Timeline of ancient history

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This timeline of ancient history lists historical events of the documented ancient past from the beginning of recorded history until the Early Middle Ages. Prior to this time period, prehistory civilizations were pre-literate and did not have written language.

Brief ancient chronology
Coming of IslamEarly Middle AgesGupta EmpireLate antiquityRoman EmpireMaurya EmpireHellenismClassical GreeceAchaemenid EmpireRoman KingdomArchaic GreeceNeo-Assyrian EmpireAncient Pueblo PeoplesBronze Age collapseHittite Empiresack of BabylonLate Bronze AgeHammurabiMiddle Bronze AgeXia DynastyGreat Pyramid of GizaHarappan CivilizationAegean civilizationThree Sovereigns and Five EmperorsFirst DynastyBronze Age writingEarly Dynastic Period (Egypt)Egyptian hieroglyphsEarly Bronze Age

The Bronze Age was the period in human practices, religious beliefs and artistic styles, although this was not always the case.

Early history[edit]

Classical antiquity[edit]

Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. It refers to the timeframe of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome.[7][8] Ancient history includes the recorded Greek history beginning in about 776 BCE (First Olympiad). This coincides roughly with the traditional date of the founding of Rome in 753 BCE and the beginning of the history of Rome.[9][10]

End of ancient history in Europe[edit]

The date used as the end of the ancient era is arbitrary. The transition period from Classical Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages is known as Late Antiquity. Late Antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the transitional centuries from Classical Antiquity to the Middle Ages, in both mainland Europe and the Mediterranean world: generally from the end of the Roman Empire's Crisis of the Third Century (c. ACE 284) to the Islamic conquests and the re-organization of the Byzantine Empire under Heraclius. The Early Middle Ages are a period in the history of Europe following the fall of the Western Roman Empire spanning roughly five centuries from CE 500 to 1000. Not all historians agree on the ending dates of ancient history, which frequently falls somewhere in the 5th, 6th, or 7th century. Western scholars usually date the end of ancient history with the fall of the Western Roman Empire in CE 476, the death of the emperor Justinian I in CE 565, or the coming of Islam in CE 632 as the end of classical antiquity.

Maps[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The invention of writing
  2. ^ Caroline Alexander, "Stonehenge," National Geographic, June 2008.
  3. ^ Augustin F. C. Holl. The Origins of African Metallurgies. Anthropology. Oxford research encyclopaedias. Published online 30 June 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190854584.013.63
  4. ^ Hildebrand, Elisabeth; et al. (2018). "A monumental cemetery built by eastern Africa's first herders near Lake Turkana, Kenya". PNAS. 115 (36): 8942–8947. doi:10.1073/pnas.1721975115. PMC 6130363. PMID 30127016.
  5. ^ Ehret, Christopher (2001). "Bantu Expansions: Re-Envisioning a Central Problem of Early African History". The International Journal of African Historical Studies. 34 (1): 5–41. doi:10.2307/3097285. ISSN 0361-7882. JSTOR 3097285.
  6. ^ Tishkoff, S. A.; Reed, F. A.; Friedlaender, F. R.; et al. (2009). "The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans". Science. 324 (5930): 1035–44. Bibcode:2009Sci...324.1035T. doi:10.1126/science.1172257. PMC 2947357. PMID 19407144
  7. ^ It is used to refer to various other periods of ancient history, like Ancient Egypt, ancient Mesopotamia (such as, Assyria, Babylonia and Sumer) or other early civilizations of the Near East. It is less commonly used in reference to civilizations of the Far East.
  8. ^ William Smith, A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. J. Murray, 1891
  9. ^ Chris Scarre, The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome (London: Penguin Books, 1995).
  10. ^ Adkins, Lesley; Roy Adkins (1998). Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-512332-8. page 3.
  11. ^ Clist, Bernard. (1987). A critical reappraisal of the chronological framework of the early Urewe Iron Age industry. Muntu. 6. 35-62.
  12. ^ Paul Lane, Ceri Ashley & Gilbert Oteyo (2006) New Dates for Kansyore and Urewe Wares from Northern Nyanza, Kenya, AZANIA: Journal of the British Institute in Eastern Africa, 41:1, 123-138, DOI: 10.1080/00672700609480438
  13. ^ Schmidt, P.; Avery, D.H. (1978). "Complex iron smelting and prehistoric culture in Tanzania". Science. 201 (4361): 1085–89. Bibcode:1978Sci...201.1085S. doi:10.1126/science.201.4361.1085. PMID 17830304. S2CID 37926350
  14. ^ a b Chap Kusimba and Randal Pouwells. The Rise and Fall of Swahili States. The International Journal of African Historical Studies 33(2):437. DOI: 10.2307/220701. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/274126407_The_Rise_and_Fall_of_Swahili_States/link/58cbce7c458515b6361d58ee/download
  15. ^ Török, László (1997). The Kingdom of Kush: Handbook of the Napatan-Meriotic Civilization. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-10448-8.
  16. ^ MacGregor, Neil (2011). A History of the World in 100 Objects. New York: Viking. pp. 221–226. ISBN 9780670022700.
  17. ^ Shillington, Kevin (2012). History of Africa. London: Palgrave. p. 54. ISBN 9780230308473.
  18. ^ The Voyage around the Erythraean Sea Available from: https://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/periplus/periplus.html

Citations and notes[edit]