Timeline of cannabis law

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The list includes and details significant events that occurred in the global history of national-level implementations of, or changes made to, laws surrounding the use, sale, or production of the psychoactive drug cannabis.

1300s[edit]

  • 1378: Soudoun Sheikouni, the Emir of the Joneima in Arabia, outlawed the use of cannabis across his jurisdiction. Sheikouni's prohibition is one of the earliest, if not the earliest, attested cannabis ban in the world.[1]

1700s[edit]

1800s[edit]

  • 1800: Shortly following Napoleon's invasion of Egypt and concerned by his troops' smoking of hashish and drinking of cannabis-based beverages, he banned the drug and the establishments that provided it.[3]
  • 1830: The Municipal Council of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, prohibited bringing cannabis into the city, and punished its use by any slave.[4]
  • 1840: The British colony of Mauritius banned cannabis.[5]
  • 1861: British Guiana passed a law entitled An Ordinance to Regulate the Sale of Opium and Bhang.[6]
  • 1867: The British colonial government of Sri Lanka introduced the Opium and Bhang Ordinance, restricting the sale of cannabis to licensed dealers only.[7][8]
  • 1870: The British Natal Colony (now in South Africa) passed the Coolie Law Consolidation prohibiting: "the smoking, use, or possession by and the sale, barter, or gift to, any Coolies [Indian indentured workers] whatsoever, of any portion of the hemp plant (Cannabis sativa)..."[9]
  • 1870: Singapore banned cannabis.[10]
  • 1877: The Ottoman government in Constantinople mandated that all hashish in Egypt be destroyed, and in 1879 importation of cannabis was banned by the Khedivate of Egypt.[11][12]
  • 1890: Morocco's Sultan Hassan I instituted strict regulations on cultivation and trade, but also conferred clear cannabis production privileges on several Rif tribes.[13]
  • 1890: Greece banned the cultivation, importation, and use of cannabis.[14]
  • 1894: In British India the Indian Hemp Drugs Commission released its findings, concluding that "The moderate use practically produces no ill effects. In all but the most exceptional cases, the injury from habitual moderate use is not appreciable."[15]

1900s[edit]

  • 1913: Jamaica banned cannabis with the Ganja Law, supported by the white ruling class and the Council of Evangelical Churches in Jamaica.[16]
  • 1914: British East Africa Protectorate banned cannabis.[17]
  • 1920: Sierra Leone banned cannabis.[18]
  • 1920: Mexico banned the cultivation, sale, and recreational use of cannabis.[19]
  • 1922: South Africa banned cannabis nationally, under the Customs and Excises Duty Act.[20][21]
  • 1923: Canada banned cannabis.[22]
  • 1923: Panama banned the cultivation and use of cannabis.[23]
  • 1923: In Italy, the Mussolini-Oviglio Law 396/23 banned the use of both marijuana and hashish.[24]
  • 1924: Sudan banned the cultivation and use of cannabis.[25]
  • 1925: The League of Nations signs the 1925 Opium Convention, for the first time adding pure cannabis extract among drugs under international control.[26]
  • 1925: At the Brussels Conference for the harmonization of pharmacopoeia, "Cannabis herb" extract and tinctures were added to the monographs.[27]
  • 1925: Trinidad and Tobago banned cannabis.[28]
  • 1926: Lebanon prohibited hashish.[29][30]
  • 1926: Australia banned cannabis.[31]
  • 1927: Indonesia banned cannabis.[32]
  • 1928: The United Kingdom first prohibited cannabis as a drug, adding it as an addendum to the Dangerous Drugs Act 1920.[33][34]
  • 1928: Romania established laws for countering narcotics, including hashish and its preparations.[35]
  • 1934: The Irish Free State prohibited cannabis and cannabis resin with the Dangerous Drugs Act 1934.[36]
  • 1935: The Office international d'hygiène publique recommends adding preparations of cannabis (and not only pure extracts) under control of the 1925 Convention.[26]
  • 1935: Thailand criminalized cannabis.[37]
  • 1937: The United States passed the Marijuana Tax Act, effectively prohibiting most use of cannabis on a federal level due to the heavy burdens of the tax.
