Timeline of Orthodoxy in Greece (717–1204)

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This is a timeline of the presence of Orthodoxy in Greece. The history of Greece traditionally encompasses the study of the Greek people, the areas they ruled historically, as well as the territory now composing the modern state of Greece.

Christianity was first brought to the geographical area corresponding to modern Greece by the Apostle Paul, although the church's apostolicity also rests upon St. Andrew who preached the gospel in Greece and suffered martyrdom in Patras, Titus, Paul's companion who preached the gospel in Crete where he became bishop, Philip who, according to the tradition, visited and preached in Athens, Luke the Evangelist who was martyred in Thebes, Lazarus of Bethany, Bishop of Kition in Cyprus, and John the Theologian who was exiled on the island of Patmos where he received the Revelation recorded in the last book of the New Testament. In addition, the Theotokos is regarded as having visited the Holy Mountain in 49 AD according to tradition.[note 1] Thus Greece became the first European area to accept the gospel of Christ. Towards the end of the 2nd century the early apostolic bishoprics had developed into metropolitan sees in the most important cities. Such were the sees of Thessaloniki, Corinth, Nicopolis, Philippi and Athens.[1]

By the 4th century almost the entire Balkan peninsula constituted the Exarchate of Illyricum which was under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome. Illyricum was assigned to the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Constantinople by the emperor in 732. From then on the Church in Greece remained under Constantinople till the fall of the Byzantine empire to the Ottoman Empire in 1453. As an integral part of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, the church remained under its jurisdiction until Greek independence.[1] Under Ottoman rule, up to "6,000 Greek clergymen, ca. 100 Bishops, and 11 Patriarchs knew the Ottoman sword".[2][3][note 2]

The Greek War of Independence of 1821–28 created an independent southern Greece, but created anomalies in ecclesiastical relations since the Ecumenical Patriarch remained under Ottoman tutelage, and in 1850 the Endemousa Synod in Constantinople declared the Church of Greece autocephalous.

The cultural roots of both Byzantine and modern Greece cannot be separated from Orthodoxy. Therefore, it was natural that in all Greek Constitutions the Orthodox Church was accorded the status of the prevailing religion.[9][note 3]

In the 20th century, during much of the period of communism, the Church of Greece saw itself as a guardian of Orthodoxy. It cherishes its place as the cradle of the primitive church and the Greek clergy are still present in the historic places of Istanbul and Jerusalem, and Cyprus.[10] The autocephalous Church of Greece is organised into 81 dioceses, however 35 of these – known as the Metropolises of the New Lands – are nominally under the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople but are administered as part of the Church of Greece; although the dioceses of Crete, the Dodecanese, and Mount Athos are under the direct jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Constantinople.[11][note 4]

The Archbishop of Athens and All Greece presides over both a standing synod of twelve metropolitans (six from the new territories and six from southern Greece), who participate in the synod in rotation and on an annual basis, and a synod of the hierarchy (in which all ruling metropolitans participate), which meets once a year.[1]

The government observes several religious holidays as national holidays including Epiphany, Clean Monday (the start of Great Lent), Good Friday, Easter Sunday, Easter Monday, Holy Spirit Day, the Dormition of the Theotokos and Christmas.[12]

Among the current concerns of the Church of Greece are the Christian response to globalization, to interreligious dialogue, and a common Christian voice within the framework of the European Union.[1]

The population of Greece is 11.4 million (2011),[13][note 5] of which 95%[16][17][note 6] to 98%[18] are Greek Orthodox.

