Timeline of Mongolian history

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This is a timeline of Mongolian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Mongolia and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Mongolia. See also the list of Presidents of Mongolia.

Centuries: 17th · 18th · 19th · 20th · 21st

3rd century BCE[edit]

Year Date Event
209 Modu Chanyu founds the Xiongnu Empire. These nomadic peoples would inhabit the eastern Asian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD.
198 Modu Chanyu and the emperor Gaozu of China’s Han dynasty sign a peace treaty, recognizing equality of the Xiongnu.
134 Han Wudi attacks the Xiongnu, beginning a decades-long Chinese offensive against the nomads
53 The southern Xiongnu surrender and become tributaries to the Han after splitting into northern and southern dynasties,

1st century CE[edit]

12th century CE[edit]

Year Date Event
c. 1162 Temüjin (the future Genghis Khan) is born in the Khentii mountains of today's Mongolia.
1186 7 November Ögedei Khan, third son of Temüjin (Genghis Khan) is born.
1189 Temüjin becomes Khan of the Khamag Mongol.

13th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1205 Temüjin unites all nomadic tribes who settled around at Baikal Lake to China's Great Wall.
1206 Temüjin given the title Genghis Khan (Chinggis Khaan), first Khagan (Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire.
1215 23 September Kublai Khan, son of Tolui and grandson of Genghis Khan, is born.
1227 18 August Genghis Khan, 1st Khagan of the Mongol Empire, dies in Western Xia during the fall of Yinchuan aged c. 65.
1229 13 September Ögedei Khan, third son of Genghis Khan, becomes second Khagan of the Mongol Empire.
1241 11 December Ögedei Khan, second Khagan of the Mongol Empire, dies aged 55.
1243 Zhenjin, second son of Kublai Khan and later founder of the Yuan dynasty, is born.
1246 24 August Güyük Khan, eldest son of Ögedei Khan and grandson of Genghis Khan, becomes third Khagan of the Mongol Empire.
1248 20 April Güyük Khan, third Khagan of the Mongol Empire, dies aged 42.
1251 1 July Möngke Khan, eldest son of Tolui and grandson of Genghis Khan, becomes fourth Khagan of the Mongol Empire.
1259 11 August Möngke Khan, fourth Khagan of the Mongol Empire, dies aged 50.
1260 5 May Kublai Khan, son of Tolui and grandson of Genghis Khan, becomes fifth Khagan of the Mongol Empire. However, the Toluid Civil War begins as various members of the Tolui family line fight for the title of Khagan resulting in the division of the Mongol Empire.
1268 The Kaidu–Kublai war brakes out, which lasts until 1301 and deepens the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire. All later Khagans of the Mongol Empire were nominal due to the empire's division.
1269 Birth of the 'Phags-pa script, designed by Drogön Chögyal Phagpa for Kublai Khan.
1271 Kublai Khan officially proclaims the founding of the Yuan dynasty with himself as first emperor. Khanbaliq (modern Beijing) named the dynasty's capital.
1273 Zhenjin designated Crown Prince by Kublai Khan.
1294 18 February Death of Kublai Khan (aged 78). By this time the Mongol Empire had already fractured into four khanates: the Yuan dynasty based in China, the Golden Horde based in Russia, the Chagatai Khanate based in Central Asia, and the Ilkhanate based in Iran, although the Yuan emperors held the nominal title of Khagan.
1294 10 May Temür Khan, son of Crown Prince Zhenjin and grandson of Kublai Khan, becomes sixth Khagan of the Mongol Empire and second emperor of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
1295 Enthronement of Ilkhan Ghazan. Islamization of the Ilkhanate.