  • 1939: Burma legalized and licensed the production and sale of cannabis.[38]
  • 1948: Japan adopted the Cannabis Control Law, establishing a licensing system for dealers, and punishments for unlicensed use or sale.[39]
  • 1951: Poland classified cannabis as a narcotic.[40]
  • 1953: Tunisia, under French rule, banned cannabis.[41][42]
  • 1953: The Netherlands criminalized cannabis.[43]
  • 1956: Morocco becomes independent, and banned cannabis by royal decree.[44]
  • 1961: The United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs decreed: "The use of cannabis for other than medical and scientific purposes must be discontinued as soon as possible but in any case within twenty-five years..."
  • 1965: New Zealand banned cannabis under the Narcotics Act.[45]
  • 1966: Finland prohibited cannabis.[46]
  • 1968: The government of the Republic of Vietnam "publicly condemned" the use or trafficking of cannabis, and instructed local chiefs to prevent its cultivation.[47]
  • 1969: Iceland & Denmark banned cannabis.[48]
  • 1970: The United States passed the Controlled Substances Act, prohibiting cannabis federally along with several other drugs and replacing the 1937 act.
  • 1972: The Netherlands divided drugs into more- and less-dangerous categories, with cannabis being in the lesser category. Accordingly, possession of 30 grams or less was made a misdemeanor.[49]
  • 1973: Nepal canceled the licenses of all cannabis shops, dealers, and farmers, under pressure from the United States and the international community.[50]
  • 1973: Afghanistan's King Zahir Shah outlawed cannabis production, followed by genuine commitment to eradication, backed by $47 million in funding from the United States government.[50]
  • 1975: Comoros' Ali Soilih seized power, and among other radical reforms to gain the support of youth, legalized cannabis in Comoros.[51][52]
  • 1975: In Italy, hemp fields all but disappeared following the passage of the anti-drug Cossiga Law 685/75.[53]
  • 1976: South Korea passed the Cannabis Control Act.[54]
  • 1988: Paraguay decriminalized personal possession of 10 grams of cannabis or less.[55][56]
  • 1989: Bangladesh banned the sale of cannabis.[57]
  • 1990: In Italy, the Presidential Decree DPR 309/90 was passed into law, regarding the discipline of narcotics and psychotropic substances, prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of the related stages of substance dependence, and it is reportedly responsible for 35% of the current national prison population.[58]
  • 1992: Lebanon banned and eradicates cannabis, under US pressure.[59]
  • 1993: In Italy, a referendum repealed criminal penalties for the personal use of soft drugs.[60]
  • 1996: California becomes the first jurisdiction in the United States to legalize cannabis for medicinal use (Proposition 215).[61]
  • 1997: Poland criminalized possession of cannabis.[62]

2000s[edit]

  • 2001: Luxembourg decriminalized cannabis.[63]
  • 2001: Canada legalized cannabis for medical use.[64]
  • 2001: Portugal decriminalized cannabis.[65][66]
  • 2003: Belgium decriminalized cannabis.[67][68]
  • 2004: Russia decriminalized cannabis.[69]
  • 2005: Estonia decriminalized cannabis.[70]
  • 2005: Chile decriminalized cannabis.[71]
  • 2006: Brazil decriminalized possession and cultivation of personal amounts of cannabis.[72]
  • 2008: Austria legalized cannabis for medical use.[73]
  • 2009: Ukraine decriminalized cannabis cultivation up to 10 cannabis plants for personal use.[74]
  • 2009: Mexico decriminalized possession of up to 5 grams of cannabis.[75]
  • 2009: Argentina decriminalized cannabis.[76]
  • 2010: Czech Republic decriminalized cannabis.[77]
  • 2011: Denmark approves drugs containing synthetic-cannabinoids (dronabinol) for medical use.[78][79]
  • 2012: Switzerland decriminalized possession of 10 grams or less to a fine.[80]
  • 2012: Colombia decriminalized possession of 20 grams or less.[81]
  • 2013: Croatia decriminalized possession of cannabis.[82]
  • 2013: Uruguay legalized cannabis.[83]
  • 2013: Italy legalized cannabis for medical use.[84]
  • 2013: Romania legalized cannabis for medical use.[85]
  • 2013: Czech Republic legalized cannabis for medical use.[86][87]
  • 2013: France legalized synthetic-cannabinoids for medical use.[88][89]
  • 2015: Malta decriminalized cannabis.[90]
  • 2015: Colombia legalized cannabis for medical use.[91]
