Timeline of extinctions in the Holocene

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This article is a list of biological species, subspecies, and evolutionary significant units that are known to have become extinct during the Holocene, the current geologic epoch, ordered by their known or approximate date of disappearance from oldest to most recent.

The Holocene is considered to have started with the Holocene glacial retreat around 11650 years Before Present (c. 9700 BCE). It is characterized by a general trend towards global warming, the expansion of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) to all emerged land masses, the appearance of agriculture and animal husbandry, and a reduction in global biodiversity. The latter, dubbed the sixth mass extinction in Earth history, is largely attributed to increased human population and activity, and may have started already during the preceding Pleistocene epoch with the demise of the Pleistocene megafauna.

The following list is incomplete by necessity, since the majority of extinctions are thought to be undocumented, and for many others there isn't a definitive, widely accepted last, or most recent record. According to the species-area theory, the present rate of extinction may be up to 140,000 species per year.[1]

10th millennium BCE[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Causes
10250-9180 BCE[2] Page's crane Grus pagei Rancho La Brea, California, United States Undetermined.
La Brea owl Oraristix brea Southern California, United States
10210-9850 BCE[2] Errant vulture Neogyps errans California, United States
10045-9905 BCE[3] Eurasian cave lion Panthera spelaea Northern Eurasia and Beringia
10035-9845 BCE[2] Dow's puffin Fratercula dowi Channel Islands of California, United States
9790 BCE Highland gomphothere Cuvieronius hyodon Northern and central Andes[4] Hunting?[5]
9705-9545[6] Patagonian panther Panthera onca mesembrina Patagonia Undetermined.
9690-9040 BCE[7] Toronto subway deer Torontoceros hypnogeos Toronto, Canada
9610-9220 BCE[8] Haiti pine forest ground sloth Neocnus dousman Hispaniola
9580-8860 BCE[9] Dwarf pronghorn Capromeryx minor Southwestern United States and Mexico Undetermined.
9550 BCE[10] Chinese cave hyena Crocuta crocuta ultima East Asia
9550 BCE[11][12] Shrub-ox Euceratherium collinum Southwestern North America
American mountain deer Odocoileus lucasi Oasisamerica[13] and Mexico[14] Hunting?[12]
Stock's pronghorn Stockoceros sp. Mexico and Southwestern United States
c. 9515 BCE[15] Southeastern giant tortoise Hesperotestudo crassiscutata Southern United States Undetermined.
9500-9300 BCE[16] Sardinian dhole Cynotherium sardous Corsica and Sardinia
9460-9350 BCE[17][3] American lion Panthera atrox North America;
Western South America?
9381-9281 BCE[18] Macrauchenia Macrauchenia patachonica Southwestern South America Hunting.[19]
9350 BCE[20] Long-nosed peccary Mylohyus nasutus Eastern United States Habitat loss and competition with the American black bear.[12]
9190-8870 BCE[12] Jefferson's ground sloth Megalonyx jeffersonii North America Undetermined.
9130-9030 BCE[6] Pygmy mammoth Mammuthus exilis Channel Islands of California, United States
9100-8380 BCE[2] Californian turkey Meleagris californica California, United States
c. 9050 BCE[15] Wilson's tortoise Hesperotestudo wilsoni Southwestern United States
Ryukyu tortoise Manouria oyamai Ryukyu, Japan
9050 BCE[21] Cypriot genet Genetta plesictoides Cyprus
9050-8050 BCE[21][2] Miyako roe deer Capreolus tokunagai Miyako Island, Ryukyu, Japan
Asphalt stork Ciconia maltha Americas
Miyako long-tailed rat Diplothrix miyakoensis Miyako Island, Ryukyu, Japan
Merriam's teratorn Teratornis merriami California, United States

9th millennium BCE[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Causes
8995-8845 BCE[6] North American short-faced bear Arctodus simus North America Competition with the grizzly bear.[12]
8965-8875 BCE[6][22] Mexican horse Equus conversidens Hunting.[6]
8850-8750 BCE[23] Flat-headed peccary Platygonus compressus Possibly vegetation changes induced by climate change and competition with the American black bear.[12]
8800-8300 BCE[2] Schneider's duck Anas schneideri Converse County, Wyoming, United States Undetermined.
Large-billed blackbird Euphagus magnirostris California to Venezuela and Peru
8470-8320 BCE[6] Argentinian short-faced bear Arctotherium tarijense Argentina[24]
8430-8130 BCE[25] Stag-moose Cervalces scotti Eastern United States
8420 BCE[9] Woodland muskox Bootherium bombifrons North America
8350-7550 BCE[25] Shasta ground sloth Nothrotheriops shastensis Southwestern United States Hunting.[26]
8340-3950 BCE Giant Cape zebra Equus capensis Southern Africa Reduction of grasslands after the end of the Last Glacial Period.[27]
8301-7190 BCE[16] Giant pika Ochotona whartoni Northern North America;
Eastern Siberia?
Undetermined.
8250-8150 BCE[23] Giant beaver Castoroides ohiensis North America
8200-7660 BCE[25] Vero tapir Tapirus veroensis Southern United States Hunting.[12][26][19]
8100 BCE[25] Harrington's mountain goat Oreamnos harringtoni Southern Rocky Mountains
8059 BCE[28] Smaller South American horse Hippidion saldiasi[29] Eastern South America[30]
8050-7650 BCE Woolly rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis Northern Eurasia Shrinking of the mammoth steppe due to warmer and wetter climate conditions.[31]
8050-5845 BCE South American palmate-antlered deer Morenelaphus brachyceros Temperate South America Undetermined.[32]
8050 BCE or less Hipposideros besaoka Northern coast of Madagascar Undetermined.[33]

8th millennium BCE[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Causes
c. 7950 BCE[34] South American pointed-antlered deer Antifer ultra River Plate and central Chile Undetermined.
7930 BCE[12] North American pampathere Holmesina septentrionalis Southeastern United States
7830-7430 BCE[6][16] Cuvier's small ground sloth Catonyx cuvieri Eastern South America
7800-7740 BCE[35] Panamerican ground sloth Eremotherium laurillardi[36] Southern United States to Brazil
7615-7305 BCE North American sabertooth Smilodon fatalis Southern North America and northern South America Prey loss.[12]
7600-6245 BCE[37] Asian ostrich Struthio asiaticus Greece and Eastern Europe through Kazakhstan to India and China[38] Undetermined.
7330-6250 BCE (unconfirmed)[39] Asian straight-tusked elephant Palaeoloxodon namadicus South and east Asia
7330-7030 BCE[16] South American sabertooth Smilodon populator Eastern South America Competition with human hunters.[19]
7250-5330 BCE American camel Camelops hesternus Western North America Hunting.[12]
7250-6750 BCE[22][40] Scott's horse Equus scotti Hunting?
7160-6760 BCE Chilean scelidodont Scelidodon chiliensis Western South America[41] Undetermined.[16]
7100-6300 BCE[7][42] Columbian mammoth Mammuthus columbi Northern Mexico, western and southern United States Hunting.[12]
7043-6507 BCE[16] Greater Cuban nesophontes Nesophontes major Cuba Undetermined.
Cuban pauraque Siphonorhis daiquiri
7043-6503 BCE[16] Giant ghost-faced bat Mormoops magna

7th millennium BCE[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Causes
6833-6321 BCE Long-legged llama Hemiauchenia macrocephala North and Central America Hunting.[12][19]
6810-6650 BCE[16] Glossothere Glossotherium sp. South America[4]
Lowland gomphothere Notiomastodon platensis Hunting?[12]
6689 BCE[12] Darwin's mylodon Mylodon darwini Pampas and Patagonia Hunting.[19]
6660-4880 BCE[16] Larger South American horse Equus neogeus South America[43]
6660-4880 BCE[16][44] Common glyptodont Glyptodon sp. Eastern South America
6660-4880 BCE[16] Brazilian glyptodont Hoplophorus euphractus Eastern Brazil Undetermined.[16]
Stout-legged llama Palaeolama major North and east South America Hunting.[19]
Eastern giant armadillo Propraopus sulcatus Eastern South America[45] Undetermined.[16]
6389-6060 BCE Pampean giant armadillo Eutatus seguini Northern Argentina and Uruguay[46] Undetermined.[47]
6150-5750 BCE[48] Yukon horse Equus lambei Eastern Beringia Reduction of grasslands after the end of the Last Glacial Period.[31][27]
6130-3950 BCE Giant hartebeest Megalotragus priscus Southern Africa;
Eastern Africa?
6050-5050 BCE[25] Dire wolf Aenocyon dirus North America and western South America Competition with the gray wolf.[12]
American mastodon Mammut americanum North America Possibly habitat fragmentation as a result of climate change, and competition with the moose.[12]

6th millennium BCE[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Causes
5941-5596 BCE Kambuaya's triok Dactylopsila kambuayai New Guinea Undetermined.[16]
New Guinea greater glider Petauroides ayamaruensis
5790-5658 BCE Beringian wolf Canis lupus Northwestern North America Prey loss.[49] The eastern wolf, a descendant hybridized with coyotes, survives.[50]
5740-5500 BCE Bond's springbok Antidorcas bondi Southern Africa Reduction of grasslands after the end of the Last Glacial Period.[27]
5660-5540 BCE[51] Narrow-headed ground sloth Scelidotherium leptocephalum Southern South America Hunting?[12]
5550 BCE Sardinian giant deer Praemegaceros cazioti Corsica and Sardinia[52] Undetermined.[53]
5483-5221 BCE Unnamed South African caprine ?Makapania sp. South African mountains Reduction of grasslands after the end of the Last Glacial Period.[27]
5295-4848 BCE Ibiza rail Rallus eivissensis Ibiza, Spain Undetermined, but presumably a result of human colonization.[54]
5271-5131 BCE[55] Ancient bison Bison antiquus North America Possibly hibridization with western bison resulting in modern American bison.[25]
5270-4310 BCE[56] Giant ground sloth Megatherium americanum Temperate South America and the Andes Hunting.[19]
5120 BCE Neosclerocalyptus sp. Southern South America Undetermined.[57]

5th millennium BCE[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Causes
4901-4831 BCE[58] Irish elk Megaloceros giganteus Europe and southern Siberia Reduction of grasslands after the end of the Last Glacial Period, and possibly hunting.[59]
4855-4733 BCE North African horse Equus algericus Maghreb Aridification.[27]
4840-4690 BCE Majorcan giant dormouse Hypnomys morpheus Mallorca, Spain Possibly disease spread by introduced rodents.[60]
4765-4445 BCE[56][61] Club-tailed glyptodont[47] Doedicurus clavicaudatus South American Pampas Undetermined.
4691-4059 BCE Algerian giant deer Megaceroides algericus Northern Maghreb Possibly habitat fragmentation.[62]
4650-1450 BCE[16] Toxodont Toxodon platensis South America Undetermined.
4570 BCE - 130 CE[63] Jamaican caracara Caracara tellustris Jamaica
c. 4000 BCE North African aurochs Bos primigenius africanus North Africa Aridification. Domestic descendants survive in captivity.[27]
North African zebra Equus mauritanicus Aridification.[27]

4th millennium BCE[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Causes
3570-3630 BCE[64] Malagasy crowned eagle Stephanoaetus mahery Central and southern Madagascar Possibly natural aridification or habitat degradation and prey loss caused by human activity.[65]
3540-3355 BCE[66] Kauaʻi mole duck Talpanas lippa Kaua'i, Hawaii, United States Undetermined.
3340-2890 BCE[67] Radofilao's sloth lemur Babakotia radofilai Northern coast of Madagascar
3290-2730 BCE[6] Smaller Cuban ground sloth Parocnus brownii Cuba Hunting.[8]
3060-2470 BCE Giant long-horned buffalo Syncerus antiquus Africa and the Arabian Peninsula[68] Aridification and competition with domestic cattle for water and pastures.[16]
3050 BCE[21] Sardinian shrew Asoriculus similis Sardinia, Italy Undetermined.
Buka Island mosaic-tailed rat Melomys spechti Buka Island, Papua New Guinea
Buka Island solomys Solomys spriggsarum
3040-1840 BCE[69] Tilos dwarf elephant Palaeoloxodon tiliensis Tilos, Greece
3030-2690 BCE Balearic giant shrew Nesiotites hidalgo Gymnesian Islands, Spain Possibly disease spread by introduced rodents.[60]

3rd millennium BCE[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Causes
2830-2470 BCE Balearic cave goat Myotragus balearicus Gymnesian Islands, Spain Likely vegetation changes related to aridification or human activity.[70][71]
2550 BCE Bennu heron Ardea bennuides Arabian Peninsula Wetland degradation.[16]
2550-2450 BCE[72] Steppe bison Bison priscus Northern Eurasia and North America Hunting[73] and habitat loss due to climate change.[31]
2550-1550 BCE[16] Niue night heron Nycticorax kalavikai Niue Undetermined.
2508-2116 BCE[74] Hispaniola monkey Antillothrix bernensis Hispaniola
2483-2399 BCE[6] Lesser Haitian ground sloth Neocnus comes
2280-2240 BCE[75] Cuban giant sloth Megalocnus rodens Cuba
2134-1408 BCE[16][76] Chatham raven Corvus moriorum Chatham Islands, New Zealand

2nd millennium BCE[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Causes
1950-1050 BCE[77] New Caledonian terrestrial crocodile Mekosuchus inexpectatus New Caledonia and Isle of Pines Hunting.
1935-1700 BCE Sumba Island giant rat Raksasamys tikusbesar Sumba Island, Indonesia Undetermined.[21]
1900-1600 BCE Noel's barn owl Tyto noeli Cuba, Jamaica, and Bermuda Undetermined.[78]
1800 BCE Indian aurochs Bos primigenius namadicus Indian Subcontinent Undetermined. Domestic descendants survive in captivity and as feral populations.[79]
1795-1675 BCE[80][81][82][83] Woolly mammoth Mammuthus primigenius Northern Eurasia and North America Hunting[84] and habitat loss due to climate change.[31]
1750-1650 BCE[85] Short-horned water buffalo Bubalus mephistopheles South, central, and east China[47] Undetermined.
1738-1500 BCE[16] Puerto Rican ground sloth Acratocnus odontrigonus Puerto Rico
1738-1385 BCE[16] Christensen's pademelon Thylogale christenseni New Guinea
1581 BCE[86] Hawaiian eagle Haliaeetus sp. Hawaii, United States Possibly deforestation, loss of prey, and predation of chicks by introduced rats and pigs.[65]
1500 BCE New Caledonian giant megapode Sylviornis neocaledoniae Grande Terre and Isle of Pines, New Caledonia Hunting.[87]
c. 1500 BCE Puerto Rican flower bat Phyllonycteris major Puerto Rico and Antigua Undetermined.[88]
Leeward Islands curlytail Leiocephalus cuneus Antigua and Barbuda
1294-1035 BCE European wild ass Equus hydruntinus Southern Europe and Southwest Asia; Northern Europe (Pleistocene) Hunting and habitat fragmentation after the end of the Last Glacial Period.[89]
1159-790 BCE Dune shearwater Puffinus holeae Canary Islands, Spain;
mainland Portugal (Pleistocene)
Predation by introduced house mice.[90]
c. 1050 BCE[15] Mona Island tortoise Chelonoidis monensis Mona Island of Puerto Rico Undetermined.
1050 BCE[21] Alor Island giant rat Alormys aplini Alor Island, Indonesia
Hooijer's giant rat Hooijeromys nusantenggara Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia
Vanuatu terrestrial crocodile Mekosuchus kalpokasi Efate, Vanuatu Hunting.[77]
Verhoeven's giant tree rat Papagomys theodorverhoeveni Flores, Indonesia Undetermined.

1st millennium BCE[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Causes
c. 950 BCE Noble megapode Megavitiornis altirostris Fiji Hunting.[91]
Fiji giant iguana Lapitiguana impensa
Fiji terrestrial crocodile Volia athollandersoni
900-750 BCE Tongan tooth-billed pigeon Didunculus placopedetes Tonga Undetermined.[16]
821-171 BCE Balsam shrew Crocidura balsamifera Nile gallery forests, Egypt Habitat destruction.[16]
820-680 BCE Eurasian muskox Ovibos moschatus[92] Northern Eurasia Hunting.[73] The same species survived in North America and was reintroduced to Eurasia in the 20th century.[93]
c. 810 BCE[15] Vanuatu horned turtle ?Meiolania damelipi Vanuatu and Viti Levu, Fiji Hunting.[94]
800-700 BCE Syrian elephant Elephas maximus asurus Mesopotamia Hunting and habitat loss due to agriculture and aridification. However, it's been suggested that it was introduced by humans in the area, which would not make it a valid subspecies.[95]
790-410 BCE MacPhee's shrew tenrec Microgale macpheei Southeastern Madagascar Aridification.[96]
787 BCE - 320 CE Jamaican ibis Xenicibis xympithecus Jamaica Undetermined.[16]
770-400 BCE Law's diving-goose Chendytes lawi Coastal California and Oregon, United States Hunting.[97][98]
760-660 BCE Consumed scrubfowl Megapodius alimentum Tonga and Fiji
744-202 BCE Kaua'i stilt-owl Grallistrix auceps Kaua'i, Hawaii, United States Undetermined.[16]
701-119 BCE[99] Chatham coot Fulica chathamensis Chatham Islands, New Zealand Probably hunting and predation by introduced mammals.[65]
700-400 BCE Bahaman caracara Caracara creightoni Cuba and Bahamas Undetermined.[100]
650-570 BCE Large Tongan iguana Brachylophus gibbonsi Tonga Hunting.[98][65]
550-50 BCE[16] David's imperial pigeon Ducula david Ouvéa Island, New Caledonia
511-407 BCE Plate-toothed giant hutia Elasmodontomys obliquus Puerto Rico Undetermined.[101]
440-280 BCE[102] Lena horse Equus lenensis Northern Siberia Hunting.[73][103]
412-199 BCE[67] Gorilla lemur Archaeoindris fontoynontii Central Madagascar
404 BCE[104] Wild dromedary camel Camelus dromedarius Arabian Peninsula Desertification, hunting, and capture to replenish domestic herds. Domestic and feral descendants survive.[105]
348 BCE - 283 CE Corsican giant shrew Asoriculus corsicanus Corsica, France Introduced black rats and human-induced habitat loss.[106]
Sardinian pika Prolagus sardus Corsica and Sardinia Hunting, predation and competition with introduced mammals.[107][108]
Hensel's field mouse Rhagamys orthodon Introduced black rats and human-induced habitat loss.[106]
Tyrrhenian vole Tyrrhenicola henseli
c. 240 BCE Imperial gibbon Junzi imperialis Shaanxi?, China Possibly capture as pets and deforestation.[109]
170 BCE - 370 CE[110] Maui flightless ibis Apteribis brevis Maui, Hawaii, United States Undetermined.
130 BCE Gran Canaria giant rat Canariomys tamarani Gran Canaria, Canary Islands Hunting or predation by introduced dogs?[111]
110 BCE - 130 CE[67] Ancient coua Coua primaeva Madagascar Undetermined.
50 BCE[21] Buhler's coryphomys Coryphomys buehleri Timor
Timor giant rat Coryphomys musseri
49 BCE - 125 CE São Miguel scops owl Otus frutuosoi São Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal Introduced predators?[112]

