Timeline of Phoenix, Arizona

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The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Phoenix, Arizona, United States.

Prior to 19th century[edit]

  • 1-300 AD – Hohokam establish several villages along the Gila River.
  • 300 AD – Ceramics appear in the Hohokam culture.[1]
  • 450 AD – Pueblo Grande settled (approximate date).
  • 600-1300 AD – Hohokam build large network or irrigation canals throughout the area.
  • 1300 AD – Hohokam have largest population in the southwest.[1]
  • 1300–1450 AD – Periods of drought alternate with flooding (approximate date).
  • 1450 AD – Pueblo Grande abandoned due to drought (approximate date).

19th century[edit]

Advertisement for Orozco & Vasquez, Phoenix, 1888[2]
  • 1848 – With the end of the Mexican–American War, the area which includes today's Phoenix becomes part of the United States, as part of the New Mexico Territory.[3]
  • 1863 – Nearby Wickenburg becomes the first town to be established in what is now Maricopa County, Arizona.[4]
  • 1865 – Camp McDowell (later Fort McDowell) is set up on the Verde River.[5]
  • 1867
    • November: Jack Swilling, resident of Wickenburg, establishes the Swilling Irrigating and Canal Company with the intent to develop the Phoenix area, which he became impressed with after viewing the area on a visit to Camp McDowell.[6]
    • December: Swilling leads a group of 17 miners from Wickenburg to the Phoenix area and begins the process of developing a canal system.[7]
  • 1868
    • May 4: Phoenix is officially recognized by the Board of Supervisors of Yavapai County, which at that point contained Phoenix.[8]
    • June 15: First post office established, in the Swilling homestead, with Swilling as postmaster.[9]
    • Swilling has completed almost 3 miles of his canals.[10]
    • Mary Adeline Gray, the first European woman settler, and her husband Columbus, arrive.[10]
    • Salt River floods for the first of many times during Phoenix's settlement.[10]
  • 1870
    • October 20: Town site selected in what is currently downtown Phoenix.[8][11]
    • Town laid out,[12] original town site consists of 320 acres, or 0.5 square miles.[8][13]
    • Population of the Salt River Valley reaches 240, the Arizona Territory has 9,658 people.[10]
    • 1700 acres under cultivation in the Salt River Valley.[10]
    • Maricopa Canal completed.[10]
  • 1871
    • February 12: Maricopa County is broken out of Yavapai County, Phoenix becomes the county seat.[14][15]
    • July 4: First wheat ground in Valley at Birchard's Mill.[10]
    • First permanent building, the Hancock residence, is constructed at Washington and First Streets.[10]
    • The second building, a brewery, is constructed.[10]
    • The first store (Hancock's) and the first church (Central Methodist) open in Phoenix.[8][10]
    • The Tempe Irrigating Canal Co. is created.[10]
    • Tempe founded by Charles T. Hayden.[10]
    • Population of Phoenix reaches 500.[10]
  • 1872
    • Adobe schoolhouse constructed.[10]
    • September 5: Public school in session.[8]
    • Phoenix's first wedding, between George Buck and Matilda Murray.[10]
    • Phoenix's first Chinese settlers arrive.[10]
    • The first bookstore and newsstand opened by Edward Irvine.[10]
    • 1873 – Hellings Mill expands to include a hog-slaughterhouse.[10]
  • 1874
    • School built on Center Street.
    • Hayden's mill opens. It will remain in operation for more than 100 years.[10]
    • Phoenix's formal patent for the town site is formally granted.[10]
    • Salt River floods.[10]
  • 1875 – Salt River floods.[10]
  • 1877 – Maricopa Library Association organized.[12]
  • 1878
    • Salt River Herald, the valley's first newspaper, begins publication.[16]
    • The first bank, a branch of the Bank of Arizona, opens.[17]
    • Population reaches 1500.[10]
    • Brick factory opens.[10]
    • Grand Canal completed.[10]
    • Mesa is founded.[10]
  • 1879
  • 1880
    • Arizona Gazette newspaper begins publication.[16]
    • Methodist church established.[12]
    • Population: 1,800.[12]
