Timeline of Yemeni history

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This is a timeline of Yemeni history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Yemen and its predecessor states. To understand the context to these events, see History of Yemen. See also the list of Kings of Yemen and list of Presidents of Yemen.

25th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
2500 BC Ancient Arab tribes move North and South. Qahtan and A'ad settle South Arabia. The Akkadians and Amalek settle the North.

24th century BC[edit]

23rd century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
2300 BC According to some legends, the Arabs of the South unite under the leadership of Qahtan.

22nd century BC[edit]

21st century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
2100 BC to the East of Qahtan A'ad settles Oman.

Centuries: 20th BC · 19th BC · 18th BC · 17th BC · 16th BC · 15th BC · 14th BC · 13th BC · 12th BC · 11th BC · 10th BC · 9th BC · 8th BC · 7th BC · 6th BC · 5th BC · 4th BC · 3rd BC · 2nd BC · 1st BC

20th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
2000 BC the Qahtanis began building simple earth dams and canals in the Marib area in the Sayhad desert, this area will be the nucleus of the forthcoming Sabean Dam of Marib.

19th century BC[edit]

18th century BC[edit]

17th century BC[edit]

16th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
1600 BC the Qahtanis began to move to the Tihama coasts and the lowlands. A tradeline began to flourish along the red Sea Tihama coasts. During this period the Qahtanis began to settle East Africa in small trading colonies in neighboring East Africa.

15th century BC[edit]

14th century BC[edit]

13th century BC[edit]

12th century BC[edit]

11th century BC[edit]

10th century BC[edit]

9th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
900 BC the Qahtanis began using a Variant of the Phoenician script, this will lead to the recording of the South Arabian history, from this point on.

8th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
800 BC Ma'een kingdom builds its capital in Baraqish.
the Sabeans build their capital on the edge of the mountains regions in Sirwah.
the Qatabanians rise as Sabean vassals in the region known now (AD 1990) as central and east Yemen.
Hadhramawt rise as Sabean vassal kingdom in the region known now (AD 1990) as eastern Yemen.
Awsan appears as independent nation in a region that will partly controlled by the Qatabanians.
719 BC The temple of Marib is finished.
718 BC War between Ma'een and the Sabeans.
716 BC After securing their borders with Ma'een the Sabeans moved their capital to the more accessible Marib.
715 BC The Sabeans control the trade line and started recording diplomatic relationships with Assyria.
Sumhu`alay Yanuf and his son Yatha`amar Bayyin complete building the Marib Dam.

7th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
700 BC the Qatabanians build Timna and rebel against the authority of Saba
675 BC Karib'il Watar defeats the rebellion and brings all of South Arabia under the Sabean rule.

6th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
600 BC Saba reaches its height of power and extends its hegemony across the Red sea establishing the Dm't Kingdom, this will be the nucleus of the Semitic culture of East Africa. Although it is not the first attempt of the Qahtanis to expand their rule to the African coast.

5th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
500 BC the Dam of Marib breaks, Saba suffers from drought and rebellions.
the Ma'een kingdom allied with the Qatabanians and Hadramites rebel against Saba and gain their independence.
Ma'een establishes itself as the dominant kingdom in the North of Yemen extending its authority on the Northern red sea coasts and establishes military/trading colonies as far as Sinai.

4th century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
370 BC Qahtani tribes attack the Persians out of Musqat in the Eastern tip of the Arabian peninsula. From that time on Qahtanis replaced the Ancient Arabs 'Ad in Oman.

3rd century BC[edit]

2nd century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
110 BC Himyar rises against Qataban.

1st century BC[edit]

Year Date Event
100 BC Ma'een declines gradually mainly due to the Roman control of the new sea trade routes.
Himyar starts expanding on the expense of the war-torn kingdom of Saba.
the remains of the Qhatani Jurhum tribe integrate their lineage under Nizar bin Ma'ad bin Adnan. From this point on they become the Adnanites.
Himyar allied itself with most of the Qahatni tribes of the lowlands and central highlands, annexing most of Saba and Southern Qataban, but Hadhramout repels them.
25 BC The Romans encouraged by the civil war in South Arabia attempt to invade the region, but fail to survive the Arabian desert.
Sabean civil war, Himyar closes in on Saba and takes over most of the Sabean central highlands, red sea coasts territory. Saba breaks into two smaller states in the northern highlands and the desert region around the capital Marib.