1st millennium CE[edit]

1st–5th centuries[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Causes
1-1000[113] Eyles's harrier Circus teauteensis New Zealand Prey loss and habitat alteration.[65][114]
South Island goose Cnemiornis calcitrans South Island, New Zealand Undetermined.[115]
54-68 Silphium ?Ferula sp. Cyrenaica coast Aridification, overgrazing, and overharvesting.[116]
86-428[16] Powerful goshawk Accipiter efficax New Caledonia Undetermined.
Gracile goshawk Accipiter quartus
Kanaka pigeon Caloenas canacorum New Caledonia and Tonga; Vanuatu and Fiji? Probably hunting.[65]
Pile-builder megapode Megapodius molistructor New Caledonia and Tonga Undetermined.
New Caledonian ground dove Pampusana longitarsus New Caledonia
86-428[117] New Caledonian gallinule Porphyrio kukwiedei
210[118] Giant fossa Cryptoprocta spelaea Madagascar
220[119] Western bison Bison occidentalis Alaska and Yukon
245-429[67] Ball-headed sloth lemur Mesopropithecus globiceps Southwestern Madagascar Hunting and aridification.[103]
c. 300 Atlas wild ass Equus africanus atlanticus North Africa Undetermined. Domestic descendants survive in captivity.[120]
300-1200[16] Marquesas cuckoo-dove Macropygia heana Nuku Hiva and Ua Huka, Marquesas Islands Undetermined.
347-535[16] New Ireland forest rat Rattus sanila New Ireland, Papua New Guinea
370[121] North African elephant Loxodonta africana pharaoensis Northwest Africa Hunting and aridification.[122]
428-618[67] Southern Malagasy giant rat Hypogeomys australis Central and southern Madagascar Undetermined.
439-473[74] Jamaican monkey Xenothrix mcgregori Jamaica
440-639[16] Oʻahu moa-nalo Thambetochen xanion Oahu, Hawaii, United States
448-657[123] Chatham duck Pachyanas chathamica Chatham Islands, New Zealand Hunting?[16]
c. 450 New Caledonian horned turtle Meiolania mackayi New Caledonia Hunting.[124]

6th–10th centuries[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Causes
530-590 Cuban spectacled owl Pulsatrix arredondoi Cuba Undetermined.[78]
530-860[67] Malagasy shelduck Alopochen sirabensis Madagascar Possibly hunting and aridification.[65]
535-876[47] Large baboon lemur Hadropithecus stenognathus Central and southern Madagascar Hunting and aridification.[103]
586-670 Horned crocodile Voay robustus Madagascar Possibly overexploitation of eggs for consumption, environmental changes (natural or caused by human activity), and competition with the Nile crocodile.[125]
600-765[47] Monkey-like sloth lemur Mesopropithecus pithecoides Central Madagascar Hunting and aridification.[103]
650-780[67] Forsyth Major's baboon lemur Archaeolemur majori Madagascar
650-869 Small O'ahu crake Porzana ziegleri Oahu, Hawaii, United States Undetermined.[16]
664-773 Hildebrandt's elephant bird Aepyornis hildebrandti Central Madagascar Deforestation.[126]
666-857[127] Cayman Islands geocapromys Geocapromys caymanensis Cayman Islands Undetermined.
Cayman Islands nesophontes Nesophontes hemicingulus
670-836 Malagasy dwarf hippopotamus Hippopotamus lemerlei Southwestern Madagascar[128] Deforestation,[126] hunting, competition with, and changes to vegetation caused by livestock.[103]
680-880[126] Lesser elephant bird Mullerornis modestus Central and southern Madagascar Hunting, aridification,[103] and deforestation.[126]
687-880 Malagasy pygmy hippopotamus Hippopotamus madagascariensis Northwestern and central Madagascar[128] Deforestation,[126] hunting, competition with, and changes to vegetation caused by livestock.[103]
700-1150[16] Huahine starling Aplonis diluvialis Huahine, Society Islands, French Polynesia Undetermined.
Huahine gull Chroicocephalus utunui
Huahine rail Gallirallus storrsolsoni Possibly hunting and predation by introduced animals.[65]
Huahine cuckoo-dove Macropygia arevarevauupa Undetermined.
Huahine swamphen Porphyrio mcnabi Possibly hunting and introduced predators.[65]
760 Cuban cave rail Nesotrochis picapicensis Cuba Undetermined.[78]
771-952 Titan elephant bird Vorombe titan Central and southern Madagascar Deforestation.[126]
772-870 Insular cave rat Heteropsomys insulans Puerto Rico Undetermined.[101]
810-1025 Sinoto's lorikeet Vini sinotoi Marquesas and Society Islands, French Polynesia Hunting.[129]
Conquered lorikeet Vini vidivici Marquesas, Society, and Cook Islands
865-965 Malagasy aardvark Plesiorycteropus madagascariensis Central and southern Madagascar Undetermined.[12]
c. 884[15] Grandidier's giant tortoise Aldabrachelys grandidieri Madagascar Hunting and aridification.[103]
890-990[47] Southern giant ruffed lemur Pachylemur insignis Southwestern Madagascar
900-1150 Giant aye-aye Daubentonia robusta Southern Madagascar Hunting, expansion of grasses and deforestation caused by domestic cattle and goat grazing.[103]
c. 950 Giant island deer mouse Peromyscus nesodytes Channel Islands of California, United States Possibly habitat loss through overgrazing and erosion.[130]
980-1170 Grandidier's koala lemur Megaladapis grandidieri Madagascar Hunting and vegetation changes caused by livestock.[103]

2nd millennium CE[edit]

11th-12th century[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Causes
c. 1000 North Island adzebill Aptornis otidiformis North Island, New Zealand Hunting and predation by introduced Polynesian rats.[65]
1000-1600[16] Henderson archaic pigeon Bountyphaps obsoleta Henderson Island, Pitcairn Undetermined.
Henderson imperial pigeon Ducula harrisoni Probably hunting and predation by introduced animals.[65]
Henderson ground dove Pampusana leonpascoi Undetermined.
1015-1147[101] Puerto Rican nesophontes Nesophontes edithae Puerto Rico
1020-1260 Lava shearwater Puffinus olsoni Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, Canary Islands Predation by introduced black rats and cats.[131]
1040-1380[65][132] Giant elephant bird Aepyornis maximus Southern Madagascar Hunting, competition with, and changes to vegetation caused by livestock.[103]
1046-1380[16] Nēnē-nui Branta hylobadistes Oahu, Hawaii, United States Probably hunting or introduced predators.[65]
1047-1280[67] Edwards' baboon lemur Archaeolemur edwardsi Central Madagascar[133] Hunting and changes to vegetation caused by livestock.[103]
1057-1375[16] Maui Nui moa-nalo Thambetochen chauliodous Molokai and Maui, Hawaii, United States Undetermined.
1057-1440[16] Maui stilt-owl Grallistrix erdmani Maui, Hawaii, United States
1059-1401 New Zealand swan Cygnus sumnerensis/chathamicus New Zealand? and the Chatham Islands Hunting.[16] It was suggested that the material from the main islands is conspecific with the extant black swan, while that from the Chathams represents a truly different, extinct species.[65]
1100-1300 Tenerife giant rat Canariomys bravoi Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain Hunting.[134]
1170[135] Bahaman tortoise Chelonoidis alburyorum Bahamas Undetermined.
1173-1385[16] Barbuda giant rice rat Megalomys audreyae Barbuda
1175-1295[136] Atalaye nesophontes Nesophontes hypomicrus Hispaniola
1183 New Zealand owlet-nightjar Aegotheles novaezealandiae New Zealand Predation by introduced Polynesian rats.[137]

13th-14th century[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Causes
c. 1200[15] Abrupt giant tortoise Aldabrachelys abrupta Madagascar Hunting and aridification.[103]
Ua Huka booby Papasula abbotti costelloi Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia Hunting and possibly also deforestation.[65]
1200-1600 Chatham kaka Nestor chathamensis Chatham Islands, New Zealand Probably hunting, deforestation, and predation by introduced Polynesian rats.[65]
1206-1427[47] Common koala lemur Megaladapis madagascariensis Madagascar Hunting.[103]
1234-1445[113] South Island adzebill Aptornis defossor South Island, New Zealand Hunting and predation by introduced Polynesian rats.[65]
1265-1400 St. Michel nesophontes Nesophontes paramicrus Hispaniola Undetermined.[136]
1270 Lava mouse Malpaisomys insularis Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, Canary Islands Possibly disease spread by introduced rats.[138]
1278-1415 Mantell's moa Pachyornis geranoides North Island, New Zealand Hunting.[16][139]
1286-1390 North Island giant moa Dinornis novaezelandiae
1292-1630 Chinese gharial Hanyusuchus sinensis South China and Hainan Extermination campaign.[140]
1294-1438 Heavy-footed moa Pachyornis elephantopus Eastern South Island, New Zealand Hunting.[141]
1295-1430[136][16] Western Cuban nesophontes Nesophontes micrus Cuba Undetermined.
Haitian nesophontes Nesophontes zamicrus Hispaniola
c. 1300[65] Tabuai rail Hypotaenidia steadmani Tabuai, Austral Islands, French Polynesia
After 1300 Chatham penguin[142] Eudyptes warhami New Zealand Hunting.[143][141]
Dwarf yellow-eyed penguin Megadyptes antipodes richdalei
1300-1422 Upland moa Megalapteryx didinus South Island, New Zealand
1300-1430 Edwards' koala lemur Megaladapis edwardsi Madagascar Hunting and vegetation changes caused by livestock.[103]
1300-1800 Eua rail Hypotaenidia vekamatolu Eua, Tonga Undetermined.[65]
1310-1420 Bush moa Anomalopteryx didiformis New Zealand Hunting.[141][144]
1320-1350[144] Eastern moa Emeus crassus South Island, New Zealand
Haast's eagle[145] Hieraaetus moorei Deforestation and loss of prey. Possibly also predation of nests by introduced pigs and rats.[65]
1320-1630 Southern sloth lemur Palaeopropithecus ingens Southwestern Madagascar Hunting and vegetation changes caused by livestock.[103]
1320-1380 Hispaniola woodcock Scolopax brachycarpa Hispaniola Undetermined.[146]
1347-1529 Waitaha penguin Megadyptes waitaha Coastal South Island, New Zealand Hunting.[147]
1350 Scarlett's shearwater Puffinus spelaeus Western South Island, New Zealand Predation by Polynesian rats.[131]
1380-1500[148] Giant Hawaii goose Branta rhuax Hawai'i, Hawaii, United States Probably hunting.[65]
1390-1470 Great ground dove Pampusana nui French Polynesia and Cook Islands Undetermined.[16]
1396-1442 Crested moa Pachyornis australis Subalpine South Island, New Zealand Hunting.[141]

15th-16th century[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
1400-1450 Pico rail Rallus montivagorum Pico Island, Açores, Portugal Undetermined.[65]
1400-1500 Tenerife giant lizard Gallotia goliath Tenerife and La Palma, Canary Islands Hunting.[134]
1425-1660 Kauaʻi finch Telespiza persecutrix Kaua'i and Oahu, Hawaii, United States Undetermined.[16]
1451-1952[141]
(1558-1728)[149]
South Island giant moa Dinornis robustus South Island, New Zealand Hunting.[141]
1454-1626[150] South American wolf Dusicyon avus Argentina and Uruguay 2015 (IUCN) Possibly climate change, hunting, and competition with domestic dogs.[151]
1460-1660 Dwarf thick-knee Burhinus nanus Bahamas Undetermined.[152]
1464-1637[141]
(1542-1618)[153]
Broad-billed moa Euryapteryx curtus North, South, and Stewart Island of New Zealand Hunting.[141]
1500-1600 Finsch's duck Chenonetta finschi New Zealand 2014 (IUCN) Hunting and predation by introduced Polynesian rats.[154]
1502 Olson's petrel Bulweria bifax Saint Helena 1988 (IUCN) Hunting and introduced predators?[155]
1503 Vespucci's giant rat Noronhomys vespucii Fernando de Noronha Island, Brazil 2008 (IUCN) Undetermined.[156]
1520-1950[16] Galápagos giant rat Megaoryzomys curioi Santa Cruz, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador Possibly introduced predators.[157]
1525 Puerto Rican hutia Isolobodon portoricensis Hispaniola and Gonâve;
Introduced to Puerto Rico, Mona, and U.S. Virgin Islands
1994-2008 (IUCN) Possibly predation by introduced black rats.[158]
1525-1625[6] Cayman Islands hutia Capromys sp. Cayman Islands Possibly hunting, introduced predators, and habitat loss caused by introduced ungulates.[127]
1550-1670[6] Hispaniolan edible rat Brotomys voratus Hispaniola 1994 (IUCN) Introduced rats.[159]
1555 Ascension night heron Nycticorax olsoni Ascension Island Probably predation by introduced cats and rats.[65]

17th century[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
c. 1600 Mauritian giant skink Leiolopisma mauritiana Mauritius 2021 (IUCN) Probably introduced predators.[160][161]
1600-1700 Hoffstetter's worm snake Madatyphlops cariei 1994 (IUCN)
Hodgens's waterhen Tribonyx hodgenorum New Zealand 2014 (IUCN) Hunting and predation by Polynesian rats.[162]
1601? Rodrigues blue pigeon Alectroenas payandeei Rodrigues Possibly predation by introduced rats.[65]
1602 Mauritius white-throated rail Dryolimnas sp. Mauritius 1638 Hunting and predation by introduced mammals.[65]
1603 Bermuda hawk Bermuteo avivorus Bermuda 2014 (IUCN) Possibly hunting and predation by introduced feral pigs and other animals.[163]
1609-1610 Bermuda saw-whet owl Aegolius gradyi 1623
2014 (IUCN)[164]
Habitat destruction and introduced predators.[65]
Bermuda towhee Pipilio naufragus Undetermined.[65]
1610 Bermuda night heron Nyctanassa carcinocatactes 2014 (IUCN) Possibly hunting and introduced predators.[165]
1623 Bermuda flicker Colaptes oceanicus 2014 (IUCN) Probably predation by introduced cats.[65]
1627[166] Eurasian aurochs Bos primigenius primigenius Mid-latitude Eurasia 2008 (IUCN) Hunting, competition with, and diseases from domestic cattle. Domestic descendants survive worldwide, including feral populations.[167]
c. 1640[168] Saint Helena rail Aphanocrex podarces Saint Helena 1988 (IUCN) Probably hunting[169] and predation by introduced cats, rats, and other mammals.[168]
Saint Helena cuckoo Nannococcyx psix Possibly deforestation.[168]
Saint Helena petrel Pterodroma rupinarum Probably deforestation and introduced mammals.[65]
Saint Helena hoopoe Upupa antaios Possibly hunting and introduced predators.[170]
Saint Helena crake Zapornia astrictocarpus Probably introduced predators.[171]
1656 Ascension crake Mundia elpenor Ascension Island Possibly introduction of rats and cats, although it is not attested by the time they arrived in the 18th and 19th centuries.[172]
1670-1950[67][173] Larger Malagasy hippopotamus Hippopotamus laloumena Eastern Madagascar Increased human and cattle pressure after the introduction of prickly pear farming.[103] Its specific separation from the common hippopotamus has been questioned.[174]
1671-1672 Réunion blue pigeon Alectroenas sp. Réunion 1704 Probably hunting and predation by introduced cats.[65]
Réunion sheldgoose Alopochen kervazoi 1710
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting and habitat destruction.[175]
Réunion kestrel Falco duboisi 2004 (IUCN) Undetermined.[176]
1672[65] Réunion fody Foudia delloni 2016 (IUCN) Probably predation by introduced rats.[177]
1673-1675 Broad-billed parrot Lophopsittacus mauritianus Mauritius 1693
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting.[178]
1674 Réunion rail Dryolimnas augusti Réunion 2014 (IUCN) Probably hunting and introduced rats and cats.[179]
Réunion pigeon Nesoenas duboisi 1988 (IUCN) Probably introduced rats and cats.[180]
Réunion night heron Nycticorax duboisi Hunting.[181]
1675-1755 Giant vampire bat Desmodus draculae Eastern South America;
Central America (Pleistocene)[182]
Undetermined.[183]
1688 Dodo Raphus cucullatus Mauritius 1988 (IUCN) Hunting.[184][185]
1693 Mauritius sheldgoose Alopochen mauritiana 1698
1988 (IUCN)
Red rail Aphanapteryx bonasia 1988 (IUCN) Hunting and predation by introduced cats.[186]
Mascarene coot[187] Fulica newtonii Mauritius and Réunion Hunting.[188]
Mauritius night heron Nycticorax mauritianus Mauritius Probably hunting.[189]
1696 Mascarene teal Anas theodori Mauritius; Réunion? Hunting.[190]

18th century[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
1700-1800 Imber's petrel Pterodroma imberi Chatham Islands, New Zealand Hunting and predation by introduced cats.[65]
1705 Mascarene reed cormorant Phalacrocorax africanus nanus Mauritius and Réunion Probably hunting and predation by introduced cats.[65]
1724 Guadeloupe parakeet Psittacara labati Guadeloupe 1988 (IUCN) Probably hunting.[191]
1725-1726 Rodrigues petrel Pterodroma sp. Rodrigues Predation by introduced cats and rats.[65]
1726 Rodrigues rail Erythromachus leguati 1988 (IUCN) Hunting.[192]
Rodrigues owl Mascarenotus murivorus Probably hunting, deforestation, and predation by introduced animals.[193]
Rodrigues starling Necropsar rodericanus 1761
1988 (IUCN)
Undetermined.[194]
Rodrigues pigeon Nesoenas rodericanus 1988 (IUCN) Probably predation by introduced black rats.[195]
Rodrigues night heron Nycticorax megacephalus 1761
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting.[196]
c. 1730 Mauritius wood pigeon Columba thiriouxi Mauritius 2014 (IUCN) Hunting, predation by introduced black rats, and deforestation.[65]
Mauritius turtle dove Nesoenas cicur Hunting, predation by introduced mammals, and deforestation.[65]
Réunion swamphen Porphyrio caerulescens Réunion 1988 (IUCN) Hunting.[197]
c. 1735-1844?[15][198] Saddle-backed Mauritius giant tortoise Cylindraspis inepta Mauritius 1994 (IUCN) Possibly hunting and introduced predators and competitors.[199][200]
Domed Mauritius giant tortoise Cylindraspis triserrata
1742[201] Lesser Antillean macaw Ara guadeloupensis Guadeloupe Undetermined.[65]
1746 Corynanthe brachythyrsus Cameroon 1998 (IUCN) Undetermined.[202]
1760[203] Atlantic gray whale Eschrichtius robustus North Atlantic and the Mediterranean 2007 (IUCN) Whaling. The same species survives in the Pacific Ocean.[204]
1761 Rodrigues parrot Necropsittacus rodricanus Rodrigues 1988 (IUCN) Hunting.[205]
Rodrigues solitaire Pezophaps solitaria 1778
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting and predation by introduced cats.[206]
1762-1763 Steller's sea cow Hydrodamalis gigas Bering Sea; Northern Pacific coasts from Japan to Baja California (Pleistocene) 1768
1986 (IUCN)
Hunting and reduction of kelp as a result of sea otter hunting, which caused proliferation of kelp-eating sea urchins.[207]
1763 Réunion ibis Threskiornis solitarius Réunion 1988 (IUCN) Hunting.[208][209][65]
1764 Mauritius grey parrot Lophopsittacus bensoni Mauritius and Réunion
1770 Seychelles purple swamphen Porphyrio sp. Mahé, Seychelles
1773 Raiatea parakeet Cyanoramphus ulietanus Raiatea, Society Islands, French Polynesia 1988 (IUCN) Possibly deforestation, hunting, and predation by introduced species.[210]
1774 Tanna ground dove Alopecoenas ferrugineus Tanna, Vanuatu Hunting?[211]
Raiatea starling ?Aplonis ulietensis Raiatea, Society Islands, French Polynesia 1850
2016 (IUCN)
Possibly predation by introduced rats.[212]
1777 Tongatapu rail Hypotaenidia hypoleucus Tongatapu, Tonga Undetermined.[65]
Moorea sandpiper Prosobonia ellisi Moorea, Society Islands, French Polynesia 1988 (IUCN) Predation by introduced rats.[213][214]
Tahiti sandpiper Prosobonia leucoptera Tahiti, Society Islands, French Polynesia
1779 Martinique amazon Amazona martinicana Martinique Probably hunting.[215]
Guadeloupe amazon Amazona violacea Guadeloupe Hunting.[216]
1784 Tahiti crake Zapornia nigra Tahiti, Society Islands, French Polynesia Possibly introduced predators.[217]
1790 White swamphen Porphyrio albus Lord Howe Island, Australia 1834
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting.[218]
1793 Amsterdam wigeon Mareca marecula Amsterdam Island, French Southern and Antarctic Lands 1874
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting and predation by introduced rats.[65]
Oceanic eclectus parrot Eclectus infectus Tonga and Vanuatu; Fiji? 2014 (IUCN) Probably hunting and predation by introduced mammals.[219]
Vava'u rail Hypotaenidia sp. Vava'u, Tonga Possibly habitat destruction and introduced predators.[65]
1799-1800 Bluebuck Hippotragus leucophaeus Overberg;
South Africa (Pleistocene)
1986 (IUCN)[220] Vegetation change and disruption of migration routes after the Last Glacial Period, competition with domestic cattle, overhunting, and further habitat loss due to agriculture.[27]

