Timeline of Polish history

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a timeline of Polish history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Poland and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Poland. See also the list of Polish monarchs and list of prime ministers of Poland.

Centuries: 5th · 6th · 7th · 8th · 9th · 10th · 11th · 12th · 13th · 14th · 15th · 16th · 17th · 18th · 19th · 20th · 21st · See also

5th century[edit]

Year Date Event
450 First Slavic settlements (to 500)

10th century[edit]

Year Date Event
910 Early stage of the Piast (Giecz-Gniezno area tribe) expansion (to 930)
965 Merchant Abraham ben Jacob mentions the city "Karako" (Currently Kraków)
966 April 14 Baptism of Poland
967 Battle of Mieszko I with Wichmann and Wolinians
970 Denarius becomes the currency of Poland
972 24 July Mieszko I defeats Odo I at the Battle of Cedynia
989 Lesser Poland is conquered
990 After a victory against Boleslaus II, Silesia is annexed
992 May 25 Death of Mieszko I
997 St. Adalbert baptises the citizens of Gyddannyzc (currently Gdańsk)
1000 March Congress of Gniezno

11th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1003 Bohemia and Moravia are annexed by Poland
1004 First war with Henry II starts
1007 Second war with Henry II starts
1015 Third war with Henry II starts
1018 January 30 Signing of the Peace of Bautzen (Budziszyn) with Henry II
Bolesław I's intervention in the Kievan succession crisis
1025 April 18 Coronation of Bolesław I Chrobry
June 17 Death of Bolesław I Chrobry the Brave
December 25 Coronation of Mieszko II Lambert
1031 Bezprym organises a coup
Mieszko II flees
Ukrainian prince Yaroslav the Wise conquers Cherven Cities, while the Holy Roman Empire regains Lusatia
1032 Mieszko II Lambert returns to the country, duke Bezprym dies
1034 May 10 Death of Mieszko II Lambert
1034–39 Pagan uprisings against Christianization
1058 November 28 Death of Casimir I the Restorer
1076 December 26 Coronation of Bolesław II the Bold

12th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1102 June 4 Death of Władysław I Herman
1138 October 28 Death of Bolesław III Wrymouth; birth of Casimir II the Just
1173 January 5 Death of Bolesław IV the Curly
1182 The first Sejm
1194 May 5 Death of Casimir II

13th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1202 March 13 Death of Mieszko III the Old, High Duke of Poland
1211 May 16 Death of Mieszko IV Tanglefoot
1226 March 26 Issuance of Golden Bull of Rimini
1227 November 24 Assassination of Leszek I the White
1231 November 3 Death of Władysław III Spindleshanks
1238 March 19 Death of Henry I the Bearded
1241 First Mongol invasion of Poland
April 9 Death of Henry II the Pious
1247 August 31 Death of Konrad I of Masovia
1264 September 8 Issuance of Statute of Kalisz
1279 December 7 Death of Bolesław V the Chaste
1288 September 30 Death of Leszek II the Black
Władysław I Łokietek (the Elbow-high) inherits the lands of Poland
1290 June 23 Death of Henryk IV Probus
1295 June 26 Coronation of Przemysł II
Coat of arms of Poland adopted by the King
1296 February 8 Assassination of Przemysł II
1300 August Coronation of Wenceslaus II

14th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1305 June 21 Death of Wenceslaus II
1306 August 4 Assassination of Wenceslaus III
1308 Teutonic takeover of Danzig
1311 Rebellion of wójt Albert begins
1312 Rebellion of wójt Albert ends
1320 January 20 Coronation of Władysław I the Elbow-high
1326 Polish–Teutonic War (1326–1332) begins
1332 Polish–Teutonic War concludes
1333 March 2 Death of Władysław I the Elbow-high
April 25 Coronation of Casimir III
1335 Congress of Visegrád
1339 Congress of Visegrád
1343 July 8 Signing of the Treaty of Kalisz
1347 Wiślica Statutes
1364 Founding of Jagiellonian University
1370 November 5 Death of Kazimierz III the Great
November 17 Coronation of Louis of Hungary
1374 September 17 Privilege of Koszyce
1382 September 10 Death of Louis of Hungary
1384 October 16 Coronation of Jadwiga
1385 August 14 Signing of the Union of Krewo
1386 March 4 Coronation of Władysław II Jagiełło
1399 July 17 Death of queen Jadwiga