Centuries: 1st · 2nd · 3rd · 4th · 5th · 6th · 7th · 8th - 9th - 10th - 11th - 12th - 13th - 14th - 15th - 16th - 17th - 18th - 19th - 20th

1st century AD[edit]

Year Date Event
100 the kingdom of Aksum dominates East Africa and takesover the Sabean trading/military colonies.
the Kahlan tribes remain as the only tribes still loyal to the Sabean state at Marib, Kahlan tribes cornered to the area between Sana'a and Marib in the North of Yemen.

2nd century[edit]

Year Date Event
200 Jews settle Yemen.
Himyar captures most of Qataban.
Himyar annexes the Sabean state of Marib.
after the loss of Marib Saba Kahlans septs Azd, Hamdan, Lakhm, Tai headed north except for the Hashid and Bakil tribes of Hamdan of Gurat Saba (Arabic: جرت‎‎) and Kindah in the Ramlah Desert.

3rd century[edit]

Year Date Event
211 Hadhramout allies itself with Qataban and Aksum attacking Himyar from the West and the east.
217 while the Himyarites are fighting the Hadhramout/Qataban alliance in the east, the Aksumites capture the Himyarite capital Zafar.
221 Hadhramout annexes Qataban and reaches its height of power.
222 the Aksumites attempt to capture Hadhramout from the coast.
225 during the reign of Sha`irum Awtar the Himyarites/Sabeans attack the Kingdom of Hadhramout from the East and capture their capital.
227 the Gurat Sabeans and Himyar ally themselves against the Aksumites and retake Zafar. The Aksumites lose all their territories in South Arabia except for Tihama.
229 Himyar recaptures Southern Tihama and controls the Major East African ports across from Muza'a. The Aksumites keep the Northern strip of Tihama.
The Kahlani Imran bin Azd branch expel the Persians from Oman.
231 The Kahlani Jifna bin Azd branch settles Syria and Lakhm settles Mesopotamia.
280 Himyar annexes the last Sabean enclave to its Kingdom.
300 Himyar annexes Hadhramout expanding its borders to Dhofar Oman. to the East of their borders the Azd bin Imran (Azd Uman).

4th century[edit]

Year Date Event
320 Himyar annexes Socotra.
325 From Al-Ramlah in Yemen, Shiekh of Kindah makes alliances with Adnani tribes of Najd.
390 Abu-Kariba Asad King of Himyar converts to Judaism and spreads the religion in the region.

5th century[edit]

Year Date Event
425 Himyar appoints Akil al-Murar ibn Amr as the first Hujr of its Northern Kindite colonies.
480 Amr al-Mansur ibn Hudjr rises his status to the king (vassal to Himyar) and bring the Northern part of the Arabian peninsula under Himyarite control.
500 Christianity spreads in Najran/Tihama strip an area still allied to the Christian Aksum kingdom.
two Jews from Yathrib travel to Himyar in hopes of converting the people of Himyar into Judaism.

6th century[edit]

Year Date Event
523 King Dhu Nuwas converts to Judaism, he begins a campaign to convert the Himyarites into Judaism. Himyarites convert in big numbers except in Najran.
525 At this time Himyar included all the Arabian peninsula (via Kindah) and he was angered by the Najrani chief refusal to leave Christianity. Dhu Nawas took Najran and massacred 20,000 Najrani Christians.
The Christian Aksumites defeat Dhu Nawas and annex Himyar, starting a period of persecution against the Yemenite Jews. Third of the population of Yemenite Jews is exiled to Aksum.
570 The Dam of Marib broke for the third and final time, triggering another migration of Yemeni tribes. The Qur'an itself refers to the collapse of the Marib Dam as a punishment on the Sabaeans for their ungratefulness to God.
Under Khosrau I, Persian forces expel the Aksumites with the help of Dhu Yazin. Persians later assassinate Dhu Yazin and try to establish their rule over all Yemen. But they fail and a number of autonomous kingdoms are established.

