Timeline of cellular agriculture
This page is a timeline of major events in the history of cellular agriculture. Cellular agriculture refers to the development of agricultural products - especially animal products - from cell cultures rather than the bodies of living organisms. This includes in vitro or cultured meat, as well as cultured dairy, eggs, leather, gelatin, and silk. In recent years a number of cellular animal agriculture companies and non-profits have emerged due to technological advances and increasing concern over the animal welfare and rights, environmental, and public health problems associated with conventional animal agriculture.
|1912||French biologist Alexis Carrel keeps a piece of chick heart muscle alive in a Petri dish, demonstrating the possibility of keeping muscle tissue alive outside of the body.|
|1930||Frederick Edwin Smith, 1st Earl of Birkenhead predicts that "“It will no longer be necessary to go to the extravagant length of rearing a bullock in order to eat its steak. From one 'parent' steak of choice tenderness it will be possible to grow as large and as juicy a steak as can be desired."|
|1932||Winston Churchill writes "Fifty years hence we shall escape the absurdity of growing a whole chicken in order to eat the breast or wing by growing these parts separately under a suitable medium."|
|Early 1950s||Willem van Eelen recognizes the possibility of generating meat from tissue culture.|
|1971||Russell Ross achieves the in vitro cultivation of muscular fibers.|
|1995||The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approves the use of commercial in-vitro meat production.|
|1999||Willem van Eelen secures the first patent for cultured meat.|
|2001||NASA begins in vitro meat experiments, producing cultured turkey meat.|
|2002||Researchers culture muscle tissue of the common goldfish in Petri dishes. The meat was judged by a test-panel to be acceptable as food.|
|2003||Oron Catts and Ionat Zurr of the Tissue Culture and Art Project and Harvard Medical School produce an edible steak from frog stem cells.|
|2004||Jason Matheny founds New Harvest, the first non-profit to work for the development of cultured meat.|
|2005||Dutch government agency SenterNovem begins funding cultured meat research.|
|2005||The first peer-reviewed journal article on lab-grown meat appears in Tissue Engineering.|
|2008||The In Vitro Meat Consortium holds the first international conference on the production of in vitro meat.|
|2008||People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals offers a $1 million prize to the first group to make a commercially viable lab-grown chicken by 2012.|
|2011||The company Modern Meadow, aimed at producing cultured leather and meat, is founded.|
|2013||The first cultured hamburger, developed by Dutch researcher Mark Post's lab, is taste-tested.|
|2014||Muufri and Clara Foods, companies aimed at producing cultured dairy and eggs, respectively, are founded with the assistance of New Harvest.|
|2014||Real Vegan Cheese, a startup aimed at creating cultured cheese, is founded.|
|2014||Modern Meadow presents "steak chips", discs of lab-grown meat that could be produced at relatively low cost.|
|2015||The Modern Agriculture Foundation, which focuses on developing cultured chicken meat (as chickens make up the large majority of land animals killed for food), is founded in Israel.|
|2015||According to Mark Post's lab, the cost of producing a cultured hamburger patty drops from $325,000 in 2013 to less than $12.|
|2016||New Crop Capital, a private venture capital fund investing in alternatives to animal agriculture - including cellular agriculture - is founded. Its $25 million portfolio includes cultured meat company Memphis Meats and cultured collagen company Gelzen, along with Lighter, a software platform designed to facilitate plant-based eating, a plant-based meal delivery service called Purple Carrot, a dairy alternative Lyrical Foods, the New Zealand plant-based meat company SunFed Foods, and alternative cheese company Miyoko’s Kitchen.|
|2016||The Good Food Institute, an organization devoted to promoting alternatives to animal food products - including cellular agriculture - is founded.|
|2016||Memphis Meats announces the creation of the first cultured meatball.|
|2016||New Harvest hosted New Harvest 2016: Experience Cellular Agriculture, the first-ever global cellular agriculture conference.|
|2018||Paul Shapiro's book Clean Meat: How Growing Meat Without Animals Will Revolutionize Dinner and the World, which chronicles the entrepreneurs, scientists and investors seeking to create the world's first slaughter-free meat. The book was placed on the Washington Post bestseller list.|
|2019||Perfect Day (formerly Muufri) sells 1000 3-pint bundles of ice cream made with non-animal whey protein.|
|2020||Memphis Meats received a US$161 million investment in its Series B, which is more than everything that had been invested in the industry so far which was US$155 million.|
- Cultured Meat
- Cellular agriculture
- Cellular Agriculture Society
- Beyond Meat
- Memphis Meats
- History of vegetarianism
- Timeline of animal welfare and rights
- Meat analogue
- "Cellular agriculture for a brighter future". The Animalist. March 22, 2016. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Zuhaib Fayaz Bhat; Hina Fayaz (April 2011). "Prospectus of cultured meat—advancing meat alternatives". Journal of Food Science and Technology. 48 (2). doi:10.1007/s13197-010-0198-7. PMC 3551074.