14th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1304 A peace among the Mongol khanates establishs the nominal supremacy of the Yuan dynasty over the three western khanates (the Golden Horde, the Chagatai Khanate and the Ilkhanate). However, the peace itself was short-lived and the war soon resumed.
1307 21 June With the death of Temür Khan (aged 41), Külüg Khan, first son of Darmabala and Dagi of the Khunggirad clan, and a great-grandson of Kublai Khan, becomes seventh Khagan of the Mongol Empire and third Emperor of the Yuan dynasty.
1311 7 April Külüg Khan dies (aged 29). Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan, second son of Darmabala and Dagi of the Khunggirat, and a great-grandson of Kublai Khan, becomes eighth Khagan of the Mongol Empire and fourth Emperor of the Yuan dynasty.
1313 Enthronement of Öz Beg Khan. Islamization of the Golden Horde.
1315 Revival of the imperial examination system within the Yuan dynasty under Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan.
1320 19 April Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan dies (aged 34), Gegeen Khan, eldest son of Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan and Radnashiri, becomes ninth Khagan of the Mongol Empire and fifth Emperor of the Yuan dynasty.
1323 4 October Death of Gegeen Khan (aged 20). Yesün Temür, son of Gammala, grandson of Zhenjin and great grandson of Kublai Khan, becomes tenth Khagan of the Mongol Empire and sixth Emperor of the Yuan dynasty.
1328 October With the death of Yesün Temür (aged 34), Ragibagh Khan, eldest son of Yesün Temür, becomes 11th Khagan of the Mongol Empire at the age of 7-8 and designated seventh Emperor of the Yuan dynasty before being deposed in a coup before his succession.
1328 16 October Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür, second son of Khayishan, becomes 12th Khagan of the Mongol Empire and eighth Emperor of the Yuan dynasty. The War of the Two Capitals begins. His forces defeated, Ragibagh Khan disappears or dies at the age of 7-8, possibly murdered.
1329 27 February Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür abdicates and his elder brother Khutughtu Khan Kusala becomes 13th Khagan of the Mongol Empire and ninth Emperor of the Yuan dynasty. However, he dies on August 30 at age 28, four days after a banquet with brother Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür, presumed to have been poisoned. Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür regaines the throne on September 8.
1332 23 October With the death of Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür (aged 28), Rinchinbal Khan, second son of Khutughtu Khan Kusala, becomes 14th Khagan of the Mongol Empire and tenth Emperor of the Yuan dynasty at the age of six.
1333 19 July Rinchinbal Khan dies nine months later (aged 6), Toghon Temür, (1320-1370) eldest son of Khutughtu Khan Kusala and older brother of Rinchinbal, becomes 15th Khagan of the Mongol Empire and eleventh Emperor of the Yuan dynasty.
1335 Disintegration of the Ilkhanate after the death of Ilkhan Abu Sa'id.
1368 14 September Toghon Temür flees Beijing for Shangdu in advance of approaching Ming Dynasty forces. Yuan dynasty falls. The remnants of the Yuan known as the Northern Yuan dynasty continue in Mongolia.
1370 Biligtü Khan Ayushiridara (1340-1378), son of Toghon Temür, is declared Khan of Mongolia at Karakorum. Timur (Tamerlane) gains control of the western Chagatai Khanate.
1378 Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür (1342-1388) succeeds his brother Ayuushridar as Khan of Mongolia.
1380 The Golden Horde is defeated at the Battle of Kulikovo. Karakorum is destroyed by Chinese troops.
1388 Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür is murdered by an ally of the Oirats, thus launching the Oirat-Mongol wars. Jorightu Khan Yesüder (1358-1392) becomes Khan of a fractured and diminished Northern Yuan Dynasty.
1393 Elbeg Nigülesügchi Khan (1361-1399) succeeds his younger brother Jorightu Khan Yesüder as Khan of the Northern Yuan.
1395 Timur invades The Golden Horde and sacks Saray and Astrakhan.
1399 Elbeg Nigülesügchi Khagan is defeated by the Four Oirats and killed by their leaders, Ugetchi Khashikha and Batula.

15th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1405 Timur dies of illness at Farab (present day Kazakhstan) while preparing for war against Ming China.
1408 Öljei Temür Khan (1379-1412) succeeds his father Elbeg Nigülesügchi Khan and older brother Gün Temür Khan as Khan of the Yuan Dynasty.
1415 Oirat nobles place Oyiradai (died 1425) on the throne of Khagan of the Mongol Khan of the Northern Yuan dynasty following the death of Delbeg Khan
1425 Adai Khan (1390-1438) assumes throne of Northern Yuan dynasty, unifies both the central and eastern Mongol territories but then suffers major defeats by Oirats in 1430 and 1434.
1433 Oirats crown Toghtoa Bukha (Taisun Khan) as Khagan of the Northern Yuan. He later proclaims himself of Khagan of the Great Yuan enraging the Ming dynasty.
1449 Esen Taishi (Taisun Khan's military commander and later successor as Khan) captures the Zhentong Emperor of the Ming dynasty at the Battle of Tumu Fortress and lays siege to Beijing, but is pushed back.
1473 The Ming begin construction of the Great Wall at the southern edge of the Ordos Desert to contain resurgent Mongol tribes.
1480 Madukhai Khatun, widow of the previous Chinggisid khan, marries Batu-Möngke Dayan Khan who defeats the Oirats, beginning a Chinggisid revival in Mongolia. The Great Horde's attempt to invade Muscovy failed. Their leader Akhmat Khan dies.