    • First legal hanging in Maricopa County.[10]
  • 1881
    • February 25: Phoenix officially incorporated when Governor John C. Frémont signs the "The Phoenix Charter Bill", and instituting a mayor-council form of government.[8][14]
    • La Guardia, the valley's first Spanish language newspaper, begins publication.[18]
    • May 3: John T. Alsap defeated James D. Monihon, 127 to 107, to become the city's first mayor.[8]
    • May 9: City Council begins meeting.[19]
    • June 24: Catholic church dedicated.[12]
    • Phoenix Rangers organized in response to hostile Apache activity in Tonto Basin.[10]
  • 1883
    • Cotton cultivation is brought to the valley.[10]
    • Two smallpox outbreaks. City creates the position of Health Officer.[10]
    • Mesa City incorporates.[10]
An aerial lithograph of Phoenix from 1885
  • 1884
  • 1885
    • Arizona Canal completed.[10]
    • Phoenix broken up into four wards, although city officials remain citywide offices.[10]
    • Destructive fire destroys major portions of the town.[10]
    • Arizona Insane Asylum is awarded to Phoenix.[10]
  • 1886
    • A second major fire destroys several buildings and results in approximately $100,000 in damage.[10]
    • Phoenix Fire Department established, when bond issue passes establishing 2 fire companies.[10]
    • First private gas lighting company established.[13]
    • First telephone company opens.[17]
    • Phoenix Opera House is completed.[10]
    • Arizona Insane asylum's construction is completed.[10]
  • 1887
    • Maricopa-Phoenix railway and horse-drawn Street Railway begin operating.[23]
    • Public water system created.[17]
    • Public Health Department is established.[10]
    • Mule-drawn streetcar system established.[17]
    • Salt River Valley News begins weekly publication.[10]
  • 1888
    • Electric power company created.[17]
    • New city hall opens.[8]
    • November 4 – Phoenix Chamber of Commerce established.[24]
    • Peoria is founded.[10]
  • 1889 – Capital of Arizona Territory relocated to Phoenix from Prescott.
    • Citrus cultivation is begun in the valley by the Arizona Improvement Company.[10]
  • 1890
    • Arizona Republican newspaper begins publication.[16]
    • Population: 3,152.[14]
    • Walnut Grove dam bursts north of the city, 50 people killed.[10]
    • Ladies Benevolent Society formed.[10]
  • 1891
    • Phoenix Indian School opens.
    • Largest flood in valley history occurs.[13]
    • Telephones come to Phoenix.[10]
    • A territorial convention is held in Phoenix. The idea of becoming a state is discussed, but is voted down.[10]
  • 1892
    • The Phoenix Sewer and Drainage Department is created.[13]
    • The Phoenix Indian School holds its first classes.[10]
  • 1893
    • The Phoenix Street Railway switches over from mule-drawn to electrical streetcars.[13]
    • The Arizona Territory passes a law allowing cities, including Phoenix, to annex land surrounding the city, as long as it obtained the permission of the inhabitants of that area.
  • 1894
    • Orangedale (later called Scottsdale) is founded by Winfield Scott.[10]
    • The city passes an ordinance limiting prostitution to a single block area.[10]
    • The city's speed limit is raised to 6 mph.[10]
    • Tempe incorporates.[10]
  • 1895
  • 1896
    • The Adams Hotel opens.[18]
    • Date Palms are introduced into the valley.[10]
  • 1897
    • The Friday Club begins a movement to open a public library.[10]
  • 1898
    • El Demócrata newspaper begins publication.[16]
    • The block of the red-light district is now illegal.[10]
    • Doris Opera House Opens.[10]
    • First public library opens.[10]
  • 1899 – Phoenix Library Association created.[10]
  • 1900
    • Dorris Theatre opens (approximate date).[26]
    • City accesses unincorporated lands, area increases from .5 acre to over 2 acres.[10]
    • In spite of efforts by the Women's Temperance Union, Phoenix has 28 saloons and 18 casinos.[10]
    • First automobiles arrive in the city.[10]
    • Population: 5,544.[14]

20th century[edit]

1900s[edit]