7th century[edit]

Year Date Event
630 Yemeni Christians submit to Muhammad, who permits them to continue practicing their religion.[1]
632 Al-Aswad al-Ansi proclaims himself prophet and finds Yemeni discipless, but is killed by the Persian (abna) rulers of Yemen.[2]

8th century[edit]

Year Date Event
740 Imam Zayd ibn Ali, founder of Fiver Islam leads revolt in Kufa against Ummayads. The revolt is brutally crushed and Zayd killed. Some followers remained in Medina, when Imam Al-Hadi Yahya would bring Zaidiyyah to Sa'dah in the thirteenth century.[3]

9th century[edit]

Year Date Event
893 Imam Al-Hadi ila'l-Haqq Yahya arrives in Yemen arrives in Yemen and introduces Zaidiyyah.[4]
897 Yemen separates from the Abbasid caliphate and the Zaidi dynasty rules Yemen. First from Saada, then from Sana'a.

10th century[edit]

11th century[edit]

12th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1165 Mass conversions from Judaism to Islam.
1173 Saladin annexes both the Hejaz and Yemen to his Ayyubid sultanate.[5]

13th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1229 The Rasuliden dynasty rules Yemen until 1453.

14th century[edit]

15th century[edit]

16th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1514 In response to Portuguese occupation of Kamaran island, a fleet from the Mamluk Sultanate attack and occupy the western and southern shores of the Timurid territory in Yemen.[6]
1517 Ottomans capture Egypt and eliminate the Mamluk dynasty, then move on to Yemen, where they occupy Aden. Sana'a and the rest of Yemen remain under the Zaidi dynasty.
1538 August Admiral Sulayman Pasha captures Aden for Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent in order to provide an Ottoman base for raids against Portuguese possessions on the western coast of the Indian subcontinent.[5][7]
1540 Residents of Aden rise up against the Ottomans, slaughter the garrison and invite Portuguese protection. The Portuguese stay until driven out by the Ottoman fleet under Admiral Peri Pasha.[7]
1595 Imam Al-Qasim ibn Muhammad begins a rebellion against the Ottomans that would last for 30 years.[8]

17th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1618 British establish a "factory" (trading post) at Mocha on the Red Sea coast.[9]
1630 The East India Company begins trade in coffee from Mocha, which held a monopoly on the plant at the time.[10]
1635 The Ottomans are expelled from Yemen.

18th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1728 Fadl ibn Ali, chief of the Abdali tribe, declares Lahej an independent sultanate.[11]
1735 Fadl ibn Ali's forces caputre Aden and make it part of the Sultanate of Lahej.[11]
1785 Americans begin to compete with British for the coffee trade from Mocha and by 1800 would become the main exporters of Yemen's most important article of foreign trade.[9]

19th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1837 Forces of Muhammad Ali, nominally the Egyptian vassal of the Ottoman Empire, occupy Ta'izz. The British warn him against further military movements.[12]
1839 In response to an incident in which Arab traders plundered a British vessel, Captain Haines sailed against Aden and finding resistance bombards then occupies it for the East India Company's Bombay Presidency, requiring the Sultan of Lahej to accept British protection. Aden will serve as a major refueling port when the Suez Canal opens in 1869.[13]
1849 Ottomans establish presence on the Red Sea coast, but the Ottoman force sent to take Sana'a is massacred after accepting invitation to enter the city.[12]
1850s Beginning of "the time of corruption," which would last till the end of the century. Zaidis lost major ports to other tribes; widespread food shortages; rivalry for the imamate; with Qāsimī rule collapsing, Turkish incursions into the highlands meet with support.[14]
1872 Ottomans occupy the northern Yemen, taking Sana'a and spreaëding out southward around Ta'izz.[12] Imam Al-Mutawakkil al-Muhsin withdraws to the north.[14]