16th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1510 Dayan Khan defeats the Ordos and Tümed Mongols at the Battle of Dalan Terigün (Inner Mongolia), reunifying the Six Tümens of the Mongols.
1513 Dayan Khan launches successive invasions of China that continue through 1526 and include an unsuccessful assault on Beijing in 1517
1542 Following his brother's death in 1542, Altan Khan (grandson of Dayan Khan) becomes the de facto leader of the whole of the "Right Wing" (western Inner Mongolia and Ordos) and is given the title, "Tüsheet Sechen Khan."
1550 Altan Khan launches large scale incursions into Ming territory, surrounds Beijing.
1551 Altan Khan and the Ming strike accords on peace and border trade.
1571 Altan Khan founds the city of Guihua or Köke Khota (Hohhot, meaning "The Blue City"), now the capital of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China.
1577 Altan Khan meets Sodnam Gyatso in northeast Tibet and bestows on him the Mongolian title "Dalai Lama". The Mongols’ “Second Conversion” to Buddhism begins
1585 Abtai Sain Khan of the Tüsheet Khanate and nephew of Altan Khan founds Erdene Zuu Monastery, the first Buddhist monastery in Mongolia, adjacent to the ancient Mongol capital of Karakorum

17th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1601 Yonten Gyatso, great-grandson of Altan Khan, becomes the 4th Dalai Lama in Lhasa, Tibet.
1604 Ligdan Khan becomes ruler of the northern Yuan.
1619 Several Mongol tribes defect to the Qing due to Ligdan Khan's oppressive rule.
1632 Ligdan Khan flees to Tibet to evade the Manchus and conquer the Gelug.
1634 Ligdan Khan dies at Qinghai Lake.
1640 Zanabazar, four-year-old son of the Tüsheet Khan of the Khalkha, is recognized as the first Jebtsundamba Khutughtu.
1642 Establishment of the Khoshut Khanate in the Tibetan Plateau by Güshi Khan.
1661 Irkutsk fort founded.
1671 Galdan Boshigt becomes leader of the western Dzungar Khanate.
1685 Galdan Khan founds the town of Khovd.
1687 Outbreak of the decades-long Dzungar–Qing War between the Dzungar Khanate and Khalkha-Mongols / Qing dynasty.
1688 The Dzungars invade Khalkha and force Khalkha nobility to flee to Inner Mongolia.
1691 Khalkha nobles pledge fealty to the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing Dynasty.
1696 The Qing dynasty seizes de facto control of Khalkha by defeating the Dzungars in the Battle of Jao Modo.

18th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1715 Manchu troops garrisoned at Uliastai and Khovd.
1717 Fall of the Tibet-based Khoshut Khanate due to the invasion of the Dzungars.
1720 Qing Dynasty's Kangxi Emperor drives Dzungar forces from Tibet.
1723 Death of Zanabazar. Upper Mongols under rule of the prince Lubsan Danzan revolt against the Qing but were defeated.
1727 Kyakhta Treaty defines Russo-Qing frontier and divides the Buriats under Russia from the Khalkha Mongols under the Qing.
1752 Dawaachi and Amursanaa overthrow the Dzungar ruler.
1756 Chingünjav and Amursana lead failed rebellions which ended in the destruction of the Dzungars by the Qing dynasty.
1758 Third Jebtsundamba Khutuktu identified in Tibet (first outside of Mongolia)
1779 Nom-un Yekhe Khüriye, the great monastery of the Jebtsundamba Khutuktus, finally settles at the present

location of Ulaanbaatar in Mongolia.

19th century[edit]