  • 2015: Croatia legalized synthetic-cannabinoids for medical use.[92]
  • 2015: Jamaica decriminalized possession of up to 2 ounces of cannabis and legalized the cultivation for personal use of up to 5 plants.[93]
  • 2015: Spain decriminalized cannabis cultivation up to 10 cannabis plants for personal use.[94]
  • 2016: Austria decriminalized possession of small amounts of cannabis.[95]
  • 2016: North Macedonia legalized cannabis for medical use..[96]
  • 2016: Australia legalized cannabis for medical use.[97]
  • 2016: Poland legalized cannabis for medical use.[98]
  • 2016: Norway legalized cannabis for medical use.[99]
  • 2016: Georgia's Supreme Court ruled that imprisonment for possession of small amounts of cannabis is unconstitutional.[100]
  • 2017: Germany legalized cannabis for medical use.[101]
  • 2017: Cyprus legalized cannabis oil for advanced stage cancer patients.[102]
  • 2017: Belize decriminalized possession or use of 10 grams or less on private premises.[103]
  • 2017: Greece legalized cannabis for medical use.[104]
  • 2017: Peru legalized cannabis oil for medical use.[105]
  • 2017: Luxembourg legalized cannabis for medical use.[106][107]
  • 2017: Lesotho legalized cannabis for medical use.[108]
  • 2017: Georgia decriminalized cannabis.[109]
  • 2017: Lithuania criminalized cannabis.[110]
  • 2017: Spain legalized cannabis.[111]
  • 2018: Denmark legalized synthetic-cannabinoids for medical use.[112]
  • 2018: Malta legalized cannabis for medical use.[113]
  • 2018: Portugal legalized cannabis for medical use.
  • 2018: South Korea legalized cannabis for medical use.[114]
  • 2018: Zimbabwe legalized cannabis for medical use.[115][116]
  • 2018: Canada legalized cannabis.[117]
  • 2018: Thailand legalized cannabis for medical use.[118]
  • 2018: South Africa decriminalized cannabis.[119]
  • 2018: The United Kingdom legalized cannabis for medical use.
  • 2018: The World Health Organization starts its first scientific assessment of cannabis for medical uses mandated under treaty law.[120]
  • 2019: Ireland legalized cannabis for medical use.[121]
  • 2019: Israel decriminalized cannabis.[122]
  • 2019: Trinidad and Tobago decriminalized cannabis allowing up to 30 grams per individual and cultivation of four plants per household.[122]
  • 2020: Australian Capital Territory legalized cannabis possession and growth for personal use.[123]
  • 2020: Malawi legalized cannabis for medical use.[124]
  • 2020: Lebanon legalized cannabis for medical use.[125]
  • 2020: United Nations partially deschedules cannabis by removing it from most restrictive substances list.[126]
  • 2021: Mexico officially decriminalizes adult use of cannabis, after years of de facto decriminalization.[127]
  • 2021: Rwanda legalizes cannabis for medical use.[128]
  • 2021: Malta legalized cannabis.[129]
  • 2022: Thailand legalized cannabis.[130]
  • 2023: Luxembourg legalized cannabis.[131]
  • 2023: Switzerland legalized cannabis on trial basis.[132]
  • 2023: Ukraine legalized cannabis for medical use.[133]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bankole A. Johnson (10 October 2010). Addiction Medicine: Science and Practice. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 303–. ISBN 978-1-4419-0338-9. Archived from the original on 20 April 2023. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
  2. ^ Gwyn Campbell (3 April 2012). David Griffiths and the Missionary "History of Madagascar". BRILL. pp. 437–. ISBN 978-90-04-20980-0.
  3. ^ Booth, M. (2015). Cannabis: A History. St. Martin's Press. pp. 76–77. ISBN 978-1-250-08219-0. Archived from the original on 2023-04-20. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  4. ^ Robert Clarke; Mark Merlin (1 September 2013). Cannabis: Evolution and Ethnobotany. University of California Press. pp. 182–. ISBN 978-0-520-95457-1.
  5. ^ A Collection of the Laws of Mauritius and Its Dependencies. By the authority of the Government. 1867. pp. 541–. Archived from the original on 2023-04-20. Retrieved 2017-12-11.
  6. ^ The Laws of British Guiana. H. Hart. 1895. pp. 88–.
  7. ^ United Nations Asia and Far East Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders (1989). Drug control in Asia. UNAFEI. p. 128.
  8. ^ C. G. Uragoda (1987). A history of medicine in Sri Lanka from the earliest times to 1948. Sri Lanka Medical Association. p. 192.
