Timeline of Nepalese history

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This is a timeline of Nepalese history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Nepal and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Nepal. See also the list of monarchs of Nepal.

Millennia: 1st BC · 1st–2nd · 3rd · See also · Further reading
Centuries: 6th BC · 5th BC · 4th BC · 3rd BC · 2nd BC · 1st BC

1st century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
563 BC The Gautama Buddha is born in Kapilvastu, Lumbini (present-day Nepal).

5th century BC[edit]

4th century BC[edit]

3rd century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
268 BC Ashoka establishes empire in north India (to 231 BC)

2nd century BC[edit]

1st century BC[edit]

Centuries: 1st · 2nd · 3rd · 4th · 5th · 6th · 7th · 8th · 9th · 10th · 11th · 12th · 13th · 14th · 15th · 16th · 17th · 18th · 19th · 20th

1st century[edit]

2nd century[edit]

3rd century[edit]

4th century[edit]

Year Date Event
353 Samudragupta establishes empire in north India
400 Licchavi kingdom in power in Kathmandu Valley (to 750)

5th century[edit]

6th century[edit]

7th century[edit]

8th century[edit]

Year Date Event
750 "Transitional" kingdom in power in Kathmandu Valley (to 1200)

9th century[edit]

10th century[edit]

11th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1100 Malla kings rule in western Nepal (to 1484)

12th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1200 Aridev malla, first monarch of the Malla Dynasty, rules in Kathmandu Valley (to 1216)

13th century[edit]

14th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1312 Newar king Ripumalla leads raid in Kathmandu Valley
1345 Sultan Shams ud-din Ilyas of Bengal leads raid in Kathmandu Valley (to 1346)
1382 Jayasthitimalla rules as king of united Malla kingdom in Kathmandu Valley (to 1395)

15th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1428 Yakshamalla reigns – height of united Malla kingdom (to 1482)
1484 Malla kingdom divided; three kingdoms of Kathmandu, Bhadgaon, and Patan expand

16th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1526 Mughal Empire established in north India
1559 Gorkha kingdom established

17th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1606 Ram Shah of Gorkha reigns; Gorkha kingdom experiences first expansion (to 1633)

18th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1743 Prithvi Narayan Shah ascends to throne of Gorkha
1764 British East India Company gains control of Bengal
1768 Gorkha ruler Prithvi Narayan Shah conquers Kathmandu and lays foundations for unified kingdom.
1769 Conquest of Chaudandi and Majh Kirant states.
1792 Nepalese expansion halted by defeat at hands of Chinese in Tibet.

19th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1806 Bhimsen Thapa becomes prime minister
1809 Nepalese troops lay siege to Kangra, farthest extent of Gurkha empire
1814 Anglo-Nepalese War; culminates in treaty which establishes Nepal's current boundaries. (to 1816)
1837 Bhimsen Thapa falls, beginning unstable period in court politics
1846 Nepal falls under sway of hereditary chief ministers known as Ranas, who dominate the monarchy and cut off country from outside world.
Kot Massacre takes place
1855 War waged with China (to 1856)
1856 Royal decree gives absolute power to prime minister and his family
1857 Sepoy Rebellion waged against British in north India; Nepal aids British (to 1858)
1858 Jang Bahadur receives title of Rana
1877 Jang Bahadur Rana dies
1885 Ranoddip Singh Rana assassinated; Bir Shamser Rana becomes prime minister

20th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1901 Dev Shamsher Rana forced to abdicate; Chandra Shamsher Rana becomes prime minister
1914 Thousands of Nepalese citizens fight as soldiers for British in World War I (to 1918)
1923 21 December Treaty with Britain affirms Nepal's sovereignty.
1935 Praja Parishad established, first political party in Nepal
1939 Tens of thousands of Nepalese citizens fight as soldiers for British in World War II (to 1945)
1947 Nepali National Congress established through merger of former All-India Nepali National Congress with Nepalese Society of Banaras and Gorkha Congress of Calcutta
1948 Prime Minister Padma Shamsher Rana announces first constitution of Nepal, then resigns; his replacement, Mohan Shamsher Rana, represses opposition
1950 Anti-Rana forces based in India form alliance with monarch.
1951 End of Rana rule. Sovereignty of crown restored and anti-Rana rebels in Nepalese Congress Party form government
1952 King Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah Dev ascends throne
1953 29 May New Zealander Edmund Hillary and Nepal's Sherpa Tenzing Norgay become the first climbers to reach the summit of Mount Everest.
1955 Nepal joins the United Nations.
King Tribhuwan dies, King Mahendra ascends throne.
1959 Multi-party constitution adopted; first general elections in Nepal bring to power Nepali Congress Party with B.P. Koirala as prime minister
1960 King Mahendra seizes control and suspends parliament, constitution and party politics after Nepali Congress Party (NCP) wins elections with B. P. Koirala as premier.
1962 New constitution provides for non-party system of councils known as "panchayat" under which king exercises sole power. First elections to Rastrya Panchayat held in 1963.
1972 King Mahendra dies, succeeded by Birendra.
1980 Constitutional referendum follows agitation for reform. Small majority favours keeping existing panchayat system. King agrees to allow direct elections to national assembly – but on a non-party basis.
1985 NCP begins civil disobedience campaign for restoration of multi-party system.
1989 Trade and transit dispute with India leads to border blockade by Delhi resulting in worsening economic situation.
1990 Pro-democracy agitation co-ordinated by NCP and leftist groups. Street protests suppressed by security forces resulting in deaths and mass arrests. King Birendra eventually bows to pressure and agrees to new democratic constitution. This protest time is called Jana Andolan I.
1991 Nepali Congress Party wins first democratic elections. Girija Prasad Koirala becomes prime minister.
1994 Koirala's government defeated in no-confidence motion. New elections lead to formation of Communist government.
1995 Communist government dissolved.
Radical leftist group, the Nepal Communist Party (Maoist), begins insurrection in rural areas aimed at abolishing monarch and establishing people's republic, sparking a conflict that would drag on for over a decade.
1997 Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba loses no-confidence vote, ushering in period of increased political instability, with frequent changes of prime minister.
2000 GP Koirala returns as prime minister, heading the ninth government in 10 years.