  • 1901
  • 1901 – February 25: The State Capitol building is dedicated, built at a cost of $130,000.[27]
    • Drought hits the city.[10]
    • The Phoenix Women's Club is founded.[10]
  • 1903
    • February 7: Salt River Project founded (as the Salt River Valley Water Users' Association).[28][29]
    • Voters approve a bond to create a municipal waterworks.[10]
  • 1905
    • The largest agricultural crop is alfalfa.[10]
    • Flooding once again causes issues in the city.[10]
  • 1906
  • 1907
    • St. Luke's Home, a tuberculosis treatment center, opens.[10]
    • The YMCA raises $100,000 to construct a building in town.[10]
  • 1908
    • Salt River again floods.[10]
    • Granite Reef dam completed.[10]
    • Carnegie Library is completed and open to the public.[10]
  • 1909 – The Central Avenue bridge over the Salt River is approved.[10]

1910s[edit]

  • 1910
    • Speed limit is increased to 12 mph in city limits; city has 329 licensed cars.[10]
    • City schools establish an official segregation policy.[10]
    • The Adams Hotel is destroyed by fire, but is rebuilt.[10]
    • Guidelines concerning surface water rights are established by the Kent decree.[10]
    • Population reaches 11,134.[14]
  • 1911
  • 1912
    • February 14: Arizona becomes the 48th state of the United States; Phoenix becomes the state capital.[30]
    • Women are granted the right to vote.[10]
    • Chandler is founded by Alexander Chandler.[10]
  • 1913
    • City adopts council-manager form of government (previously mayor-council), becoming one of the first cities in the country to adopt this form of government.[31]
    • 35% of the votes cast were by women.[10]
    • City has 646 registered automobiles.[10]
    • Ash Avenue Bridge is completed.[10]
  • 1914
    • Arizona votes to ban alcohol.[10]
    • William Fairish becomes the city's first manager.[32]
  • 1915
  • 1917
    • Arizona adopts its state flag.[27]
    • Litchfield is founded when the Goodyear Tire Company purchases a tract of land.[32]
    • Salt River Valley Water Users Association gains control of the Salt River Project.[32]
    • Migrant workers from Mexico are brought in to pick cotton.[32]
  • 1918
    • Alfalfa falls to the number two agricultural product, behind cotton.[32]
    • The Rialto Theatre opens.[32]
    • Spanish flu infects a significant portion of the population.[32]
  • 1919 – In anticipation of the upcoming U.S. Census, the city votes to extend the city limits.[32]

1920s[edit]

  • 1920
    • Congregation Beth Israel formed.[33]
    • The Heard Building, the first skyscraper in Phoenix, is constructed.[8]
    • Phoenix Union High School has 2000 students.[27]
    • The entirety of the original Phoenix town site is now completely paved.[32]
    • A precipitous drop in the price of cotton, from $1.35 to $0.35 a pound, creates a financial crisis in the valley.[32]
    • Phoenix has over 11,000 registered vehicles.[32]
    • Chandler is incorporated.[32]
    • Population reaches 29,053.[8]
  • 1921
    • Temple Beth Israel, the valley's first synagogue, opens.[34]
    • "Rich, Resolute, Ready, Phoenix, Salt River Valley" becomes the official tourism slogan of Phoenix.[32]
  • 1922
    • Valley and Gila River Banks merge.[32]
    • Water from the Verde River becomes available through a 30-mile-long (48 km) wooden pipeline.[32]
    • KFAD becomes the city's first radio station (later renamed KTAR; it was followed shortly by KFCB, which today is called KOY.[32]
  • 1923
    • Cave Creek Dam is completed.[32]
    • Salt River Project absorbs the Tempe Irrigating Canal Company.[32]
    • Union Station built.[35]
    • Deaconess Hospital (today known as Banner Good Samaritan Medical Center) opens.[32]
  • 1924
    • Luhrs Building constructed.
    • The depression caused by the drop in the cotton price in 1920 ends.[32]
    • Phoenix Sanitarium opens.[32]
    • Jokake Inn opens.[32]
    • South Mountain Park (originally named Phoenix Mountain Park) is created.[32]
  • 1925
    • 12 subdivisions are annexed by Phoenix.[32]
    • Phoenix Fine Arts Association formed.[36]
    • The private electric streetcar system is purchased by the City of Phoenix for $20,000.[35]
    • Mormon Flat Dam completed.[32]
    • Voters approve a separate high school for blacks.[32]
    • First municipal airport is opened, near Christy Road and 59th Avenue.[37]
    • City implements a zoning program.[32]
  • 1926
    • The Phoenix Main Line of the Southern Pacific Railroad is completed, intercontinental rail will begin being routed through Phoenix the following year.[35]
    • The first Annual Masque of the Yellow Moon is held.[32]
    • The segregated Phoenix Union Colored High School opens.[32]
  • 1927
    • Salt River Canal is diverted underground.[32]
    • Phoenix voters approve a $750,000 bond issue to improve the street car system.[35]
    • Horse Mesa Dam is completed.[32]
  • 1928
  • 1929