Era of Byzantine Iconoclasm (717-842)[edit]

Medieval plate depicting Acrites, the frontiersmen or border guards of the Byzantine Empire, about which epic songs were written.
St. Theodore the Studite abbot of the Stoudios monastery in Constantinople and a zealous opponent of iconoclasm.
Miniature showing the Second Council of Nicaea.
Venerable Gregory Decapolites, the New Wonderworker.
  • 815 A synod in the Church of Hagia Sophia affirmed the Iconoclastic Council (Council of Hieria), annulled the Seventh Ecumenical Council (Nicaea II), and recognized the Acta of the iconoclast council of 754.[52]
  • 816 Death of Gregory Decapolites.[53][54]
  • 818 Vikings known as Rus' plunder the north coast of Anatolia, marking the first known raid of Rus' or Russians, on territory in the Byzantine Empire.[52]
  • 824 Byzantine Crete falls to Arab insurgents fleeing from the Umayyad Emir of Cordoba Al-Hakam I, establishing an emirate on the island until the Byzantine reconquest in 960.[55]
  • 826 Death of Theodore the Studite.[56][57]
  • 827 Beginning of the Saracen invasion of Byzantine Sicily, which lasted from 827 to 902.[58][note 20]
  • 828 Death of Patr. Nicephorus I of Constantinople.[59]
  • c. 829–842 Icon of Panagia Proussiotissa (Mother of God of Proussa) is re-discovered near Karpenissi in Greece, after it had been lost during its transportation from Asia Minor in 829 AD to save it from iconoclasm;[60][61][note 21] influence of Muslim culture on Byzantines is at a high point during the reign of Emperor Theophilus.[62]
  • 833 Emperor Theophilus began a persecution of iconophiles in the face of several defeats by Muslim Arabs who intended to construct a chain of permanent bases from Tyana to Constantinople, with Theophilus being confirmed in his persecution when the caliph died and the Arabs withdrew.[62]
  • 838 John VII the Grammarian, Patriarch of Constantinople, enacted a harsh persecution of iconophiles, mostly against monks;[62] in August, Caliph al-Mu'tasim captures and destroys Amorium in Anatolia, killing half the inhabitants.[63][64]
  • c. 839 First Rus'-Byzantine War, where the Rus' attacked Propontis (probably aiming for Constantinople) before turning east and raiding Paphlagonia.
  • c. 840 Turks began to move into the Islamic world of the Eastern Mediterranean, as mercenaries and military slaves (Mamluks) of the Muslim Arabs.[65]

Byzantine Imperial era (843–1204)[edit]

The Holy Protection of the Mother of God (Novgorod icon, 1399).
Venerable Irene Chrysovolantou of Cappadocia, Abbess of Chrysovalantou.

c. 915 Death of Leo Luke of Corleone, the Abbot and Wonderworker of the Monastery of Mount Mula in Calabria,[note 30] and a founder of Italo-Greek monasticism in Southern Italy, having died a centenarian, after eighty years of monastic life.[108]

Monastery of Hosios Loukas.
Kievan Rus'' in the late 10th century.
The Byzantine Empire under Basil II – c. 1025.
The Byzantine Empire and its themata in 1045. At this point, the Empire was the most powerful state in the Mediterranean.
Anastasis, Nea Moni of Chios, Greece, 11th century
St. Eustathios of Thessaloniki, Archbishop (c.1175 - c.1195/6).
Greek-Orthodox monasteries at Meteora, Greece.

See also[edit]