15th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1401 Union of Vilnius and Radom
1409 Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War begins
1410 July 15 Battle of Grunwald won by Władysław II Jagiełło
1411 February 1 Signing of the First Peace of Thorn (Toruń) concludes the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War
1412 November 8 Signing of the Treaty of Lubowla
1413 October 2 Signing of the Union of Horodło
1414 Hunger War
1422 Gollub War begins
September 27 Signing of the Treaty of Melno concludes the Gollub War
1424 Issuance of Edict of Wieluń
1431 Polish–Teutonic War (1431–1435) begins
1432 Signing of the Union of Grodno
1434 June 1 Death of Władysław II Jagiełło
July 25 Coronation of Władysław III of Varna
1435 Polish–Teutonic War War concludes
1444 November 10 Death of Władysław III of Varna
1447 June 25 Coronation of Kazimierz IV Jagiellon
1454 Thirteen Years' War begins
Statutes of Nieszawa
1466 October 19 Signing of the Second Peace of Thorn (Toruń) concludes the Thirteen Years' War
1473 Almanach cracoviense ad annum 1474 published
1478 War of the Priests begins
1479 War of the Priests ends
1492 June 7 Death of Kazimierz IV Jagiellon
September 23 Coronation of Jan I Olbracht
1496 Statutes of Piotrków
1499 Union of Kraków and Vilnius

16th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1501 June 17 Death of Jan I Olbracht
October 3 Union of Mielnik
December 12 Coronation of Alexander Jagiellon
1505 May 3 Signing of act of Nihil novi
1506 August 19 Death of Alexander Jagiellon
1507 January 24 Coronation of Sigismund I the Old
1513 Hortulus Animae, polonice published
1515 July First Congress of Vienna
1519 Polish–Teutonic War begins
1521 Polish–Teutonic War concludes
1525 April 8 Signing of the Treaty of Kraków
April 10 Prussian Homage
1526 Annexation of Duchy of Masovia
1530 February 20 Coronation of Sigismund II Augustus
1537 Chicken War
1543 De revolutionibus orbium coelestium published
1548 April 1 Death of Zygmunt I the Old
1558 Livonian War begins
1561 November 28 Signing of Wilno Pact
1563 Northern Seven Years' War begins
1569 July 1 Signing of the Union of Lublin
1570 Signing of Sandomierz Agreement
December 13 Signing of the Treaty of Stettin concludes the Northern Seven Years' War
1572 July 7 Death of Zygmunt II August
1573 January 28 Signing of the Warsaw Confederation
May 11 Election of Henry of Valois
1574 February 21 Coronation of Henry Valois
June 18 Flight of Henry Valois
1575 December 9 Election of Stephen Báthory
1576 1 May Coronation of Stephen Batory and Anna Jagiellon
1579 Founding of Vilnius University
1582 January 15 Signing of the Truce of Jam Zapolski concludes Commonwealth participation in the Livonian War
October 15 Adoption of Gregorian calendar
1586 December 12 Death of Stefan Batory
1587 August 19 Election of Sigismund III Vasa
December 27 Coronation of Sigismund III Waza
1591 Kosiński Uprising begins
1593 Kosiński Uprising ends
1594 Nalyvaiko Uprising begins
1596 Nalyvaiko Uprising ends
Transfer of capital from Kraków to Warsaw
Union of Brest concludes