1930s[edit]

  • 1930
    • March 4: Coolidge Dam dedicated by Calvin Coolidge.[29]
    • American Airlines brings passenger and air postal service to Phoenix.[38]
    • KTAR becomes an NBC affiliate.[32]
    • Stuart Mountain Dam is completed.[32]
    • The high school installs lights in its athletic stadium.[32]
    • Population reaches 48,118.
  • 1931
  • 1932
  • 1933
    • Since the start of the Great Depression, 33% of banks and savings & loans in the valley have failed.[32]
    • Over 300 bars have obtained liquor licenses since the repeal of the Arizona state law banning alcohol.[32]
    • Pueblo Grande Museum Archaeological Park opens.[32]
  • 1934
    • Encanto Park opens in central Phoenix.
    • The term, "Valley of the Sun" is invented by a local advertising agency.[32]
  • 1935
    • July 16: The city of Phoenix purchases Sky Harbor Airport, which has been run by the city ever since.[38][44]
    • The Federal government becomes the largest employer in Phoenix.[32]
  • 1936 – Federal Building-U.S. Post Office built.
  • 1937
    • Federal Art Center established, which will become the Phoenix Art Museum.[32]
    • Salt River Project Agricultural Improvement and Power District is created.[32]
  • 1938 – Phoenix Thunderbirds are created by the Chamber of Commerce.[32]
  • 1939

1940s[edit]

  • 1940
    • Civic Center Association formed to raise funds for Phoenix Art Center. It was dissolved in 1955 when all fund raising and archival activities were taken over by the Fine Arts Association.[36]
    • Population reaches 65,414.
  • 1941
    • January 2: Construction begins on Thunderbird Field in nearby Glendale (later renamed Thunderbird Field No. 1), funded by a collaborative group of Hollywood personalities, including James Stewart, Henry Fonda, Cary Grant, and Margaret Sullavan. The field opens in April.
    • Luke Air Force Base opens, its first class graduating in June.
    • Williams Air Force Base opens in December.
    • Falcon Field opens in nearby Mesa as a training location for British RAF pilots.
    • Urban renewal project creates 3 new housing developments: Marcos de Niza Project for Mexicans, Matthew Henson Project for Blacks, and Frank Luke Jr. Project for Whites.[32]
  • 1942
  • 1943
  • 1944
    • December 23: Great Papago Escape of German prisoners, the largest single escape by POW's in any camp in the United States.[48]
    • St. Monica's Hospital, the first integrated hospital in Phoenix, opens (today known as Phoenix Memorial Hospital).[32]
  • 1945
    • Arizona State Teachers College becomes Arizona State College.[40]
    • Mystery Castle is built.[49]
    • Several large factories which were created for war production, begin to close down operations.[32]
  • 1946
    • The Arizona State Constitution is amended; Arizona becomes a right-to-work state.[50]
    • Ray Bussey elected mayor.[50]
  • 1947
    • October: A fire destroys all but four of Phoenix's electric streetcars. The city begins the process of transitioning to a public bus transit system.[35]
    • The Phoenix Charter Revision Committee is formed. The political group, headed by Barry Goldwater, would dominate city politics in the 1950s.[51]
    • Phoenix Symphony Orchestra is founded.[50]
    • The New York Giants start spring training in Phoenix.[50]
  • 1948
    • Motorola opens a research and development center for military electronics.[27]
    • Phoenix Jewish News begins publication.[16]
    • City establishes its first sales tax.[50]
    • KPHO-TV becomes the city's first television station.[50]
    • Barry Goldwater elected to the city council.[50]

