timeline of atomic and subatomic physics.
Early beginnings [ edit ]
 Kanada theorizes the existence of four kinds of atoms, which could combine to produce diatomic and triatomic molecules. 430 BCE
 Democritus speculates about fundamental indivisible particles—calls them " atoms" 200 BCE
 Jainism calls atom Paramanu which can neither be created nor destroyed. It is eternal, i.e., it existed in the past, exists in the present and will continue to exist in the future. It is the permanent basis of the physical existence. The entire physical existence is composed of these ultimate atoms.
The beginning of chemistry [ edit ]
Timeline of classical mechanics [ edit ]
The age of quantum mechanics [ edit ]
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz discovers the photoelectric effect that will play a very important role in the development of the quantum theory with Einstein's explanation of this effect in terms of of light quanta 1896
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen discovers the X-rays while studying electrons in plasma; scattering X-rays—that were considered as 'waves' of high-energy electromagnetic radiation— Arthur Compton will be able to demonstrate in 1922 the 'particle' aspect of electromagnetic radiation. 1900
Paul Villard discovers gamma-rays while studying uranium decay 1900
Johannes Rydberg refines the expression for observed hydrogen line wavelengths 1900
Max Planck states his quantum hypothesis and blackbody radiation law 1902
Philipp Lenard observes that maximum photoelectron energies are independent of illuminating intensity but depend on frequency 1902
Theodor Svedberg suggests that fluctuations in molecular bombardment cause the Brownian motion 1905 Albert Einstein explains the
photoelectric effect 1906
Charles Barkla discovers that each element has a characteristic X-ray and that the degree of penetration of these X-rays is related to the atomic weight of the element 1909
Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden discover large angle deflections of alpha particles by thin metal foils 1909
Ernest Rutherford and Thomas Royds demonstrate that alpha particles are doubly ionized helium atoms 1911
Ernest Rutherford explains the Geiger–Marsden experiment by invoking a nuclear atom model and derives the Rutherford cross section 1911
Jean Perrin proves the existence of atoms and molecules with experimental work to test Einstein's theoretical explanation of Brownian motion 1911
Ștefan Procopiu measures the magnetic dipole moment of the electron 1912
Max von Laue suggests using crystal lattices to diffract X-rays 1912
Walter Friedrich and Paul Knipping diffract X-rays in zinc blende 1913
William Henry Bragg and William Lawrence Bragg work out the Bragg condition for strong X-ray reflection 1913
Henry Moseley shows that nuclear charge is the real basis for numbering the elements 1913
Niels Bohr presents his quantum model of the atom  1913
Robert Millikan measures the fundamental unit of electric charge 1913
Johannes Stark demonstrates that strong electric fields will split the Balmer spectral line series of hydrogen 1914
James Franck and Gustav Hertz observe atomic excitation 1914
Ernest Rutherford suggests that the positively charged atomic nucleus contains protons 1915
Arnold Sommerfeld develops a modified Bohr atomic model with elliptic orbits to explain relativistic fine structure 1916
Gilbert N. Lewis and Irving Langmuir formulate an electron shell model of chemical bonding 1917
Albert Einstein introduces the idea of stimulated radiation emission 1918 Ernest Rutherford notices that, when
alpha particles were shot into nitrogen gas, his scintillation detectors showed the signatures of hydrogen nuclei. 1921
Alfred Landé introduces the Landé g-factor 1922
Arthur Compton studies X-ray photon scattering by electrons demonstrating the 'particle' aspect of electromagnetic radiation. 1922
Otto Stern and Walther Gerlach show " spin quantization" 1923
Lise Meitner discovers what is now referred to as the Auger process 1924
Louis de Broglie suggests that electrons may have wavelike properties in addition to their 'particle' properties; the has been later extended to all fermions and bosons. wave–particle duality 1924
John Lennard-Jones proposes a semiempirical interatomic force law 1924
Satyendra Bose and Albert Einstein introduce Bose–Einstein statistics 1925
Wolfgang Pauli states the quantum exclusion principle for electrons 1925
George Uhlenbeck and Samuel Goudsmit postulate electron spin 1925
Pierre Auger discovers the Auger process (2 years after Lise Meitner) 1925
Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, and Pascual Jordan formulate quantum matrix mechanics 1926
Erwin Schrödinger states his nonrelativistic quantum wave equation and formulates quantum wave mechanics 1926
Erwin Schrödinger proves that the wave and matrix formulations of quantum theory are mathematically equivalent 1926
Oskar Klein and Walter Gordon state their relativistic quantum wave equation, now the Klein–Gordon equation 1926
Enrico Fermi discovers the spin–statistics connection, for particles that are now called 'fermions', such as the electron (of spin-1/2). 1926
Paul Dirac introduces Fermi–Dirac statistics 1926
Gilbert N. Lewis introduces the term " photon", thought by him to be " the carrier of radiant energy."   1927
Clinton Davisson, Lester Germer, and George Paget Thomson confirm the wavelike nature of electrons  1927
Werner Heisenberg states the quantum uncertainty principle 1927
Max Born interprets the probabilistic nature of wavefunctions 1927
Walter Heitler and Fritz London introduce the concepts of valence bond theory and apply it to the hydrogen molecule. 1927
Thomas and Fermi develop the Thomas–Fermi model 1927
Max Born and Robert Oppenheimer introduce the Born–Oppenheimer approximation 1928
Chandrasekhara Raman studies optical photon scattering by electrons 1928
Paul Dirac states his relativistic electron quantum wave equation 1928
Charles G. Darwin and Walter Gordon solve the Dirac equation for a Coulomb potential 1928
Friedrich Hund and Robert S. Mulliken introduce the concept of molecular orbital 1929
Oskar Klein discovers the Klein paradox 1929 Oskar Klein and
Yoshio Nishina derive the Klein–Nishina cross section for high energy photon scattering by electrons 1929
Nevill Mott derives the Mott cross section for the Coulomb scattering of relativistic electrons 1930
Paul Dirac introduces electron hole theory 1930
Erwin Schrödinger predicts the zitterbewegung motion 1930
Fritz London explains van der Waals forces as due to the interacting fluctuating dipole moments between molecules 1931
John Lennard-Jones proposes the Lennard-Jones interatomic potential 1931
Irène Joliot-Curie and Frédéric Joliot observe but misinterpret neutron scattering in paraffin 1931
Wolfgang Pauli puts forth the neutrino hypothesis to explain the apparent violation of energy conservation in beta decay 1931
Linus Pauling discovers resonance bonding and uses it to explain the high stability of symmetric planar molecules 1931
Paul Dirac shows that charge quantization can be explained if magnetic monopoles exist 1931
Harold Urey discovers deuterium using evaporation concentration techniques and spectroscopy 1932
John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton split lithium and boron nuclei using proton bombardment 1932
James Chadwick discovers the neutron 1932
Werner Heisenberg presents the proton–neutron model of the nucleus and uses it to explain isotopes 1932
Carl D. Anderson discovers the positron 1933
Ernst Stueckelberg (1932), Lev Landau (1932), and Clarence Zener discover the Landau–Zener transition 1933
Max Delbrück suggests that quantum effects will cause photons to be scattered by an external electric field 1934
Irène Joliot-Curie and Frédéric Joliot bombard aluminium atoms with alpha particles to create artificially radioactive phosphorus-30 1934
Leó Szilárd realizes that nuclear chain reactions may be possible 1934
Enrico Fermi publishes a very successful model of beta decay in which neutrinos were produced. 1934
Lev Landau tells Edward Teller that non-linear molecules may have vibrational modes which remove the degeneracy of an orbitally degenerate state ( Jahn–Teller effect) 1934
Enrico Fermi suggests bombarding uranium atoms with neutrons to make a 93 proton element 1934
Pavel Cherenkov reports that light is emitted by relativistic particles traveling in a nonscintillating liquid 1935
Hideki Yukawa presents a theory of the nuclear force and predicts the scalar meson 1935
Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky, and Nathan Rosen put forth the EPR paradox 1935
Henry Eyring develops the transition state theory 1935
Niels Bohr presents his analysis of the EPR paradox 1936
Alexandru Proca formulates the relativistic quantum field equations for a massive vector meson of spin-1 as a basis for nuclear forces 1936
Eugene Wigner develops the theory of neutron absorption by atomic nuclei 1936
Hermann Arthur Jahn and Edward Teller present their systematic study of the symmetry types for which the Jahn–Teller effect is expected  1937 Carl Anderson proves experimentally the existence of the pion predicted by Yukawa's theory.