20th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1904 Yahya Muhammad Hamid ed-Din, a descendant of Imam al-Qasim, becomes Imam and takes regnal name of al-Mutawakkil 'ala Allah ("He who relies on God").[15]
1911 January At a time when the Ottoman Empire was trying to pacify Albania and was facing hostile moves by Italy against Libya, both Imam Yahya and Muhammad ibn Ali al-Idrisi, Emir of Asir rose up against the Turks, causing the Ottomans to send 30,000 troops from Libya to respond.[16] Forced to fight in the highlands, Yemen became "the graveyard of the Turks."[17]
1911 October Treaty of Daan: When war with Italy broke out, the Ottomans were forced to accept Zaidi autonomy in the highlands, while remaining in possession of the Red Sea coast. Turkey also provided financial aid to Imam Yahya. The agreement, which conceded most of the demands Imam Yahya had been making since 1908, stopped the almost continuous war between the Turks and Zaidis, even though the Ottoman parliament did not ratify it until 1913.[16]
1914 March Anglo-Turkish Treaty on boundaries concludes work of Anglo-Turkish Boundary Commission which had begun in 1902. The powers agree on division between their respective realms in Yemen, a division that would more-or-less later serve as the boundary between North and South Yemen.[16]
1918 Early December Turkish governor of Yemen informs Imam Yahya that "Franks" (the European allies) had overrun Anatolia and that the Ottomans would be forced to withdraw from Yemen. Through a series of alliances, tribal wars and intrigues Yahya would consolidate Zaidi hold over to the south of Sa'da (including Sana'a) and would begin moving north against the Idrisi state of Asir.[18]
1926 September 2 Treaty of friendship between Italy and Imam Yahya. Italy becomes the first power to recognize Yahya as King of Yemen.
1934 February 11 Treaty of Sana'a between Yemen and Great Britain. The parties agree on a modus vivendi without resolving claims of sovereignty on either side.
1934 May 20 Treaty of Taif ends brief border war between Al-Saud and Yemen. Yemen cedes Asir to Saudi Arabia.[19]
1944 June Having fled the court of the Crown Prince in Ta'izz, Ahmad Muhammad Numan, Muhammad Mahmud al-Zabayri and Zayd al-Mawshki arrive in Aden where later that year they would form the Free Yemeni Party.[20]
1946 March 4 The United States recognizes the Kingdom of Yemen by letter from President Harry S. Truman to Imam Yahya, providing for the appointment of an American Special Diplomatic Mission to the Kingdom.[21]
1948 February 17 Yahya assassinated. He would be succeeded by his son Ahmad who rallied northern tribesmen to defeat nationalist opponents of feudal rule.
1955 March 31-April 1 Army officers who objected to Imam Ahmad's conservative rule, especially his harsh and summary punishments, laid siege to the Elurdhi fortress in Taiz while the Imam was inside. The Imam's brothers supported the coup attempt with Emir Abdullah bin Yahyi (purportedly reformist minded) accepting the army's call to replace Ahmad and Emir Abbas telegraphed support from Sana'a. Crown priince al-Badr rallied tribal support and Liberals (local and emigres in Cairo) among others supported him. The siege was raised and Ahmad restored on April 5, and both Abdullah and Abbas were executed.[22][23]
1956 April 21 Jiddah Pact: Imam Ahmad, Premier Nasser (of Egypt) and King Saud (of Saudi Arabia) sign pace in Jeddah pledging the armies of all three would be placed under a single command to repel invasion. Nasser expressed his goal to "spoil British imperialist plans in the Middle East," but Egypt had no then pending dispute with Britain unlike Yemen (which disputed the border with Aden and the ownership of the Red Sea island of Kamana) and Saudi Arabia (which Britain accused of fomenting anti-British sentiment among tribes on their border).[24]