  9. ^ Brian M. Du Toit (1991). Cannabis, alcohol, and the South African student: adolescent drug use, 1974-1985. Ohio University Center for International Studies. ISBN 978-0-89680-166-0. Archived from the original on 2023-04-20. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  10. ^ Nanthawan Bunyapraphatsō̜n (1999). Medicinal and poisonous plants. Backhuys Publishers. p. 169. ISBN 978-90-5782-042-7.
  11. ^ India. Hemp Drugs Commission (1893–1894); Sir William Mackworth Young (1969). Marijuana: Report of the Indian Hemp Drugs Commission, 1893–1894. Thos. Jefferson Publishing Company. p. 270.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  12. ^ E.L. Abel (29 June 2013). Marihuana: The First Twelve Thousand Years. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 133–. ISBN 978-1-4899-2189-5.
  13. ^ Fredrik Söderbaum; Ian Taylor; Nordiska Afrikainstitutet (2008). Afro-regions: The Dynamics of Cross-border Micro-regionalism in Africa. Stylus Pub Llc. p. 130. ISBN 978-91-7106-618-3. Archived from the original on 2019-06-27. Retrieved 2022-04-20.
  14. ^ E.L. Abel (29 June 2013). Marihuana: The First Twelve Thousand Years. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 135–. ISBN 978-1-4899-2189-5. Archived from the original on 20 April 2023. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  15. ^ "(298) Page 264 - India Papers > Medicine - Drugs > Report of the Indian Hemp Drugs Commission, 1894-1895 > Volume I - Medical History of British India - National Library of Scotland". nls.uk. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
  16. ^ "The ganja law of 1913: 100 years of oppressive injustice - Columns". JamaicaObserver.com. 2013-12-02. Archived from the original on 2015-07-25. Retrieved 2015-07-24.
  17. ^ Kenya Gazette. 15 October 1913. pp. 882–.
  18. ^ Emmanuel Akyeampong; Allan G. Hill; Arthur Kleinman (1 May 2015). The Culture of Mental Illness and Psychiatric Practice in Africa. Indiana University Press. pp. 39–. ISBN 978-0-253-01304-0.
  19. ^ Isaac Campos (2012). Home Grown: Marijuana and the Origins of Mexico's War on Drugs. Univ of North Carolina Press. pp. 200–. ISBN 978-0-8078-3538-8.
  20. ^ Martin Chanock (5 March 2001). The Making of South African Legal Culture 1902-1936: Fear, Favour and Prejudice. Cambridge University Press. pp. 94–. ISBN 978-0-521-79156-4.
  21. ^ Craig Paterson (2009). Prohibition & Resistance: A Socio-political Exploration of the Changing Dynamics of the Southern African Cannabis Trade, C. 1850 - the Present. Rhodes University.. Cited in http://mg.co.za/article/2014-07-04-00-for-our-love-of-dagga-we-go-to-court Archived 2016-11-19 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ Martin A. Lee (14 August 2012). Smoke Signals: A Social History of Marijuana - Medical, Recreational and Scientific. Simon and Schuster. pp. 325–. ISBN 978-1-4391-0260-2.
  23. ^ Rowan Robinson (1996). The Great Book of Hemp: The Complete Guide to the Environmental, Commercial, and Medicinal Uses of the World's Most Extraordinary Plant. Inner Traditions / Bear & Co. pp. 58–. ISBN 978-0-89281-541-8.
  24. ^ Grimaldi A., and Mastagni S. (1997). Canapa Italiana (PDF). Rome: Millelire Stampa Alternativa.
  25. ^ Sudan (1975). Laws of the Sudan. Khartoum University Press. p. 230.
  26. ^ a b "The cannabis problem: A note on the problem and the history of international action". Bulletin on Narcotics, XIV, 4, 27–31. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Archived from the original on 2021-09-03. Retrieved 2022-02-21.
  27. ^ Riboulet-Zemouli, Kenzi; Krawitz, Michael Alan (2022-01-01). "WHO's first scientific review of medicinal Cannabis: from global struggle to patient implications". Drugs, Habits and Social Policy. 23 (1): 5–21. doi:10.1108/DHS-11-2021-0060. ISSN 2752-6747.
  28. ^ Axel Klein; Marcus Day; Anthony Harriott (13 November 2004). Caribbean Drugs: From Criminalization to Harm Reduction. Zed Books. pp. 58–. ISBN 978-1-84277-499-1.
  29. ^ Robert Connell Clarke (1998). Hashish!. Red Eye Press. ISBN 978-0-929349-05-3.