19th century[edit]

1800s-1820s[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
c. 1800[15] Domed Rodrigues giant tortoise Cylindraspis peltastes Rodrigues 1994 (IUCN) Possibly hunting and introduced predators and competitors.[221][222]
Saddle-backed Rodrigues giant tortoise Cylindraspis vosmaeri
1802 Smooth handfish Sympterichthys unipennis Southeastern Tasmania? 2020 (IUCN) Fishing?[223]
1806 Wynberg conebush Leucadendron grandiflorum Cape Peninsula, South Africa Probably habitat destruction.[224]
1807 St. Paul Island duck Mareca sp. Île Saint-Paul, French Southern and Antarctic Lands Hunting.[65]
1819[225] Kangaroo Island emu Dromaius baudinianus Kangaroo Island, Australia 1837
1988 (IUCN)[226]
1822[227] King Island emu Dromaius minor King Island, Australia 1988 (IUCN)
1823 Spotted green pigeon Caloenas maculata Tahiti, French Polynesia? 2008 (IUCN) Hunting?[228]
Madeira finch Goniaphea leucocephala Madeira, Portugal 1853 Undetermined.[65]
Maupiti monarch Pomarea pomarea Maupiti, Society Islands, French Polynesia 1988 (IUCN) Probably introduced species.[229]
1825 Mysterious starling Aplonis mavornata Mauke, Cook Islands Predation by introduced brown rats.[230]
ʻĀmaui Myadestes woahensis Oahu, Hawaii, United States Possibly habitat destruction and introduced avian malaria.[231]
1826[232] Mauritius blue pigeon Alectroenas nitidissimus Mauritius Deforestation.[65]
1827-1828 Kosrae crake Zapornia monasa Kosrae, Micronesia Predation by introduced rats.[233]
1828 Kosrae starling Aplonis corvina 1880
1988 (IUCN)
Probably predation by introduced rats.[234]
Bonin grosbeak Carpodacus ferreorostris Bonin Islands, Japan 1854
1988 (IUCN)
Possibly deforestation and predation by introduced cats and rats.[235]
Bonin thrush Zoothera terrestris 1889
1988 (IUCN)
Probably predation by introduced cats and rats.[236]
c. 1829[237] Tonga ground skink Tachygyia microlepis Tonga 1996 (IUCN) Habitat loss and predation by introduced dogs, pigs, and rats.[238]

1830s-1840s[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
1832 Mascarene booby Papasula sp. Mauritius and Rodrigues Probably hunting and deforestation.[65]
1834 Delalande's coua Coua delalandei Nosy Boraha, Madagascar 1994 (IUCN) Deforestation.[239]
Mascarene parrot[240] Mascarinus mascarin Réunion 1804 (wild)
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting.[241]
Atlas bear Ursus arctos crowtheri Northern Maghreb Possibly habitat fragmentation.[242] Two haplotypes are found in remains from the Vandal and Byzantine periods: one shared with Iberian bears that could have been introduced by humans, and another unique to Africa.[243] It is not known which type survived until more recent times.
1835 Darwin's large ground finch Geospiza magnirostris magnirostris Floreana and San Cristóbal, Galápagos Islands 1838 Habitat destruction and introduced predators.[65]
1837 Oʻahu ʻakialoa Akialoa ellisiana[244] Oahu, Hawaii, United States 2016 (IUCN) Possibly habitat destruction and introduced disease.[245]
Hoopoe starling Fregilupus varius Réunion 1988 (IUCN) Possibly introduced disease, hunting, and habitat degradation.[246]
Oʻahu ʻōʻō Moho apicalis Oahu, Hawaii, United States 1890
1988 (IUCN)
Habitat loss and introduction of disease-carrying mosquitos.[247]
Mauritius owl Mascarenotus sauzieri Mauritius 1859
1988 (IUCN)
Possibly deforestation, hunting, and predation by introduced mammals.[248]
1838-1841[249] Oʻahu nukupuʻu Hemignathus lucidus Oahu, Hawaii, United States 1890 Undetermined.
1839 Réunion slit-eared skink Gongylomorphus borbonicus Réunion Probably predation by introduced snakes.[250]
1839-1841 Large Samoan flying fox Pteropus coxi Samoan Islands 2020 (IUCN)[251] Undetermined.
c. 1840[15] Réunion giant tortoise Cylindraspis indica Réunion 1994 (IUCN)[252]
1840 Dieffenbach's Rail Hypotaenidia dieffenbachii Chatham Islands, New Zealand 1872
1988 (IUCN)
Possibly introduced predators and habitat loss from fire.[253]
1842 Rodrigues giant day gecko Phelsuma gigas Rodrigues 1874 Possibly introduced Norway rats.[250]
1844 Black-fronted parakeet Cyanorhamphus zealandicus Tahiti, Society Islands, French Polynesia 1988 (IUCN) Possibly deforestation, hunting, and predation by introduced species.[254]

1850s-1860s[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
c. 1850 Daudin's giant tortoise Aldabrachelys gigantea daudinii Mahé, Seychelles Undetermined.[15]
Floreana giant tortoise Chelonoidis niger Floreana, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador 1996 (IUCN) Probably hunting and introduced species. Hybrid descendants of C. niger and C. becki survive in nearby Isabela Island.[255]
Southern black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis bicornis Southwestern Africa Undetermined.[256]
Christmas sandpiper Prosobonia cancellata Kiritimati, Kiribati 2014 (IUCN) Probably predation by introduced cats and rats.[257]
1850 Turquoise-throated puffleg Eriocnemis godini Northern Ecuador Habitat destruction.[258]
Spectacled cormorant Phalacrocorax perspicillatus Commander Islands, Russia; Northeast Japan (Pleistocene)[259] 1882
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting.[260]
1850-1875[261] String tree Acalypha rubrinervis Central ridge of St Helena island 1998 (IUCN) Undetermined.[262]
1851 Belido Chitala lopis Northwestern Java, Indonesia 2020 (IUCN) Overfishing, pollution, and habitat destruction for agriculture and urban development.[263]
Tasmanian emu Dromaius novaehollandiae diemenensis Tasmania, Australia Hunting.[264]
Norfolk kaka[265] Nestor productus Norfolk Island, Australia 1988 (IUCN) Hunting[266] and habitat destruction by introduced rabbits, pigs, and goats.[65]
Before 1852 Letitia's thorntail Discosura letitiae Bolivia Undetermined.[65]
1852 Great auk Pinguinus impennis North Atlantic and western Mediterranean 1988 (IUCN) Hunting.[267][65]
1853 Lord Howe pigeon Columba vitiensis godmanae Lord Howe Island, Australia
1856 Small Samoan flying fox Pteropus allenorum Upolu, Samoa 2020 (IUCN) Undetermined.[268]
1856-1857 Gould's mouse Pseudomys gouldii Southern Australia 1990 (IUCN) Possibly predation by feral cats, habitat degradation by livestock, and changed fire regime.[269] A 2021 genetic analysis suggests that Gould's mouse is actually conspecific with the Shark Bay mouse that survives on four islands off the coast of Western Australia.[270]
1859 Kioea Chaetoptila angustipluma Hawai'i, Oahu, and Maui, Hawaii, United States 1988 (IUCN) Possibly deforestation, hunting, and introduced predators.[271]
c. 1860[272] Sea mink Neovison macrodon Atlantic coast of Canada and New England 2002 (IUCN) Hunting for the fur trade.[273]
1860 Pseudoyersinia brevipennis Hyères, France 2020 (IUCN)[274] Undetermined.
Gould's emerald Riccordia elegans Jamaica? 1988 (IUCN)[275]
Jamaican poorwill Siphonorhis americana Jamaica Predation by introduced black rats, brown rats, and small Indian mongooses.[276]
1862[277] Small Mauritian flying fox Pteropus subniger Mauritius and Réunion 1988 (IUCN) Hunting and deforestation.[278]
1863 Mbashe River buff Deloneura immaculata Eastern Cape Province, South Africa 1994 (IUCN) Undetermined.[279]
1865 Cape lion Panthera leo melanochaita Cape Province, South Africa Extermination campaign.[280] Genetics do not support subspecific differentiation between the Cape lion and living lions in Eastern Africa; if placed in a single subspecies, it would be P. l. melanochaita because of being the older name.[281]
1866[282] Siau scops owl Otus manadensis siaoensis Siau Island, Indonesia Deforestation.[65]
1867[283] Eastern elk Cervus canadensis canadensis Eastern North America 1880[284] Hunting. It's been argued (based on genetic data) that most or all elk subspecies in North America are actually the same, which would be C. c. canadensis due to being named first.[285][286]
1868[287] Kawaihae hibiscadelphus Hibiscadelphus bombycinus Kawaihae, Hawaii, United States[288] 1998 (IUCN) Undetermined.
1869 Huahine warbler Acrocephalus musae garretti Huahine, Society Islands, French Polynesia 1921 Possibly predation by introduced rats.[65]

1870s[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
1870 North Island snipe Coenocorypha barrierensis North Island, New Zealand 2014 (IUCN) Predation by introduced Polynesian rats and feral cats.[289]
1870-1873 Raiatea warbler Acrocephalus musae musae Raiatea, Society Islands, French Polynesia Undetermined.[65]
1871 Spined dwarf mantis Ameles fasciipennis Tolentino, Italy 2020 (IUCN) Possibly habitat loss to agriculture.[290]
Cape warthog Phacochoerus aethiopicus aethiopicus Cape Province, South Africa Undetermined.[291]
1873 Tristan moorhen[65] Gallinula nesiotis Tristan da Cunha 1988 (IUCN) Hunting, predation by introduced cats, rats, and pigs; and habitat destruction by fire.[292]
Samoan woodhen[293] Pareudiastes pacificus Savai'i, Samoa Hunting and predation by introduced cats, rats, pigs, and dogs.[294]
Before 1874 Large Palau flying fox Pteropus pilosus Palau 1988 (IUCN) Possibly hunting and habitat degradation.[295]
1874 Coues's gadwall Mareca strepera couesi Teraina, Line Islands, Kiribati 1924 Probably hunting and introduced predators.[65]
Percy Island flying fox Pteropus brunneus Percy Islands, Australia 1996 (IUCN) Possibly habitat loss.[296]
1875 Newton's parakeet Alexandrinus exsul Rodrigues 1988 (IUCN) Probably habitat loss and hunting. The last pairs may have been killed by the 1876 cyclone season.[297]
North Island little spotted kiwi Apteryx owenii iredalei North Island, New Zealand Hunting, habitat degradation, and predation by introduced mammals.[65]
Labrador duck[298] Camptorhynchus labradorius Atlantic coast of Canada and New England 1988 (IUCN) Hunting, egg harvesting, and habitat loss.[299]
New Zealand quail Coturnix novaezelandiae New Zealand Introduced diseases?[300]
Broad-faced potoroo Potorous platyops Western Australia 1982 (IUCN) Predation by feral cats and habitat loss.[301]
1876 Falkland Islands wolf Dusicyon australis Falkland Islands 1986 (IUCN) Extermination campaign.[302]
Kermadec megapode Megapodius sp. Raoul, Kermadec Islands, New Zealand Volcanic eruption.[65]
Himalayan quail[303] Ophrysia superciliosa Uttarakhand, India Hunting and habitat loss.[304]
1877 Brace's emerald Riccordia bracei New Providence, Bahamas 1988 (IUCN) Undetermined.[305]
Jamaican rice rat Oryzomys antillarum Jamaica 2008 (IUCN) Competition with introduced rats,[74] or predation by introduced mongooses.[306]
1878 Navassa Island iguana Cyclura cornuta onchiopsis Navassa Island 2011 (IUCN) Probably hunting.[307]
Antioquia brown-banded antpitta Grallaria milleri gilesi Santa Elena, Antioquia, Colombia Probably deforestation.[65]
Leiostyla lamellosa Madeira, Portugal 1996 (IUCN) Undetermined.[308][309]
Pseudocampylaea loweii
1879 Macquarie Island banded rail Hypotaenidia philippensis macquariensis South Macquarie Island, Australia 1894 Predation by introduced cats, rats, weka, and overgrazing by introduced rabbits.[65]
Jamaican petrel[310] Pterodroma caribbaea Jamaica; Dominica and Guadeloupe? Hunting and predation by introduced rats, mongooses, pigs, and dogs.[311]

1880s[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
1880-1889?[312] Parras characodon Characodon garmani Southern Coahuila, Mexico 1953[313]
1988 (IUCN)
Probably habitat loss.[312]
c. 1881 Saint Lucia giant rice rat Megalomys luciae Saint Lucia 1994 (IUCN) Predation by introduced mongooses.[314]
1881 Jamaican wood rail Amaurolimnas concolor concolor Jamaica Possibly predation by introduced mongooses, cats, and rats.[65]
1883[315] Quagga Equus quagga quagga Cape Province, South Africa 1889[316]
1986 (IUCN)[317]
Hunting.
1884 Hawaiian rail Zapornia sandwichensis Eastern Hawai'i (and Molokai?), United States 1988 (IUCN) Possibly hunting and predation by introduced rats, cats, and dogs.[318]
1886 Martinique house wren Troglodytes aedon martinicensis Martinique Undetermined.[65]
Bennett's seaweed Vanvoorstia bennettiana Sydney Harbor, Australia 2003 (IUCN) Habitat loss and pollution.[319]
c. 1889 Hokkaido wolf Canis lupus hattai Hokkaido, Sakhalin, Kamchatka, Iturup and Kunashir[320] Extermination campaign.[321][better source needed]
1889 Cuban macaw Ara tricolor Cuba and Juventud 2000 (IUCN) Hunting for food and the exotic pet trade.[65]
Bonin wood pigeon Columba versicolor Bonin Islands, Japan 1988 (IUCN) Deforestation and predation by introduced cats and rats.[322]
Whiteline topminnow Fundulus albolineatus Huntsville, Alabama, United States 1986 (IUCN) Habitat destruction.[312]
Eastern hare-wallaby Lagorchestes leporides Interior southeastern Australia 1982 (IUCN) Possibly habitat loss due to livestock grazing and wildfires.[323][324]
Bonin nankeen night heron Nycticorax caledonicus crassirostris Chichi-jima and Nakōdo-jima, Bonin Islands, Japan Undetermined.[65][325]
Sturdee's pipistrelle Pipistrellus sturdeei Haha-jima, Bonin Islands, Japan 1994 (IUCN)

1890s[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
c. 1890[326] Portuguese ibex Capra pyrenaica lusitanica Portuguese-Galician border Hunting.
1890 New Caledonian rail[327] Cabalus lafresnayanus New Caledonia Probably predation by introduced dogs, cats, pigs, and rats.[328]
Macquarie parakeet[329] Cyanoramphus erythrotis Macquarie Island, Australia 1894 Increased predation by introduced cats and weka after rabbits were introduced, boosting their numbers.[330]
Kauaʻi nukupuʻu[331] Hemignathus hanapepe Kaua'i, Hawaii, United States Undetermined.
1890-1899 New Zealand bittern Ixobrychus novaezelandiae New Zealand 1988 (IUCN)[332]
1891 Sulu bleeding-heart[333] Gallicolumba menagei Tawi-tawi, Sulu archipelago, Philippines Possibly deforestation and hunting.[65]
Raoul Island banded rail Hypotaenidia sp. Raoul, Kermadec Islands, New Zealand 1944 Predation by introduced cats or rats.[65]
Lesser koa finch Rhodacanthis flaviceps Hawai'i Island, Hawaii, United States 1893
1988 (IUCN)
Undetermined.[334]
1892 Maui Nui ʻakialoa Akialoa lanaiensis Lana'i, Hawaii, United States 2016 (IUCN) Possibly habitat destruction and introduced disease.[335]
ʻUla-ʻai-hawane[336] Ciridops anna Hawai'i Island, Hawaii, United States 1988 (IUCN) Undetermined.[337]
Nendo tube-nosed fruit bat[338] Nyctimene sanctacrucis Santa Cruz Islands, Solomon Islands 1994 (IUCN) Undetermined. Could be conspecific with the Island tube-nosed fruit bat.[339]
St. Vincent pygmy rice rat Oligoryzomys victus St. Vincent 2008 (IUCN) Probably predation by introduced brown rats, black rats, and mongooses.[340]
Chatham fernbird Poodytes rufescens Chatham Islands, New Zealand 1988 (IUCN) Possibly habitat loss and predation by introduced cats.[341]
Puerto Rican parakeet Psittacara maugei Puerto Rico and Mona Island Possibly deforestation, hunting, and disease.[65]
Marianne white-eye Zosterops semiflavus Marianne Island, Seychelles 1940
2016 (IUCN)
Deforestation, competition with introduced birds and predation by back rats.[65]
1893-1895 Chatham rail Cabalus modestus Chatham Islands, New Zealand 1988 (IUCN) Habitat destruction, predation and competition with introduced mammals.[342]
1893 Harelip sucker Lagochila lacera Southeastern United States 1986 (IUCN) Possibly water siltation and pollution.[312]
Seychelles parakeet Psittacula wardi Seychelles 1906
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting and habitat loss to agriculture.[343]
1894 Kona grosbeak Chloridops kona Hawai'i Island, Hawaii, United States 1988 (IUCN) Undetermined.[344]
North Island takahē Porhyrio mantelli North Island, New Zealand 2000 (IUCN) Climate-induced reduction of grasslands and hunting.[345]
1895 Hawkins's rail Diaphorapteryx hawkinsi Chatham Islands, New Zealand 2005 (IUCN) Hunting.[346]
Lyall's wren Traversia lyalli New Zealand 1895
1988 (IUCN)
Habitat loss and predation by introduced cats.[347]
1896 Greater koa finch Rhodacanthis palmeri Hawai'i Island, Hawaii, United States 1906
1988 (IUCN)
Possibly habitat destruction and introduced avian malaria.[348]
Newfoundland wolf[349] Canis lupus beothucus Newfoundland, Canada Hunting.[350]
1896-1906 Madeiran wood pigeon Columba palumbus maderensis Madeira, Portugal 1924 Undetermined.[351]
1897 Martinique giant rice rat Megalomys desmarestii Martinique 1994 (IUCN) Predation by introduced mongooses.[352]
Nelson's rice rat Oryzomys nelsoni Central María Madre Island, Mexico 1996 (IUCN) Competition with introduced black rats.[353]
Guadalupe towhee Pipilio maculatus consobrinus Guadalupe Island, Mexico 1954 Habitat destruction by introduced goats and predation by cats.[65]
Guadalupe wren Thryomanes bewickii brevicauda 1906 Habitat destruction by introduced goats.[65]
Stephens Island piopio Turnagra capensis minor Stephens Island, New Zealand 1898 Predation by introduced cats.[65]
1899 Culebra Island amazon Amazona vittata gracilipes Culebra Island of Puerto Rico 1912 Deforestation and persecution by crop farmers.[65]
Hawaii mamo Drepanis pacifica Hawai'i Island, Hawaii, United States 1988 (IUCN) Hunting, habitat destruction, and introduced disease.[354]