17th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1605 Polish–Muscovite War (1605–18) begins
1606 Zebrzydowski Rebellion begins
1618 Signing of the Truce of Deulino concludes the Polish–Muscovite War
1620 Polish–Ottoman War (1620–21) begins
1621 Polish–Ottoman War (1620–21) ends
1625 Signing of the Treaty of Kurukove
1629 Signing of the Truce of Altmark
1632 Election Sejm
Smolensk War begins
April 30 Death of Sigismund III Waza
November 8 Election of Władysław IV Vasa
1633 Polish–Ottoman War (1633–34) begins
February 6 Coronation of Władysław IV Vasa
1634 Signing of the Treaty of Polanów concludes the Smolensk War
Polish–Ottoman War ends
1635 September 12 Signing of the Treaty of Sztumska Wieś
1648 Khmelnytsky Uprising begins
May 20 Death of Władysław IV Waza
November 20 Election of John II Casimir Vasa
1649 January 19 Coronation of John II Casimir Vasa
August 17 Signing of the Treaty of Zboriv
1651 June 14 Kostka-Napierski Uprising begins
June 24 Kostka-Napierski Uprising ends
September 28 Signing of the Treaty of Bila Tserkva
1654 Khmelnytskyi Uprising ends
Russo-Polish War begins
1655 Deluge begins
August 18 Signing of the Union of Kėdainiai
December 29 Tyszowce Confederation formed
1657 September 9 Signing of the Treaty of Welawa
November 6 Signing of the Treaty of Bydgoszcz
1658 September 16 Signing of the Treaty of Hadiach
1660 May 3 Signing of the Treaty of Oliva concludes the Deluge
1665 Lubomirski's Rokosz begins
1666 Lubomirski's Rokosz ends
1667 January 30 Signing of the Treaty of Andrusovo concludes the Russo-Polish War
1668 September 16 Abdication of John II Casimir Vasa
1669 June 16 Election of Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki
September 29 Coronation of Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki
1672 Polish–Ottoman War (1672–76) begins
October 18 Signing of the Peace of Buczacz
1673 November 10 Death of Michael Korybut Wiśniowiecki
1674 May 19 Election of John III Sobieski
1676 February 2 Coronation of John III Sobieski
October 17 Signing of the Treaty of Żurawno concludes the Polish–Ottoman War
1683 September 12 Battle of Vienna won under command of John III Sobieski
1686 Signing of the Eternal Peace Treaty
1696 June 17 Death of John III Sobieski
1697 June 27 Election of Augustus II the Strong
September 15 Coronation of Augustus II the Strong
1699 Signing of the Treaty of Preobrazhenskoye
January 26 Signing of the Treaty of Karlowitz concludes the Great Turkish War

18th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1704 February 16 Warsaw Confederation formed
May 20 Sandomierz Confederation formed
July 12 Election of Stanisław Leszczyński
1705 October 4 Coronation of Stanisław Leszczyński
1706 September 24 Signing of the Treaty of Altranstädt
1709 July 8 Restoration of August II the Strong
1715 Tarnogród Confederation begins
1716 Tarnogród Confederation ends
1717 February 1 Silent Sejm
1724 December 7 Tumult of Thorn
1733 War of the Polish Succession begins
February 1 Death of August II the Strong
October 5 Election of August III the Saxon
1734 January 17 Coronation of August III the Saxon
November 5 Dzików Confederation formed
1736 Pacification Sejm
1738 November 18 Treaty of Vienna concludes the War of the Polish Succession
1763 October 5 Death of August III
1764 Convocation Sejm
September 7 Election of Stanisław August Poniatowski
November 25 Coronation of Stanisław August Poniatowski
1767 Repnin Sejm begins
March 20 Słuck Confederation formed
June 23 Radom Confederation formed
1768 Koliyivschyna
Massacre of Uman
February 29 Signing of the Bar Confederation
1772 First Partition of Poland
1773 October 14 Creation of Commission of National Education
1788 Great Sejm begins
1789 December 2 Black Procession
1790 March 29 Signing of Polish–Prussian alliance
1791 April 18 Free Royal Cities Act
May 3 Adoption of Constitution of 3 May
1792 Polish–Russian War
May 14 Signing of Targowica Confederation
May 29 Great Sejm ends
1793 Second Partition of Poland
Grodno Sejm
1794 March 24 Kościuszko Uprising begins
March 24 Kościuszko's proclamation
May 7 Issuance of Proclamation of Połaniec
August 20 Greater Poland Uprising begins
1795 Third Partition of Poland
November 25 Abdication of Stanisław August Poniatowski