Church Fathers


  1. ^ The Theotokos is the Patron of Mount Athos, which is known as: The Garden of the Mother of God, and The Holy Mountain of Our Lady. The arrival of the Theotokos at the Mountain is mentioned by codices L' 66 and I' 31 of the Library of Great Lavra Monastery.
  2. ^ "According to several accounts, from the Conquest of Constantinople to the last phase of the Greek War of Independence, the Ottoman Turks condemned to death 11 Ecumenical Patriarchs of Constantinople, nearly 100 bishops, and several thousands of priests, deacons and monks (Bompolines, 1952;[4] Paparounis, no date;[5] Perantones, 1972;[6] Pouqueville, 1824;[7] Vaporis, 2000.[8])."[3]
  3. ^ The provisions of the 1844 Constitution, where the Bavarian regency bequeathed the Hellenic State with a kind of caesaropapism, were repeated in articles 1 and 2 of the 1864 Constitution; article 1 and 2 of the 1911 Constitution; article 1 of the 1927 Constitution; articles 1 and 2 of the 1952 Constitution; article 1 of the 1968 constitutional text of the military dictatorship; and article 3 of the 1975 Constitution; (as well as article 9 of the 1925 and 1926 Constitutions, which were never enforced). [9]
  4. ^ "Codified in the 1928 Patriarchal and Synodical Act, the "New Lands" were entrusted to the temporary stewardship of the Church of Greece, provided that the Church respected the terms of the Act. The Act subsequently has been incorporated into several pieces of Greek legislation (Laws 3615/1928, 5438/1932, 599/1977, and Article 3, paragraph 1 of the current Greek Constitution), thereby recognizing the ecclesiastical agreement between the two sides."
  5. ^ The World Bank gives a figure of 11.30 million (2011),[14] while according to the 2011 Greek Census, the total enumerated population was 10,787,690.[15]
  6. ^ According to a December 2011 nationwide survey conducted by Metron Analysis (one of the biggest independent market research and public opinion survey companies in Greece), 95% of those polled reported that they were Orthodox Christians, while 1.5% said that they belong to some other religion, and 2.8% of the population said that they were irreligious or atheist, which is among the lowest figures in Europe.[16]
  7. ^ With the accession to the throne of a Syrian emperor, Leo III 'the Isaurian', in 717, the use of icons became a matter of hostile state attention."[20]
  8. ^ The use of "Greek fire" and an unusually cold winter helped the Byzantine empire defeat the largest Muslim naval expedition against Constantinople from the Sea of Marmara during their one-year siege of the city. The Arabs were never again able to threaten the city and Christian culture was saved from being overwhelmed by the Muslim Arabs.[21]
  9. ^ This monastery at the summit of Mount Ithome was abandoned by the Fathers in the year 1625, due to the unbearable cold of the winter months and the difficulty that Christians had in visiting it. They sought a new place to the south and found it where the new monastery now stands.
  10. ^ The "First Iconoclasm", as it is sometimes called, lasted between about 726 and 787. The "Second Iconoclasm" was between 814 and 842. Traditional explanations for Byzantine iconoclasm have sometimes focused on the importance of Islamic prohibitions against images influencing Byzantine thought.[25] According to Arnold J. Toynbee,[26] for example, it was the prestige of Islamic military successes in the 7th–8th centuries that motivated Byzantine Christians to adopt the Islamic position of rejecting and destroying idolatrous images.
  11. ^ The Ecloga was a revised law code drawn from the Justinian Code. It was in Greek, it was shorter, and contained many modifications from the Code, reflecting a literal reading of the Bible, canon law, and orientalizing of criminal law.[23]
  12. ^ His work became the classic of eastern dogmatics, exercising influence on the west as east. He also presented a fully developed doctrine of the Theotokos including her freedom from stain of sin and her assumption into heaven (the Dormition). He taught that the Eucharistic elements are truly the body and blood of the Lord Jesus Christ, despite appearances. He opposed Islam as a Christian heresy. He also composed canons and is known especially for his Resurrection Canon.[23]
  13. ^ Up to this time Greece and the Aegean were still technically under the ecclesiastic authority of the Pope, but Leo also quarreled with the Papacy; the defiant attitude of Popes St. Gregory II and St. Gregory III, who summoned councils in Rome to anathematize and excommunicate the iconoclasts (730, 732) on behalf of image-veneration, led to a fierce quarrel with the emperor. Leo retaliated however by transferring the territories of southern Italy, Greece and the Aegean from the papal diocese to that of the Patriarch of Constantinople, in effect throwing the Papacy out of the Empire.