  30. ^ France. Ministère des affaires étrangères (1925). ... Rapport sur la situation de la Syrie et du Liban ... Imprimerie nationale. p. 73. Archived from the original on 2023-04-20. Retrieved 2016-11-30. Par arrêté du Haut-Commissaire en date du 8 octobre 1925, la culture du haschich, qui était particulièrement intense dans la Békaa (Grand Liban), a été interdite à compter du ier janvier 1926.
  31. ^ Alex Wodak; Ron Owens (January 1996). Drug Prohibition: A Call for Change. UNSW Press. pp. 11–. ISBN 978-0-86840-175-1.
  32. ^ Thomas H. Slone (2003). Prokem. Masalai Press. pp. 26–. ISBN 978-0-9714127-5-0.
  33. ^ Paul Manning (11 January 2013). Drugs and Popular Culture. Routledge. pp. 136–. ISBN 978-1-134-01211-4.
  34. ^ Bernard Porter (30 October 2015). Empire Ways: Aspects of British Imperialism. I.B.Tauris. pp. 58–. ISBN 978-0-85773-959-9.
  35. ^ "EMCDDA | Country legal profiles". Emcdda.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 2021-07-18. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  36. ^ "Dangerous Drugs Act, 1934, Part II". Irish Statute Book. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
  37. ^ "พระราชบัญญัติกันชา พุทธศักราช ๒๔๗๗" (PDF). Royal Thai Government Gazette. 52: 339–343. 5 May 1935. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 October 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  38. ^ A. Wright (21 November 2013). Opium and Empire in Southeast Asia: Regulating Consumption in British Burma. Springer. pp. 82–. ISBN 978-1-137-31760-5.
  39. ^ Minoru Shikita; Shinichi Tsuchiya (6 December 2012). Crime and Criminal Policy in Japan: Analysis and Evaluation of the Showa Era, 1926–1988. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 13–. ISBN 978-1-4612-2816-5.
  40. ^ Bołtryk, Piotr (2014). KRYMINOLOGICZNE I PRAWNE ASPEKTY POSIADANIA NARKOTYKÓW W POLSCE (NA PRZYKŁADZIE POCHODNYCH KONOPI INNYCH NIŻ WŁÓKNISTE) (PDF) (in Polish). UNIWERSYTET W BIAŁYMSTOKU. pp. 188–195. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-12-20. Retrieved 2016-12-16.
  41. ^ United Nations. Commission on Narcotic Drugs (1949). Summary of Annual Reports of Governments Relating to Opium and Other Narcotic Drugs. Archived from the original on 2023-04-20. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  42. ^ "Some Arab governments are rethinking harsh cannabis laws". The Economist. 2017-04-12. ISSN 0013-0613. Archived from the original on 2018-01-31. Retrieved 2021-06-11.
  43. ^ Dirk J. Korf (1995). Dutch Treat: Formal Control and Illicit Drug Use in the Netherlands. Thesis Publishers. p. 272. ISBN 978-90-5170-369-6.
  44. ^ Africa Analysis: The Fortnightly Bulletin on Financial and Political Trends. Africa Analysis Limited. 2000. p. 36.
  45. ^ Greg Newbold (3 June 2016). Crime, Law and Justice in New Zealand. Routledge. pp. 153–. ISBN 978-1-317-27561-9.
  46. ^ "VKS:2006:1 Seuraamuksen määrääminen huumausaineen käyttörikoksesta" (in Finnish). Finnish Office of the Prosecutor General. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  47. ^ Vietnam Studies: Law at War: Vietnam 1964-1973. LLMC. pp. 120–. GGKEY:L7BC9KNKENA.
  48. ^ "Marihuana og LSD loks bannað hér!" (in Icelandic). No. 235. Tíminn. 25 October 1969. Archived from the original on 21 July 2018. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
  49. ^ Martin Booth (1 June 2005). Cannabis: A History. Picador. pp. 338–. ISBN 978-0-312-42494-7.
  50. ^ a b Martin Booth (30 September 2011). Cannabis: A History. Transworld. pp. 325–. ISBN 978-1-4090-8489-1.
  51. ^ Dossiers sur les 30 Chefs d'Etat ou de Gouvernements tués Archived 2011-07-23 at the Wayback Machine(in French)
  52. ^ Transition, 73 – The Mercenary Position, JSTOR 2935448
  53. ^ "Nasce la New Canapa Economy, aumentano di 10 volte i terreni coltivati". National farmers association Coldiretti. 9 May 2018.
  54. ^ Korea News Review. Korea Herald, Incorporated. 1988. p. 44. Archived from the original on 2023-04-20. Retrieved 2016-12-07.