1950s[edit]

  • 1950 – Population reaches 106,818, now 99th most populous city in the United States, and the largest in the Southwest.[50]
  • 1950s – Widespread use of air-conditioning leads to a construction and population boom.[27]
  • 1952
    • Wright House (residence) built.
    • Republican Barry Goldwater elected United States Senator, defeating the Senate Majority Leader Ernest McFarland; Republican John Howard Pyle elected governor
    • Arizona Public Service formed by the merger of Central Arizona Light and Power and Northern Arizona Light and Power[50]
    • Racial segregation is banned at Sky Harbor Airport.[50]
    • Adam Diaz becomes the first Hispanic on the city council.[50]
  • 1953
    • State courts declare school segregation illegal. Phoenix begins school desegregation.[50]
    • KYTL-TV begins operations as an NBC affiliate. Currently KPNX-TV.[50]
    • Channel 10 begins broadcasting, currently KSAZ-TV, the Fox affiliate.[50]
  • 1954 – City finishes the desegregation of Public schools.[50]
  • 1955
    • Terminal 1 opens at Sky Harbor Airport, built at a cost of $835,000, it represented the most modern and efficient passenger terminals of its time. It was demolished in 1991.[44]
    • Metropolitan Bus Lines is purchased by L.A. Tanner and renamed Valley Transit Line. Tanner was unsuccessful in his attempts to also purchase the city-run municipal bus system.[35]
    • Phoenix battles Scottsdale over annexation of unincorporated areas. This battle would last until an agreement was reached regarding "spheres of annexation influence" in 1964.[52]
    • KTVK-TV opens operations as an ABC affiliate.[50]
    • Agriculture falls to second behind manufacturing in the city's economy.[50]
    • The city bans segregation in public housing.[50]
  • 1957—More annexations
  • 1958
    • Phoenix doubles in size through annexation
    • Numerous shopping centers opened
    • Smog becomes more troublesome
    • Arizona State College becomes Arizona State University.[40]
  • 1959
    • Phoenix Art Museum opens.[36]
    • L.A. Tanner is successful in purchasing the city-owned municipal bus system, merging it into his Valley Transit Line. All bus service in the valley is now unified.[35]
    • Sunnyslope annexed by Phoenix.[50]
    • Deer Valley airport opens.[37]

1960s[edit]

1970s[edit]

  • 1970
    • Phoenix New Times newspaper begins publication.
    • Phoenix Mountains Preservation Council founded in August, to purchase all of the 7000 acres in the Phoenix Mountains Preserve, and a total of 9700 acres.[62]
    • Remnants of Tropical Storm Norma slam into city, causing flooding and resulting in 23 deaths.[50]
    • During the 1960s, Phoenix annexed 134.55 square miles of land, now totaling 245.5 square miles.[54]
    • Population reaches 581,562,[63] city becomes the nation's 20th most populous.[50]
  • 1971
    • May 1: Amtrak takes over intercity rail routes.[35]
    • First National Bank Plaza, currently known as the Wells Fargo Plaza, is built.
    • The third building, 3838 N. Central Avenue, is built, completing Phoenix City Square.[64]
    • The city purchases the Phoenix Transit System from American Transit, who agrees to continue to manage the operation.[35]
    • The city adopts the Central Phoenix Plan in an attempt to develop the Central Avenue corridor.[65]
    • The first Fiesta Bowl is played.[50]
  • 1972
  • 1973 – Voters approve a $23.5 million bond issue, to fund the Phoenix Mountain Preserve.[50]
  • 1975
    • Phoenix elects its first female mayor: Margaret Hance.[50]
    • Papago Freeway is passed by the voters.[50]
  • 1976
  • 1978
  • 1979
    • Terminal 3 at Sky Harbor Airport opens.[66]
    • City adopts the Phoenix Concept 2000 plan, which split the city into urban villages.[69]

1980s[edit]

1990s[edit]