21st century[edit]

Year Date Event
2001 1 June King Birendra, Queen Aishwarya and other close relatives killed allegedly in shooting.
4 June Prince Gyanendra crowned King of Nepal .
Jul Maoist rebels step up campaign of violence. Prime Minister GP Koirala quits over the violence; succeeded by Sher Bahadur Deuba.
Nov Maoists end four-month-old truce with government, declare peace talks with government failed. Launch coordinated attacks on army and police posts.
Nov State of emergency declared after more than 100 people are killed in four days of violence. King Gyanendra orders army to crush the Maoist rebels. Many hundreds are killed in rebel and government operations in the following months.
2002 May Parliament dissolved, fresh elections called amid political confrontation over extending the state of emergency. Sher Bahadur Deuba heads interim government, renews emergency.
Oct King Gyanendra dismisses Deuba and indefinitely puts off elections set for November. Lokendra Bahadur Chand appointed as PM.
2003 Jan Rebels, government declare ceasefire.
May Lokendra Bahadur Chand resigns as PM; king appoints his own nominee Surya Bahadur Thapa as new premier (to June)
Aug Rebels pull out of peace talks with government and end seven-month truce. The following months see resurgence of violence and frequent clashes between students/activists and police.
2004 Apr Nepal joins the World Trade Organisation (WTO).
May Royalist Prime Minister Surya Bahadur Thapa resigns following weeks of street protests by opposition groups.
Jun King Gyanendra reappoints Sher Bahadur Deuba as prime minister with the task of holding elections.
2005 1 February King Gyanendra dismisses Prime Minister Deuba and his government, declares a state of emergency and assumes direct power, citing the need to defeat Maoist rebels.
30 April King lifts the state of emergency amid international pressure.
Nov Maoist rebels and main opposition parties agree on a programme intended to restore democracy.
2006 Apr King Gyanendra agrees to reinstate parliament following weeks of violent strikes and protests against direct royal rule. GP Koirala is appointed as prime minister. Maoist rebels call a three-month ceasefire. Some times this period is called Jana Andolan-II.
May Parliament votes unanimously to curtail the king's political powers. The government and Maoist rebels begin peace talks, the first in nearly three years.
16 June Rebel leader Prachanda and PM Koirala hold talks – the first such meeting between the two sides – and agree that the Maoists should be brought into an interim government.
Nov The government and Maoists sign a peace accord, declaring a formal end to a 10-year rebel insurgency. The rebels are to join a transitional government and their weapons will be placed under UN supervision.
2007 Jan Maoist leaders enter parliament under the terms of a temporary constitution. Violent ethnic protests erupt in the south-east; demonstrators demand autonomy for the region.
Apr Former Maoist rebels join interim government, a move that takes them into the political mainstream.
May Elections for a constituent assembly pushed back to November.
May A US offer to resettle thousands of Bhutanese refugees in Nepal has raised hopes but has also sparked tension in the camps, says Human Rights Watch.
Sep Three bombs hit Kathmandu in the first attack in the capital since the end of the Maoist insurgency.
Sep Maoists quit interim government to press demand for monarchy to be scrapped. This forces the postponement of November's constituent assembly elections.
Oct UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon urges Nepal's parties to sink their differences to save the peace process.
Dec Parliament approves abolition of monarchy as part of peace deal with Maoists, who agree to re-join government.
2008 Jan A series of bomb blasts kill and injure dozens in the southern Terai plains. Groups there have been demanding regional autonomy.
Apr Former Maoist rebels win the largest bloc of seats in elections to the new constituent assembly, but fail to achieve an outright majority.
28 May Nepal becomes a republic.
Jun Maoist ministers resign from the cabinet in a row over who should be the next head of state.
21 July Two months after the departure of King Gyanendra, Ram Baran Yadav becomes Nepal's first president.
15 August The Constituent Assembly elects the Maoist chairman Pushpa Kamal Dahal 'Prachanda' as the first Prime Minister of federal democratic republic Nepal.
2009 4 May Caught in row over dismissal of Nepal's army chief, country's Prime Minister Pushpa Kamal Dahal, also known as Prachanda, has resigned citing obstacle in government functioning as the main reason.
2015 25 April Nepal is devastated by a powerful earthquake measuring 7.9 on the Richter scale, followed by more than 200 powerful quakes
2015 20 September Promulgation of a new constitution 2072 by president Dr. Ram Baran Yadav

See also[edit]


  • Library of Congress, A Country Study: Nepal, Chronology of Important Events: online

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]