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Timeline of ancient history

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This timeline of ancient history lists historical events of the documented ancient past from the beginning of recorded history until the Early Middle Ages. Prior to this time period, prehistory civilizations were pre-literate and did not have written language.

Brief ancient chronology
Coming of IslamEarly Middle AgesGupta EmpireLate antiquityRoman EmpireMaurya EmpireHellenismClassical GreeceAchaemenid EmpireRoman KingdomArchaic GreeceNeo-Assyrian EmpireAncient Pueblo PeoplesBronze Age collapseHittite EmpireSack of BabylonLate Bronze AgeHammurabiMiddle Bronze AgeXia DynastyAkkadian EmpireGreat Pyramid of GizaIndus CivilizationAegean civilizationThree Sovereigns and Five EmperorsFirst DynastyBronze Age writingEarly Dynastic Period (Egypt)Egyptian hieroglyphsEarly Bronze Age

Early history[edit]

Classical antiquity[edit]

Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. It refers to the timeframe of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome.[30][31] Ancient history includes the recorded Greek history beginning in about 776 BC (First Olympiad). This coincides roughly with the traditional date of the founding of Rome in 753 BC and the beginning of the history of Rome.[32][33]

End of ancient history in Europe[edit]

The date used as the end of the ancient era is arbitrary. The transition period from Classical Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages is known as Late Antiquity. Late Antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the transitional centuries from Classical Antiquity to the Middle Ages, in both mainland Europe and the Mediterranean world: generally from the end of the Roman Empire's Crisis of the Third Century (c. ACE 284) to the Islamic conquests and the re-organization of the Byzantine Empire under Heraclius. The Early Middle Ages are a period in the history of Europe following the fall of the Western Roman Empire spanning roughly five centuries from CE 500 to 1000. Not all historians agree on the ending dates of ancient history, which frequently falls somewhere in the 5th, 6th, or 7th century. Western scholars usually date the end of ancient history with the fall of the Western Roman Empire in CE 476, the death of the emperor Justinian I in CE 565, or the coming of Islam in CE 632 as the end of classical antiquity.

Horizontal timeline[edit]

Imperial ChinaAncient ChinaThree Sovereigns and Five EmperorsMiddle kingdoms of IndiaIndo-GreeksIron Age IndiaIndus Valley CivilizationAncient RomeAncient GreecePhoeniciaAxumite EmpireKingdom of KushAncient EgyptSassanid EmpireParthian EmpireSeleucid EmpireAchaemenid EmpireMesopotamiaIron AgeBronze Age
Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details


See also[edit]