  • 1990
    • The Barry Goldwater Terminal (terminal 4) opens at Sky harbor airport with 5 concourses and 44 gates.[77]
    • November 10: The Desert Sky Pavilion (currently named the Ak-Chin Pavilion) opens. Billy Joel is its first act.[78]
    • The Stack (road interchange) and Papago Freeway Tunnel open.
    • During the 1980s, Phoenix annexed 99.33 square miles of land, now totaling 420.36 square miles.[54]
    • Population reaches 983,403.[63]
  • 1991
    • Viad Tower built.
    • Phoenix transit implements a Bus Card Plus Program, allowing participants reduced fares.[35]
  • 1992
  • 1993
    • September 30: Williams Air Force Base closes after 52 years of military service.
    • RPTA adopts the name, Valley Metro, for the regional transit system. Phoenix and Mesa become the first two systems in the valley to agree to the name.[35]
    • City wins the Carl Bertelsmann Prize, for the best run city government in the world.[8]
    • Arpaio creates Tent City, to help alleviate crowding.[70]
    • Salt River floods and destroys the new Mill Avenue Bridge.[70]
    • Steve Benson, a cartoonist for the Arizona Republic, wins the Pulitzer Prize.[70]
  • 1994
  • 1995
  • 1996
    • Amtrak discontinues service to Phoenix.[35]
    • September 24: Construction begins on a new Central Station for Valley Metro, near Central and Van Buren Avenues.[35]
    • The Phoenix Coyotes begin play in the Western Conference as a relocation franchise previously known as The Winnipeg Jets.
  • 1997
    • Hayden Flour Mill, which in the late 1800s supplied most of the flour for the state of Arizona, closes after 123 years.[70]
    • Phoenix Lights, alleged UFO sighting, seen over the city.[70]
  • 1998
  • 1999 – Tempe Town Lake is completed.[70]
  • 2000

21st century[edit]

2000s[edit]

2010s[edit]

  • 2010
  • 2011
    • July 5: Sandstorm.[87]
    • University of Arizona's Center for Social Cohesion active.[88]
  • 2012
  • 2013 – Population: 1,513,367.[90]
  • 2015
    • Renovations begin on Terminal 3 at Sky Harbor airport, part of a 3-phase redevelopment of the terminal expected to be completed in 2020.[91]
    • Super Bowl XLIX played at University of Phoenix Stadium. The New England Patriots defeat the Seattle Seahawks.
  • 2017

