Timeline of colorectal cancer
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This is a timeline of colorectal cancer, describing especially major discoveries and advances in treatment of the disease.
|Ancient times||Different herbs to treat colorectal cancer are proposed more than 6,000 years ago in ancient China. The ancient Greek and Indian civilizations also record preventative care and treatment plans, such as the use of olive oil, for colon health.|
|1960s||The colonoscope is developed thanks in part to advances in fiber optics and engineering. Engineering advances improve the visualization and illumination provided by the laparoscope.|
|1970s||Endoscopic screening, including colonoscopy and flexible sigmoidoscopy, are introduced, enabling discovery of colorectal cancers and precancers at their earliest stages when they are most treatable and curable.|
|1980s||Video chip technology is introduced for laparoscopy, providing a major enhance in colorectal cancer surgery.|
|1990s||New gene tests for hereditary conditions are developed, which enable physicians to identify people with these conditions and monitor them more closely for cancer or pre cancerous polyps through regular colonoscopy screenings.During this period, the widespread adoption of the colonic J-Pouch (similar to the ileo-anal pouch) brings significant improvements in quality of life for patients.|
|2000s||International collaboration leads to standardization of best practices, emphasizing a multidisciplinary team approach to colorectal cancer care. In European countries, national networks of rectal cancer centers of excellence that use evidenced-based care serve as a model for similar efforts throughout the world.|
|2010s||In the USA, the National Accreditation Program for Rectal Cancer begins accepting applications. It is a collaborative effort between the American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer and the OSTRiCh (Optimizing the Surgical Treatment of Rectal Cancer) Consortium whose goal is to eliminate the variability in patient outcomes following the multidisciplinary European model.|
|Present time||Today, the treatment of colorectal cancer can be aimed at cure or palliation. When colorectal cancer is caught early, surgery can be curative. Globally, colorectal cancer is the third most common type of cancer making up about 10% of all cases. In 2012, there were 1.4 million new cases and 694,000 deaths from the disease. It is more common in developed countries, where more than 65% of cases are found. It is less common in women than men.|
|Year/period||Type of event||Event||Location|
|1896||Development||English Sir Jonathan Huchinson first describes the association of mucosal pigmentation and gastrointestinal polyposis.|
|1913||Development||Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is first described.|
|1925||Discovery||Researchers first describe association between inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer.|
|1925||Discovery||American gastroenterologist Burrill Bernard Crohn and Herman Rosenberg report the first case of adenocarcinoma complicating ulcerative colitis.|
|1932||Development||English physician Cuthbert Dukes devices a classification system for colorectal cancer.|
|1958||Treatment||Fluorouracil is introduced for treating colorectal cancer. It is found to show improvements when combining with other drugs like leucovorin, methotrexate and trimetrexate.|
|1965||Discovery||Researchers discover association of primary sclerosing cholangitis with ulcerative colitis. Many studies since confirm the higher risk of ulcerative colitis–associated colorectal cancer in patients with PSC.|
|1966||Development||Lynch syndrome, also known as hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer, is first categorized.|
|1966–1969||Development||Japanese surgeon Hiromi Shinya and William Wolff, working at Beth Israel Medical Center develop colonoscopic techniques using an esophagoscope, which would allow one endoscopist to perform a colonoscopy, rather than the two-person technique, which was previously the standard. They also develop the electrosurgical polypectomy snare for polyp removal. In September 1969, Wolff and Shinya publish their work using diagnostic fiber colonoscopy, thus revolutionizing the diagnosis and treatment of colon cancer.||New York City, US|
|1982||Treatment||New procedure called total mesorectal excision emerges as a new standard surgical treatment for rectal cancer. It consist in removing only the cancerous region of the rectum, allowing patients to maintain normal bowel function.|
|1985||Treatment||Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) is developed as a surgery performed via a scope inserted into the anus to remove early stage rectal cancers less invasively. TEM is especially important as an option for patients who are too ill or elderly to undergo an open abdominal operation.|
|1985–1991||Treatment||Treatment after surgery is found to increase colorectal cancer survival, by means of administration of chemotherapy (adjuvant treatment). Prior to this, about half of patients experienced a recurrence of their cancer after surgery, which often led to death.|
|1990–1999||Development||Genetic tests become available for familial adenomatous polyposis and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer.|
|1992||Development||Gastrointestinal stromal tumor is first described.|
|1994||Discovery||Study shows that approximately one third of patients with low grade dysplasia progress to high grade dysplasia or colorectal cancer during further examination.|
|1996||Treatment||FDA approves Camptosar (irinotecan), for advanced colon cancer.||United States|
|1997||Discovery||Surgery is found to cure colon cancer patients with tumors that have spread to the liver alone.|
|2000||The American College of Gastroenterology recommends colonoscopy every 10 years as the preferred screening strategy for persons at average risk of acquiring colorectal cancer.|
|2001–2004||Treatment||FDA approves Xeloda (capecitabine), the first oral chemotherapy drug, for patients with advanced metastatic colon cancer, and later for patients with stage III colon cancer (cancer with limited spread in the surrounding tissue) who have had surgery to remove the tumor.||United States|
|2002–2004||Treatment||FOLFOX regime, which combines eloxatin (oxaliplatin) with fluorouracil and leucovorin, is approved to treat advanced colon cancer that has spread despite other treatments.|
|2004||Treatment||Avastin (bevacizumab) is approved for treating colorectal cancer.|
|2004||Treatment||Erbitux (cetuximab) is approved for treating colorectal cancer.|
|2008||Report||The IARK ranks colorectal cancer (CRC) second for cancer prevalence and third for mortality in men and third for frequency and second for mortality in women in developed countries.|
|2009||Development||Several studies report the feasibility of using stool based microRNA as biomarkers for colorectal cancer screening.|
|2012||Treatment||FDA approves Stivarga (regorafenib) and Zaltrap (aflibercept) for antiangiogenic therapy. Studies show both drugs extend survival, offering new options for patients with aggressive colorectal cancers.||United States|
|2015||Treatment||FDA approves Lonsurf (trifluridine and tipiracil) for patients with an advanced form of colorectal cancer who are no longer responding to other therapies.||United States|
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