Timeline of Swedish history

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This is a timeline of Swedish history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Sweden and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Sweden. See also the list of Swedish monarchs and list of Prime Ministers of Sweden.

1st century[edit]

Year Date Event
98 The tribe of the Swedes (Suiones) is first mentioned by Tacitus in his Germania.

2nd century[edit]

Year Date Event
100 The Iron Age settlement at Uppåkra is founded.

6th century[edit]

Year Date Event
530 The possibly legendary Battle on the Ice of Lake Vänern is supposed to have taken place.

8th century[edit]

Year Date Event
750-790 The trade center Birka is established on Lake Mälaren, near present-day Stockholm.

9th century[edit]

Year Date Event
800 The Rök Runestone is carved.
829 The monk Ansgar makes the first campaign to introduce Christianity to Sweden.

10th century[edit]

Year Date Event
960 Birka is abandoned.
980 The city of Sigtuna is founded.
984 the Battle of Fyrisvellir takes place near Uppsala.
990 The city of Lund is founded.

11th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1000 Gothi Þorgeirr Ljósvetningagoði endorses the adoption of Christianity.
1004 King Olof Skötkonung is baptized and makes Christianity the official religion of Sweden.
1036 Ingvar the Far-Travelled leads an unsuccessful Viking attack against Persia.
1085 The city of Helsingborg is founded.
1087 The Temple at Uppsala, the central place of worship within Ancient Norse paganism, is destroyed at the order of King Inge the Elder.

12th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1100 Vreta Abbey, the first Christian convent in Sweden, is established.
1187 Estonians, Curonians or/and Karelians invade and pillage Sigtuna and kill archbishop Johannes.[1]
The city of Nyköping is founded.

13th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1208 The Battle of Lena takes place.
1240 The Battle of the Neva takes place.
1252 The city of Stockholm is founded.
1280 The Ordinance of Alsnö gives birth to the frälse, a class of tax-exempt secular nobility, in Sweden.

14th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1306 The conflict known as the Håtuna games takes place.
1310 The Treaty of Helsingborg is signed, establishing peace between Sweden, Norway and Denmark.
1317 The Nyköping Banquet takes place, following which King Birger imprisons his two brothers and starves them to death.
1319 Sweden and Norway are first united.
1323 The Treaty of Nöteborg is signed, establishing peace between Sweden and the Novgorod Republic.
1344 The Bridgettine Order is founded by St. Bridget (Heliga Birgitta).
1350 The Black Death arrives in Sweden.
1359 King Magnus IV of Sweden summons the first Swedish Riksdag.
1389 February 24 The Battle of Åsle takes place.
1397 Sweden, Denmark and Norway unite into the Kalmar Union.
1398 Gotland is conquered by Teutonic Knights.

15th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1409 The Teutonic Order sells Gotland to the Kalmar Union.
1434 The Engelbrekt rebellion, led by Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson against King Erik of Pomerania, begins.
1436 Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson is assassinated.
1471 The Battle of Brunkeberg takes place.
1477 Uppsala University is founded.
1495 The Russo-Swedish War (1495-1497) begins.
1497 The Russo-Swedish War ends.

16th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1505 The Kalmar Bloodbath (1505) occurs.
1520 Christina Gyllenstierna defends Stockholm but is defeated by the Danes under Christian II of Denmark, who is crowned king of Sweden. The Stockholm bloodbath occurs at the order of king Christian.
1523 Gustav Vasa liberates Stockholm, reasserting Sweden's independence from Denmark-Norway and initiating the monarchical rule of the House of Vasa.
1524 The Treaty of Malmö is signed. Denmark-Norway recognizes the independence of Sweden, while in return Sweden renounces its claims to Scania and Blekinge.
1525 The First Dalecarlian Rebellion occurs in parallel with an attempt made by Christina Gyllenstierna and Sören Norby to conquer the Swedish throne.
1526 The first Swedish translation of the New Testament is published.
1529 The Westrogothian Rebellion takes place.
1531 The Third Dalecarlian Rebellion, also known as the Bell Rebellion (Klockupproret) begins, and is suppressed two years later.
1535 War with Lübeck leads to the expulsion of the Hanseatic traders, who previously had a monopoly on foreign trade.
1540 The first full Swedish translation of the Bible, the Gustav Vasa Bible, is published.
1542 Nils Dacke starts a peasant uprising in Småland, which is defeated the following year.
1554 Border skirmishes between Sweden and Russia lead to the outbreak of the Russo-Swedish War (1554-1557).
1555 A Description of the Northern Peoples (Historia de Gentibus Septentrionalibus) by Olaus Magnus is published.
1561 Estonia becomes a Swedish dominion.
1567 The Sture Murders take place at the order of King Eric XIV.
1577 February 26 Eric XIV dies in imprisonment, most likely murdered.
1584 The city of Karlstad is founded.
1592 Poland and Sweden enter into a short-lived personal union following the crowning of Sigismund III Vasa as King of Sweden.
1598 A conflict between Duke Charles, later King Charles IX, and Sigismund, King of Sweden and Poland, leads to the outbreak of the War against Sigismund.
September 25 The Battle of Stångebro takes place.
1599 The War against Sigismund ends, resulting in the deposition of King Sigismund. The Kalmar Bloodbath (1599) and Åbo Bloodbath occurs on the followers on Sigismund.