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "The Hohokam". Arizona Museum of Natural History, City of Mesa. Retrieved 30 November 2012. 
  2. ^ A. Leonard Meyer (1888), Meyer's Business Directory of the City of Phoenix, Arizona, Phoenix, Ariz 
  3. ^ Spencer C. Tucker (2012). The Encyclopedia of the Mexican–American War: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 255. ISBN 9781851098545. 
  4. ^ "Town of Wickenburg History". Wickenburg, Arizona. Retrieved 25 February 2014. 
  5. ^ "Fort McDowell – In the Midst of the Apache Wars". Legends of America. 
  6. ^ Grady 2012, pp. 1,5.
  7. ^ VanderMeer 2010, p. 15.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "City of Phoenix History". City of Phoenix. Archived from the original on April 4, 2015. 
  9. ^ Gober 2006, p. 17.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl Territorial, statehood timelines 2011.
  11. ^ Grady 2012, pp. 61-5.
  12. ^ a b c d e f Disturnell 1881.
  13. ^ a b c d e VanderMeer 2010, p. 28.
  14. ^ a b c d e Britannica 1910.
  15. ^ a b "Phoenix Valley History". The Natural American. Retrieved June 28, 2015. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f "US Newspaper Directory". Chronicling America. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. Retrieved March 25, 2013. 
  17. ^ a b c d e VanderMeer 2010, p. 20.
  18. ^ a b c d Nilsen, Richard (June 24, 2011). "People who built Phoenix: 1865-1912". Arizona Republic. Retrieved June 30, 2015. 
  19. ^ "History". City of Phoenix. Retrieved March 25, 2013. 
  20. ^ James H. McClintock (1916), Arizona: Prehistoric, Aboriginal, Pioneer, Modern, Chicago: S.J. Clarke Publishing Co.  v.2
  21. ^ Premium list; Fourth Annual Exhibit, Arizona Industrial Exposition Association, October 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, Phoenix, Maricopa County, Arizona, Phoenix: Arizona Industrial Exposition Association, 1887 
  22. ^ "History of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation – FundingUniverse". www.fundinguniverse.com. Retrieved 2016-06-17. 
  23. ^ "Busy Railroad in a Rich Country: the Arizona Eastern ...". Southern Pacific Bulletin. San Francisco. August 1921. 
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  25. ^ "The Rosson House". Heritage Square. Retrieved June 29, 2015. 
  26. ^ Julius Cahn's Official Theatrical Guide. 1900. 
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  30. ^ a b c "Phoenix History". Hello Phoenix. Retrieved 4 February 2014. 
  31. ^ "Out of the Ashes, Establishing a Council-Manager Government City of Phoenix". Phoenix.gov. Retrieved 2012-06-19. 
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi "Timeline: The Valley 1912-45". The Arizona Republic. July 22, 2011. Retrieved June 30, 2015. 
  33. ^ "History". Arizona Jewish Historical Society. Retrieved March 25, 2013. 
  34. ^ "Cutler Plotkin Jewish Heritage Center". Discover Phoenix. Retrieved June 29, 2015. 
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac "A Brief History Of Public Transportation in Metro Phoenix". The Phoenix Trolley Museum. Archived from the original on August 29, 2014. 
  36. ^ a b c d e "History & Mission". Phoenix Art Museum. Retrieved June 29, 2015. 
  37. ^ a b c d "Airport History Timeline". City of Chandler. Retrieved June 30, 2015. 
  38. ^ a b c d "1935 and The Farm -- Sky Harbor's Early Years and Memories". skyharbor.com. 30 August 1930. Retrieved 5 February 2014. 
  39. ^ "Heard Museum History". Heard Museum. Retrieved March 25, 2013. 
  40. ^ a b c "Tempe Normal School Records, 1885-1930 MSS-149". Arizona Archives Online. 2014. Retrieved May 27, 2014. 
  41. ^ "City Archaeology". City of Phoenix. Retrieved March 25, 2013. 
  42. ^ "An Arizona Fairy Tale". National Trust for Historic Preservation. Retrieved June 29, 2015. 
  43. ^ "Everyday Extraordinary". Wrigley Mansion Club. Retrieved June 29, 2015. 
  44. ^ a b "Where is Terminal 1?". Sky Harbor Airport. Archived from the original on February 4, 2014. Retrieved June 29, 2015. 
  45. ^ Henley, David C. (1992). The Land That God Forgot: The Saga of Gen. George Patton's Desert Training Camp (revised ed.). Fallon, Nevada: Western Military History Association. p. 54. OCLC 76951993. 
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  47. ^ "Papago Park (Arizona) USA POW Camp". World and Military Notes.com. Archived from the original on June 29, 2015. Retrieved June 29, 2015. 
  48. ^ "The Not-So-Great Escape: German POWs in the U.S. during WWII". HistoryNet. Archived from the original on March 21, 2015. Retrieved June 29, 2015. 
  49. ^ "Imagination is more important than knowledge...". Mystery Castle. Retrieved June 29, 2015. 
  50. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj Timeline: Postwar 2011.
  51. ^ Robert Alan Goldberg, Barry Goldwater (1995), 76-82
  52. ^ Heim, Carl E. Border Wars: Tax Revenues, Annexation, and Urban Growth in Phoenix. University of Massachusetts. p. 17. Retrieved June 30, 2015. 
  53. ^ "Ben Avery Shooting Facility". Arizona Game and Fish Department. Retrieved June 29, 2015. 
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Bibliography[edit]

Published in 19th century
  • "Phoenix P.O.", Arizona Business Directory and Gazetteer, San Francisco: W.C. Disturnell, 1881 
  • Patrick Hamilton (1881), "Chief Towns: Phoenix", Resources of Arizona, Prescott, Ariz 
Published in 20th century
Published in 21st century

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 33°27′00″N 112°04′00″W / 33.45°N 112.066667°W / 33.45; -112.066667