Hans Hellmann finds the Hellmann–Feynman theorem 1937
Seth Neddermeyer, Carl Anderson, J.C. Street, and E.C. Stevenson discover muons using cloud chamber measurements of cosmic rays 1939
Richard Feynman finds the Hellmann–Feynman theorem 1939
Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann bombard uranium salts with thermal neutrons and discover barium among the reaction products 1939
Lise Meitner and Otto Robert Frisch determine that nuclear fission is taking place in the Hahn–Strassmann experiments 1942
Enrico Fermi makes the first controlled nuclear chain reaction 1942
Ernst Stueckelberg introduces the propagator to positron theory and interprets positrons as negative energy electrons moving backwards through spacetime 1943
Sin-Itiro Tomonaga publishes his paper on the basic physical principles of quantum electrodynamics 1947
Willis Lamb and Robert Retherford measure the Lamb–Retherford shift 1947
Cecil Powell, César Lattes, and Giuseppe Occhialini discover the pi meson by studying cosmic ray tracks 1947
Richard Feynman presents his propagator approach to quantum electrodynamics  1948
Hendrik Casimir predicts a rudimentary attractive Casimir force on a parallel plate capacitor 1951
Martin Deutsch discovers positronium 1952
David Bohm propose his interpretation of quantum mechanics 1953
Robert Wilson observes Delbruck scattering of 1.33 MeV gamma-rays by the electric fields of lead nuclei 1953 Charles H. Townes, collaborating with J. P. Gordon, and H. J. Zeiger, builds the first ammonia
Chen Ning Yang and Robert Mills investigate a theory of hadronic isospin by demanding local gauge invariance under isotopic spin space rotations, the first non-Abelian gauge theory 1955
Owen Chamberlain, Emilio Segrè, Clyde Wiegand, and Thomas Ypsilantis discover the antiproton 1956
Frederick Reines and Clyde Cowan detect antineutrino 1956
Chen Ning Yang and Tsung Lee propose parity violation by the weak nuclear force 1956
Chien Shiung Wu discovers parity violation by the weak force in decaying cobalt 1957
Gerhart Luders proves the CPT theorem 1957
Richard Feynman, Murray Gell-Mann, Robert Marshak, and E.C.G. Sudarshan propose a vector/axial vector (VA) Lagrangian for weak interactions.       1958
Marcus Sparnaay experimentally confirms the Casimir effect 1959
Yakir Aharonov and David Bohm predict the Aharonov–Bohm effect 1960
R.G. Chambers experimentally confirms the Aharonov–Bohm effect  1961
Murray Gell-Mann and Yuval Ne'eman discover the Eightfold Way patterns, the SU(3) group 1961
Jeffrey Goldstone considers the breaking of global phase symmetry 1962
Leon Lederman shows that the electron neutrino is distinct from the muon neutrino 1963
Eugene Wigner discovers the fundamental roles played by quantum symmetries in atoms and molecules
The formation and successes of the Standard Model [ edit ]
Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig propose the quark/aces model   1964
Peter Higgs considers the breaking of local phase symmetry 1964
John Stewart Bell shows that all local hidden variable theories must satisfy Bell's inequality 1964
Val Fitch and James Cronin observe CP violation by the weak force in the decay of K mesons 1967
Steven Weinberg puts forth his electroweak model of leptons   1969
John Clauser, Michael Horne, Abner Shimony and Richard Holt propose a polarization correlation test of Bell's inequality 1970
Sheldon Glashow, John Iliopoulos, and Luciano Maiani propose the charm quark 1971
Gerard 't Hooft shows that the Glashow-Salam-Weinberg electroweak model can be renormalized  1972
Stuart Freedman and John Clauser perform the first polarization correlation test of Bell's inequality 1973
