Mars at Jezero Crater – The weather data is crucial as the first flight of Ingenuity draws near". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 8, 2021.
  11. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "We Are Prepping for Ingenuity's Third Flight Test". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved April 25, 2021.
  12. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "Ingenuity Completes Its Fourth Flight". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved April 30, 2021.
  13. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "NASA's Ingenuity Mars Helicopter Completes First One-Way Trip". NASA's Mars Exploration Program. Retrieved May 11, 2021.
  14. ^ a b mars.nasa.gov. "NASA's Ingenuity Helicopter to Begin New Demonstration Phase". NASA's Mars Exploration Program. Retrieved April 30, 2021.
  15. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "Why Ingenuity's Fifth Flight Will Be Different". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved May 11, 2021.
  16. ^ NASA/JPL. "Plans Underway for Ingenuity's Sixth Flight". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved July 3, 2021.
  17. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "Surviving an In-Flight Anomaly: What Happened on Ingenuity's Sixth Flight". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved July 3, 2021.
  18. ^ a b c mars.nasa.gov. "NASA's Perseverance Rover Begins Its First Science Campaign on Mars". NASA's Mars Exploration Program. Retrieved June 13, 2021.
  19. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "To Séítah and Back". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved December 16, 2021.
  20. ^ mars.nasa.gov. "Sample Handling". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved June 13, 2021.
  21. ^ June 2021, Mike Wall 09 (June 9, 2021). "Mars helicopter Ingenuity aces 7th flight on the Red Planet". Space.com. Retrieved July 3, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  22. ^ Demo, Teddy Tzanetos, Operations Lead for Ingenuity Mars Helicopter-Ops. "Flight 8 Success, Software Updates, and Next Steps". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved July 3, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  23. ^ Laboratory, Håvard Grip, Chief Pilot & Bob Balaram, Chief Engineer for the Mars Helicopter Project at NASA's Jet Propulsion. "We're Going Big for Flight 9". mars.nasa.gov. Retrieved July 3, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  24. ^ July 2021, Meghan Bartels 06 (July 6, 2021). "NASA's Mars helicopter Ingenuity sails through 9th flight on the Red Planet". Space.com. Retrieved July 7, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
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