Timeline of the New Zealand environment

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This is a timeline of environmental history of New Zealand. It includes notable events affecting the natural environment of New Zealand as a result of human activity.

Pre 1700s[edit]

14th century-

16th century

  • Final extinction of all eleven species of moa.

1642

  • Tasman is first European to reach New Zealand.

1760s[edit]

1769

1790s[edit]

1800s[edit]

1830s[edit]

1837

1840s[edit]

1840

1860s[edit]

  • Ship rat spreads throughout North Island.

1860

1861

  • The Protection of Certain Animals Act passed - legislated that: "No Deer of any kind, Hare, Swan, Partridge, English Plover, Rook, Starling, Thrush or Blackbird" could be shot for the rest of the decade.[3]

1864

  • Wild Birds Protection Act - legislated that: "No Wild Duck, Paradise Duck, or Pigeon indigenous in the colony shall be hunted, taken, or killed except during the months of April, May, June, and July in any year".[3]

1867

  • Trout and Salmon Protection Act passed - made provision for "the preservation and propagation of Salmon and Trout in this Colony".[3]

1870s[edit]

1870

1875

  • Seal hunting restricted to a short annual season.[3]

1876

  • Rabbit Nuisance Act passed.[3]

1879

  • Ferrets introduced to control rabbits even after warnings were made of their effects on bird life.

1880s[edit]

1882

  • Small Birds Nuisance Act passed.[3]

1884

  • One hundred stoat and weasel were caught in Lincolnshire, England for shipment to New Zealand. The passage is expected to take 45 days and 1,500 live pigeons were also shipped for their consumption.[4]

1885

  • Stoats and weasels are liberated as a misguided attempt to control rabbits.

1887

1890s[edit]

1890

  • An area of land, that will become the Trounson Kauri Park, is set aside by the Government. [2]

1893

  • Rainbow trout successfully introduced by the Auckland Acclimatisation Society.

1894

1897

1900s[edit]

1900

1901

  • Noxious Weeds Act passed

1903

1904

  • Scenery Preservation Commission appointed.

1907

1907

  • Population reached one million.[5]

1920s[edit]

1921

  • Herbert Guthrie-Smiths Tutira: The Story of a New Zealand Sheep Station is published.
  • Animals Protection and Game Act 1921-22

1923

1929

1930s[edit]

1936

1940s[edit]

1941

  • Soil and Rivers Control Act was enforced. This was the first piece of coordinated environmental legislation in New Zealand.

1942

1946

1948

1949

1950s[edit]

1952

1953

1954

1960s[edit]

1964

1965

  • Hydro dam proposed at Tuapeka River mouth is opposed by local residents.

1967

  • Rudd is illegally introduced into New Zealand.[7]

1967

1970s[edit]

1970

1971

1972

1973

  • Government decides to put South Island beech forests up for tender for chipping.
  • Population reaches three million.[5]

1974

1975

  • 4 July — The Maruia Declaration, calling for protection of native forests, is signed. It attracted 341,160 signatures by the time it was presented to Parliament in 1977.
  • An import ban on all whale products is announced by government.
  • Friends of the Earth New Zealand is formed.

1976

1977

  • The "Territorial Sea and Exclusive Economic Zone Act" is passed.[11]
  • Queen Elizabeth II National Trust Act set up to encourage the protection of private land from development.
  • 20 July — The Maruia Declaration with a 341,159 signature petition is presented to Government.
  • 23 December — The Reserves Act is passed (includes provision for Wilderness Areas).[12]
  • 23 December — The Wild Animal Control Act is passed.[13]

1978

  • Tree top protest in Pureora Forest to halt the logging of native forest.
  • 1 April — The Reserves Act 1977 comes into force.

1979

1980s[edit]

1980

1982

  • The approval of the water rights necessary for the high Clyde Dam is overturned on appeal in Gilmore v. National Water and Soil Conservation Authority (1982)[15]
  • The National Government enacts the Clutha Development (Clyde Dam Empowering) Act 1982 to overturn the High Court case refusing water rights.[15]

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1989

1990s[edit]

1990

1991

1993

1994

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000s[edit]