  14. ^ Gregory III of Rome was the last Pope of Rome to seek the approval of the Byzantine emperor for his consecration.
  15. ^ "Views differ as to precisely when this took place. See M. Anastos, 'The transfer of Illyricum, Calabria and Sicily to the Jurisdiction of the patriarchate of Constantinople in 732–733', SBN (=Silloge bizantina in onore di S. G. Mercati), 9 (1957), 14–31, (reprinted Variorum, 1979) who opts for Leo III; V. Grumel, 'L'Annexation de rillyricum oriental, de la Sicile et de la Calabre au patriarcat de Constantinople', Recherches de science religieuse (=Melanges Jules Lebreton, II), 40 (1952), 191–200, puts the case for Constantine V and the pontificate of Stephen II (752–7).[31]
  16. ^ The Diocese of Moesiae (which later split into two dioceses: the Diocese of Macedonia and the Diocese of Dacia) was the area known as "Eastern Illyricum", and in view of the detailed list of provinces given by Pope Nicholas Ι (858–67) in a letter in which he demanded the retrocession of the churches removed from papal jurisdiction in 732-33, this area seems to have been the region affected by Emperor Leo's punitive action.
    Previously the lands which Leo ΙΙΙ now placed under the authority of the Church of Constantinople, although subject to the civil rule of the emperor of Constantinople ever since the end of 395, had nevertheless depended upon Rome ecclesiastically, except for a few brief interruptions including:
    • In 421 (when a decree enacted by Emperor Theodosius II placed all churches within the pale of the Illyricum prefecture (then part of the Eastern Empire) subject to the Archbishop of Constantinople).
    • In 438, through the Theodosian Codex, Illyricum was again placed under Constantinopolitan jurisdiction.
    • To some extent during the Acacian schism, 484–519.
  17. ^ 10 February - 8 August. Three hundred thirty-eight bishops attended the iconoclast council in Constantinople at Hieria and then at Blarchenae for the final session. (It was called by the Orthodox party the "headless synod" because no patriarchs were present, however the council nevertheless asserted the religious authority of emperors as "peers of the apostles".) The Council declared that only the Eucharist is the true image of the Lord Jesus Christ because it is "identical in essence" with what it portrays. Certain definitions were included that toned down the more radical views of the emperors; provided theological arguments demonstrating that Iconophiles were heretics; and anathematized Patriarch Germanus, John of Damascus and George of Cyprus. The new patriarch of Constantinople, Constantine II, attended the final session. This council began the violent phase of the iconoclast movement, with exiles, executions, confiscation of property and destruction of images. The summary of the council, the Horos, is the only document of this council to survive the iconophile victory because it was quoted verbatim at the council of Nicaea (787).[37]
  18. ^ "The Khazars' dominions...housed enough Christians of the Eastern Orthodox Rite for a metropolitanate to be devised for them by the Constantinopolitan authorities, probably in the second quarter of the ninth Century (Darrouzes 1981:[44] 31–2, 241–2, 245)."[45]
  19. ^ 24 September - 23 October. The Seventh Ecumenical Council (Second Council of Nicaea) was convened by Emperor Constantine VI, establishing the orthodoxy of the veneration of icons; condemning Iconoclasm as heretical; drawing a distinction between latreia or "adoration", reserved for God alone, and proskynesis or "veneration" to be accorded to icons and relics; and having 22 disciplinary canons. The Latin translation that was presented to the Pope was poor and therefore inaccurate, which elicited a response from the Franks who rejected it, even though Pope Hadrian I supported it. No supporters of Iconoclasm offered any open resistance.[46]
  20. ^ The first Arab battle against Byzantine troops occurred on 15 July 827, near Mazara, resulting in an Aghlabid victory. It took over a century for Byzantine Sicily to be conquered. Syracuse held out for a long time, and Taormina fell in 902. Eventually all of Sicily was conquered by the Arabs in 965, and the Emirate of Sicily was formed, an Islamic state on the island of Sicily which existed from 965 to 1072.