1958 March 8 As a concession to pro-Nasserite opinion and to avoid Egyptian aid to republican opposition, Yemen enters loose federation with the United Arab Republic to form the United Arab States. The signing ceremony took place in Damascus between Egypt's President Nasser and crown prince Muhammad al-Badr.[25]
1958 April Aden's colonial governor Sir William Luce warns British government against too hasty a withdrawal from Aden citing the possible hostile threat of Egypt and the Soviet Union aiding Yemen in securing domination over Aden.[26]
1959 February 11 Six West Aden protectorate states (but not the colony of Aden itself) join the Federation of Arab Emirates of the South and the Federation and Britain signed a “Treaty of Friendship and Protection,” which detailed plans for British financial and military assistance.[27]
1959 April Imam Ahmad, gravely ill, departs for Italy for treatment. Muhammad al-Badr left in charge brings in Egyptian development experts and rattles sabers against Britain in Aden.[28]
1959 August 13 Sana'a Radio broadcasts a message from Imam Ahmad that he had returned and had discovered plots. He said that there would be some whose "heads would be cut off" and others' "heads and legs would be cut off."[29] Suspecting that Egypt was supporting republicans within Yemen, Ahmad sent many Egyptian civil, educational and military advisers back to Cairo and stopped the work of others.[30]
1962 September 18 Imam Ahmad dies. Crown prince al-Badr succeeds him, unopposed.[31]
1962 September 26 A federation of South Arabia formed, uniting Aden and the federated hinterlands under British auspices.[32]
1962 September 26 During the night, the building in which Imam al-Badr worked was surrounded and shelled by tanks. Egypt-backed Junior army officers seize power and proclaim the Yemen Arab Republic, sparking an eight-year civil war between royalists supported by Saudi Arabia and republicans backed by Egypt.[32] The British government, though divided, decides to support the royalists.[33]
1962 November Egypt announces the formation of the National Liberation Army to free southern Yemen from British rule.[33]
1963 October 14 Two nationalist groups, the Front for the Liberation of Occupied South Yemen and the National Liberation Front begin an armed revolt (Aden Emergency) against British control in South Yemen. Fighting began in Radfan, but the British quickly subdued it.[34]
1965 June Britain invokes emergency powers to deal with increasing unrest in Aden.[35]
1966 February Britain announces (in a reversal) that Aden was not vital to its commercial security and would be abandoned (naval base and all) by 1968.[36]
1967 November 30 Southern Yemen granted independence by Great Britain and begins socialist experiment.
1986 January 13 Gangland-style assassination attempt by guard of South Yemen President Ali Nasser Mohammed al-Hassani on his rivals in the 15-member Politboro, killing Vice President Ali Antar and sparking gun fight among Politboro members. Twelve days of street fighting in Aden followed until the hard-line Marxists gained control and President Hassani was driven into exile.[37]
1989 February 16 Heads of states of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan and Yemen announce form Baghdad the formation of the Arab Cooperation Council.[38]
1990 May 22 Yemeni unification.
1990 August 6 Yemen abstains from UN Security Council resolutions authorizing military action against Iraq (as a result of its invasion of Kuwait). As a result, 800,000 Yemeni workers are expelled from Saudi Arabia and Kuwait.
1994 May 5 Southern Yemen attempts to secede, sparking a civil war, which is brought to an end in July when northern forces capture Aden.
1999 September 23 Ali Abdullah Saleh receives 99.3% of the vote in the first presidential election by universal suffrage.