19th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1806 November 3 Greater Poland Uprising begins.
The Town of Łódź became a part of the Napoleonic Duchy of Warsaw.
1807 March 19 Beginning of the Siege of Danzig.
May 24 End the Siege of Danzig.
July 9 The second Treaty of Tilsit was signed.
Białystok was captured by the Russian Empire.
1809 October 14 Signing of the Treaty of Schönbrunn.
1815 June 9 Congress of Vienna concludes.
October 18 Free City of Kraków proclaimed.
November 27 Adoption of Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland.
1812 July 3 The forces of Napoleon invaded Białystok.
1813 January Siege of Danzig occurred.
1814 Prussia captured Gdańsk.
1815 The Republic of Krakow was established.
1820 January Kraków Town Hall was demolished excluding the tower.
1824 The Lodka settlement was founded.
1825 December 1 Death of Alexander I of Russia.
1829 24 May Coronation of Nicholas I of Russia.
1830 November 29 November Uprising begins.
1831 Russian forces occupied Kraków.
1832 Handelsakademie was founded.
1834 Białystok prevented schools from teaching in the Polish language.
1846 February 19 Kraków Uprising begins.
March 4 Kraków Uprising ended.
November 16 Free City of Kraków incorporated into the Austrian Empire.
1848 Greater Poland Uprising.
1850 July 18 Kraków fire of 1850 began.
1863 January 22 January Uprising begins.
1864 March 2 Abolition of serfdom in Congress Poland.
1873 The School of Fine Arts and Academy of Learning became active.
1879 The National Museum of Kraków was founded.
1881 Great Synagogue was constructed in Łódź.
1884 Alexander Nevsky Cathedral was constructed.
1888 Karl Scheibler's Chapel was constructed.
1892 Izrael Poznański factory was constructed.
1898 The Volunteer Fire Department was founded.

20th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1908 September 26 Bezdany raid near Vilna on a Russian imperial train
1916 November 5 Signing of the Act of 5th November between Germany and Austria
1917 July 9 Oath crisis by the departing Polish Legions led by Józef Piłsudski
1918 March 3 Signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Soviet Russia
November 11 Poland regains independence with the formation of the Second Polish Republic following the Armistice of 11 November 1918

The Second Polish Republic (1918–39)[edit]

Year Date Event
1918 November 1 Polish–Ukrainian War begins, ends in 1919
November 11 Polish Independence Day, Warsaw is free from German troops of the Ober Ost
December 27 Greater Poland Uprising begins, ends in 1919
1919 January 23–30 Polish–Czechoslovak War erupts following border disagreements
January 26 Legislative election to the Sejm
February 14 Polish–Soviet War begins
February 16 Greater Poland Uprising ends
February 20 Adoption of Small Constitution
April 22 Proclamation to the inhabitants of the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania about Międzymorze
June 28 Treaty of Versailles (Articles 87–93) and Little Treaty ratify Poland as a sovereign state internationally
August 16 First Silesian Uprising begins; Silesian Uprisings continue until 1921
August 22 Sejny Uprising after imperial Germany turned over administration to Lithuanian delegates
1920 February 10 Poland's Wedding to the Sea in Puck
April 21 Signing of Treaty of Warsaw
July 5–16 Spa Conference in Belgium
August 12–25 Miracle of the Vistula during the Bolshevik invasion
August 19 Second Silesian Uprising begins
September 1 Polish–Lithuanian War continues over the Vilnius and Suwałki Regions
October 6 Żeligowski's Mutiny resulting in the creation of the Republic of Central Lithuania
1921 February 19 Signing of the Franco-Polish alliance
March 3 Polish–Romanian alliance signed in Bucharest
March 17 Adoption of March Constitution
March 18 Signing of the Peace of Riga with Lenin concludes the Polish-Soviet War
March 20 Upper Silesia plebiscite rigged
May 2 Third Silesian Uprising begins
1922 November 5–12 Legislative election
December 9 Gabriel Narutowicz becomes President
December 16 Assassination of Gabriel Narutowicz
December 22 Stanisław Wojciechowski becomes President
1923 November 6 Krakow riot
1924 January 11 Władysław Grabski's monetary reform with Bank of Poland acting as an issuing bank
1925 December 1 Signing of the Locarno Treaties
1926 May 12–14 May Coup
June 4 Ignacy Mościcki becomes President
1928 March 4–11 Legislative election
Piłsudski's Nonpartisan Bloc for Cooperation with the Government election campaign
1930 November 16 Legislative election
1932 July 25 Signing of the Soviet–Polish Non-Aggression Pact
1934 January 26 Signing of the German–Polish declaration of non-aggression
1935 April 23 Adoption of April Constitution
May 12 Death of Józef Piłsudski
September 15 Legislative election
1938 April 1 Territorial changes of Polish Voivodeships
October Annexation of Zaolzie
November 6 Legislative election
1939 April 2 Suicide former Prime Minister of Walery Sławek
August 23 Signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
August 25 Signing of the Polish–British Common Defence Pact
August 29 Peking Plan begins, Polish destroyers moved to British ports
August 31 Gleiwitz incident, pretext for the invasion