  55. ^ TNI. "Paraguay - Drug Law Reform in Latin America". Archived from the original on 21 July 2018. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
  56. ^ "En Paraguay, la posesión y consumo personal de la marihuana es legal". E'a. Archived from the original on 21 July 2018. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
  57. ^ "Drug Abuse: Where is The Way of Remedy? (Part II- Some Dangerous Silent Killers)". DhakaInsider. 2014-06-20. Archived from the original on 2016-11-15. Retrieved 2016-11-15.
  58. ^ "Il referendum sulla cannabis fa male ai clan e salva i giovani". Corriere della Sera newspaper. 16 September 2021.
  59. ^ Réalités. Spectacle du monde. May 1996. p. 354. Les Américains ne lâchant pas prise, le gouvernement libanais interdisait officiellement la culture du pavot et du cannabis en 1992.
  60. ^ "Inside Italy's Push To Decriminalize Recreational Cannabis". Forbes. 13 September 2021.
  61. ^ "Law section". Archived from the original on 2020-05-20. Retrieved 2020-05-21.
  62. ^ Bołtryk, Piotr (2014). KRYMINOLOGICZNE I PRAWNE ASPEKTY POSIADANIA NARKOTYKÓW W POLSCE (NA PRZYKŁADZIE POCHODNYCH KONOPI INNYCH NIŻ WŁÓKNISTE) (PDF) (in Polish). UNIWERSYTET W BIAŁYMSTOKU. pp. 196–197. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-12-20. Retrieved 2016-12-16.
  63. ^ David R. Bewley-Taylor (22 March 2012). International Drug Control: Consensus Fractured. Cambridge University Press. pp. 175–. ISBN 978-1-107-01497-8.
  64. ^ "Marihuana Medical Access Regulations". Justice Laws Canada. 2001. Archived from the original on 2018-10-18. Retrieved 2018-10-18.
  65. ^ Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: Home Affairs Committee (10 December 2012). Drugs: Breaking the Cycle, Ninth Report of Session 2012-13, Vol. 2: Oral and Written Evidence. The Stationery Office. pp. 135–. ISBN 978-0-215-05095-3.
  66. ^ Robin Room (2010). Cannabis Policy: Moving Beyond Stalemate. Oxford University Press. pp. 89–. ISBN 978-0-19-958148-1.
  67. ^ Police fdrale - CGPR Webteam. "Federale politie - Police fdrale". Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  68. ^ Cannabis legal status vault – Belgium, Erowid.org, archived from the original on 2019-12-15, retrieved 2011-02-17
  69. ^ C.j. Chivers (13 June 2004). "Russia Seeks Balance in Drug-Use Sentencing". New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 October 2021. Retrieved 13 June 2004.
  70. ^ Kalvet, Mart. "Decriminalization of Drug Use in Estonia" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2023-01-13. Retrieved 2023-01-13.
  71. ^ TNI. "Chile - Drug Law Reform in Latin America". Archived from the original on 6 October 2018. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
  72. ^ Professor Anita Kalunta-Crumpton (28 June 2015). Pan-African Issues in Drugs and Drug Control: An International Perspective. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 242–. ISBN 978-1-4724-2214-9. Archived from the original on 20 April 2023. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  73. ^ "AFP: Austria allows cannabis for medical purposes". Archived from the original on 2008-09-05. Retrieved 2008-07-21.
  74. ^ "Ukraine Cannabis Law". Archived from the original on 2023-01-03. Retrieved 2023-01-03.
  75. ^ "Mexico Legalizes Drug Possession". The New York Times. 21 August 2009. Archived from the original on 2018-04-01. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
  76. ^ TNI. "Argentina - Drug Law Reform in Latin America". Archived from the original on 1 October 2018. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
  77. ^ Carney, Sean (2009-12-08). "Czech Govt Allows 5 Cannabis Plants For Personal Use From 2010 - Emerging Europe Real Time - WSJ". Blogs.wsj.com. Archived from the original on 2011-04-07. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  78. ^ Danish Medicines Agency (30 September 2016): Cannabis for medicinal use – questions and answers Archived 2017-01-28 at the Wayback Machine.
  79. ^ DR Nyheder (10 October 2016). BAGGRUND Derfor er cannabis-medicin faktisk lovligt Archived 2016-11-09 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
  80. ^ "FF 2012 7539" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2020-05-17. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
  81. ^ "Colombia decriminalizes cocaine, marijuana | Public Radio International". Pri.org. 2012-06-30. Archived from the original on 2016-11-27. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  82. ^ "CROATIA TO DECRIMINALIZE DRUG POSSESSION - Encod.org". Archived from the original on 2012-08-17. Retrieved 2016-12-06.