20th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1907 The Qing government implemented sinification policies.
1911 1 December Outer Mongolia declared independence from the Qing Dynasty under the Bogd Khan.
29 December The Bogdo Khanate of Mongolia was proclaimed and Bogd Khan enthroned.
1912 3 November The Russian Empire recognized Mongolian independence and the rule of Bogd Khan.
1913 11 November Mongolia and Tibet concluded treaty on mutual recognition and mutual assistance.
1915 Russia, China and Mongolia signed a treaty at Kyakhta under which China was recognized as sovereign over an autonomous Mongolia.
1919 Outer Mongolia was occupied by the Republic of China.
1921 The Russian Red Army, with the support of Damdin Sükhbaatar, defeated the forces of Roman Ungern von Sternberg.
February Ungern drove Chinese troops out of Niislel Khuree.
March All remaining Chinese troops were defeated by Ungern and driven from Mongolia, allowing the reassertion of Mongolian independence under Bogd Khan.
18 March Communist guerrillas headed by Damdin Sükhbaatar, with the assistance of Red Army troops, defeated the Chinese garrison in the Mongolian settlement Maimachen near Kyakhta.
1924 26 November After the death of the Bogd Khan, the Mongolian People's Republic was declared in Outer Mongolia.
1928 Collectivization began.
1932 The failure of collectivization led to widespread uprisings and a temporary thaw.
1936 Prince Demchugdongrub formed the Mongol Military Government, a non-Communist state independent from China, in Inner Mongolia.
1937 The Mongol Military Government was renamed the Mongol United Autonomous Government.
Stalinist purges in Mongolia: A Stalinist terror began which would lead to the deaths of more than thirty thousand people in the Mongolian People's Republic.
1939 Stalinist purges in Mongolia: The terror ended.
May Battle of Khalkhyn Gol: Large scale fighting took place between Japanese and joint Soviet-Mongolian forces along Khalkhyn Gol on the border between Mongolia and Manchuria.
16 September Battle of Khalkhyn Gol: The battle ended in a Japanese defeat. A truce was negotiated between Japan and the Soviet Union.
1941 The Mongol United Autonomous Government was renamed the Mongolian Autonomous Federation, or Mengjiang.
1945 August The Republic of China requested Soviet help in the war against Japan, and offered recognition of the independence of Outer Mongolia in exchange according to the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance.
August The Mongolian People's Republic declared war on Japan, one day after the Soviet Union, and began to liberate Southern Mongolia from the China and the Japan.
October A plebiscite yielded a 100% pro-independence vote.
1946 January The Chinese government recognized the independence of Mongolian People's Republic.
1949 6 October The newly established People's Republic of China recognized Mongolia and agreed to establish diplomatic relations.
1950 Herds were successfully collectivized.
1952 The Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan renounced the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance.
1955 The ROC blocked the accession of the Mongolian People's Republic's entry to the United Nations.
1961 The Mongolian People's Republic entered the United Nations.
The Trans-Mongolian Railway was finished.
1962 Mongolia became a member of the Comecon.
Sino-Soviet split: The Communist Party leadership sided with the Soviet Union in a falling-out with China.
1965 Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal purged the intelligentsia.
1969 Sino-Soviet split: The Soviet Union stationed a large army on Mongolian territory in response to threats of Chinese aggression.
1981 March Jügderdemidiin Gürragchaa became the first Mongolian in space.
1984 August Tsedenbal resigned.
1987 27 January Mongolia established diplomatic relations with the United States.
1989 July The first Mongolian member of the Bahá'í Faith entered the country.
December The first popular reform demonstrations took place; the Mongolian Democratic Association was organized.
1990 January Large-scale pro-democracy demonstrations were held in sub-zero weather.
2 March Mongolia and the Soviet Union announced that all Soviet troops would be withdrawn from Mongolia by 1992.
May The constitution was amended to provide for a multi-party system and new elections.
29 July The first democratic elections were held. The Communist Party, now the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP), won.
3 September The first democratically elected People's Great Hural took office.
1992 13 January A new constitution went into effect.
8 April A new election law was passed.
28 June An election was held for the first unicameral legislature, the State Great Hural. The MPRP won.
1993 6 June The first direct presidential election took place. Opposition candidate Punsalmaagiin Ochirbat, a former MPRP member, won.
1996 30 June The first non-Communist government was elected.
1998 Sanjaasürengiin Zorig, Minister of Infrastructure and one of the leaders of the 1990 protests, was murdered.
2000 2 July The MPRP was elected; a new government was formed by Prime Minister Nambaryn Enkhbayar.

21st century[edit]

Year Date Event
2003 Mongolian troops begin taking part in peace keeping operations in Afghanistan, Iraq and Sudan.
2004 An election resulted in a draw. A coalition was formed between the MPRP and other parties which was headed by Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj.
2006 January The governing coalition was dissolved by the MPRP.
25 January A new coalition between the MPRP and smaller parties and defectors was formed under Miyeegombyn Enkhbold.
2007 October The governing coalition was led by the MPRP and replaced by a coalition headed by Sanjaagiin Bayar.
2009 June Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj from Democratic Party was selected President of Mongolia.
2009 October Sanjaagiin Bayar resigned from Primer Ministership due to declining health conditions and was replaced with Sükhbaataryn Batbold.
2012 August After the 2012 Mongolian legislative election, a coalition headed by Norovyn Altankhuyag from Democratic party was formed.
2013 June Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj, President of Mongolia, was re-elected in the 2013 Mongolian presidential election.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]