Occupation of Poland (1939–45)[edit]

Year Date Event
1939 September 1 German Invasion of Poland begins; Bombing of Wieluń
September 2 Massacre in Torzeniec village
September 3 Bloody Sunday in Bydgoszcz
September 8 German Massacre in Ciepielów of Polish POW
September 13 Bombing of Frampol, up to 90% of the town destroyed
September 17 Soviet invasion of Poland
September 18 Orzeł incident, ORP submarine escapes to the United Kingdom
September 18 The Fall of Warsaw
October 1 General Bolesław Wieniawa-Długoszowski elected President
October 6 Poland completely occupied
November 6 Sonderaktion Krakau operation against university professors
1940 March 5 Authorization of Katyń massacre
May 16 Authorization of German AB-Aktion in Poland
1941 June 30 – July 29 Lviv pogroms
July 2 Massacre of Lwów professors
July 10 Jedwabne pogrom
August 17 Signing of the Sikorski–Mayski agreement in London
October 12 Stanisławów Ghetto Bloody Sunday massacre
1942 March 17 Bełżec extermination camp begins secretive Operation Reinhard
May 16 Sobibór extermination camp starts mass gassing operations
July 22 Treblinka extermination camp becomes ready for the Grossaktion Warsaw deportations
1943 March 26 Operation Arsenal, first major operation by the Szare Szeregi
April 19 Warsaw Ghetto Uprising begins
May 16 Warsaw Ghetto Uprising ends
July 4 Death of Polish military leader Władysław Sikorski
July 11 Bloody Sunday, the peak of Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia
July 11–12 Zagaje massacre
December 1 Tehran Conference concludes in the Soviet embassy in Tehran
1944 January 29 Koniuchy massacre by Soviet partisans
February 28 Huta Pieniacka massacre by Ukrainian Grenadier Division of the Waffen-SS
June 20 Glinciszki massacre by Lithuanian Auxiliary Police
June 23 Dubingiai massacre by Home Army
July 22 Proclamation of the PKWN Manifesto by Soviet-backed Polish Committee of National Liberation
July 25 Operation Most III begins on the German V-2 rocket
August Wola massacre in the opening phase of the Warsaw Uprising
August 1 Warsaw Uprising begins
October 2 Warsaw Uprising ends
1945 January 26 Przyszowice massacre
February 11 Yalta Conference concludes
March Pawłokoma massacre
March 17 Poland's Wedding to the Sea in Mrzeżyno
March 18 Poland's Wedding to the Sea in Kołobrzeg

Communist takeover, Polish People's Republic[edit]