  83. ^ Mic. "One Year After Uruguay Legalized Marijuana, Here's What It's Become". Mic. Archived from the original on 2016-11-26. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  84. ^ https://www.ibtimes.com/marijuana-legalization-italy-pot-laws-eased-growers-cultivating-medical-cannabis-2267841%3Famp%3D1?client=safari[permanent dead link]
  85. ^ "Romania Legalizes Medical Marijuana, Becomes 10th EU Country To Permit Therapeutic Use". Novinite. 6 October 2013. Archived from the original on 21 June 2018. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
  86. ^ Zdravotnictví prochází změnou. Léčba konopím je nyní legální | Zprávy z domova Archived 2016-11-22 at the Wayback Machine. www.lidovky.cz. Retrieved on 2013-04-17.
  87. ^ Radio Prague – News – 01-04-2013 21:30 Archived 2013-11-06 at the Wayback Machine. Radio.cz. Retrieved on 2013-04-17.
  88. ^ Marie Jamet (6 November 2013). "Legalising or decriminalizing cannabis in France: not that easy". Euronews. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
  89. ^ Ann Törnkvist (10 June 2013). "French law on pot-based medicine takes effect". The Local. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
  90. ^ "New drugs reform law into force today– what has changed?". MaltaToday.com.mt. 2015-04-15. Archived from the original on 2018-10-02. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  91. ^ Paula Carrillo (2015-12-22). "Colombia legalizes medical marijuana". Yahoo.com. Archived from the original on 2016-11-18. Retrieved 2016-11-18.
  92. ^ "Croatia Legalises Marijuana for Medical Use". Balkan Insight. Archived from the original on 30 September 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  93. ^ "Jamaica Lawmakers Decriminalize Small Amounts of 'Ganja'". ABC News. 25 February 2015. Archived from the original on 11 May 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
  94. ^ EMCDDA (2017). "Since 2015 cultivation for personal use in places visible to the public is considered an administrative offence". EMCDDA. Archived from the original on 2023-01-21. Retrieved 2023-01-21.
  95. ^ ""Legalisierung light": Cannabis in Kleinstmengen quasi straffrei". 13 November 2015. Archived from the original on 11 June 2017. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  96. ^ "Macedonia: Parliament Legalizes Medical Marijuana". Eurasia Review. 22 April 2015.[permanent dead link]
  97. ^ "Medical marijuana is now legal in Australia". Business Insider Australia. 24 February 2016. Archived from the original on 24 June 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
  98. ^ "Legalizacja marihuany jest prawnie niemożliwa - Służba zdrowia - rp.pl". Archived from the original on 2016-12-02. Retrieved 2016-12-02.
  99. ^ "Behandling med medisinsk cannabis innenfor dagens regelverk". Statens Legemiddelverk. Archived from the original on 2017-12-16. Retrieved 2017-12-15.
  100. ^ "Norms envisaging imprisonment for marijuana use now null and void in Georgia". Agenda.ge. 24 December 2016. Archived from the original on 30 July 2018. Retrieved 25 December 2016.
  101. ^ "Doctors rejoice as Germany kicks off medical marijuana prescriptions". 3 March 2017. Archived from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  102. ^ Tharoor, Avinash (February 1, 2017). "Cyprus Set to Provide Cannabis Oil to Cancer Patients". Talking Drugs. Archived from the original on December 2, 2017. Retrieved November 15, 2017.
  103. ^ "Marijuana Decriminalization Legislation Passed By House". 7 News Belize. 20 October 2017. Archived from the original on 23 October 2017. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
  104. ^ Revesz, Rachael (July 3, 2017). "Greece legalises marijuana for medical purposes". The Independent. Archived from the original on 2022-05-07. Retrieved November 19, 2017.
  105. ^ "Medical marijuana is now legal in Peru". Independent.co.uk. 21 October 2017. Archived from the original on 2022-05-07.
  106. ^ "Cannabis médical : l'Exemple de l'Allemagne | le Quotidien". Archived from the original on 2018-01-19. Retrieved 2018-01-02.
  107. ^ "Cannabis for medicinal purposes pilot project - Delano - Luxembourg in English". 8 November 2017. Archived from the original on 31 March 2018. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  108. ^ "SA firm gets green light to grow marijuana in Lesotho". Archived from the original on 2017-12-31. Retrieved 2018-01-13.