20th century[edit]

1900s[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
c. 1900 Caucasian moose Alces alces caucasicus Northern Caucasus and Transcaucasian shore of the Black Sea[355] Hunting. The subspecies' validity is questioned because moose from Russia recolonized the Caucasian moose's former range naturally over the 20th century.[356]
Saint Croix racer Borikenophis sanctaecrucis Saint Croix, United States Virgin Islands Undetermined.[357]
Gravenche Coregonus hiemalis Lake Geneva 2008 (IUCN) Eutrophication and overfishing.[358]
c. 1900-1950 Lord Howe long-eared bat Nyctophilus howensis Lord Howe Island, Australia 2020 (IUCN) Possibly predation by introduced owls and rats.[359]
1900 Leafshell Epioblasma flexuosa Tennessee, Cumberland, and Ohio River systems, United States 1983 (IUCN) Undetermined.[360]
1901 Car Nicobar sparrowhawk[361] Accipiter butleri butleri Car Nicobar, Nicobar Islands 1995 Habitat destruction.[65]
Southern pig-footed bandicoot[362] Chaeropus ecaudatus Interior Australia 1982 (IUCN) Predation by feral cats and red foxes.[363]
Tennessee riffleshell Epioblasma propinqua Tennessee, Cumberland, Wabash, and Ohio River systems, United States 1983 (IUCN) Undetermined.[364]
Greater ʻamakihi Viridonia sagittirostris Wailuku river, Hawai'i Island, United States 1988 (IUCN) Habitat destruction for sugarcane agriculture.[365]
1902 Rocky Mountain locust Melanoplus spretus Rocky Mountains and North American Prairie 2014 (IUCN)[366] Breeding habitat loss due to irrigation and cattle ranching.
Auckland merganser Mergus australis South, Stewart, and Auckland Island, New Zealand 1910
1988 (IUCN)
Hunting and predation by introduced animals.[367]
North Island piopio[368] Turnagra tanagra North Island, New Zealand 1988 (IUCN) Possibly habitat destruction, hunting, and predation by introduced cats and rats.[369]
1903 Guadalupe caracara Caracara lutosa Guadalupe Island, Mexico Extermination campaign.[370]
Stumptooth minnow Stypodon signifer Southern Coahuila, Mexico 1983 (IUCN) Habitat degradation and pollution.[312]
1904 Choiseul pigeon Microgoura meeki Choiseul, Solomon Islands 1994 (IUCN) Predation by feral dogs and cats.[371]
1905 Japanese wolf[372][373][374] Canis lupus hodophilax Honshū, Shikoku and Kyūshū, Japan Hunting and a rabies-like epidemic.[321]
South Island piopio[375] Turnagra capensis South Island, New Zealand 1988 (IUCN) Possibly habitat destruction and predation by introduced rats.[376]
1906 Chatham bellbird Anthornis melanocephala Chatham Islands, New Zealand 1938
1988 (IUCN)
Possibly habitat destruction, predation by rats and cats, and overhunting by collectionists.[377]
Guadalupe flicker Colaptes auratus rufipileus Guadalupe Island, Mexico 1922 Habitat destruction and predation by introduced goats and cats.[65]
1907 Black mamo Drepanis funerea Molokai and Maui, Hawaii, United States 1988 (IUCN) Habitat destruction by introduced cattle and deer, and predation by introduced rats and mongooses.[378]
Huia[379][380] Heteralocha acutirostris North Island, New Zealand Hunting and deforestation of old growth forests to make pastures for livestock.
Huia louse Rallicola extinctus 1990 Extinction of its host.[381]
1908 Assumption rail Dryolimnas cuvieri abbotti Assumption Island, Seychelles 1937 Hunting, habitat destruction, and predation by introduced rats.[65]
Siquijor hanging parrot Loriculus philippensis siquijorensis Siquijor, Philippines Possibly deforestation and capture for the pet trade.[65]
Persoonia laxa Sydney's Northern Beaches, Australia 2020 (IUCN) Probably habitat destruction.[382]
Alejandro Selkirk firecrown Sephanoides fernandensis leyboldi Alejandro Selkirk Island?, Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile Probably deforestation, predation and erosion caused by introduced cats, rats, goats, and rabbits, and competition of introduced plants with the nesting tree Luma apiculata.[65]
1909 Cumberland leafshell Epioblasma stewardsonii Tennessee and Coosa River systems, United States 1983 (IUCN) Undetermined.[383]
Bogotá sunangel Heliantelus zusii Northern Andes? Possibly deforestation.[65]
Tarpan Equus ferus ferus Europe Hunting and hybridization with domestic horses.[384]

1910s[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
1910 Southwestern thick-billed grasswren Amytornis textilis macrourus Southwest Australia Drought and overgrazing by livestock and introduced mammals.[65]
Maui hau kuahiwi[288] Hibiscadelphus wilderianus Maui, Hawaii, United States 1978 (IUCN) Undetermined.[385]
Yellowfin cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki macdonaldi Twin Lakes, Colorado, United States Hybridization with rainbow trout and competition with lake trout, both introduced.[312]
Slender-billed grackle Quiscalus palustris Lerma River and Xochimilco, Mexico 1988 (IUCN) Draining of marshlands.[386]
1911 Iwo Jima rail Amaurornis cinerea breviceps Naka Iwo Jima and Minami Iwo Jima, Bonin Islands, Japan Habitat clearance for agriculture and predation by introduced cats and rats.[65]
New Caledonian buttonquail Turnix novaecaledoniae New Caledonia Hunting, habitat degradation and predation by introduced animals.[387]
1912 Namoi Valley thick-billed grasswren Amytornis textilis inexpectatus Central New South Wales, Australia Undetermined.[65]
Cape Verde giant skink[388] Chioninia coctei Cape Verde 1996 (IUCN) Predation by feral cats.[389]
Guadalupe storm petrel Oceanodroma macrodactyla Guadalupe Island, Mexico Predation by feral cats, and habitat degradation by goat grazing.[390]
Bornean Baillon's crake Porzana pusilla mira Borneo Deforestation?[65]
1913 Laysan millerbird Acrocephalus familiaris familiaris Laysan, Hawaii, United States 1923 Habitat destruction by introduced rabbits.[65]
New Caledonian lorikeet[391] Charmosyna diadema New Caledonia 1998 Undetermined.[392]
1914 Passenger pigeon[393][394] Ectopistes migratorius Eastern North America 1988 (IUCN) Hunting and habitat loss.
Laughing owl[395] Ninox albifacies New Zealand Competition or predation by introduced stoats and cats.[396]
c. 1915[397] Kenai Peninsula wolf Canis lupus alces Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, United States Extermination campaign.
1915[398] New Caledonian owlet-nightjar Aegotheles savesi Southwestern New Caledonia Undetermined.[65]
1917 Cayenne nightjar Antrostomus maculosus Northwestern French Guiana
Rodrigues day gecko Phelsuma edwardnewtonii Rodrigues 2021 (IUCN) Possibly deforestation and predation by introduced rats and cats.[399]
1918 Dirk Hartog thick-billed grasswren Amytornis textilis carteri Dirk Hartog Island, Western Australia Predation by introduced rats.[65]
Lord Howe starling[65] Aplonis fusca hulliana Lord Howe Island, Australia 1928
1988 (IUCN)
Predation by introduced black rats.[400][401]
Robust white-eye Zosterops strenuus
Carolina parakeet[402] Conuropsis carolinensis Eastern and central United States 1988 (IUCN) Hunting, habitat loss, and competition with introduced bees.[403]
Lānaʻi hookbill Dysmorodrepanis munroi Lana'i, Hawaii, United States Habitat destruction for pineapple agriculture, and predation by introduced cats and rats.[404]
1918-1952[405] Bernard's wolf Canis lupus bernardi Banks Island, Canada Undetermined. It's been suggested that Bernard's wolf should be merged with the extant arctic wolf[406] or other wolves from the continent.[405]
1919 Appalachian Barbara's buttons Marshallia grandiflora Henderson and Polk counties, North Carolina, United States 2020 Undetermined.[407]

1920s[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
c. 1920 Florida black wolf Canis rufus floridanus Eastern United States Hunting and habitat loss.[408]
1920 True fera Coregonus fera Lake Geneva 2008 (IUCN) Eutrophication and overfishing.[409]
1922 Great Plains wolf[410] Canis lupus nubilus North American prairie 1926[411] Extermination campaign. The Great Plains wolf has been later determined to be continuous morphologically[406] and genetically[412] with the still existing Mexican wolf, which would use the name C. l. nubilus if placed in the same subspecies, due to being the older one.
Red-moustached fruit dove Ptilinopus mercierii Marquesas, French Polynesia 1994 (IUCN) Predation by introduced great horned owls, rats, and cats.[413]
1923 Norfolk Island starling Aplonis fusca fusca Norfolk Island, Australia 1968
1988 (IUCN)
Undetermined.[400]
Laysan honeycreeper Himatione fraithii Laysan, Hawaii, United States 2016 (IUCN) Habitat destruction by introduced rabbits.[414]
Nazareno Monteverdia lineata Western Cuba 2020 (IUCN) Possibly habitat degradation.[415]
1924 Round combshell Epioblasma personata Tennessee, Wabash, and Ohio River systems, United States Undetermined.[416]
Lord Howe fantail Rhipidura fuliginosa cervina Lord Howe Island, Australia 1928 Probably predation by introduced rats.[65]
California grizzly bear Ursus arctos californicus California, United States Hunting.[417]
1925 Bubal hartebeest Alcelaphus buselaphus buselaphus North Africa and Southern Levant Hunting.[418]
1926 Anthony's woodrat Neotoma bryanti anthonyi Isla Todos Santos, Mexico 2008 (IUCN) Predation by feral cats.[419]
1927 Thick-billed ground dove Alopecoenas salamonis Solomon Islands 2005 (IUCN) Probably habitat destruction, hunting, and predation by introduced cats and rats.[420]
Caucasian wisent[421] Bison bonasus caucasicus Caucasus Mountains Hunting. Hybrid descendants exist in captivity, and have been reintroduced to the wild.[422]
Snake River sucker Chasmistes muriei Snake River, United States Hybridization with the Utah sucker after dams changed the river's flow.[312]
Syrian wild ass Equus hemionus hemippus Near East Hunting.[423]
Hawaii yellowwood Ochrosia kilaueaensis Hawai'i, Hawaii, United States 2020 (IUCN) Habitat degradation by introduced plants, goats, and fires.[424]
Cry pansy Viola cryana Cry, Yonne, France 2011 (IUCN) Overcollection by botanists and limestone quarrying.[425]
1928 Utah Lake sculpin Cottus echinatus Utah Lake, Utah, United States Increased water pollution and salinity caused by agriculture, and introduced fishes. The last individuals may have been killed by drought in the 1930s.[312]
Lord Howe gerygone Gerygone insularis Lord Howe Island, Australia 1936
1988 (IUCN)
Predation by introduced rats.[426]
Ethiopian amphibious rat Nilopegamys plumbeus Northwestern Ethiopia Habitat destruction.[427][428]
Paradise parrot Psephotellus pulcherrimus Eastern Australia 1994 (IUCN) Probably habitat degradation.[429]
Eastwood's long-tailed seps Tetradactylus eastwoodae Limpopo, South Africa 1996 (IUCN) Habitat loss.[430]
1929 Acalypha wilderi Northwestern Rarotonga, Cook Islands 2014 (IUCN) Deforestation for agriculture and housing development. Doubts exist about it being distinct from still living A. raivavensis and A. tubuaiensis; if indeed the same, the older name A. wilderi prevails.[431]
St. Kitts bullfinch Melopyrrha grandis Saint Kitts 1972 Deforestation?[65]
Makira woodhen[432] Pareudiastes silvestris Makira, Solomon Islands Probably predation by introduced cats and rats.[65]
Scleria chevalieri Western Senegal 2020 (IUCN) Draining of wetland habitat.[433]

1930s[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
c. 1930 Western rufous bristlebird Dasyornis broadbenti littoralis Southwestern Australia Burning of shrublands for pasture and predation by introduced cats.[65]
1930-1939 Tahiti rail Hypotaenidia pacifica Tahiti and Mehetia?, French Polynesia[65] 1988 (IUCN) Probably predation by introduced cats and rats.[434]
Nuku Hiva monarch[435] Pomarea nukuhivae Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia 1972
2006 (IUCN)
Probably habitat destruction and predation by introduced species.[436]
1930 St Kilda house mouse Mus musculus muralis St Kilda, Scotland Complete evacuation of St Kilda's human population, which it depended on.[437]
Darwin's Galápagos mouse Nesoryzomys darwini Santa Cruz, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador 1994 (IUCN) Competition, predation, and exotic pathogens from introduced black rats.[438]
Silver trout Salvelinus agassizi Dublin Pond and Christine Lake, New Hampshire, United States 1986 (IUCN) Overfishing and introduction of exotic fish.[312]
1931 Bunker's woodrat Neotoma bryanti bunkeri Coronados Islands, Mexico 2008 (IUCN) Depletion of food resources and predation by feral cats.[439]
1932 Roosevelt's giant anole Anolis roosevelti Virgin Islands Possibly deforestation.[440]
Western Lewin's rail Lewinia pectoralis clelandii Southwest Australia 1980s Drainage and burning of wetlands for agriculture and settlement.[65]
Heath hen Tympanuchus cupido cupido East Coast of the United States Hunting, predation by feral cats, wildfires, and histomoniasis transmitted by domestic poultry.[441][442]
1933 Wolseley conebush Leucadendron spirale Breede River Valley, South Africa 2020 (IUCN) Habitat destruction for timber plantations and agriculture, competition with invasive plants.[443]
1934 Lost shark Carcharhinus obsoletus Southern South China Sea Fishing.[444]
Hawaiʻi ʻōʻō Moho nobilis Hawai'i Island, Hawaii, United States 1988 (IUCN) Possibly habitat loss and disease.[445]
Indefatigable Galápagos mouse Nesoryzomys indefessus Santa Cruz and Baltra, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador 2008 (IUCN) Introduction of black rats.[446]
Aguelmame Sidi Ali trout[447] Salmo pallaryi Lake Aguelmame Sidi Ali, Morocco 2006 (IUCN) Introduction of the common carp.[448]
1935[449][better source needed] Desert rat-kangaroo[450] Caloprymnus campestris Central Australia 1994 (IUCN) Predation by introduced red foxes and cats.[451]
Mogollon mountain wolf Canis lupus mogollonensis Arizona, United States Hunting. The subspecific differences between extinct Great Plains wolf, Mogollon mountain wolf, Southern Rocky Mountain wolf, and surviving Mexican wolf have been denied on morphological grounds.[406]
Southern Rocky Mountain wolf Canis lupus youngi Southern Rocky Mountains
Roque Chico de Salmor giant lizard Gallotia simonyi simonyi Off El Hierro, Canary Islands Undetermined.[452]
1936 Ryukyu wood pigeon Columba jouyi Ryukyu, Japan 1988 (IUCN)[453] Possibly deforestation.[65]
Virgin Islands screech owl[454] Megascops nudipes newtoni Virgin Islands Deforestation for agriculture.[65]
Thylacine[261][455][456][457][458] Thylacinus cynocephalus Australia and New Guinea 1982 (IUCN)[459] Competition with humans and dingos, extermination campaign (in Tasmania).
1937 De Winton's golden mole Cryptochloris wintoni Port Nolloth, South Africa Habitat degradation.[460]
Bali tiger[461] Panthera tigris balica Bali, Indonesia Hunting and habitat loss. Genetics do not support a subspecific differentiation with the living Sumatran tiger.[281]
Marquesas swamphen Porphyrio paepae Hiva Oa and Tahuata, Marquesas, French Polynesia 2014 (IUCN) Probably hunting and predation by rats and cats.[462]
1938 Banara wilsonii Puerto Padre, Cuba 2020 (IUCN) Habitat destruction for sugarcane cultivation.[463]
McGregor's house finch Carpodacus mexicanus mcgregori San Benito Island, Mexico Undetermined.[65]
Grand Cayman oriole[464] Icterus leucopteryx bairdi Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands Deforestation.[65]
Pahranagat spinedace Lepidomeda altivelis Pahranagat Valley, Nevada, United States 1986 (IUCN) Competition and predation by introduced common carps, mosquitofish, and American bullfrogs.[312]
Bougainville black-faced pitta Pitta anerythra pallida Bougainville Island, Papua-New Guinea Undetermined.[65]
Eastern cougar[465] Puma concolor couguar Eastern North America 2011[466] Hunting. Genetics do not support subspecies differentiation between the eastern cougar and living cougars in Florida and Western North America;[281] if placed under a single subspecies, this would have the name P. c. couguar because of being older.
Grass Valley speckled dace Rhynichthys osculus reliquus Lander County, Nevada, United States Introduction of the rainbow trout.[312]
Daito varied tit Sittiparus varius orii Kitadaitōjima, Okinawa, Japan 1984-1986 Habitat destruction for agriculture and military infrastructure.[65]
Schomburgk's deer[467] Rucervus schomburgki Central Thailand 1994 (IUCN) Hunting.[468]
Grand Cayman thrush Turdus ravidus Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands 1965
1988 (IUCN)
Probably habitat loss.[469]
1939 New Caledonian nightjar Eurostopodus exul Northwestern New Caledonia Undetermined.[65]
Toolache wallaby[470] Macropus greyi Southeastern Australia 1982 (IUCN) Habitat loss to agriculture, hunting, and predation by introduced red fox.[471]
Roystonea stellata Baracoa, eastern Cuba 2020 (IUCN) Habitat destruction for coffee cultivation.[472]