  21. ^ The Monastery of Proussos in Karpenisi (in the Evrytania region of Greece), was named after the Holy Icon of Panagia of Prousa (in Minor Asia). According to holy tradition, this icon was painted by Saint Luke the Evangelist. The icon was brought to the mainland of Greece to save it from iconoclasm during the period of iconoclastic Byzantine Emperor Theophilos (829–842). The Monastery of Proussos in Karpenisi was founded during this period on the site where the icon was re-discovered. Its feast day is 23 August (the Leavetaking of the Dormition of the Mother of God), and it is visited by crowds of pilgrims each year from 15 to 23 August to venerate the Icon of the All-Holy Mother of God of Prousa.
  22. ^ March 843, Theodora calls council, not of bishops but of other selected officials, which accepts the council of 787 and thereby condemning iconoclasm. The council having met and restored the veneration of icons on the first Sunday of Lent, this day is celebrated as Feast of Orthodoxy. Synodicon and commemorations take shape gradually.[65]
  23. ^ "Nicholas Cheetham claims that the Orthodox Church made intense efforts to convert the Slavs in Greece, and that this took effect more or less in the period from A.D. 800 to 1000, only when the Greek language had ousted Slavonic."[74]
  24. ^ Most Soviet historians (Boris Grekov, Vladimir Pashuto, Rybakov) agree that Christianity was adopted in the 9th century only by the Varangian elite of the Rus' Khaganate. That the fact of the first Christianization was obliterated so rapidly is explained by the 882 coup d'état that led to the downfall of the supposedly Christian Askold and the usurpation of power by the pagan Oleg. Tatischev went so far as to style Askold "the first Russian martyr".
    Constantine Zuckerman rejects Rybakov's view that Photius converted the Kievan Rus'. He ranks among those authors who believe that the centre of the Rus' Khaganate was Novgorod. According to him, the Christianised Varangians were expelled from the country during the anti-Varangian movement of the 860s or 870s.
  25. ^ Saints Photius the Great, Mark of Ephesus, and Gregory Palamas, have been called the Three Pillars of Orthodoxy.
  26. ^ Byzantine empire attacks Bulgaria, causing Khan Boris to give in and receive baptism from Greeks. Although Michael III, Byzantine Emperor, is godfather, Boris does not decide between claims of Rome and Constantinople for jurisdiction.[76]
  27. ^ The establishment of Christianity as state religion dates to the time of Prince Mutimir and Byzantine Emperor Basil I (r. 867–886).[82]
  28. ^ "The Council of 879-880 in Constantinople, under the Ecumenical Patriarch, Archbishop of Constantinople and New Rome, Saint Photios the Great, Equal to the Apostles,...condemned as heretical the teaching of the Filioque, and is considered by the consciousness of the Church to be the 8th Ecumenical Council, because in it were representatives of all the Patriarchates, including the then Orthodox Pope of Rome, John the 8th, and because the decisions of this council were universally accepted."[88]
  29. ^ We ought tentatively to regard it as probable that the saints whose lives have come down to us were really the founders of Greek monasticism in South Italy, and that before their time there were no Greek monasteries in the district. There probably were hermits; but the rise of monasteries does not begin before the end of the ninth century; and the leaders of the monks were Elias Junior (†903), Elias Spelaeotes ("the Cave-Dweller", †c. 960) , Lucas of Demena (†984), Vitalis of Castronuovo (†994), and Nilus of Rossano (†1004).[93]
  30. ^ Mount Mula, or Monte La Mula (1935 m),[106] is one of the highest peaks of the Orsomarso mountains , near Cassano.[107]
  31. ^ "At Constantinople, after having been instructed in the faith of the Greek Church, and living in fasting, prayer, and almsgiving, she, together with her retinue, was baptized by the Patriarch Polyeuktes, the Patriarch dismissing her with his blessing: "Blessed art thou amongst Russian women; from generation to generation the Russian people shall call thee blessed."[116]
  32. ^ The project was financed by spoils from the Cretan campaign (961) and donations by the Emperor Nikephoros Phocas.[66]
  33. ^ "Nicephorus Phocas, established government by military aristocracy in the Byzantine Empire. With one longish interval, it was to last till the Latin conquest. This tenth-century Pattakos had only one passion, fighting on the battlefield, and his only spiritual need was prayer and conversation with holy men. He was one of the patrons of Athonite monasticism. He also established finally that the Patriarch of Constantinople should be elected by the Holy Synod. A short-list of three names was to be submitted to the Emperor, who selected from it the Aristos."[120]
  34. ^ Known as the "Tragus", it officially established the coenobian system alongside the hermitages.[66]