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

  • Non-toxic shot only is to be used for waterfowl hunting from the 2005 season onwards.[40]
  • 14 March — Application lodged for mining black sands off the west coast of the North Island.[41][42][43]
  • 1 April - The Income Tax Act 2004, which makes it easier to claim environmental expenditure, comes into force.[44][45][46]
  • 22 April — Landsborough Station purchased.[47]
  • 1 MayPesticides blamed for killing native frogs.
  • 26 May — Environment Court rules in favour of Solid Energy for the Cypress mine.[48][49][50]
  • 1 JulyMolesworth Station transferred from LINZ to DoC.[30]
  • 28 July — First criminal conviction for killing a fur seal is handed down.
  • SeptemberRock snot found in the Buller River.[51]
  • November — Last remaining use of reusable glass milk bottles will end.
  • 18 November — Cavers protest about potential damage to Te Tahi Cave when used for adventure racing.
  • 20 December — A tunnel is proposed to link Queenstown and the Milford Sound road.[52]

2006

2007

  • JanuaryDoC considers that almost half of the native plants and animals are threatened.[55]
  • 20 FebruaryWa$ted!, a programme investigating household sustainability, begins a two-season run on New Zealand television.
  • 23 March — Prime Minister Helen Clark puts forward aspirations for New Zealand to be the first sustainable country.[30]
  • 4 April — The OECD releases a report on the performance of the New Zealand Government.[56]
  • 4 AprilBottom trawling is prohibited in selected areas.[30]
  • 30 May — Government gives $9.88 million to clean up the Tui mine tailings site.[57]
  • 30 November — The orange roughy fishery is closed to allow stocks of the fish to recover.[58]
  • 13 December — The proposed tunnel linking Queenstown and Milford Sound is blocked by the New Zealand Conservation Authority.

2008

2009

2010s[edit]

2010
2011
  • June — The Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment recommends against a moratorium on 1080, citing the ensuing damage to native forests and animals if such a ban went ahead.
  • 1 July — the Environmental Protection Authority begins operation.
  • 5 October — the container ship Rena runs aground on Astrolabe Reef, 12 nautical miles off Tauranga, resulting in New Zealand's worst oil spill.[62]
2012

2013

  • Department of Conservation publishes findings raising concerns about the impact of introduced trout on native fish.[63]