1940s[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
c. 1940 Sugarspoon Epioblasma arcaeformis Cumberland and Tennessee river systems, United States 1983 (IUCN) Damming.[473]
1940 Lesser ʻakialoa Akialoa obscura Hawai'i Island, Hawaii, United States 1994 (IUCN) Possibly deforestation and introduced disease-carrying mosquitos.[474]
Cascade mountain wolf[449][better source needed] Canis lupus fuscus Continental Cascadia[406] Hunting.
Las Vegas dace Rhinichthys deaconi Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, United States 1965
1986 (IUCN)
Habitat destruction.[312]
Javan lapwing Vanellus macropterus Java, Indonesia Hunting and habitat loss to agriculture.[475]
c. 1941[476] Arabian ostrich Struthio camelus syriacus Arabian Peninsula and the Near East Hunting.[477]
1942 Texas gray wolf[449][better source needed] Canis lupus monstrabilis Texas, United States Hunting. The Texas gray wolf has been at times included within either the extinct Great Plains wolf or the living Mexican wolf on morphological grounds.[406]
Chapin's crombec Sylvietta leucophrys chapini Lendu Plateau, Democratic Republic of the Congo Deforestation.[65]
1943 Eriocaulon inundatum Senegal coast 2020 (IUCN) Habitat destruction for salt mining.[478]
Cebu hanging parrot[479] Loriculus philippensis chrysonotus Cebu, Philippines Deforestation.[65]
Barbary lion[480] Panthera leo leo North Africa Habitat loss from desertification and human activities, followed by extermination campaign. Hybrid descendants are believed to exist in captivity.[481] However, genetics do not support subspecies differentiation with living wild lions in Asia, West and Central Africa,[281] which would be named P. l. leo if placed within a single subspecies.
Desert bandicoot[482] Perameles eremiana Central Australia 1982 (IUCN) Predation by cats and foxes, competition with European rabbits, and changes to the fire regime after the British colonization of Australia.[483]
1944 American ivory-billed woodpecker[484][485] Campephilus principalis principalis Southern United States Logging and hunting.[486]
Laysan rail Zapornia palmeri Laysan, Hawaii, United States 1988 (IUCN) Habitat destruction by introduced rabbits and guinea pigs, and predation by introduced rats.[487]
1944-1947 Aruba amazon Amazona barbadensis canifrons Aruba Persecution by farmers and exotic pet trade.[65]
1945 Wake Island rail Hypotaenidia wakensis Wake Island, United States 1988 (IUCN) Hunting and destruction caused by fighting in World War II.[488]
1948 Ash Meadows killifish Empetrichthys merriami Ash Meadows, Nevada, United States 1986 (IUCN) Predation by introduced American Bullfrogs and red swamp crayfish.[312]
1949 Sinú parakeet Pyrrhura subandina Sinú Valley, Córdoba, Colombia Possibly hunting and habitat loss.[65]
Pink-headed duck[489] Rhodonessa caryophyllacea Northeast India, Bangladesh, and northern Myanmar Habitat loss to agriculture.[490]

1950s[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
c. 1950 Little Swan Island hutia Geocapromys thoracatus Little Swan Island, Honduras 1996 (IUCN) Introduced rats.[491]
1950-1959 Barbus microbarbis Lake Luhondo, Rwanda 2006 (IUCN) Introduced Tilapia and Haplochromis.[492]
Eriocaulon jordanii Sierra Leone coast 2020 (IUCN) Possibly habitat destruction for rice cultivation.[493]
San Martín Island woodrat Neotoma bryanti martinensis Isla San Martín, Mexico 2008 (IUCN) Predation by feral cats.[494]
Tawi-tawi buttonquail Turnix sylvaticus suluensis Jolo and Tawi-tawi, Sulu, Philippines Possibly deforestation and predation by introduced animals.[65]
1951 Afrocyclops pauliani Antananarivo, Madagascar 1996 (IUCN) Undetermined.[495]
Japanese sea lion[496] Zalophus japonicus Japanese Islands and Korea 1994 (IUCN) Hunting.[497]
1952 Niceforo's pintail Anas georgica niceforoi Central Colombia Possibly hunting and habitat degradation.[65]
Deepwater cisco Coregonus johannae Lakes Michigan and Huron 1986 (IUCN) Overfishing, predation by introduced lampreys, and hybridization with more common ciscoes.[312]
Caribbean monk seal[498] Neomonachus tropicalis Caribbean Sea, Bahamas, and Gulf of Mexico 1994 (IUCN)
2008[499]
Hunting.[500]
San Benedicto rock wren Salpinctes obsoletus exsul San Benedicto, Revillagigedo Islands, Mexico Eruption of the El Boquerón vent.[65]
New Mexico sharp-tailed grouse Tympanuchus phasianellus hueyi New Mexico (and Colorado?), United States Aridification and habitat destruction.[65]
1953 Ilin Island cloudrunner[501] Crateromys paulus Mindoro and Ilin Islands, Philippines Deforestation?[502]
Raycraft Ranch killifish Empetrichthys latos concavus Pahrump Valley, Nevada, United States Predation by introduced carps and bullfrogs.[312]
Faramea chiapensis Selva Negra, Chiapas, Mexico 2020 (IUCN) Deforestation for agriculture.[503]
Negros fruit dove Ptilinopus arcanus Negros Island, Philippines Deforestation?[65]
Schizothorax saltans Talas River basin, Kazakhstan 2020 (IUCN) Water extraction, pollution, and fisheries.[504]
1954 Maravillas red shiner Cyprinella lutrensis blairi Maravillas Creek, Texas, United States 1987 Introduction of plains killifish.[312]
Plateau chub Evarra eigenmanni Chalco and Xochimilco-Tlahuac channels, Valley of Mexico 1986 (IUCN) Habitat destruction and pollution.[505]
1955[506] Itombwe nightjar Caprimulgus prigoginei Central Africa? Deforestation?[65]
1956 Coosa elktoe Alasmidonta mccordi Coosa River, Alabama, United States 2000 (IUCN) Impoundment of the Coosa River.[507]
Imperial woodpecker Campephilus imperialis North-Central Mexico Hunting and habitat loss.[508]
Levuana moth[509] Levuana iridescens Viti Levu, Fiji 1994 (IUCN)[510] Introduction of the parasitic fly Bessa remota by coconut farmers, as a form of biological pest control. However, it's been argued that L. iridescens was not actually native to Fiji and that lack of post-1956 records is the result of diminished enthomological research after Fiji's independence.[509]
Crescent nail-tail wallaby[511] Onychogalea lunata Western and central Australia 1982 (IUCN) Predation by introduced foxes and feral cats, human-induced habitat degradation.[512]
1957 Thicktail chub Gila crassicauda California Central Valley and San Francisco Bay, United States 1986 (IUCN) Habitat destruction for agriculture and introduced fish.[312]
Scioto madtom Noturus trautmani Big Darby Creek, Ohio, United States 2013 (IUCN) Undetermined.[513]
Hainan ormosia[514] Ormosia howii Hainan and Guangdong, China 1998 (IUCN) Possibly deforestation for agriculture.[515]
1958 Pahrump Ranch poolfish Empetrichthys latos pahrump Nye County, Nevada, United States Habitat destruction by excessive water pumping.[312]
Blue Pike Stizostedion vitreum glaucum Lake Erie, Ontario, and Niagara River 1983 Overfishing and hybridization with walleye.[516]
1959 Rennell Island teal Anas gibberifrons remissia Rennell Island, Solomon Islands Competition with introduced Tilapia.[65]
Santa Barbara song sparrow Melospiza melodia graminea Santa Barbara Island, California, United States 1983 Wildfire.[516]

1960s[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
c. 1960 Lesser bilby Macrotis leucura Deserts of Australia 1982 (IUCN) Probably predation by introduced cats and red foxes, and changes to the fire regime.[517]
1960 Candango mouse Juscelinomys candango Brasilia, Brazil 2008 (IUCN) Urban sprawl.[518]
1960-1969 Pantanodon madagascariensis Mahambo, Madagascar 2004 (IUCN) Introduced Gambusia.[519]
Syr Darya sturgeon Pseudoscaphirhynchus fedtschenkoi Syr Darya river Draining of the Aral Sea.[520]
1961 Northern white-winged apalis Apalis chariessa chariessa Lower Tana river, Kenya Deforestation.[65]
Viesca mud turtle Kinosternon hirtipes megacephalum Southwestern Coahuila, Mexico Aridification.[521]
Semper's warbler[522] Leucopeza semperi St Lucia mountains Predation by introduced Javan mongooses.[523]
Durango shiner Notropis aulidion Tunal river, Durango, Mexico 1990 (IUCN) Pollution and introduced species.[312]
Zacatecas Worthen's sparrow Spizella wortheni browni Northwest Zacatecas, Mexico 1991 Habitat destruction caused by agriculture, overgrazing, cattle-induced erosion, and decline of native herbivores.[65]
1961-1963 Kākāwahie Paroreomyza flammea Molokai, Hawaii, United States 1979
1994 (IUCN)
Probably habitat destruction and introduced disease.[524]
1962 Du Toit's torrent frog Arthroleptides dutoiti Kenya-Uganda border Possibly habitat degradation and chytridiomycosis.[525]
Red-bellied gracile opossum Cryptonanus ignitus Jujuy, Argentina 2008 (IUCN) Habitat loss to agriculture and industry development.[526]
Saint Helena darter Sympetrum dilatatum Saint Helena 1996-2021 (IUCN) Probably deforestation and predation by extinct aquatic carnivores including the African clawed frog.[527]
1963 Eskimo curlew[528] Numenius borealis Northwestern Canada and Alaska, and Southern Cone Hunting and habitat destruction.[529][530]
Ptychochromis onilahy Onilahy River, Madagascar 2004 (IUCN) Overfishing, deforestation leading to increased sedimentation, and competition with introduced tilapias.[531]
1964 Hawaii chaff flower Achyranthes atollensis The atolls Kure, Midway, Pearl and Hermes, and Laysan of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, United States 2003 (IUCN) Habitat loss due to the construction of military installations.[532]
Barbodes disa Lake Lanao, Mindanao, Philippines 2020 (IUCN) Overfishing and predation by introduced tank goby and ornate sleeper.[533][534][535][536][537][538]
Katapa-tapa Barbodes flavifuscus
Kandar Barbodes lanaoensis
Bitungu Barbodes pachycheilus
Barbodes palata
Bagangan Barbodes resimus
South Island snipe Coenocorypha iredalei South and Stewart islands, New Zealand 2014 (IUCN) Predation by introduced animals.[539]
Lake Ontario kiyi Coregonus kiyi orientalis Lake Ontario Overfishing, introduction of exotic species, eutrophication, and water pollution.[312]
Goldman's yellow rail Coturnicops noveboracensis goldmani Lerma River, Mexico Undetermined.[65]
Rio Grande bluntnose shiner Notropis simus simus Upper Rio Grande Possibly habitat degradation and introduced species.[312]
Crested shelduck[540] Tadorna cristata Primorye, Hokkaido, and Korea;
Northeastern China?
Undetermined.[541]
1965 Turgid blossom Epioblasma turgidula Southern Appalachians and Cumberland Plateau, United States Damming and water pollution.[542]
1966 Independence Valley tui chub Gila bicolor isolata Warm Springs, Nevada, United States Predation by introduced species.[312]
1967 Narrow catspaw Epioblasma lenior Tennessee River system, United States 1983-2000 (IUCN) Damming.[543]
Saint Helena earwig Labidura herculeana Saint Helena 2014 (IUCN) Predation by introduced animals.[544]
New Zealand greater short-tailed bat Mystacina robusta New Zealand 1988 (IUCN) Predation by introduced Polynesian and black rats.[545]
1968 Amistad gambusia Gambusia amistadensis Goodenough Spring, Texas, United States 1986 (IUCN)
1987
Flooding of the spring by the Amistad Reservoir, hybridization and predation.[516][312]
San Clemente wren Thryomanes bewickii leucophrys San Clemente, Channel Islands of California, United States Vegetation destruction by introduced goats and sheep.[65]
1969 Kauaʻi ʻakialoa Akialoa stejnegeri Kaua'i, Hawaii, United States 2016 (IUCN) Possibly habitat destruction and introduced disease.[546]
Blackfin cisco Coregonus nigripinnis Lakes Michigan and Huron 1996 (IUCN) Overfishing, predation by introduced sea lampreys, and hybridization with other ciscoes.[312]
Tubercled blossom Epioblasma torulosa torulosa Tennessee and Ohio River systems, United States Impoundment, siltation, and pollution.[547]
1969-1970[548] Kouprey Bos sauveli Northeastern Cambodia Hunting.[549]

1970s[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
c. 1970 Socorro elf owl Micrathene whitneyi graysoni Socorro, Revillagigedo Islands, Mexico Habitat degradation.[65]
1970 Mexican dace Evarra bustamantei Xochimilco-Tlahuac channels, Valley of Mexico 1986 (IUCN) Habitat destruction and pollution.[550][551]
Endorheic chub Evarra tlahuacensis Lake Chalco, Valley of Mexico
Saudi gazelle Gazella saudiya Arabian Peninsula 2008 (IUCN) Hunting.[552]
Clear Lake splittail Pogonichthys ciscoides Clear Lake and its tributaries, California, United States 1986 (IUCN) Habitat destruction and pollution from agriculture.[312]
1970-1979 Pagan reed warbler Acrocephalus yamashinae Pagan, Northern Mariana Islands 1981
2016 (IUCN)
Habitat destruction and predation by introduced rats and cats.[65]
Acornshell Epioblasma haysiana Tennessee and Cumberland River systems, United States 1994 (IUCN) Exposure to domestic sewage.[553]
Western Turner's eremomela Eremomela turneri kalindei Southeast D. R. Congo and southwest Uganda Deforestation.[65]
1970-1989 Aplocheilichthys sp. nov. 'Naivasha' Lake Naivasha, Kenya 2004 (IUCN) Competition and predation by introduced fish.[554]
1971 Ticao Tarictic hornbill Penelopidis panini ticaensis Ticao Island, Philippines Habitat destruction.[65]
1972 Tecopa pupfish Cyprinodon nevadensis calidae Tecopa Hot Springs, California, United States 1982 Habitat degradation and introduced bluegill sunfish and mosquito fish.[516]
Tropical acidweed Desmarestia tropica Galápagos Islands, Ecuador Undetermined.[555][556]
Mason River myrtle Myrcia skeldingii Mason River, Jamaica 1998 (IUCN)
Bushwren Xenicus longipes New Zealand 1994 (IUCN) Predation by introduced cats, rats, weasels, and stoats.[65]
1973 Moorea reed warbler Acrocephalus longirostris Moorea, Society Islands, French Polynesia 1987 Possibly predation by introduced animals, deforestation, or avian malaria.[65]
Bitungu Barbodes truncatulus Lake Lanao, Mindanao, Philippines 2020 (IUCN) Predation by introduced tank goby and ornate sleeper.[557]
Bar-winged rail Hypotaenidia poeciloptera Fiji 1994 (IUCN) Predation by introduced cats and mongooses.[558]
Guadeloupe house wren Troglodytes aedon guadeloupensis Guadeloupe Deforestation.[65]
1974 Barbodes herrei Lake Lanao, Mindanao, Philippines 2020 (IUCN) Predation by introduced tank goby and ornate sleeper.[559]
Vanua Levu long-legged thicketbird[560] Cincloramphus rufus cluniei Vanua Levu, Fiji Undetermined.[65]
Flores rail Lewinia pectoralis exsul South and west Flores, Indonesia
Aragua robber frog Pristimantis anotis Henri Pittier National Park, Aragua, Venezuela Chytridiomycosis?[561]
1975 Bagangan Barbodes clemensi Lake Lanao, Mindanao, Philippines 2020 (IUCN) Predation by introduced tank goby and ornate sleeper.[562][563]
Bitungu Barbodes palaemophagus
Round Island burrowing boa Bolyeria multocarinata Round Island, Mauritius? 1996 (IUCN) Habitat degradation by introduced goats and rabbits.[564]
Longjaw cisco Coregonus alpenae Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie 1986 (IUCN) Overfishing, predation by introduced sea lampreys, and hybridization with introduced ciscoes.[312]
Phantom shiner Notropis orca Rio Grande Possibly habitat loss, hybridization with the bluntnose shiner, and introduction of exotic fishes.[312]
1976 Barbodes tras Lake Lanao, Mindanao, Philippines 2020 (IUCN) Predation by introduced tank goby and ornate sleeper.[565]
Jalpa false brook salamander Pseudoeurycea exspectata Cerro Miramundo, Jalapa, Guatemala Possibly logging and cattle grazing.[566]
Mexican grizzly bear Ursus arctos nelsoni Aridoamerica Hunting.[567]
1977 Barbodes katolo Lake Lanao, Mindanao, Philippines 2020 (IUCN) Predation by introduced tank goby and ornate sleeper.[568][569]
Barbodes manalak
Gonâve eastern chat-tanager Calyptophilus frugivorus abbotti Gonâve Island, Haiti Deforestation.[65]
Colombian grebe Podiceps andinus Bogotá wetlands, Colombia 1994 (IUCN) Habitat loss, pollution, hunting, and predation of chicks by introduced rainbow trout.[570]
Eiao monarch Pomarea fluxa Eiao, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia 2006 (IUCN) Possibly predation by introduced cats, black rats, and Polynesian rats; disease transmitted by introduced chestnut-breasted mannikin, and habitat loss due to grazing by sheep.[571]
1978 Craugastor myllomyllon Finca Volcán, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala 2020 (IUCN) Habitat destruction for agriculture.[572]
White-eyed river martin Eurochelidon sirintarae Central Thailand Hunting and habitat loss.[573]
Little earth hutia Mesocapromys sanfelipensis Key Juan García, Cuba Hunting, man-made fires, and competition with black rats.[574]
1979 Yunnan lake newt Cynops wolterstorffi Kunming Lake, Yunnan, China 2004 (IUCN) Pollution, habitat destruction, and introduced fish and frog species.[575]
Caspian tiger[576] Panthera tigris virgata Transcaucasia, Kurdistan, Hyrcania, Afghanistan, and Turkestan Hunting and desertification.[280] Genetics do not support subspecific differentiation with extant mainland tigers.[281]
Mount Glorious day frog Taudactylus diurnus Southeast Queensland, Australia 2002 (IUCN) Undetermined.[577]