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  2. ^ "Beginning in the pottery-phase of the Neolithic, clay tokens are widely attested as a system of counting and identifying specific amounts of specified livestock or commodities. The tokens, enclosed in clay envelopes after being impressed on their rounded surface, were gradually replaced by impressions on flat or plano-convex tablets, and these in turn by more or less conventionalized pictures of the tokens incised on the clay with a reed stylus. The transition to writing was complete W. Hallo; W. Simpson (1971). The Ancient Near East. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich. p. 25.
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  6. ^ Hildebrand, Elisabeth; et al. (2018). "A monumental cemetery built by eastern Africa's first herders near Lake Turkana, Kenya". PNAS. 115 (36): 8942–8947. doi:10.1073/pnas.1721975115. PMC 6130363. PMID 30127016.
  7. ^ Biggs, Robert D. (1974). Inscriptions from Tell Abū Ṣalābīkh (PDF). Oriental Institute Publications. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-62202-9.
  8. ^ Two fragmentary Akkadian versions survive, from the 15th century BCE and from the end of the second millennium BCE: "Its great antiquity and popularity is evidenced by the large number of manuscripts of it that have survived" (Beaulieu in Clifford 2007:4).
  9. ^ Mogens Herman Hansen; Københavns universitet. Polis centret (2002). A comparative study of six city-state cultures: an investigation. Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab. pp. 40–. ISBN 978-87-7876-316-7. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
  10. ^ Jeremy A. Black; Jeremy Black; Graham Cunningham; Eleanor Robson (13 April 2006). The Literature of Ancient Sumer. Oxford University Press. pp. 325–. ISBN 978-0-19-929633-0. Retrieved 2 June 2011.
  11. ^ Samuel Noah Kramer, The Sumerians, Chicago University Press, 1971, ISBN 0-226-45238-7
  12. ^ Withington, John (2020-11-05). Assassins' Deeds: A History of Assassination from Ancient Egypt to the Present Day. Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-78914-352-2.
  13. ^ De Mieroop, Marc Van. (2004). A History of the Ancient Near East: c. 3000-323BC. (pp.67) Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing
  14. ^ Movses Khorenatsi, History of Armenia. Ed. by G. Sargsyan. Yerevan: Hayastan, 1997, (pp. 83,286)
  15. ^ Shaw, Ian (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0192804588.
  16. ^ Dalley, Stephanie (2000). Myths from Mesopotamia: Creation, the Flood, Gilgamesh, and Others. Oxford University Press. p. 45. ISBN 9780199538362.
  17. ^ Mitchell, T (1988). The Bible in the British Museum. The British Museum Press. p. 70.
  18. ^ Hardy DA (1989). "Therea and the Aegean World III", Volume III—Chronology (Proceedings of the Third International Congress, Hardy DA, editor). Retrieved 2008-03-16.
  19. ^ Paris, Raphael, et al., (2022). "A Minoan and a Neolithic tsunami recorded in coastal sediments of Ios Island, Aegean Sea, Greece", in: Marine Geology, Volume 452, October 2022, Abstract: "...tsunami deposits on the coasts of Ios Island, Aegean Sea, Greece...marine sediments and pumices from the ~1600 BCE Minoan eruption of Santorini volcano. This is the first evidence of the Minoan tsunami in the Cycladic Islands North of Santorini."
  20. ^ Antonopoulos, J. (1992). "The great Minoan eruption of Thera volcano and the ensuing tsunami in the Greek Archipelago". Natural Hazards. 5 (2): 153–68. Bibcode:1992NatHa...5..153A. doi:10.1007/BF00127003. S2CID 129836887.
  21. ^ Lee, Yun Kuen (2002). "Building the Chronology of Early Chinese History". Asian Perspectives. 41 (1): 15–42. doi:10.1353/asi.2002.0006. hdl:10125/17161. ISSN 1535-8283.
  22. ^ Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Dee, Michael W.; Rowland, Joanne M.; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Harris, Stephen A.; Brock, Fiona; Quiles, Anita; Wild, Eva M.; Marcus, Ezra S.; Shortland, Andrew J. (2010). "Radiocarbon-Based Chronology for Dynastic Egypt". Science. 328 (5985): 1554–1557. Bibcode:2010Sci...328.1554R. doi:10.1126/science.1189395. PMID 20558717. S2CID 206526496.
  23. ^ Diehl, Richard A. (2004). The Olmecs : America's First Civilization. London: Thames and Hudson. pp. 9–25. ISBN 0-500-28503-9.
  24. ^ Flood, Gavin D. (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge University Press.
  25. ^ Anthony, David W. (2007). The Horse The Wheel And Language. How Bronze-Age Riders From the Eurasian Steppes Shaped The Modern World. Princeton University Press.
  26. ^ Thapar, Romila; Witzel, Michael; Menon, Jaya; Friese, Kai; Khan, Razib (2019). Which of us are Aryans? rethinking the concept of our origins. New Delhi: Aleph. ISBN 978-93-88292-38-2.
  27. ^ Millek, Jesse (2021). "Why Did the World End in 1200 BCE". Ancient Near East Today. 9 (8).
  28. ^ Ehret, Christopher (2001). "Bantu Expansions: Re-Envisioning a Central Problem of Early African History". The International Journal of African Historical Studies. 34 (1): 5–41. doi:10.2307/3097285. ISSN 0361-7882. JSTOR 3097285.
  29. ^ Tishkoff, S. A.; Reed, F. A.; Friedlaender, F. R.; et al. (2009). "The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans". Science. 324 (5930): 1035–44. Bibcode:2009Sci...324.1035T. doi:10.1126/science.1172257. PMC 2947357. PMID 19407144
  30. ^ It is used to refer to various other periods of ancient history, like Ancient Egypt, ancient Mesopotamia (such as, Assyria, Babylonia and Sumer) or other early civilizations of the Near East. It is less commonly used in reference to civilizations of the Far East.
  31. ^ William Smith, A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. J. Murray, 1891
  32. ^ Chris Scarre, The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome (London: Penguin Books, 1995).
  33. ^ Adkins, Lesley; Roy Adkins (1998). Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-512332-8. page 3.
  34. ^ Clist, Bernard. (1987). A critical reappraisal of the chronological framework of the early Urewe Iron Age industry. Muntu. 6. 35-62.
  35. ^ Paul Lane, Ceri Ashley & Gilbert Oteyo (2006) New Dates for Kansyore and Urewe Wares from Northern Nyanza, Kenya, AZANIA: Journal of the British Institute in Eastern Africa, 41:1, 123-138, DOI: 10.1080/00672700609480438
  36. ^ Schmidt, P.; Avery, D.H. (1978). "Complex iron smelting and prehistoric culture in Tanzania". Science. 201 (4361): 1085–89. Bibcode:1978Sci...201.1085S. doi:10.1126/science.201.4361.1085. PMID 17830304. S2CID 37926350
  37. ^ a b Chap Kusimba and Randal Pouwells. The Rise and Fall of Swahili States. The International Journal of African Historical Studies 33(2):437. DOI: 10.2307/220701. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/274126407_The_Rise_and_Fall_of_Swahili_States/link/58cBC7c458515b6361d58ee/download
  38. ^ Török, László (1997). The Kingdom of Kush: Handbook of the Napatan-Meriotic Civilization. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-10448-8.
  39. ^ MacGregor, Neil (2011). A History of the World in 100 Objects. New York: Viking. pp. 221–226. ISBN 9780670022700.
  40. ^ Shillington, Kevin (2012). History of Africa. London: Palgrave. p. 54. ISBN 9780230308473.
  41. ^ The Voyage around the Erythraean Sea Available from: https://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/periplus/periplus.html

Citations and notes[edit]