  35. ^ "From Kiev, Christianity spread into the provinces. After his conversion, Vladimir's character was completely changed. Like Oswald with the holy Aidan (a sight which the Venerable Bede describes as "beautiful"), he accompanied the Bishops in their missionary work throughout the country; schools were established and organized, with Greek teachers from Constantinople set over them, Greek and Latin taught, and the principles of the Orthodox Church inculcated. Vladimir built several Churches, for which he employed Greek architects; he built of stone the cathedral Church of Kiev, endowing it with the tenth part of all his revenues, and dedicating it, doubtless after the Church of his conversion at Cherson, to the Most Holy Virgin; and appointed Michael the Syrian Bishop of Kiev. Michael founded Churches in Rostov and Novgorod, but died before the completion of the Cathedral of Kiev. He was succeeded by Leontius, a Greek by birth, sent over by the Patriarch of Constantinople; by Leontius the Cathedral was consecrated, and the Sees of Novgorod, Rostov, Chernigov, and Belgorod established. The third Bishop was Ivan (or John). Thus the Russian Church was firmly established."[124]
  36. ^ According to the Orthodox Church's Sacred Tradition, the Wonderworking icon of the Panagia Portaitissa was at one time in the possession of a widow in Nicea. Not wanting the icon to be seized and destroyed by the iconoclasts, she spent all night in prayer and then cast the icon into the Mediterranean Sea; this took place during the reign of Emperor Theophilus (829–842). Much later (c. 999[128] or c. 1004),[129] the icon was recovered from the sea by a Georgian monk named Gabriel (St. Gabriel of Iveron, 13 May) who was laboring at the Iveron Monastery on Mount Athos, and it was then taken to the katholikon (main church) of the monastery from which it gets its name. For about 170 years since it was cast into the sea (c. 829 – c. 999) no one knew the whereabouts of this icon.
  37. ^ "From 1009, the Franks controlled the succession to the papal throne and Latin orthodoxy dropped its resistance to the innovations devised at the court of Charlemagne, making it official doctrine."[136]
  38. ^ "It would appear that Byzantine-Fatimid relations from 1027 through the reign of Romanos IV Diogenes (1068-71) were generally cordial."[138]
  39. ^ "Every month, the icon was taken out in a procession to another church in the confraternity. Many participants were members of aristocratic families owning land in the environs of Thebes."[143] Currently, the feast of the "Virgin of Nafpaktos" is observed in Nafpaktos on 7 October each year, in memory of the Battle of Lepanto which took place on 7 October 1571, where the Christian European fleet decisively defeated the fleet of the Ottoman Empire.
  40. ^ "The desire to reform and restructure the church in southern Italy, already apparent under Leo IX, and to recover the disciplinary rights of the papacy over churches which the Byzantines had kept subject to the patriarch of Constantinople, both required the assistance of the de facto ruling authorities."[146]
  41. ^ From the fall of Reggio Calabria (capital of the tagma of Calabria) in 1060 to Robert Guiscard, to the fall of Messina one year later in 1061 under the leadership of Roger I of Sicily, to the fall of Noto in 1091 in the southern tip of Sicily, the Normans conquered all of Sicily. They were also gradually seizing the Southern Italian mainland too, taking Otranto in October 1068, and Bari itself in April 1071, forming what was afterwards called the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. The last Imperial city to fall was Naples in 1138. From this time on, the Roman Pope had jurisdiction in these parts, although the Byzantine rite lingered on in Magna Graecia.[147]
  42. ^ "Anna Comnena remarks that by the end of the eleventh century a large proportion of the towns along the Aegean coastline from the north to Attalia had been completely or partially destroyed. When the Second Crusaders passed through western Asia Minor, Odo of Deuil remarked that, though the Greeks had rebuilt and recolonized some of the urban centers, many of the towns were still nothing more than uninhabited ruins. Adramyttium, formerly very populous and prosperous, was so destroyed, a contemporary relates, that one could not tell whether it had ever been inhabited by man. Dorylaeum, one of the largest and most prosperous of Greek towns in Asia Minor, lay a deserted ruin for over one hundred years, no one stone standing upon another in the ruins. Caesareia remained an uninhabited shambles for over half a century, not being rebuilt until the mid-twelfth century. These are merely three cases from a long list of sacked or destroyed Byzantine towns in the first century of the Seljuk-Byzantine conflict. In this early period the sources reveal that over seventy-five towns and villages were subjected, to severe devastation, some of them being sacked on more than one occasion, and twenty-seven of these towns were destroyed and became uninhabited for varying periods."[150]