1980s[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
1980[578] Olomaʻo Myadestes lanaiensis Maui, Lana'i, and Molokai, Hawaii Disease and habitat degradation caused by introduced pigs, axis deer, and mosquitos.[579]
1980-1985 Roberts's lechwe Kobus leche robertsi Luongo and Kalungwishi drainage systems, Luapula, Zambia 1994 (IUCN) Undetermined.[580]
1981 Anabarilius macrolepis Yilong Lake, Yunnan, China 2011 (IUCN) Drying of the lake for 20 days, after excessive water abstraction for agriculture.[581]
Mariana mallard[582] Anas platyrhynchos oustaleti Mariana Islands 2004 Hunting and habitat loss to agriculture.[583]
Yilong carp Cyprinus yilongensis Yilong Lake, Yunnan, China 1996 (IUCN) Drying of the lake after excessive water abstraction for agriculture.[584]
Canary Islands oystercatcher Haematopus meadewaldoi Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, Spain; Senegal 1994 (IUCN) Overharvesting of intertidal invertebrates.[585]
Puhielelu hibiscadelphus Hibiscadelphus crucibracteatus Lana'i, Hawaii, United States 1998 (IUCN) Predation by introduced axis deer.[288]
Bishop's ʻōʻō Moho bishopi Molokai, Hawaii, United States 2000 (IUCN) Habitat loss to agriculture and livestock grazing, followed by the introduction of black rats and disease-carrying mosquitos.[586]
Southern gastric-brooding frog Rheobatrachus silus Southeast Queensland, Australia 2002 (IUCN) Undetermined, possibly chytridiomycosis.[587]
1982-1983 Galápagos damsel Azurina eupalama Galápagos Islands, Ecuador 1982-83 El Niño event.[588]
1982 Pait Barbodes amarus Lake Lanao, Mindanao, Philippines 2020 (IUCN) Predation by introduced fishes.[589]
Samaná eastern chat-tanager Calyptophilus frugivorus frugivorus Samaná Peninsula, Dominican Republic Deforestation.[65]
1983 San Marcos gambusia Gambusia georgei San Marcos spring and river, Texas, United States 1990 (IUCN) Reduced flow and pollution from agriculture, introduced fishes and plants (Colocasia esculenta), and hybridization with Gambusia affinis.[590]
24-rayed sunstar Heliaster solaris Galápagos Islands, Ecuador 1982-83 El Niño event.[591]
Japanese otter Lutra nippon[592] Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku, Japan 2012 Hunting and habitat loss.[593]
Guam flycatcher Myiagra freycineti Guam 1994 (IUCN)
2004[583]
Predation by the introduced brown tree snake.[594]
Formosan clouded leopard[595][better source needed] Neofelis nebulosa brachyura Taiwan 2013 Hunting. Subspecific status has been denied on morphological and genetic grounds.[281]
Aldabra brush-warbler Nesillas aldabrana Malabar Island, Seychelles 1994 (IUCN) Possibly predation by introduced cats and rats, and habitat degradation by goats and tortoises.[596]
Guam bridled white-eye Zosterops conspicillatus conspicillatus Guam Predation by introduced brown tree snakes.[65]
1983-1986 Atitlán grebe Podilymbus gigas Lake Atitlán, Guatemala 1994 (IUCN) Predation and competition with introduced largemouth bass, water level fall after the 1976 Guatemala earthquake, and degradation of breeding sites due to reed-cutting and tourism development.[597]
1984 Green blossom Epioblasma torulosa gubernaculum Tennessee River system, United States Impoundment, siltation, and pollution.[547]
Javan tiger Panthera tigris sondaica Java, Indonesia 1994 Hunting and habitat loss.[280] Genetics do not support subspecies differentiation with the extant Sumatran tiger; if placed in the same subspecies, this would have the name P. t. sondaica due to being older.[281]
Guam rufous fantail Rhipidura rufifrons uraniae Guam Predation by introduced brown tree snakes.[65]
c. 1985 California condor louse Colpocephalum californici North America Delousing of all surviving California condors before beginning their captive breeding program.[16]
1985 Timucua heart lichen Cora timucua Florida, United States Habitat destruction for urban development.[598]
Christmas Island shrew Crocidura trichura Christmas Island, Australia Undetermined.[599]
Kāmaʻo[600] Myadestes myadestinus Kaua'i, Hawaii, United States 2004 (IUCN) Habitat loss and disease spread by introduced mosquitos.[601]
Ua Pou monarch[303] Pomarea mira Ua Pou, Marquesas, French Polynesia Deforestation and predation by introduced black rats.[602]
Northern gastric-brooding frog Rheobatrachus vitellinus Mid-eastern Queensland, Australia 2002 (IUCN) Undetermined, possibly chytridiomycosis.[603]
Alaotra grebe[604] Tachybaptus rufolavatus Lake Alaotra, Madagascar 2010 (IUCN) Hunting, accidental capture in nylon gillnets, predation and competition with introduced largemouth bass, striped snakehead, and Tilapia; habitat degradation from agriculture, and hybridization with the little grebe.[605]
1986 Pass stubfoot toad Atelopus senex Central Costa Rica 2020 (IUCN) Possibly chytridiomycosis or climate change.[606]
Zanzibar leopard[607] Panthera pardus adersi Unguja Island, Tanzania Extermination campaign.[280] The subspecies has been subsumed into the extant African leopard on morphological grounds.[608]
Eastern Canary Islands chiffchaff Phylloscopus canariensis exsul Lanzarote and Fuerteventura?, Canary Islands Habitat loss?[65]
Banff longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae smithi Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada 1987 Habitat degradation, competition and hybridization with introduced fishes.[609]
1987 Dusky seaside sparrow[610] Ammospiza maritima nigrescens Merritt Island and the St. Johns River, Florida, United States 1990 Flooding and draining of marshes to reduce mosquito population.[611]
Cuban ivory-billed woodpecker[612] Campephilus principalis bairdii Cuba Habitat loss.[486]
Kauaʻi ʻōʻō Moho braccatus Kauaʻi, Hawaii, United States 2000 (IUCN) Habitat loss and introduced black rats, pigs, and disease-carrying mosquitos. The last female was killed by Hurricane Iwa during the 1982-1983 El Niño event.[613]
Namibcypris costata Southern Kaokoveld, Namibia 1996 (IUCN) Habitat destruction.[614]
1988 Maui ʻakepa Loxops ochraceus Maui, Hawaii, United States Undetermined.[615]
Bachman's warbler[616] Vermivora bachmanii Southeastern United States and Cuba Habitat destruction from swampland draining and sugarcane agriculture.[617]
1989 Golden toad Incilius periglenes Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve, Costa Rica 2020 (IUCN) Anthropogenic global warming, chytridiomycosis, and airborne pollution.[618]
Jamaican golden swallow Tachycineta euchrysea euchrysea Jamaica Deforestation?[65]
Malabar large-spotted civet Viverra civettina Western Ghats, India Possibly deforestation, hunting, and predation by domestic dogs.[619]

1990s[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
1990[620] Nechisar nightjar Caprimulgus solala Nechisar National Park, Ethiopia Undetermined.[65]
1990-1999[621] Magdalena tinamou Crypturellus erythropus saltuarius Magdalena River Valley, Colombia
1991 Baolan Barbodes baoulan Lake Lanao, Mindanao, Philippines 2020 (IUCN) Predation by introduced fishes.[622]
1992 Splendid poison frog Oophaga speciosa Western Panama Chytridiomycosis.[623]
1993 Moroccan bustard Ardeotis arabs lynesi Western Morocco Undetermined.[65]
1994 Pachnodus velutinus Mahé, Seychelles 2000 (IUCN) Hybridization with Pachnodus niger.[624]
1995 Aguijan reed warbler Acrocephalus nijoi Aguijan, Mariana Islands 2000-2009
2016 (IUCN)
Habitat destruction.[65]
Maui nukupu'u Hemignathus affinis Maui, Hawaii, United States Undetermined.[65]
1996 Chiriqui harlequin frog Atelopus chiriquiensis Talamanca-Chiriqui mountains, Costa Rica 2020 (IUCN) Chytridiomycosis.[625]
Norfolk Island boobook Ninox novaeseelandiae undulata Norfolk Island, Australia Deforestation leading to increased competition for nest-hollows with honeybees and crimson rosellas. Descendants of hybrids with the New Zealand subspecies survive in the island.[65]
Barbary leopard Panthera pardus panthera Atlas Mountains Hunting.[280] The subspecies has been subsumed into the extant African leopard on morphological grounds.[608]
Swollen Raiatea Tree Snail[626] Partula turgida Raiatea, Society Islands, French Polynesia 1996 (IUCN) Predation by introduced rosy wolfsnails.[627]
1997 Green and red venter harlequin toad Atelopus pinangoi Mérida, Venezuela Chytridiomicosis, habitat destruction, and predation by introduced trout.[628]
Sangihe dwarf kingfisher Ceyx fallax sangirensis Sangihe Islands, Indonesia Habitat destruction.[65]
Sakaraha pygmy kingfisher Corythornis madagascariensis dilutus Southwestern Madagascar Undetermined.[65][629]
Iberian lynx louse Felicola isidoroi Iberian Peninsula

3rd millennium CE[edit]

21st century[edit]

2000s[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
2000 Pyrenean ibex[630] Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica Pyrenees;[326]
Cantabrian Mountains?[631]
2000 (IUCN)[632] Hunting, competition for pastures and diseases from exotic and domestic ungulates.[633][634]
2001 Glaucous macaw Anodorhynchus glaucus Border area of Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil, and Uruguay Deforestation for agriculture and livestock grazing, particularly of the Yatay palm in which it fed.[635]
Slender-billed curlew Numenius tenuirostris Western Eurasia and northern Africa Hunting and habitat destruction.[65]
2002 Chinese river dolphin[636] Lipotes vexillifer Middle and lower Yangtze, China 2007[637] Fishing, habitat destruction, and vessel strikes.[638]
Polynesian tree snail[626] Partula labrusca Raiatea, Society Islands, French Polynesia 2007 (IUCN) Predation by introduced rosy wolfsnails.[639]
2003 Osgood's Ethiopian toad Altiphrynoides osgoodi South-central Ethiopian mountains Habitat degradation.[640]
Saint Helena olive[641] Nesiota elliptica Saint Helena 2004 (IUCN) Deforestation for fuel and timber, and use of the land for plantations of New Zealand flax, leading to inbreeding depression and fungal infections from reduced numbers.[642]
Chinese paddlefish Psephurus gladius Yangtze and Yellow River basins, China 2019 (IUCN) Overfishing and construction of the Gezhouba Dam blocking the anadromous spawning migration[643][644]
2004 Po'ouli Melamprosops phaeosoma Eastern Maui, Hawaii, United States Introduced avian malaria and predators.[645]
2006 Western black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis longipes South Sudan to Nigerian-Niger border area 2011 (IUCN) Hunting.[646]
2007 South Island kōkako[647] Callaeas cinereus South Island, New Zealand Habitat destruction from logging and grazing ungulates, and predation by introduced black rats, brush-tailed possums, and stoats.[648]
2009 Bramble Cay melomys Melomys rubicola Bramble Cay, Australia 2015 (IUCN)[649] Sea level rise as a consequence of global warming.[650]
Christmas Island pipistrelle Pipistrellus murrayi Christmas Island, Australia 2017 (IUCN) Undetermined.[651]

2010s[edit]