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- Ross, Russell (1 July 1971). "Growth of Smooth Muscle in Culture and Formation of Elastic Fibers". The Journal of Cell Biology. pp. 172–186. doi:10.1083/jcb.50.1.172. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
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- "Ingestion / Disembodied Cuisine". Cabinet Magazine. Winter 2004–2005.
- Datar, Isha (November 3, 2015). "Mark Post's Cultured Beef". New Harvest. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- "Paper Says Edible Meat Can be Grown in a Lab on Industrial Scale" (Press release). University of Maryland. 2005-07-06. Retrieved 2008-10-12.
- Siegelbaum, D.J. (2008-04-23). "In Search of a Test-Tube Hamburger". Time. Retrieved 2009-04-30.
- Harvey, Chelsea (September 26, 2014). "This Brooklyn Startup Wowed The Science Community With Lab-Made 'Meat Chips'". Business Insider. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- Fountain, Henry (August 5, 2013). "A Lab-Grown Burger Gets a Taste Test". The New York Times. Retrieved April 24, 2016.
- Datar, Isha (November 5, 2015). "Muufri: Milk without Cows". New Harvest. Archived from the original on June 9, 2016. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- Datar, Isha (November 4, 2015). "Clara Foods: Egg Whites without Hens". New Harvest. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
- Wohlsen, Marcus (April 15, 2015). "Cow Milk Without the Cow is Coming to Change Food Forever". Wired. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- United Poultry Concerns. "Chickens". Retrieved May 19, 2016.
- Leichman, Abigail Klein (November 19, 2015). "Coming soon: chicken meat without slaughter". Israel21c. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
- Crew, Bec (April 2, 2015). "Cost of lab-grown burger patty drops from $325,000 to $11.36". Science Alert. Retrieved June 7, 2016.
- Burwood-Taylor, Louisa (March 17, 2016). "New Crop Capital Closes $25m Fund, Invests in Beyond Meat". AgFunderNews. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Zacharias, Nil (March 16, 2016). "The Race to Disrupt Animal Agriculture Just Got a $25 Million Shot in the Arm, and a New Non-Profit". Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Hanson, Hilary (February 2, 2016). "'World's First' Lab-Grown Meatball Looks Pretty Damn Tasty". The Huffington Post. Retrieved April 24, 2016.
- "First-ever cellular agriculture conference". May 31, 2016. Archived from the original on August 18, 2016. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- Clean Meat. ISBN 978-1-5011-8908-1. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
- "Washington bestsellers: Hardcover nonfiction". Washington Post. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
- Kowitt, Beth (July 11, 2019). "The First 'Animal-Free' Ice Cream Hits the Market". Fortune. Retrieved 2020-09-26.
- "Memphis Meats' investment more than doubles global investment". The Good Food Institute. 2020-01-22. Retrieved 2020-02-23.