21st century[edit]

Year Date Event
2000 October 12 While refueling at a water-borne platform off the port of Aden, the USS Cole, a guided-missile destroyer, was attacked by terrorist affiliated with Al-Qaeda who detonated C-4 plastic explosives to tear a whole in the hull, killing 17 soldiers. The next day a bomb exploded at the British embassy in Sana'a but resulted in no casualties.[39]
2004 June 18 Police crack down on Zaidi demonstrators in capital and arrest large numbers.[40] Fearing the followers of Hussein Badreddin al-Houthi to be an imminent treat and using claims that they were setting up unlicensed religious centers and engaging in violent demonstrations against the US and Israel, President Selah sends troops to northern province of Sa'ada to locate Sheikh al-Houthi and his followers.[41] Resistance by Houti followers triggers Shia insurgency.
2004 September 10 Yemen interior and defense ministries announce that Sheikh al-Houthi had been killed with a number of his aides.[42] The government earlier claimed that it had "crushed" the Houthi rebellion,[41] but the conflict would continue until the present,"characterized by continuous fighting of varying intensity, punctuated by multiple ceasefires and mediation attempts" (the government counted six phases of "active fighting" by 2010).[43]
2009 week of December 13 US begins air strikes on suspected Al-Qaeda personnel and locations at the request of Yemen government.[44]
2011 March 18 Jumaa al-Karama (Friday of Dignity): Massacre of protestors against President Ali Abdullah Saleh leads to massive protests and the revolution that would end his 22-year rule.[45]
2011 June 3 After months of peaceful protest against his rule, President Saleh narrowly survives an attack by mortar against a mosque at the presidential compound.[46]
2011 November 23 In ceremony in Riyadh President Saleh and opposition politicians sign Gulf Cooperation Council brokered deal, whereby President Saleh would step down, transfer executive power to Vice President Hadi and a national unity cabinet would be formed.[47][48]
2011 December 7 Pursuant to November 23 agreement, Yemen forms unity government under Prime Minister Mohammed Basindawa made up balanced between the ruling General People's Congress Party and the opposition.[49]
2012 February 21 In election to replace President Saleh, Vice President Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi receives 99.6% of the vote in uncontested race. Despite lack of choice, turnout said to be higher than expected.[50]
2013 March 18 National Dialogue, a conference brokered by the Gulf Cooperation Council and endorsed by the United Nations and made up of over 500 delegates representing the wide array of the political spectrum[51] conveneded to draft a new constitution for Yemen, begins. President Hadi says that the unrest in the south is the most difficult issue before them.[52]
2014 September 21 Houthi rebels sign peace agreement brokered by UN envoy Jamal Benomar designed to give the rebels participation in new government and result in withdrawal of rebel military forces from Sana'a. The next day the rebel forces consolidated their hold on the capital.[53]
2014 October 9 Hours after Houthis force Prime Minister-designate Ahmed Awad bin Mubarak to turn down post, suicide bomber detonates bomb near Tahir Square in Sana'a just as a Houthi rally was to begin. Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula takes credit for the attack.[54]
2015 January 22 Following resignation of cabinet and prime minister Khaled Bahah Yemen's president Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi resigns in the face of control of the capital by rebel Huthi forces, which had besieged his residence and abducted his chief of staff, Ahmed Awad bin Mubarak.[55]
2015 February 6 Houthi rebels announce that they have dissolved parliament and installed a five-member "presidential council" which will form a transitional government to govern for two years which would include a transitional national council of 551 members. The UN refused to acknowledge the "unilateral" announcement.[56]
2015 March 25 At a new conference by its ambassador to the US, Saudi Arabia announces the beginning of "Operation Storm of Resolve" involving airstrikes against Huthi rebel targets in and near Sana'a. Saudi Arabian television reported that the UAE, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Jordan, Morocco and Sudan were sending aircraft, and Egypt, Jordan, Sudan and Pakistan were willing to send ground troops. The US said it was providing "logistical and intelligence support".[57]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hathaway, Jane (2006). "The forgotten province: A prelude to the Ottoman era in Yemen" in Mamluks and Ottomans: Studies in Honour of Michael Winter ed. by David J. Wasserstein and Ami Ayalon. Routledge. 2006. p. 198. (Hereafter "Hathaway.")
  2. ^ Robinson, Chase F. (ed.) (2010). The New Cambridge History of Islam 1. Cambridge University Press. pp. 415-6.
  3. ^ Hathaway, p. 199