Last record Common name Binomial name Former range Declared extinct Causes
2010 Vietnamese rhinoceros Rhinoceros sondaicus annamiticus South China and Indochina 2011 Hunting.[652]
2011 Alagoas foliage-gleaner Philydor novaesi Alagoas and Pernambuco, Brazil 2019 (IUCN) Deforestation.[65]
2012[653] Pinta Island tortoise Chelonoidis abingdonii Pinta, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador 2012 (IUCN)[654] Hunting and overgrazing by introduced goats. Hybrid descendants exist in other Galapagos islands, as a result of human intervention.[655]
2014[656] Christmas Island forest skink Emoia nativitatis Christmas Island, Australia 2017 (IUCN) Habitat loss to mining and predation by introduced Indian wolf snake and yellow crazy ant.[657]
2016[658][659] Rabbs' fringe-limbed treefrog Ecnomiohyla rabborum El Valle de Antón, Panama 2016 Chytridiomycosis.[660]
2019[661] Oahu treesnail Achatinella apexfulva Oahu, Hawaii, United States 2019 Predation by introduced rosy wolfsnails.[662]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ S.L. Pimm, G.J. Russell, J.L. Gittleman and T.M. Brooks, The Future of Biodiversity, Science 269: 347–350 (1995)
  2. ^ a b c d e f Tyrberg, T. (2008). The Late Pleistocene continental avian extinction—An evaluation of the fossil evidence. Oryctos, 7, 249-269.
  3. ^ a b A previously obtained 8580-8260 BCE date is considered dubious. Barnett, R.; Shapiro, B.; Barnes, I. A. N.; Ho, S. Y. W.; Burger, J.; Yamaguchi, N.; Higham, T. F. G.; Wheeler, H. T.; Rosendahl, W.; Sher, A. V.; Sotnikova, M.; Kuznetsova, T.; Baryshnikov, G. F.; Martin, L. D.; Harington, C. R.; Burns, J. A.; Cooper, A. (2009). "Phylogeography of lions (Panthera leo ssp.) reveals three distinct taxa and a late Pleistocene reduction in genetic diversity". Molecular Ecology. 18 (8): 1668–1677. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04134.x. PMID 19302360. S2CID 46716748.
  4. ^ a b Mothé, D. et al. (2017). Sixty years after 'The mastodonts of Brazil': The state of the art of South American proboscideans (Proboscidea, Gomphotheriidae). Quaternary International, 443, 52-64.
  5. ^ Correal Urrego, G. et al. (1990) Evidencias culturales durante el Pleistoceno y Holoceno de Colombia. Revista de Arqueología Americana, 1, 68-69.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Haynes, Gary (2009). American megafaunal extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene. Springer. ISBN 978-1-4020-8792-9. Retrieved 28 February 2012.
  7. ^ a b Naughton, D. (2003). Annotated bibliography of Quaternary vertebrates of northern North America: with radiocarbon dates. University of Toronto Press, 539 pages.
  8. ^ a b Steadman, David W.; Martin, Paul S.; MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Jull, A. J. T.; McDonald, H. Gregory; Woods, Charles A.; Iturralde-Vinent, Manuel; Hodgins, Gregory W. L. (16 August 2005). "Asynchronous extinction of late Quaternary sloths on continents and islands". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 102 (33): 11763–8. Bibcode:2005PNAS..10211763S. doi:10.1073/pnas.0502777102. PMC 1187974. PMID 16085711.
  9. ^ a b Huenneke, L.F. & Mooney, H.A. (2012) Grassland structure and function: California annual grassland. Springer Science & Business Media, 222 pages.
  10. ^ A 5850 BCE datation needs further confirmation. Sheng, G.L. et al. (2014) Pleistocene Chinese cave hyenas and the recent Eurasian history of the spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta. Molecular Ecology, 23(3), 522-533.
  11. ^ Kropf, M., Mead, J. I., & Anderson, R. S. (2007). Dung, diet, and the paleoenvironment of the extinct shrub-ox (Euceratherium collinum) on the Colorado Plateau, USA. Quaternary Research, 67(1), 143-151.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Martin, Paul S.; Klein, Richard G. (1989). Quaternary Extinctions: A Prehistoric Revolution. University of Arizona Press. ISBN 978-0-231-03733-4.
  13. ^ "Navahoceros fricki".
  14. ^ Bravo-Cuevas, V. M., & Jiménez-Hidalgo, E. (2018). Advances on the paleobiology of late Pleistocene mammals from central and southern Mexico. In The Pleistocene, Geography, Geology and Fauna, eds G. Huard and J. Gareau (New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers), 277-313.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: A Compilation Project of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. A.G.J. Rhodin, P.C.H. Pritchard, P.P. van Dijk, R.A. Saumure, K.A. Buhlmann, J.B. Iverson, and R.A. Mittermeier, Eds. Chelonian Research Monographs (ISSN 1088-7105) No. 5, doi:10.3854/crm.5.000e.fossil.checklist.v1.2015
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as Turvey, Sam (2009). Holocene extinctions. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-953509-5. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  17. ^ A previous datation to 8570-8270 BCE is considered dubious.
  18. ^ Prado, J. L., Martinez-Maza, C., & Alberdi, M. T. (2015). Megafauna extinction in South America: A new chronology for the Argentine Pampas. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 425, 41-49.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g Tonni, E. P., Cione, A. L., & Soibelzon, L. H. (2003). The broken zig-zag: late Cenozoic large mammal and tortoise extintion in South America. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, 5.
  20. ^ A datation to 9050-7550 BCE is considered dubious. Koch, P. L., Hoppe, K. A., & Webb, S. D. (1998). The isotopic ecology of late Pleistocene mammals in North America: Part 1. Florida. Chemical Geology, 152(1-2), 119-138.
  21. ^ a b c d e f Louys, J.; Braje, T. J.; Chang, C.-H.; Cosgrove, R.; Fitzpatrick, S. M.; Fujita, M.; Hawkins, S.; Ingicco, T.; Kawamura, A.; MacPhee, R. D. E.; McDowell, M. C.; Meijer, H. J. M.; Piper, P. J.; Roberts, P.; Simmons, A. H.; van den Bergh, G.; van der Geer, A.; Kealy, S.; O'Connor, S. (2021). "No evidence for widespread island extinctions after Pleistocene hominin arrival". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 118 (20): e2023005118. Bibcode:2021PNAS..11823005L. doi:10.1073/pnas.2023005118. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 8157961. PMID 33941645.
  22. ^ a b Younger remains dated to 7250-6750 BCE could be E. conversidens or E. francisci. Toomey, R. S. (1993). Late Pleistocene and Holocene faunal and environmental changes at Hall's Cave, Kerr County, Texas (Doctoral dissertation).
  23. ^ a b Feranec, R.S., & Kozlowski, A.L. (2010) AMS radiocarbon dates from Pleistocene and Holocene mammals housed in the New York state museum, Albany, New York, USA. Radiocarbon, 52(1), 205-208.
  24. ^ Cione, A.L. et al. (2015). The GABI in southern South America. In The great American biotic interchange (pp. 71-96). Springer, Dordrecht.
  25. ^ a b c d e f Kurtén, Björn; Anderson, Elaine (1980). Pleistocene mammals of North America. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-03733-4. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  26. ^ a b Mead, J.I. et al. (1986) Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 83(4), 836-839.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h Faith, J.T. (2014) Late Pleistocene and Holocene mammal extinctions on continental Africa. Earth-Science Reviews, 128, 105-121.
  28. ^ Barnosky, A. D., & Lindsey, E. L. (2010). Timing of Quaternary megafaunal extinction in South America in relation to human arrival and climate change. Quaternary International, 217(1-2), 10-29.
  29. ^ Der Sarkissian, C. et al. (2015). Mitochondrial genomes reveal the extinct Hippidion as an outgroup to all living equids. Biology Letters, 11(3), 20141058.
  30. ^ Villavicencio, N. A., Corcoran, D., & Marquet, P. A. (2019). Assessing the causes behind the Late Quaternary extinction of horses in South America using Species Distribution Models. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 7, 226.
  31. ^ a b c d Wang, Y., Pedersen, M.W., Alsos, I.G. et al. Late Quaternary dynamics of Arctic biota from ancient environmental genomics. Nature (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04016-x
  32. ^ Ubilla, M., et al. (2018) Mammals in last 30 to 7 ka interval (Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene) in southern Uruguay (Santa Lucía River Basin): last occurrences, climate, and biogeography. Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 25(2), 291-300.
  33. ^ Samonds, K.E. 2007. Late Pleistocene bat fossils from Anjohibe Cave, northwestern Madagascar. Acta Chiropterologica 9(1):39–65.
  34. ^ Labarca, R., & Alcaraz, M. A. (2011). Presencia de Antifer ultra Ameghino (= Antifer niemeyeri Casamiquela)(Artiodactyla, Cervidae) en el Pleistoceno tardío-Holoceno temprano de Chile central (30-35° S). Andean geology, 38(1), 156-170.
  35. ^ Dantas, M.A.T., & Cozzuol, M.A. (2016) The Brazilian intertropical fauna from 60 to about 10 ka BP: taxonomy, dating, diet, and Paleoenvironments. In Marine Isotope Stage 3 in Southern South America, 60 KA BP-30 KA BP, pages 207-226.
  36. ^ Cartelle, C., De Iuliis, G., & Pujos, F. (2015). Eremotherium laurillardi (Lund, 1842) (Xenarthra, Megatheriinae) is the only valid megatheriine sloth species in the Pleistocene of intertropical Brazil: A response to Faure et al., 2014. Comptes Rendus Palevol, 14(1), 15-23.
  37. ^ Routledge, J. (2020). Ostrich Eggshell from the Far Eastern Steppe: Stable Isotopic Exploration of Range, Commodification, and Extirpation (Doctoral dissertation, Trent University (Canada)).
  38. ^ Farmer, D. (2012) Avian Biology. Elsevier.
  39. ^ Turvey, S.T. et al. (2021). Late Quaternary megafaunal extinctions in India: How much do we know?. Quaternary Science Reviews, 252, p. 106740.
  40. ^ Remains assigned to Equus sp.; E. scotti is considered likely on the basis of size. A younger datation of E. scotti to 900-720 BCE is dubious according to Naughton (2003).
  41. ^ Miño-Boilini, A. R., Carlini, A. A., Chiesa, J. O., Lucero, N. P., & Zurita, A. E. (2009). First record of Scelidodon chiliense (Lydekker)(Phyllophaga, Scelidotheriinae) from the Lujanian stage (late Pleistocene-early Holocene) of Argentina. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie-Abhandlungen, 253, 373-381.
  42. ^ A younger datation to 3095-2775 BCE is considered dubious.
  43. ^ Machado, H., & Avilla, L. (2019). The diversity of south American Equus: did size really matter?. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 7, 235.
  44. ^ Younger datations to 5850-4350 BCE and 2350 BCE are considered unconfirmed and dubious by Tonni et al. (2003), respectively.
  45. ^ Cordeiro de Castro, M. (2015). Sistemática y evolución de los armadillos Dasypodini (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Dasypodidae). Revista del Museo de La Plata|Sección Paleontología, 15.
  46. ^ Krmpotic, C.M., Carlini, A.A., & Scillato-Yané, G.J. (2009) The species of Eutatus (Mammalia, Xenarthra): Assessment, morphology and climate. Quaternary International, 210(1-2), 66-75.
  47. ^ a b c d e f g Stuart, A.J. (2021) Vanished Giants: The Lost World of the Ice Age. University of Chicago Press, 288 pages.
  48. ^
    A younger datation to 3750 BCE is not confirmed. Murchie, T.J., et al. (2021) Collapse of the mammoth-steppe in central Yukon as revealed by ancient environmental DNA. Nature Communications, vol. 12, no 1, p. 1-18.
  49. ^ Leonard, J. A., Vilà, C., Fox-Dobbs, K., Koch, P. L., Wayne, R. K., & Van Valkenburgh, B. (2007). Megafaunal extinctions and the disappearance of a specialized wolf ecomorph. Current Biology, 17(13), 1146-1150.
  50. ^ Wilson, Paul J.; Rutledge, Linda Y. (2021). "Considering Pleistocene North American wolves and coyotes in the eastern Canis origin story". Ecology and Evolution. 11 (13): 9137–9147.
  51. ^ Cruz, L. E., Bargo, M. S., Tonni, E. P., & Figini, A. J. (2010). Radiocarbon date on megafauna from the late Pleistocene-early Holocene of Córdoba province, Argentina: stratigraphic and paleoclimatic significance. Revista mexicana de ciencias geológicas, 27(3), 470-476.
  52. ^ Melis, S., Salvadori, S., & Pillola, G. L. (2010). SARDINIAN DEER: DERIVATIONS, FOSSIL DISCOVERIES AND CURRENT DISTRIBUTION. Present Environment & Sustainable Development, 4(2).
  53. ^ Benzi, V. et al. (2007). Radiocarbon and U-series dating of the endemic deer Praemegaceros cazioti (Depéret) from "Grotta Juntu", Sardinia. Journal of archaeological science, 34(5), 790-794.
  54. ^ Guerra Rodríguez, Carmen. "Avifauna del pleistoceno superior-holoceno de las Pitiusas: passeriformes y sus depredadores." (2015). Unpublished.
  55. ^ Díaz-Sibaja, R. et al. (2020) A fossil Bison antiquus from Puebla, Mexico and a new minimum age for the Valsequillo fossil area. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 103, 102766.
  56. ^ a b Gutiérrez, M.A. et al. (2010). Supervivencia diferencial de mamíferos de gran tamaño en la región pampeana en el Holoceno temprano y su relación con aspectos paleobiológicos. Zooarqueología a principios del siglo XXI: Aportes teóricos, metodológicos y casos de estudio. Ediciones del Espinillo, Buenos Aires, 231-242.
  57. ^ Zurita, A. E. (2007). Sistemática y evolución de los Hoplophorini (Xenarthra: glyptodontidae: hoplophorinae. Mioceno tardío-Holoceno temprano) (Doctoral dissertation, Universidad Nacional de La Plata).
  58. ^ Stuart, A. J., Kosintsev, P. A., Higham, T. F., & Lister, A. M. (2004). Pleistocene to Holocene extinction dynamics in giant deer and woolly mammoth. Nature, 431(7009), 684-689. Claims of survival to 600-500 BCE are based on dubious interpretations of Scythian art.
  59. ^ Lister, A. M., & Stuart, A. J. (2019). The extinction of the giant deer Megaloceros giganteus (Blumenbach): New radiocarbon evidence. Quaternary International, 500, 185-203.
  60. ^ a b Bover, P. (2011). La paleontologia de vertebrats insulars de les Balears: la contribució de les excavacions recents. Endins: publicació d'espeleologia, 299-316.
  61. ^ A datation to 3023-2809 BCE is considered dubious. Soibelzon, L.H. et al. (2012) Un Glyptodontidae de gran tamaño en el Holoceno temprano de la región Pampeana, Argentina. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia, 15(1): 105-112.
  62. ^ Fernandez, P. et al. (2015). The last occurrence of Megaceroides algericus Lyddekker, 1890 (Mammalia, Cervidae) during the middle Holocene in the cave of Bizmoune (Morocco, Essaouira region). Quaternary International, 374, 154-167.
  63. ^ Olson, S. L. (2008). A new species of large, terrestrial caracara from Holocene deposits in southern Jamaica (Aves: Falconidae). Journal of Raptor Research, 42(4), 265-272.
  64. ^ Goodman, S. M., & Muldoon, K. M. (2016). A new subfossil locality for the extinct large Malagasy eagle Stephanoaetus mahery (Aves: Falconiformes): implications for time of extinction and ecological specificity. The Holocene, 26(6), 985-989. Claims of survival to 1500-1600 CE are not confirmed.
  65. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee Hume, J.P. (2017) Extinct Birds. Bloomsbury Publishing, 560 pages.
  66. ^ Iwaniuk, A.N., Olson, S.L., & James, H.F. (2009). Extraordinary cranial specialization in a new genus of extinct duck (Aves: Anseriformes) from Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. Zootaxa.
  67. ^ a b c d e f g h i Burney, David A., et al. "A chronology for late prehistoric Madagascar." Journal of Human Evolution 47.1-2 (2004): 25-63.
  68. ^ Stewart, M. et al. A taxonomic and taphonomic study of Pleistocene fossil deposits from the western Nefud Desert, Saudi Arabia. Quaternary Research, 2020, vol. 95, p. 1-22.
  69. ^ Claims of survival to 1470-1445 BCE are based on interpretations of a painting from the Tomb of Rekhmire. Masseti, M. (2008). The most ancient explorations of the Mediterranean. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 4th Ser, 59(Suppl I), 1-18.
  70. ^ Bover, P., et al. (2016). Closing the gap: new data on the last documented Myotragus and the first human evidence on Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean Sea). The Holocene, 26(11), 1887-1891.
  71. ^ Welker, F. et al. (2014). Analysis of coprolites from the extinct mountain goat Myotragus balearicus. Quaternary Research, 81(1), 106-116.
  72. ^ Markova, A. K., Puzachenko, A. Y., Van Kolfschoten, T., Kosintsev, P. A., Kuznetsova, T. V., Tikhonov, A. N., ... & Kuitems, M. (2015). Changes in the Eurasian distribution of the musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) and the extinct bison (Bison priscus) during the last 50 ka BP. Quaternary International, 378, 99-110.
  73. ^ a b c Boeskorov, G. G. (2006). Arctic Siberia: refuge of the Mammoth fauna in the Holocene. Quaternary International, 142, 119-123.
  74. ^ a b c Cooke, S. B., Mychajliw, A. M., Southon, J., & MacPhee, R. D. (2017). The extinction of Xenothrix mcgregori, Jamaica's last monkey. Journal of Mammalogy, 98(4), 937-949.
  75. ^ MacPhee, R.D., Iturralde-Vinent, M.A., & Vázquez, O.J. (2007). Prehistoric sloth extinctions in Cuba: Implications of a new "last" appearance date. Caribbean Journal of Science, 43(1), 94-98.
  76. ^ Survival to 1350 CE reported by Turvey is not confirmed.
  77. ^ a b Survival until 140-180 CE is not confirmed. Mead, J. I. et al. (2002) New extinct mekosuchine crocodile from Vanuatu, South Pacific. Copeia, 2002(3), 632-641.
  78. ^ a b c Orihuela, J. (2019). An annotated list of Late Quaternary extinct birds of Cuba. Ornitología Neotropical, 30, 57-67.
  79. ^ Chen, S. et al. (2010) Zebu cattle are an exclusive legacy of the South Asia Neolithic. Molecular biology and evolution, 27(1), 1-6.
  80. ^ In Wrangel Island. Stuart, A.J. et al. (2002). The latest woolly mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius Blumenbach) in Europe and Asia: a review of the current evidence. Quaternary Science Reviews, 21(14-15), 1559-1569.
  81. ^ Last dated in continental North America at 6390-6270 BCE (Naughton, 2003), with another unconfirmed record at 3750 BCE (Murchie et al., 2021).
  82. ^ Last dated 3580-3480 BCE in Saint Paul Island. Graham, R.W. et al. (2016). Timing and causes of mid-Holocene mammoth extinction on St. Paul Island, Alaska. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(33), 9310-9314.
  83. ^ Last dated 2150-1750 BCE in continental Eurasia (Wang et al., 2021).
  84. ^ Nogués-Bravo, D., Rodríguez, J., Hortal, J., Batra, P., & Araújo, M. B. (2008). Climate change, humans, and the extinction of the woolly mammoth. PLoS Biol, 6(4), e79.
  85. ^ Yang, D.Y. et al. (2008). Wild or domesticated: DNA analysis of ancient water buffalo remains from north China. Journal of Archaeological Science, 35(10), 2778-2785.
  86. ^ Hailer, F., James, H.F., Olson, S.L., & Fleischer, R.C. (2015). Distinct and extinct: genetic differentiation of the Hawaiian eagle. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 83, 40-43
  87. ^ Anderson, A.; Sand, C.; Petchey, F.; Worthy, T. H. (2010). "Faunal extinction and human habitation in New Caledonia: Initial results and implications of new research at the Pindai Caves". Journal of Pacific Archaeology. 1 (1): 89–109. hdl:10289/5404.
  88. ^ Steadman, D. W., Pregill, G. K., & Olson, S. L. (1984). Fossil vertebrates from Antigua, Lesser Antilles: evidence for late Holocene human-caused extinctions in the West Indies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 81(14), 4448-4451.
  89. ^ Crees, Jennifer J.; Turvey, Samuel T. (May 2014). "Holocene extinction dynamics of Equus hydruntinus, a late-surviving European megafaunal mammal". Quaternary Science Reviews. 91: 16–29. Bibcode:2014QSRv...91...16C. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.03.003. ISSN 0277-3791.
  90. ^ Rando, J. C., & Alcover, J. A. (2010). On the extinction of the Dune Shearwater (Puffinus holeae) from the Canary Islands. Journal of Ornithology, 151(2), 365-369.
  91. ^ Irwin, G. et al. (2011). Further investigations at the Naigani Lapita site (VL 21/5), Fiji: excavation, radiocarbon dating and palaeofaunal extinction. Journal of Pacific Archaeology, 2(2), 66-78.
  92. ^ Raufuss, I., & von Koenigswald, W. (1999). New remains of Pleistocene Ovibos moschatus from Germany and its geographic and stratigraphic occurrence in Europe. Geologie en Mijnbouw, 78(3), 383-394.
  93. ^ Gunn, A.; Forchhammer, M. (2016) [errata version of 2008 assessment]. "Ovibos moschatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T29684A86066477. Retrieved 24 December 2019.
  94. ^ Hawkins, S. et al. (2016) Ancient tortoise hunting in the southwest Pacific. Scientific reports, 6(1), 1-6
  95. ^ Çakırlar, C., & Ikram, S. (2016). 'When elephants battle, the grass suffers.' Power, ivory and the Syrian elephant. Levant, 48(2), 167-183.
  96. ^ Goodman, S.M., Vasey, N., & Burney, D.A. (2007). Description of a new species of subfossil shrew tenrec (Afrosoricida: Tenrecidae: Microgale) from cave deposits in southeastern Madagascar. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 120(4), 367-376.
  97. ^ Jones, T.L. et al. (2008) The protracted Holocene extinction of California's flightless sea duck (Chendytes lawi) and its implications for the Pleistocene overkill hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(11), 4105-4108.
  98. ^ a b Steadman, David W.; Pregill, Gregory K.; Burley, David V. (19 March 2002). "Rapid prehistoric extinction of iguanas and birds in Polynesia". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 99 (6): 3673–7. Bibcode:2002PNAS...99.3673S. doi:10.1073/pnas.072079299. PMC 122582. PMID 11904427.
  99. ^ Survival to c. 1350 CE mentioned by Turvey not confirmed.
  100. ^ Oswald, J. A., Allen, J. M., Witt, K. E., Folk, R. A., Albury, N. A., Steadman, D. W., & Guralnick, R. P. (2019). Ancient DNA from a 2,500-year-old Caribbean fossil places an extinct bird (Caracara creightoni) in a phylogenetic context. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 140, 106576.
  101. ^ a b c Turvey, S.T; Oliver, J.R; Storde, Y.M Narganes; Rye, P (22 April 2007). "Late Holocene extinction of Puerto Rican native land mammals". Biology Letters. 3 (2): 193–6. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0585. PMC 2375922. PMID 17251123.
  102. ^ It is unconfirmed if remains of Equus sp. found in Bolshoy Baranov Cape and dated to 701-900 CE belong to this taxon (Boeskorov, 2006).
  103. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Crowley, B. E. (2010). A refined chronology of prehistoric Madagascar and the demise of the megafauna. Quaternary Science Reviews, 29(19-20), 2591-2603.
  104. ^ von den Driesch, A. et al. (2008). The hunt for wild dromedaries at the United Arab Emirates coast during the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC. Camel bones from the excavations at Al Sufouh 2, Dubai, UAE. MOM Éditions, 49(1), 487-497.
  105. ^ Thomsen, S. B. K. The Mysterious Origins of the Dromedary.
  106. ^ a b Vigne, Jean-Denis, Salvador Bailon, and Jacques Cuisin. "Biostratigraphy of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals in Corsica and the role of man in the Holocene faunal turnover." Anthropologica 25.26 (1997): 587-604.
  107. ^ Smith, A.T. & Johnston, C.H. (2008). "Prolagus sardus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T18338A8103116. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T18338A8103116.en.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  108. ^ Claimed survival until 1774 CE in Tavolara Island is based on the mention of 'giant burrow-making rats' by Francesco Cetti.
  109. ^ Samuel T. Turvey; Kristoffer Bruun; Alejandra Ortiz; James Hansford; Songmei Hu; Yan Ding; Tianen Zhang; Helen J. Chatterjee (2018). "New genus of extinct Holocene gibbon associated with humans in Imperial China" (PDF). Science. 360 (6395): 1346–1349. Bibcode:2018Sci...360.1346T. doi:10.1126/science.aao4903. PMID 29930136.
  110. ^ James, H. F., Stafford, T. W., Steadman, D. W., Olson, S. L., Martin, P. S., Jull, A. J., & McCoy, P. C. (1987). Radiocarbon dates on bones of extinct birds from Hawaii. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 84(8), 2350-2354.
  111. ^ López-Jurado, L. F., & López Martínez, N. (1991). Presencia de la rata gigante extinguida de Gran Canaria (Canariomys tamarani) en una cueva de habitación aborigen.
  112. ^ Rando, J.C. et al. (2013) A new species of extinct scops owl (Aves: Strigiformes: Strigidae: Otus) from São Miguel island (Azores archipelago, north Atlantic ocean). Zootaxa, 3647(2), 343-357.
  113. ^ a b Wood, J.R., Scofield, R.P., Hamel, J., Lalas, C., & Wilmshurst, J.M. (2017). Bone stable isotopes indicate a high trophic position for New Zealand's extinct South Island adzebill (Aptornis defossor) (Gruiformes: Aptornithidae). New Zealand Journal of Ecology, 41(2), 240-244.
  114. ^ Sometimes reported to have survived until Polynesian arrival c. 1280, though there is no direct dating to confirm this (Turvey, 2009); or the 1870s, following dubious reports of observations by Europeans (Hume, 2017).
  115. ^ Claims of survival until Polynesian arrival c. 1280 not confirmed with direct dating (Turvey, 2009).
  116. ^ Parejko, K. (2003). Pliny the Elder's silphium: first recorded species extinction. Conservation Biology, 17(3), 925-927.
  117. ^ Unconfirmed live observation in 1860 (Turvey, 2009).
  118. ^ Meador, L.R., et al. (2019) Cryptoprocta spelea (Carnivora: Eupleridae): what did it eat and how do we know?. Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 26(2), 237-251.
  119. ^ Zver, L., Toškan, B., & Bužan, E. (2021). Phylogeny of Late Pleistocene and Holocene Bison species in Europe and North America. Quaternary International, 595, 30-38.
  120. ^ Youcef, S. A. M. (2020). African origins of modern asses as seen from paleontology and DNA: what about the Atlas wild ass?. Geobios, 58, 73-84.
  121. ^ BollóK, Á., & Koncz, I. (2020). Sixth- and Seventh-Century Elephant Ivory Finds from the Carpathian Basin. The Sources, Circulation and Value of Ivory in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. Archaeologiai Értesítő, Vol. 1: 39-68.
  122. ^ Espérandieu, G. (1996). Éléphant. Encyclopédie berbère, (17), 2596-2606.
  123. ^ Survival until Polynesian arrival c. 1350 not confirmed (Turvey, 2009).
  124. ^ MacPhee, R.D. E. (1999). Extinctions in near time: causes, contexts, and consequences. Springer. pp. 19–28, 394. ISBN 978-0-306-46092-0. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  125. ^ Hekkala, E., et al. Paleogenomics illuminates the evolutionary history of the extinct Holocene “horned” crocodile of Madagascar, Voay robustus (2021). Communications Biology, vol. 4, no 1, p. 1-11.
  126. ^ a b c d e f Hansford, J.P. et al. (2021). Simultaneous extinction of Madagascar's megaherbivores correlates with late Holocene human-caused landscape transformation. Quaternary Science Reviews, 263, 106996.
  127. ^ a b Morgan, Gary S., et al. "Late Quaternary fossil mammals from the Cayman Islands, West Indies." Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 2019.428 (2019): 1-82.
  128. ^ a b Williams, E. (2017) Hippopotamus. Reaktion Books, 224 pages.
  129. ^ Steadman, D., & Rolett, B. (1996). A chronostratigraphic analysis of landbird extinction on Tahuata, Marquesas Islands. Journal of Archaeological Science, 23(1), 81-94.
  130. ^ Ainis, A. F., & Vellanoweth, R. L. (2012). Expanding the chronology for the extinct giant island deer mouse (Peromyscus nesodytes) on San Miguel Island, California, USA. The Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology, 7(1), 146-152.
  131. ^ a b Rando, J.C., & Alcover, J.A. (2008) Evidence for a second western Palaearctic seabird extinction during the last Millennium: the Lava Shearwater Puffinus olsoni. Ibis, 150(1), 188-192.
  132. ^ A commonly cited 1658 account by Étienne de Flacourt could as well be of Mullerornis, or based on second-hand reports of fossil eggs. Buffetaut, E. (2018). Elephant Birds Under the Sun King? Etienne de Flacourt and the Vouron patra. Boletim do Centro Português de Geo-História e Pré-História, 1, 1.
  133. ^ Tattersall, I. (1973) Cranial anathomy of the Archaeolemurinae (Lemuridae, Primates). American Museum of Natural History, 110 pages.
  134. ^ a b Morales, J. et al. (2009) The impact of human activities on the natural environment of the Canary Islands (Spain) during the pre-Hispanic stage (3rd–2nd Century BC to 15th Century AD): an overview. Environmental Archaeology, 14(1), 27-36.
  135. ^ Kehlmaier, C., Barlow, A., Hastings, A. K., Vamberger, M., Paijmans, J. L., Steadman, D. W., ... & Fritz, U. (2017). Tropical ancient DNA reveals relationships of the extinct Bahamian giant tortoise Chelonoidis alburyorum. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 284(1846), 20162235.
  136. ^ a b c MacPhee, Ross DE, Clare Flemming, and Darrin P. Lunde. ""Last occurrence" of the Antillean insectivoran Nesophontes: new radiometric dates and their interpretation. American Museum novitates; no. 3261." (1999).
  137. ^ Holdaway, R.N., Jones, M.D., & Athfield, N.R.B. (2002) Late Holocene extinction of the New Zealand owlet‐nightjar Aegotheles novaezealandiae. Journal of The Royal Society of New Zealand, 32(4), 653-667.
  138. ^ Rando, Juan Carlos, et al. "Chronology and causes of the extinction of the Lava Mouse, Malpaisomys insularis (Rodentia: Muridae) from the Canary Islands." Quaternary Research 70.2 (2008): 141-148.