17th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1600 March 20 The Linköping Bloodbath takes place.
1610 The Ingrian War between Russia and Sweden begins.
1611 Denmark declares war on Sweden, initiating the Kalmar War.
1613 The Treaty of Knäred is signed, ending the Kalmar War. Sweden is obligated to pay the Älvsborg Ransom of one million rixdollars for the return of the fortress of Älvsborg.
1614 The city of Kristianstad is founded.
1617 February 27 The Treaty of Stolbovo is signed, ending the Ingrian War. Russia cedes the province and fortress of Kexholm, southwestern Karelia and the province of Ingria to Sweden, laying the foundation for Sweden's rise as a Great Power.
1621 The city of Gothenburg is founded.
1628 August 10 The sinking of the Swedish warship Vasa.
1630 Sweden enters the Thirty Years' War.
1631 April 13 The Battle of Frankfurt an der Oder takes place.
September 7 The Battle of Breitenfeld takes place.
1632 November 6 The Battle of Lützen takes place. King Gustav II Adolf is killed in battle.
1638 The colony of New Sweden is established along the Delaware River in North America.
1648 The Thirty Years' War ends, with Sweden among the winners. The Peace of Westphalia grants Sweden the provinces of Western Pomerania, Wismar, and the bishoprics of Bremen-Verden.
1650 The colony of the Swedish Gold Coast is established on the Gulf of Guinea in present-day Ghana.
1654 Queen Christina abdicates her throne and converts to Roman Catholicism, creating a major scandal.
1658 February 26 Treaty of Roskilde. Denmark-Norway cedes the provinces of Blekinge, Bornholm, Bohuslän, Scania, Trøndelag and Halland to Sweden.
1663 The colony of the Swedish Gold Coast is seized by Denmark, and integrated in the Danish Gold Coast.
1666 Lund University is founded.
1668 Sweden's central bank Sveriges Riksbank is founded.
1674 December 24 Sweden invades Brandenburg, triggering the Swedish-Brandenburg War.
1675 Denmark invades Scania, triggering the Scanian War.
1676 June 1 The Battle of Öland takes place.
August 17 The Battle of Halmstad takes place.
December 4 The Battle of Lund takes place.
1677 June 26 The Siege of Malmö takes place.
July 14 The Battle of Landskrona takes place.
1678 The Invasion of Rügen takes place.
1679 August 23 The Treaty of Fontainebleau is signed, restoring all Danish conquests during the Scanian War to Sweden.
1680 The city of Karlskrona is founded.
The Great Reduction of 1680 is enacted, returning to the Swedish Crown lands that had earlier been granted to the nobility.
1697 May 7 The castle of Tre Kronor burns down, destroying a significant portion of Sweden's national library and royal archives.

18th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1700 An alliance consisting of Denmark-Norway, Saxony, Poland and Russia declares war on Sweden, initiating the Great Northern War.
The Battle of Narva takes place.
1702 July 8 The Battle of Kliszów takes place.
1706 October 13 The Treaty of Altranstädt is signed, following Sweden's victorious invasion of Poland. King Augustus the Strong is forced to renounce his claims to the Polish throne and his alliance with Russia.
1708 January 1 Charles XII crosses the Vistula, initiating the Swedish invasion of Russia.
1709 June 27 The Battle of Poltava takes place. The Swedish army under Charles XII is destroyed by the Russian forces of Peter the Great, marking the beginning of Sweden's decline as a Great Power.
1710 February 28 The Battle of Helsingborg takes place. Denmark's last attempt to regain Scania fails.
1713 February 1 The Skirmish at Bender, a battle to remove Charles XII and the remnants of his army from the Ottoman Empire, takes place.
1718 November 30 Charles XII is killed at Frederikshald.
1719 The Treaties of Stockholm are signed, requiring Sweden to cede parts of Swedish Pomerania to Prussia and Bremen-Verden to Hanover.
1720 The Treaty of Frederiksborg is signed, requiring Sweden to cede Schleswig to Denmark-Norway.
1721 The Treaty of Nystad is signed, requiring Sweden to cede Estonia, Livonia and Ingria to Russia.
1731 The Swedish East India Company is founded.
1732 Carl Linnaeus departs on his Expedition to Lapland.
1732 The Civil Code of 1734 establish the same law in the entire nation.
1735 The first edition of Carl Linnaeus' Systema Naturae is published.
1737 The Swedish language Theater of Bollhuset is founded.
1739 June 2 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences is founded.
1741 August 23 The Battle of Villmanstrand takes place.
1742 Anders Celsius proposes the Celsius temperature scale.
1743 The Fourth Dalecarlian Rebellion breaks out.
1749 The Storskifte Enclosure Act of 1749
1756 An attempted coup d'état by Queen Louisa Ulrika and a few devoted nobles to reinstate absolute monarchy in Sweden is exposed and subdued.
1757 Sweden enters the Seven Years' War.
1762 May 22 The Treaty of Hamburg is signed, concluding Sweden's involvement in the Seven Years' War.
1766 The Freedom of the Press Act is enacted, abolishing censorship and restricting limitations only to vocal opposition to the king or the Church of Sweden.
1768 The December Crisis (1768) fails to increase royal power.
1772 Absolute monarchy is reintroduced in Sweden through the Revolution of 1772.
1773 Carl Wilhelm Scheele discovers oxygen.
The Royal Swedish Opera is founded.
1782 Sweden purchases the Caribbean island of Saint Barthélemy from France.
1786 March 20 The Swedish Academy is founded.
1787 The first secondary education school in Sweden for girls, Societetsskolan, is founded in Gothenburg.
1788 Sweden declares war against Russia, beginning the Russo-Swedish War (1788-90).
1790 The Treaty of Värälä is signed, concluding the Russo-Swedish War.
1792 March 16 King Gustav III is assassinated at a masked ball.