2014

  • West Coast Wind-blown Timber (Conservation Lands) Act 2014 passed

2015

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Introduced Animals Archived 24 November 2005 at the Wayback Machine, Christchurch Library.
  2. ^ Rabbits Archived 17 August 2005 at the Wayback Machine Christchurch Library.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "MfE State of Environment Report, 1997". mfe.govt.nz. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  4. ^ "Exportation of Stoats and Weasels". The Cornishman (302). 1 May 1884. p. 6.
  5. ^ a b c d Pink, Brian (16 April 2003). "New Zealand Population To Reach 4 Million (April 2003)". Statistics New Zealand. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
  6. ^ "Te-Urewera-National-Park-Management-Plan". doc.govt.nz. Archived from the original on 6 September 2004. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  7. ^ Rudd facts Archived 16 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine DOC website, retrieved 16 September 2007.
  8. ^ History of EDS Archived 4 June 2004 at the Wayback Machine EDS web site.
  9. ^ a b About ECO Archived 15 October 2004 at the Wayback Machine ECO website.
  10. ^ "Greenpeace NZ website FAQ". greenpeace.org.nz. Archived from the original on 13 October 2004. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 February 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ a b "New Zealand Legislation". www.legislation.govt.nz. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  13. ^ "NZ Govt. Legislation". legislation.govt.nz. Archived from the original on 30 April 2005. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  14. ^ Native Forest Restoration Trust
  15. ^ a b Wheen, N. (2002) A history of New Zealand environmental law. pp 261-274, In Environmental histories of New Zealand, edited by Pawson, E. and Brooking,T. Oxford University Press, Melbourne, page 268.
  16. ^ "New Zealand Legislation". www.legislation.govt.nz. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  17. ^ a b c "UNESCO". unesco.org. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  18. ^ "Greens history". greens.org.nz. Archived from the original on 10 October 2008. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  19. ^ "Green Ribbon Award". mfe.govt.nz. Archived from the original on 27 March 2014. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  20. ^ The Press — 24 August 2004
  21. ^ NZ Justice Department
  22. ^ people, This site represents a collaboration of works from many. "Native Forest Action New Zealand - Defending New Zealand's native forests from logging by SOE Timberlands West Coast". www.converge.org.nz. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  23. ^ "Wild Greens". greens.org.nz. Archived from the original on 26 September 2007. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  24. ^ "Zero Waste New Zealand Ltd". www.zerowaste.org.nz. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  25. ^ (DOC), corporatename = New Zealand Department of Conservation. "Nature" (PDF). www.doc.govt.nz. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  26. ^ Varroa FAQ at Biosecurity New Zealand
  27. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 October 2004. Retrieved 2 October 2004.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  28. ^ "Waste Strategy". mfe.govt.nz. Archived from the original on 25 July 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  29. ^ "Ecological footprint" (PDF). panda.org. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  30. ^ a b c d e "Requested page not found". The Beehive. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  31. ^ "Clean Streams Accord" (PDF). ew.govt.nz. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 March 2006. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  32. ^ "NZ Herald: New Zealand's Latest News, Business, Sport, Weather, Entertainment, Politics". NZ Herald. Retrieved 19 April 2018.[permanent dead link]
  33. ^ Didymo
  34. ^ "Home". Environment Canterbury. Retrieved 19 April 2018.[permanent dead link]
  35. ^ "Home". Environment Canterbury. Archived from the original on 27 September 2004. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  36. ^ "Home". Environment Canterbury. Archived from the original on 7 September 2004. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  37. ^ "Million dollar conservation project restores Raoul". New Zealand Government. 24 September 2004.
  38. ^ "Right Decision On Mt Burnett's Endangered Species - Scoop News". www.scoop.co.nz. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  39. ^ "Project Aqua". meridianenergy.co.nz. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  40. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 June 2009. Retrieved 28 April 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  41. ^ "Latest News". KASM - Kiwis against Seabed Mining. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  42. ^ "West Coast Iron Sand Mining 2005". www.option4.co.nz. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  43. ^ O'Sullivan, Fran (14 March 2005). "Chinese explorer eyes NZ gas fields". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 22 November 2011.
  44. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 February 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  45. ^ [1][permanent dead link]
  46. ^ "Business and environment-friendly tax changes - Ministry for the Environment". www.mfe.govt.nz. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  47. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 February 2006. Retrieved 29 April 2005.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  48. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 November 2006. Retrieved 27 May 2005.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  49. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 August 2006. Retrieved 27 May 2005.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  50. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 May 2006. Retrieved 27 May 2005.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  51. ^ Industries, Ministry for Primary. "Home". MPI. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  52. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 January 2007. Retrieved 30 January 2006.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  53. ^ "Environmental Performance Index: Redirect". yale.edu. Archived from the original on 17 June 2007. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  54. ^ "Pipe bomb explodes outside conservationist's home". The New Zealand Herald. 10 April 2006. Retrieved 22 November 2011.
  55. ^ "New threatened species list: Media release". doc.govt.nz. Archived from the original on 14 October 2008. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  56. ^ Wikinews:OECD releases report on New Zealand's environmental performance
  57. ^ "Beehive - Abandoned Tui mine to be cleaned up". beehive.govt.nz. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  58. ^ "Beehive - NZ and Australia close orange roughy fishery". beehive.govt.nz. Archived from the original on 16 October 2008. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  59. ^ "Beehive - Research on New Zealanders' environmental actions". beehive.govt.nz. Archived from the original on 17 October 2008. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  60. ^ "Table 2: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index: Regulatory framework" (PDF). World Economic Forum. 2008.
  61. ^ New Zealand’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990-2006: An Overview. Ministry for the Environment (New Zealand). April 2008. ISBN 978-0-478-30222-6.
  62. ^ "Rena grounding NZ's worst maritime disaster". Radio New Zealand. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
  63. ^ http://www.doc.govt.nz/Documents/science-and-technical/sfc320entire.pdf

Further reading[edit]

  • Bührs, T. and Bartlett, R.V.; (1993) Environmental policy in New Zealand: The politics of clean & green?. Auckland: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-558284-5
  • Cant, Garth and Kirkpatrick, Russell (eds.); (2001) Rural Canterbury: Celebrating its History. Wellington: Daphne Brasell Associates Ltd. ISBN 0-909049-34-3
  • King, Carolyn; (1984) Immigrant Killers. Auckland: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-558121-0
  • Knight, Catherine (2014) Ravaged Beauty: An Environmental History of the Manawatu. Auckland: Dunmore Press. ISBN 978-1-927212-13-4
  • Knight, Catherine (2016) New Zealand's Rivers: An Environmental History. Christchurch: Canterbury University Press. ISBN 978-1-927145-76-0
  • Pawson, Eric and Booking, Tom (eds.); (2002) Environmental Histories of New Zealand. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-558421-X
  • Young, David; (2004) Our Islands, Our Selves. Dunedin: University of Otago Press. ISBN 1-877276-94-4