  4. ^ Douglas, J. Leigh (1987). The Free Yemeni Movement 1935-1962. The American University in Beirut. p. 2.  (Hereafter "Douglas.")
  5. ^ a b Chatterji, Nishoy C. (1973). Muddle of the Middle East. 1. Abhinav Publications. p. 195.  (Herafter "Chatterji.")
  6. ^ Hathaway, p. 201.
  7. ^ a b Kour, Z.H. (1981). The History of Aden, 1839-72. Frank Cass & Co., Ltd. p. 2. ISBN 0714631019.  (Hereafter "Kour.")
  8. ^ Kour, pp. 2-3.
  9. ^ a b Kour, p. 4.
  10. ^ Wilbur, Marguerite Eyer (1945). The East India Company and the British Empire in the Far East. Stanford University Press. p. 203. 
  11. ^ a b Kour, p. 3.
  12. ^ a b c Dresch, Paul (2000). History of Modern Yeman. Cambridge University Press. p. 3. ISBN 052179482X.  (Hereafter "Dresch.")
  13. ^ Farah, Caesar E. (2002). The Sultan's Yemen: 19th-Century Challenges to Ottoman Rule. I.B.Tauris. p. 120. ISBN 1860647677. 
  14. ^ a b Dresch, p. 4
  15. ^ Dresch, p. 5
  16. ^ a b c Childs, Timothy Winston (1990). Italo-Turkish Diplomacy and the War Over Libya: 1911-1912. E.J. Brill. pp. 25–26 & n. 128. 
  17. ^ Dresch, p. 6
  18. ^ Dresch, pp. 28-31.
  19. ^ "Peace Parley in Arabia; Terms Submitted to Yemen at Taif, London Legation Says". New York Times. May 21, 1934. p. 6.  (Subscription required.)
  20. ^ Douglas, pp. 18, 62-63, 73.
  21. ^ "A Guide to the United States' History of Recognition, Diplomatic, and Consular Relations, by Country, Since 1776: Yemen". Office of the Historian, U.S. State Department. n.d. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  22. ^ Dresch, p. 78.
  23. ^ "Yemen Reported Restoring Ruler". New York Times. April 6, 1955. p. 3. Retrieved May 7, 2015.  (Subscription required.)
  24. ^ Caruthers, Osgood (April 22, 1956). "Egypt Concludes Pace with Yemen and Saudi Arabia". New York Times. pp. 1 & 3. Retrieved May 7, 2015. 
  25. ^ Caruthers, Osgood (March 9, 1958). "Nasser Is Pressing His Attack on Saud; Yemen Joins Union". New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved May 5, 2015.  (Subscription required.)
  26. ^ Smitson, Scott. "The Road to Good Intentions: British Nation-building in Aden" (PDF). Center for Complex Operations Case Study No. 10. p. 9. Retrieved May 4, 2015.  (Hereafter "Smitson.")
  27. ^ Smitson, pp. 10-11.
  28. ^ Dresch, pp. 83-84.
  29. ^ Dresch, p. 84.
  30. ^ "Yemen Shelving Aides from Cairo". New York Times. November 22, 1959. Retrieved May 8, 2015.  (Subscription required.)
  31. ^ Eagle, A.B.D.R. (August 14, 1996). "Obituary: Imam Muhammad al-Badr". The Independent. Retrieved May 3, 2015. 
  32. ^ a b Dresch, p. 87.
  33. ^ a b Dresch, p. 91
  34. ^ Dresch, pp. 96-97.
  35. ^ Dresch, pp. 100-01.
  36. ^ Dresch, p. 102.
  37. ^ Kifner, John (February 9, 1986). "Massacre with Tea: Southern Yemen at War". New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2015. 
  38. ^ Ryan, Curtis R. (September 1998). "Jordan and the Rise and Fall of the Arab Cooperation Council". Middle East Journal. pp. 386–401. Retrieved April 30, 2015. 
  39. ^ "Attack on the USS Cole". al-bab. Retrieved April 30, 2015. 
  40. ^ Glosemeyer, Iris (Fall 2004). "Local Conflict, Global Spin: An Uprising in the Yemeni Highlands". Middle East Report. Retrieved May 1, 2015. 
  41. ^ a b "Yemen army 'crushes' rebellion". BBC News. August 6, 2004. Retrieved May 1, 2015. 
  42. ^ "Yemeni forces kill rebel cleric". BBC News. October 9, 2004. Retrieved April 30, 2015. 
  43. ^ Salmoni, Barak (July 20, 2010). "Yemen's Forever War: The Houthi Rebellion". The Washington Institute. Retrieved May 1, 2015. 
  44. ^ Shanker, Thom; Landler, Mark (December 18, 2009). "U.S. Aids Yemeni Raids on Al Qaeda, Officials Say". New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2015. 
  45. ^ Finn, Tom (February 27, 2014). "Beyond the Walls of Yemen's Revolution". The New Yorker. Retrieved April 30, 2015. 
  46. ^ Worth, Robert F.; Kasinof, Laura (June 3, 2011). "Yemeni President Wounded in Palace Attack". New York Times. Retrieved May 3, 2015. 
  47. ^ Rashad, Marwa (November 23, 2011). "Yemen's Saleh signs deal to give up power". Reuters. Retrieved May 5, 2015. 
  48. ^ Stuster, J. Dana (November 24, 2011). "Dictator Pledges to Step Down, but Yemen's Crisis Is Not Over". The Atlantic. Retrieved May 5, 2015. 
  49. ^ Almasmari, Hakim; Jamjoom, Mohammed (December 7, 2011). "Yemen national unity government named". CNN. Retrieved May 5, 2015. 
  50. ^ Kasinov, Laura (February 24, 2012). "Yemen Gets New Leader as Struggle Ends Calmly". New York Times. Retrieved April 30, 2015. 
  51. ^ For a list of the parties represented, and their allocation of delegtes, see Agence France-Presse (March 18, 2013). "Yemen National Dialogue Conference participants". The National. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  52. ^ "Yemen national dialogue conference begins". BBC News. March 18, 2013. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  53. ^ Salisbury, Peter; Kerr, Simeon (September 22, 2014). "Houthi rebels consolidate control of Yemen capital". Financial Times. Retrieved April 30, 2015. 
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