19th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1807 The Swedish General Enclosure Act of 1807
1808 The Finnish War breaks out.
1809 Sweden cedes Finland to Russia following the Finnish War.
The Coup of 1809 is carried out, resulting in the deposition of King Gustav IV Adolf.
1810 Karolinska Institutet is founded.
1814 The countries of Sweden and Norway are united.
1832 The Göta Canal, providing a route from Gothenburg on the west coast to Söderköping on the east coast, is completed.
1848 The series of riots known as Marsoroligheterna take place in Stockholm.
1855 Construction of the first railway line in Sweden begins.
1864 The daily newspaper Dagens Nyheter is founded.
1867 The telecommunications company Ericsson is founded by Lars Magnus Ericsson.
Alfred Nobel invents dynamite.
1873 Sweden and Denmark form the Scandinavian Monetary Union.
The krona replaces the riksdaler as the currency of Sweden.
1876 The office of prime minister (statsminister) is instituted.
1878 The island of Saint Barthélemy is sold back to France.
1884 The daily newspaper Svenska Dagbladet is founded.
The Fredrika Bremer Association, Sweden's oldest women's rights organization, is founded.
1889 The Social Democratic Party is founded.
1897 S. A. Andrée's arctic balloon expedition.
1898 The formation of the Swedish Trade Union Confederation (LO).[2]

20th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1901 The first Nobel Prizes are awarded.
1903 The Swedish Employers' Association (SAF) was founded.[3]
1904 The Moderate Party (Moderaterna) is founded.
1905 The personal union between Sweden and Norway is dissolved.
1906 An official spelling reform of the Swedish language is enacted, reforming and simplifying the previous spelling.
1909 The Stockholm School of Economics (Handelshögskolan i Stockholm) is founded.
The General Strike of 1909 (Swedish General Strike).
1919 AB Svensk Filmindustri is founded.
1921 June 30 Capital punishment is abolished for all crimes committed in peacetime.
1934 Crisis in the Population Question (Kris i befolkningsfrågan) by Alva and Gunnar Myrdal is published, and plays a major role in the design of Sweden's welfare policy.
1938 The Saltsjöbaden Agreement, establishing rules for collective bargaining and trade relations, is signed.
1943 The food packaging company Tetra Pak is founded by Ruben Rausing.
1945 January 17 Raoul Wallenberg is detained by Soviet authorities in Budapest and subsequently disappears.
1947 The furniture company IKEA is founded by Ingvar Kamprad.
1954 October 29 Sweden conducts its first television broadcast.
1967 September 3 Right-hand traffic is introduced in Sweden.
1971 The Riksdag becomes unicameral.
1973 The Norrmalmstorg bank robbery and hostage crisis takes place.
1986 February 28 Prime Minister and Social Democratic leader Olof Palme is murdered.
1994 The MS Estonia disaster occurs en route from Tallinn to Stockholm. 852 people on board are killed.
1995 Sweden becomes a member of the European Union.
1999 The Church of Sweden is separated from the state and becomes an independent organization.

21st century[edit]

Year Date Event
2000 July 1 The Øresund Bridge is opened, creating a road and railway connection between Sweden and mainland Europe.
2003 Voters decide not to adopt the Euro as the country's official currency.
2009 May 1 Same-sex marriage is legalized in Sweden.
2010 Military conscription is abolished in Sweden.

See also[edit]

Cities in Sweden


  1. ^ Enn Tarvel (2007). Sigtuna hukkumine. Haridus, 2007 (7-8), p 38–41
  2. ^ Schön, Lennart (2012). An economic history of modern Sweden. London: Routledge. ISBN 9780415671309. 
  3. ^ Schön, Lennart (2012). An economic history of modern Sweden. London: Routledge. ISBN 9780415671309. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]