  43. ^ "Based on a historical character who died about 788, the epic, a blend of Greek, Byzantine, and Oriental motifs, originated in the 10th century and was popularized by itinerant folksingers; it was recorded in several versions from the 12th to the 17th centuries, the oldest being a linguistic mixture of popular and literary language."[152]
  44. ^ The council pronounced that Hellenic studies formed a valuable part of education but anathematized anyone who held Hellenic doctrines. For a man to call himself a Hellene was as if he denied to be a Christian.[153]
  45. ^ "His captor tried, without success, to force the conversion of Gabras. Gabras was first layed out on the snow, face down, and beaten on the back. He remained steadfast, however, so his captors then proceeded to dismember him alive, severing his tongue, plucking out his eyes, and then removing his scalp, limbs, and other parts. His remains were burned and the Amir Ali had a golden drinking cup fashioned from his skull."[156]
  46. ^ Bari, the last town in Apulia which had been left to the Greeks, was captured A.D. 1071, by Robert Guiscard, whom Pope Nicolas II., and after him Gregory VII., bound by an oath of allegiance to the Roman Church.
  47. ^ "Archbishop Chrysostomos I of Athens (1868-1938), in his History of the Church of Jerusalem (1910), also makes note of the events of 1101. He contends that, while it is doubtful that the Greeks and Latins normally concelebrated in the Church of the Resurrection...in that year the Greek and Latin clergy together conducted the rite of the Holy Fire. Apparently, he believes that as a result of the participation of the Latins, the Holy Fire did not appear on Holy Saturday as usual...(he) goes on to say that the Holy Fire appeared only after the Greeks prayed in the absence of the Latins, on the Sunday of Pascha, when the Church of the Resurrection became filled with light. The Latins then came to take light from the Greeks. On the basis of this, he concludes, "during the Crusader era the rite of the Holy Fire remained a purely Greek celebration" — an important claim, since it helps us to understand the survival of the rite to this day principally in the Greek churches. "[162]
  48. ^ Although precise numbers are unavailable, the bulk of the Latin community, estimated at 60,000 at the time by Eustathius of Thessalonica,[170] was wiped out or forced to flee. The Genoese and Pisan communities especially were decimated, and some 4,000 survivors were sold as slaves to the Turkish Sultanate of Rum.[171]
  49. ^ "The cathedral (1174–89) is one of the richest and most beautiful churches in Italy, combining Norman, Byzantine, Italian, and Saracen styles. Particularly notable is the interior mosaic decoration, one of the largest in existence. It was created in less than 10 years by a group of craftsmen trained in Byzantium. The subjects of the mosaics include an Old Testament cycle, the miracles of Christ, the life of Christ, and the lives of SS. Peter and Paul."[173]
  50. ^ The siege was extensively chronicled by the city's archbishop, Eustathius of Thessalonica, who was present in the city during and after the siege. It came on the heels of the Byzantine massacre of the Latins in Constantinople in 1182.
  51. ^ Its construction is mentioned by Pope Innocent III in a letter of 1210 to the Latin Patriarch of Constantinople, Tommaso Morosini (Patrologia Latina, CCXVI, col. 354).
  52. ^ "To these should be added Monemvasia, if we may trust the story of the fifteenth century historian Phrantzes, himself a Monemvasiote, accepted by Finlay, that it became a metropolitan see under the Emperor Maurice... ...Besides these, the islands of Leukas, and Aegina, and the towns of Arta were archbishoprics, and each metropolitan see had numerous bishops under it. Such was the arrangement which, with a few alterations, had been in force since the days of Leo the philosopher, three centuries earlier."[181]


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  127. ^ Venerable Nikon "Metanoeite," the Preacher of Repentance. OCA – Feasts and Saints.
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Published works[edit]

  • ("History of Athens in the Middle Ages. From Justinian to the Turkish Conquest." 1889.)