  109. ^ "Republic of Georgia Constitutional Court decriminalizes marijuana usage". Archived from the original on 2017-12-30. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
  110. ^ "Lithuania". Eurasian Harm Reduction Association. Archived from the original on 2021-09-18. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
  111. ^ Baynes, Chris (30 June 2017). "Catalonia legalises marijuana consumption, cultivation and distribution". Independent. Archived from the original on 29 June 2018. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  112. ^ "Kolding-virksomhed klar med første parti medicinsk cannabis". 2 January 2018.
  113. ^ "Malta has officially legalised medical cannabis". Archived from the original on 2021-07-01. Retrieved 2018-04-08.
  114. ^ "South Korea Legislature passes medical cannabis law, first in East Asia". MJ Biz Daily. 26 November 2018. Archived from the original on 8 March 2023. Retrieved November 26, 2018.
  115. ^ "Zimbabwe legalises marijuana for medical and scientific use". The Telegraph. 28 April 2018. Archived from the original on 12 August 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  116. ^ Alina Polianskaya (April 28, 2018), "Zimbabwe legalises marijuana for medicinal use", The Independent, archived from the original on 2022-05-07
  117. ^ "Government Bill (House of Commons) C-45 (42-1) - Royal Assent - Cannabis Act - Parliament of Canada". Archived from the original on 2018-09-20. Retrieved 2018-09-18.
  118. ^ Paddock, Richard C. (2018-12-26). "Thailand to Allow Medical Marijuana, a First in Southeast Asia". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2019-10-15. Retrieved 2020-01-21.
  119. ^ "South Africa legalises cannabis use". BBC News. 2018-09-18. Archived from the original on 2020-08-06. Retrieved 2018-09-18.
  120. ^ Riboulet-Zemouli, Kenzi; Krawitz, Michael Alan (2022-01-01). "WHO's first scientific review of medicinal Cannabis: from global struggle to patient implications". Drugs, Habits and Social Policy. 23 (1): 5–21. doi:10.1108/DHS-11-2021-0060. ISSN 2752-6747.
  121. ^ Finn, Christina. "Access to cannabis for medical reasons is now allowed in Ireland under new law". TheJournal.ie. Archived from the original on 2019-07-15. Retrieved 2019-12-13.
  122. ^ a b staff, T. O. I. "Partial decriminalization of public cannabis use takes effect Sunday night". www.timesofisrael.com. Archived from the original on 2019-06-09. Retrieved 2019-12-13.
  123. ^ "Everything you need to know about new laws allowing Canberrans to possess and grow cannabis". 7NEWS.com.au. 2020-01-31. Archived from the original on 2020-02-01. Retrieved 2020-02-01.
  124. ^ "Malawi legalises cannabis amid hopes of fresh economic growth". Guardian.com. 2020-02-28. Archived from the original on 2020-02-28. Retrieved 2020-07-18.
  125. ^ "Lebanon legalizes cannabis farming for medicinal use". reuters.com. 2020-04-21. Archived from the original on 2020-04-25. Retrieved 2020-02-11.
  126. ^ "UN commission reclassifies cannabis, yet still considered harmful". UN News. 2020-12-02. Archived from the original on 2021-01-07. Retrieved 2021-01-09.
  127. ^ "Mexico marijuana: Top court decriminalises recreational use of cannabis". BBC News. 28 June 2021. Archived from the original on 1 September 2021. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  128. ^ "Rwanda legalises medical use of Cannabis". The East African. 1 July 2021. Archived from the original on 16 August 2021. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  129. ^ Jaeger, Kyle (2021-12-18). "Malta Officially Legalizes Marijuana With President's Signature, Becoming First In Europe To End Cannabis Prohibition". Marijuana Moment. Archived from the original on 2021-12-18. Retrieved 2021-12-20.
  130. ^ CHALIDA EKVITTHAYAVECHNUKUL (January 25, 2022). "Thailand first in Asia to move to decriminalize marijuana: Thailand has become the first country in Asia to approve the de facto decriminalization of marijuana". Associated Press. Archived from the original on April 26, 2022. Retrieved April 26, 2022 – via ABC News.
  131. ^ "luxembourg-legalizes-cannabis-for-personal-use".
  132. ^ "Switzerland legalized cannabis on trial basis. CNBC".
  133. ^ "Ukraine Legalized Cannabis For Medical use".

External links[edit]