David Politzer and Frank Anthony Wilczek propose the asymptotic freedom of quarks  1974
Burton Richter and Samuel Ting discover the J/ψ particle implying the existence of the charm quark 1974
Robert J. Buenker and Sigrid D. Peyerimhoff introduce the multireference configuration interaction method. 1975
Martin Perl discovers the tau lepton 1977
Steve Herb finds the upsilon resonance implying the existence of the beauty/bottom quark 1982
Alain Aspect, J. Dalibard, and G. Roger perform a polarization correlation test of Bell's inequality that rules out conspiratorial polarizer communication 1983
Carlo Rubbia, Simon van der Meer, and the CERN UA-1 collaboration find the W and Z intermediate vector bosons  1989 The Z intermediate vector boson
resonance width indicates three quark-lepton generations 1994 The
CERN LEAR Crystal Barrel Experiment justifies the existence of glueballs ( exotic meson). 1995 after 18 years searching at
Fermilab was discovered the top quark, it had very big mass 1998
Super-Kamiokande (Japan) observes evidence for neutrino oscillations, implying that at least one neutrino has mass. 1999
Ahmed Zewail wins the Nobel prize in chemistry for his work on femtochemistry for atoms and molecules.  2001 The
Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (Canada) confirms the existence of neutrino oscillations. 2005 At the
RHIC accelerator of Brookhaven National Laboratory they have created a quark–gluon liquid of very low viscosity, perhaps the quark–gluon plasma 2008 The
Large Hadron Collider at CERN is scheduled to begin operation in this year. Its primary goal is to search for the Higgs boson, which has not yet been found. 2012
CERN announces the discovery of a new particle with properties consistent with the Higgs boson of the Standard Model after experiments at the Large Hadron Collider.
Quantum field theories beyond the Standard Model [ edit ]
Steven Weinberg. Supersymmetry and Quantum Gravity.   2003 Leonid Vainerman. Quantum groups, Hopf algebras and quantum field applications.
Noncommutative quantum field theory M.R. Douglas and N. A. Nekrasov (2001) "
Noncommutative field theory," Rev. Mod. Phys. 73: 977–1029. Szabo, R. J. (2003) "
Quantum Field Theory on Noncommutative Spaces," Physics Reports 378: 207–99. An expository article on noncommutative quantum field theories.
Noncommutative quantum field theory, see statistics on arxiv.org Seiberg, N. and E. Witten (1999) "
String Theory and Noncommutative Geometry," Journal of High Energy Physics Sergio Doplicher, Klaus Fredenhagen and John Roberts, Sergio Doplicher, Klaus Fredenhagen, John E. Roberts (1995)
The quantum structure of spacetime at the Planck scale and quantum fields," Commun. Math. Phys. 172: 187–220.
Alain Connes (1994) Academic Press. Noncommutative geometry. ISBN 0-12-185860-X. -------- (1995) "Noncommutative geometry and reality",
J. Math. Phys. 36: 6194. -------- (1996) "
Gravity coupled with matter and the foundation of noncommutative geometry," Comm. Math. Phys. 155: 109. -------- (2006) "
Noncommutative geometry and physics," -------- and
M. Marcolli, American Mathematical Society (2007). Noncommutative Geometry: Quantum Fields and Motives. Chamseddine, A., A. Connes (1996) "
The spectral action principle," Comm. Math. Phys. 182: 155. Chamseddine, A., A. Connes,
M. Marcolli (2007) " Gravity and the Standard Model with neutrino mixing," Adv. Theor. Math. Phys. 11: 991. Jureit, Jan-H., Thomas Krajewski, Thomas Schücker, and Christoph A. Stephan (2007) "
On the noncommutative standard model," Acta Phys. Polon. B38: 3181–3202. Schücker, Thomas (2005)
Lecture Notes in Physics 659, Springer. Forces from Connes's geometry.