Year Date Event
1945 May 8 End of World War II in Europe
June 18–21 Trial of the Sixteen Polish Underground leaders in Moscow
July 10–25 Augustów roundup of anti-Communist partisans
August 2 Potsdam Conference concludes between the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States
August 11 Kraków pogrom with one dead victim
1946 June 30 People's referendum
July 4 Kielce pogrom
1947 January 19 Legislative election rigged, 100,000 ORMO men deployed to intimidate voters
February 19 Adoption of Small Constitution of 1947
April 28 Operation Vistula begins
November 24 Auschwitz trial begins in Kraków
1950 July 6 Signing of the Treaty of Zgorzelec
1951 July 31 Trial of the Generals who served in the anti-Nazi resistance during World War II
1952 July 22 Adoption of Constitution of the People's Republic of Poland
October 26 First Legislative election by the one-party rule
1955 May 14 Signing of the Warsaw Pact
1956 March 12 Death of Bolesław Bierut
June 28 Poznań 1956 protests
October 21 Polish October, return of Władysław Gomułka
1957 Legislative election
1961 Legislative election
1965 Legislative election
Letter of Reconciliation of the Polish Bishops to the German Bishops
1968 March Political crisis
August 20 End of Prague Spring with the invasion of Czechoslovakia
1970 December 7 Signing of Treaty of Warsaw; Warschauer Kniefall
December 14 1970 protests begin
1978 October 16 Election of Pope John Paul II
1980 Gdańsk Agreement
March 14 LOT Polish Airlines Flight 007
August 17 21 demands of MKS
1981 May 28 Death of Primate Poland Stefan Wyszyński
1981 December 13 Martial law begins
1983 Solidarity leader Lech Wałęsa receives the Nobel Peace Prize.
July 22 Martial law ends
1984 Father Jerzy Popiełuszko murdered by Polish secret police.
1989 April 4 Signing of the Round Table Agreement
April 7 April Novelization
June 4 Parliamentary election
July 19 Lech Walesa becomes President
August 24 Tadeusz Mazowiecki becomes first non-communist prime minister in the Eastern Bloc
December 31 The People's Republic of Poland becomes the Republic of Poland

Democratic Republic of Poland[edit]

Year Date Event
1990 May 27 Local elections
November 14 Signing of German–Polish Border Treaty
November 25 Presidential election
December 22 Lech Wałęsa becomes President
1991 June 27 Mława riot after Romani youth kills pedestrian in a hit-and-run
July 1 Dissolution of Warsaw Pact
October 27 Parliamentary election
1992 October 17 Adoption of Small Constitution
December 21 Signing of Central European Free Trade Agreement
1993 September 14 Lufthansa Flight 2904
September 19 Parliamentary election
1994 May 2 Poland bus disaster of 1994
June 19 Local elections
1995 November Presidential election
December 23 Aleksander Kwaśniewski becomes President
1997 April 2 Adoption of Constitution
September 21 Parliamentary election
1998 October 11 Local elections
1999 January 1 16 new voivodeships created in Polish local government reforms
1999 March 12 Accession of Poland to NATO
2000 October 8 Presidential election

21st century[edit]

Year Date Event
2001 September 23 Parliamentary election
2002 Census
October 27 Local elections
2003 April 16 Signing of the Treaty of Accession
June European Union membership referendum
2004 1 May Accession of Poland to the European Union
June 13 European Parliament election
2005 April 2 Death of Pope John Paul II
September 25 Parliamentary election
October Presidential election
December 23 Lech Kaczyński becomes President
2006 January 28 Katowice Trade Hall roof collapse
November Local elections
2007 October 21 Parliamentary election
2010 April 10 Polish Air Force Tu-154 crash killing Polish President Lech Kaczyński
2010 July 4 Bronisław Komorowski elected president.
2011 August 5 Suicide of Andrzej Lepper
2011 October 9 Parliamentary election
2012 March 3 A train crash near Szczekociny, Poland, kills 16 people.
2014 April 27 Canonization of Pope John Paul II
2014 May 25 Death of Wojciech Jaruzelski
2015 May Presidential election
2015 August 6 Andrzej Duda becomes President

See also[edit]

Cities in Poland


  • Library of Congress, A Country Study: Poland, Chronology of Important Events: online

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]