Noncommutative standard model
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ a b c Teresi, Dick (2010). . Simon and Schuster. pp. 213–214. Lost Discoveries: The Ancient Roots of Modern Science ISBN 978-1-4391-2860-2.
^ Jammer, Max (1966), The conceptual development of quantum mechanics, New York: McGraw-Hill, OCLC 534562
^ Gilbert N. Lewis. Letter to the editor of Nature (Vol. 118, Part 2, December 18, 1926, pp. 874–875).
^ The origin of the word "photon"
^ The Davisson–Germer experiment, which demonstrates the wave nature of the electron
^ A. Abragam and B. Bleaney. 1970. Electron Parmagnetic Resonance of Transition Ions, Oxford University Press: Oxford, U.K., p. 911
^ Feynman, R.P. (2006) . . QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-12575-9.
^ Richard Feynman; QED. Princeton University Press: Princeton, (1982)
^ Richard Feynman; Lecture Notes in Physics. Princeton University Press: Princeton, (1986)
^ Feynman, R.P. (2001) . . The Character of Physical Law MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-56003-8.
^ Feynman, R.P. (2006) . . QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-12575-9.
^ Schweber, Silvan S. ; Q.E.D. and the men who made it: Dyson, Feynman, Schwinger, and Tomonaga, Princeton University Press (1994) ISBN 0-691-03327-7
^ Schwinger, Julian ; Selected Papers on Quantum Electrodynamics, Dover Publications, Inc. (1958) ISBN 0-486-60444-6
^ * Kleinert, H. (2008). Multivalued Fields in Condensed Matter, Electrodynamics, and Gravitation (PDF). World Scientific. ISBN 978-981-279-170-2.
^ Yndurain, Francisco Jose ; Quantum Chromodynamics: An Introduction to the Theory of Quarks and Gluons, Springer Verlag, New York, 1983. ISBN 0-387-11752-0
^ a b Frank Wilczek (1999) " Quantum field theory", Reviews of Modern Physics 71: S83–S95. Also doi=10.1103/Rev. Mod. Phys. 71.
^ Weinberg, Steven ; The Quantum Theory of Fields: Foundations (vol. I), Cambridge University Press (1995) ISBN 0-521-55001-7. The first chapter (pp. 1–40) of Weinberg's monumental treatise gives a brief history of Q.F.T., pp. 608.
^ a b Weinberg, Steven; The Quantum Theory of Fields: Modern Applications (vol. II), Cambridge University Press:Cambridge, U.K. (1996) ISBN 0-521-55001-7, pp. 489.
^ * Gerard 't Hooft (2007) " The Conceptual Basis of Quantum Field Theory" in Butterfield, J., and John Earman, eds., Philosophy of Physics, Part A. Elsevier: 661-730.
^ Pais, Abraham ; Inward Bound: Of Matter & Forces in the Physical World, Oxford University Press (1986) ISBN 0-19-851997-4 Written by a former Einstein assistant at Princeton, this is a beautiful detailed history of modern fundamental physics, from 1895 (discovery of X-rays) to 1983 (discovery of vectors bosons at C.E.R.N.)
^ "Press Release: The 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry". 12 October 1999 . Retrieved . 30 June 2013
^ Weinberg, Steven; The Quantum Theory of Fields: Supersymmetry (vol. III), Cambridge University Press:Cambridge, U.K. (2000) ISBN 0-521-55002-5, pp. 419.
^ Leonid Vainerman, editor. 2003. Locally Compact Quantum Groups and Groupoids. Proceed. Theor. Phys. Strassbourg in 2002, Walter de Gruyter: Berlin and New York
External links [ edit ]