  139. ^ Wood, J. R., and J. M. Wilmshurst. "Age of North Island giant moa (Dinornis novaezealandiae) bones found on the forest floor in the Ruahine Range." Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 43.4 (2013): 250-255.
  140. ^ Iijima, M. et al. (2022) An intermediate crocodylian linking two extant gharials from the Bronze Age of China and its human-induced extinction. The Royal Society Publishing.
  141. ^ a b c d e f g h Rawlence, N. J., and A. Cooper. "Youngest reported radiocarbon age of a moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) dated from a natural site in New Zealand." Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 43.2 (2013): 100-107.
  142. ^ A 1872 report of a pet penguin in the Chathams has been sometimes interpreted as a member of this species, but this is not confirmed (Hume, 2017).
  143. ^ Cole, Theresa L., et al. "Mitogenomes uncover extinct penguin taxa and reveal island formation as a key driver of speciation." Molecular biology and evolution 36.4 (2019): 784-797.
  144. ^ a b Jacomb, Chris, et al. "High-precision dating and ancient DNA profiling of moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) eggshell documents a complex feature at Wairau Bar and refines the chronology of New Zealand settlement by Polynesians." Journal of Archaeological Science 50 (2014): 24-30
  145. ^ A dubious observation of giant eagles in the 1870s has been claimed sometimes to be either this, or Eyles's harrier (Hume, 2017).
  146. ^ Steadman, D. W., & Takano, O. M. (2013). A late-Holocene bird community from Hispaniola: refining the chronology of vertebrate extinction in the West Indies. The Holocene, 23(7), 936-944.
  147. ^ Rawlence, Nicolas J., et al. "Radiocarbon-dating and ancient DNA reveal rapid replacement of extinct prehistoric penguins." Quaternary Science Reviews 112 (2015): 59-65.
  148. ^ Paxinos, Ellen E., et al. mtDNA from fossils reveals a radiation of Hawaiian geese recently derived from the Canada goose (Branta canadensis). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2002, vol. 99, no 3, p. 1399-1404.
  149. ^ "307±85 yr BP (95.4% AD 1451-1952)" (Rawlence & Cooper, 2013)
  150. ^ In Tierra del Fuego. Last attested in the continent in 1232-1397 (Prevosti et al., 2015).
  151. ^ Prevosti, Francisco J.; Ramírez, Mariano A.; Schiaffini, Mauro; Martin, Fabiana; Udrizar Sauthier, Daniel E.; Carrera, Marcelo; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; Pardiñas, Ulyses F. J. (November 2015). "Extinctions in near time: new radiocarbon dates point to a very recent disappearance of the South American fox Dusicyon avus (Carnivora: Canidae)". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 116 (3): 704–720. doi:10.1111/bij.12625.
  152. ^ Oswald, J. A., & Steadman, D. W. (2018). The late Quaternary bird community of New Providence, Bahamas. The Auk: Ornithological Advances, 135(2), 359-377.
  153. ^ "370±38yr BP (95.4% AD 1464-1637)" (Rawlence & Cooper, 2013)
  154. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Chenonetta finschi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T62239833A119205634. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T62239833A119205634.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  155. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Bulweria bifax". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728804A94997177. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728804A94997177.en. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  156. ^ Weksler, M.; Costa , L.M. (2019). "Noronhomys vespuccii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T136692A22333193. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T136692A22333193.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  157. ^ Weksler, M.; Tirira, D.G. (2019). "Megaoryzomys curioi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T136657A22330270. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T136657A22330270.en.
  158. ^ Turvey, S.T.; Dávalos, L. (2018). "Isolobodon portoricensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T10860A22186876. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T10860A22186876.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  159. ^ Turvey, S.; Helgen, K. (2016). "Brotomys voratus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T3121A22205792. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T3121A22205792.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  160. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Leiolopisma mauritiana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 1996: e.T11410A3277412. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1996.RLTS.T11410A3277412.en.
  161. ^ IUCN
  162. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Tribonyx hodgenorum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T62274163A119207810. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T62274163A119207810.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  163. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Bermuteo avivorus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T62183030A119208276. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T62183030A119208276.en. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
  164. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Aegolius gradyi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T62184893A95192681. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T62184893A95192681.en.
  165. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Nyctanassa carcinocatactes". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T62286255A119207935. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T62286255A119207935.en. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  166. ^ In Poland. A possible but unconfirmed horncore dated to 1650-1750 was found in Bulgaria. Boev, Z. (2022) "The last Bos primigenius survived in Bulgaria (Cetartiodactyla: Bovidae)." Lynx, n.s., Vol. 52: 139-142 pgs.
  167. ^ Tikhonov, A. (2008). "Bos primigenius". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T136721A4332142. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T136721A4332142.en.
  168. ^ a b c Lewis, C. A. (2008). The Late Glacial and Holocene avifauna of the island of St Helena, South Atlantic Ocean. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa, 63(2), 128-144.
  169. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Atlantisia podarces". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  170. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Upupa antaios". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728670A94993541. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728670A94993541.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  171. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Zapornia astrictocarpus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728760A94995685. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728760A94995685.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  172. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Mundia elpenor". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728746A94995240. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728746A94995240.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  173. ^ A 1976 sighting is unconfirmed (Burney et al., 2004).
  174. ^ Van der Geer, A. et al. (2011) Evolution of Island Mammals: Adaptation and Extintion of Placental Mammals on Islands. John Wiley & Sons, 496 pages.
  175. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Alopochen kervazoi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22729490A95017764. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22729490A95017764.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  176. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Falco duboisi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22731930A95038951. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22731930A95038951.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  177. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Foudia delloni". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T103811601A119552278. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T103811601A119552278.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  178. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Lophopsittacus mauritianus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728847A94998733. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728847A94998733.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  179. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Dryolimnas augusti". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T62258591A119207514. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T62258591A119207514.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  180. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Nesoenas duboisi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
  181. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Nycticorax duboisi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728781A94996515. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728781A94996515.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  182. ^ Arroyo-Cabrales, J., & Polaco, O.J. (2008) Fossil bats from Mesoamerica. Arquivos do Museu Nacional, 66(1), 155-160.
  183. ^ Pardiñas, U.F.J., & Tonni, E.P. (2000) A giant vampire (Mammalia, Chiroptera) in the Late Holocene from the Argentinean pampas: paleoenvironmental significance. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 160(3-4), 213-221.
  184. ^ Hume, Julian Pender, David M. Martill, and Christopher Dewdney. "Dutch diaries and the demise of the dodo." Nature 429.6992 (2004): 1-1.
  185. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Alopochen mauritiana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728658A94993056. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728658A94993056.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  186. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Aphanapteryx bonasia". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2012: e.T22728884A39099824. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012-1.RLTS.T22728884A39099824.en.
  187. ^ Last reported in Mauritius in 1693 and in Réunion in 1672. http://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/mascarene-coot-fulica-newtonii/text
  188. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Fulica newtonii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728769A94996050. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728769A94996050.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  189. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Nycticorax mauritianus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728777A94996372. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728777A94996372.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  190. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Anas theodori". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728662A94993214. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728662A94993214.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  191. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Psittacara labati". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728696A94993878. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728696A94993878.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  192. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Erythromachus leguati". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728889A94999834. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728889A94999834.en.
  193. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Mascarenotus murivorus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728856A94999047. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728856A94999047.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  194. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Necropsar rodericanus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22710836A94263302. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  195. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Nesoenas rodericanus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T22728722A119206485. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T22728722A119206485.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  196. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Nycticorax megacephalus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728787A94996659. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728787A94996659.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  197. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Porphyrio caerulescens". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728726A94994728.en. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
  198. ^ Tortoises were found in Round Island in 1844 and one was captured and transported to Mauritius, where it had hatchlings. The species and fate of these animals is unknown (Cheke & Hume, 2009).
  199. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Cylindraspis inepta". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 1996: e.T6062A12385198. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1996.RLTS.T6062A12385198.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  200. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Cylindraspis triserrata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 1996: e.T6064A12390055. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1996.RLTS.T6064A12390055.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  201. ^ A 1779 painting by Louis-Jean-Marie Daubenton could depict this species (Hume, 2017).
  202. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1998). "Pausinystalia brachythyrsum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 1998: e.T36157A9978900. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1998.RLTS.T36157A9978900.en. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  203. ^ In North America. Last remains in Europe date to 550 AD (Jones et al., 2012).
  204. ^ Jones, M.L. et al. (2012) The Gray Whale: Eschrichtius robustus. Academic Press, 600 pages.
  205. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Necropsittacus rodricanus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728851A94998888. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
  206. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Pezophaps solitaria". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22690062A93259685. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22690062A93259685.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  207. ^ Domning, D. (2016). "Hydrodamalis gigas". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T10303A43792683. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T10303A43792683.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  208. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Threskiornis solitarius". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T22728791A119423949. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T22728791A119423949.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  209. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Lophopsittacus bensoni". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728844A94998578. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728844A94998578.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  210. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Cyanoramphus ulietanus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728673A94993704. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728673A94993704.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  211. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Alopecoenas ferrugineus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22691052A93301514. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22691052A93301514.en.
  212. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Raiatea Starling". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T22734867A119212332. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T22734867A119212332.en.
  213. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Prosobonia ellisi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728772A94996223. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728772A94996223.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  214. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Prosobonia leucoptera". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22693330A93396439. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22693330A93396439.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  215. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Amazona martinicana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728705A94994181. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728705A94994181.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  216. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Amazona violacea". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728701A94994037. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728701A94994037.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  217. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Zapornia nigra". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728757A94995544. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728757A94995544.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  218. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Porphyrio albus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22692801A93370193. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22692801A93370193.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  219. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Eclectus infectus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T62307504A119208554. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T62307504A119208554.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  220. ^ Kerley, G.; Child, M.F. (2017). "Hippotragus leucophaeus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T10168A50188573. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-2.RLTS.T10168A50188573.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  221. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Cylindraspis peltastes". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 1996: e.T6063A12388776. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1996.RLTS.T6063A12388776.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  222. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Cylindraspis vosmaeri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 1996: e.T6065A12391587. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1996.RLTS.T6065A12391587.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  223. ^ International), Graham Edgar (Conservation; Last (CSIRO), Peter; Tasmania), Rick Stuart-Smith (University of (1 May 2018). "IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: Sympterichthys unipennis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018-05-01. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  224. ^ Rebelo, A.G. (2020). "Leucadendron grandiflorum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T113168368A185558142. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T113168368A185558142.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  225. ^ One egg was found in 1830, but it could have been from an Australian emu introduced in 1826, or a hybrid (Hume, 2017).
  226. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Dromaius baudinianus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22724449A94867311. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22724449A94867311.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  227. ^ In captivity. Last recorded in the wild in 1805 (Hume, 2017).
  228. ^ Type specimen of unknown provenance. Birds of similar color were described by Tahiti natives in 1928, but were not observed by scientists. BirdLife International (2016). "Caloenas maculata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22734732A95095848. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22734732A95095848.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  229. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Pomarea pomarea". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T22724444A119193265. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T22724444A119193265.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  230. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Aplonis mavornata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22710499A94248417. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22710499A94248417.en.
  231. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Myadestes woahensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T22708564A111775767. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-1.RLTS.T22708564A111775767.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  232. ^ Unconfirmed sighting from 1837. Hume, J. P. (2011). "Systematics, morphology, and ecology of pigeons and doves (Aves: Columbidae) of the Mascarene Islands, with three new species". Zootaxa. 3124: 1–62. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3124.1.1. ISBN 978-1-86977-825-5. S2CID 86886330.
  233. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Zapornia monasa". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22692708A93366211. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22692708A93366211.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  234. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Aplonis corvina". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22710496A94248268. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22710496A94248268.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  235. ^ There were unconfirmed reports from locals in 1890. BirdLife International (2017). "Carpodacus ferreorostris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T22720622A111776645. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-1.RLTS.T22720622A111776645.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  236. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Zoothera terrestris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22708535A94163698. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22708535A94163698.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  237. ^ The Reptile Database. The only known specimens were collected by Jules Dumont d'Urville during the Astrolabe expedition, which returned to France in that year.
  238. ^ Allison, A., Hamilton, A. & Tallowin, O. (2012). "Tachygyia microlepis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2012: e.T21286A2775072. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T21286A2775072.en.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  239. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Coua delalandei". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22684143A93016420. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22684143A93016420.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  240. ^ Captive individual. Last seen in the wild in 1775 (IUCN).
  241. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Mascarinus mascarin". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22685258A93065531. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22685258A93065531.en. (old version)
  242. ^ Hamdine, W. et al. (1998) "Histoire récente de l'ours brun au Maghreb". C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Sciences de la Vie / Life Sciences, Vol. 321, pp. 565-570.
  243. ^ Calvignac, S. et al. (2008) "Ancient DNA evidence for the loss of a highly divergent brown bear clade during historical times." Molecular Ecology, Vol. 17: 1962-1970.
  244. ^ Unconfirmed sightings in 1937 and 1940 (IUCN).
  245. ^ "Oahu Akialoa". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  246. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Fregilupus varius". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22710840A94263439. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22710840A94263439.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  247. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Moho apicalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T22704329A111776064. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-1.RLTS.T22704329A111776064.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  248. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Mascarenotus sauzieri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728861A94999192. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728861A94999192.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  249. ^ Unconfirmed reports by natives until 1860. Pyle, R.L., and P. Pyle. 2017. The Birds of the Hawaiian Islands: Occurrence, History, Distribution, and Status. B.P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, HI, U.S.A. Version 2 (1 January 2017) http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/birds/rlp-monograph/pdfs/08-DREP/NUKU.pdf
  250. ^ a b Cheke, A. & Hume, J.P. (2009) Lost land of the dodo: The ecological history of Mauritius, Réunion and Rodrigues. T & AD Poyser, London, 480 pages.
  251. ^ Tsang, S.M. (2020). "Pteropus coxi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T84931267A95642285. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T84931267A95642285.en. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  252. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Cylindraspis indica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 1996: e.T6061A12383518. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1996.RLTS.T6061A12383518.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  253. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Hypotaenidia dieffenbachii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22692455A93354540.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  254. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Cyanoramphus zealandicus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22685182A93061882. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22685182A93061882.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  255. ^ van Dijk, P.P.; Rhodin, A.G.J.; Cayot, L.J.; Caccone, A. (2017). "Chelonoidis niger". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T9023A3149101. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T9023A3149101.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  256. ^ Rookmaaker, L.C. & Groves, C.P. (1977) The extinct Cape rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis bicornis (Linnaeus, 1758). In Szugetierkundliche Mitteilwnge, pg. 117-126.
  257. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Prosobonia cancellata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T62289108A119208101. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T62289108A119208101.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  258. ^ There was an unconfirmed sighting in 1976. BirdLife International (2020). "Eriocnemis godini". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T22687922A182244989. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T22687922A182244989.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  259. ^ Watanabe, J., Matsuoka, H., & Hasegawa, Y. (2018). Pleistocene fossils from Japan show that the recently extinct Spectacled Cormorant (Phalacrocorax perspicillatus) was a relict. The Auk: Ornithological Advances, 135(4), 895-907.
  260. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Urile perspicillatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22696750A93584099. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
  261. ^ a b In captivity (IUCN).
  262. ^ Lambdon, P.W. & Ellick, S. (2016). "Acalypha rubrinervis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T37854A67371775. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T37854A67371775.en.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  263. ^ Ng, H.H. (2020). "Chitala lopis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T157719927A89815479. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-1.RLTS.T157719927A89815479.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  264. ^ Some animals were said to survive in captivity until the 1870s, but these could have been imported from Australia (Hume, 2017).
  265. ^ Captive individual. Last sightings in the wild happened between 1825 and 1854 (Hume, 2017).
  266. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Nestor productus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22684834A93049105. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22684834A93049105.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  267. ^ BirdLife International. (2016). "Pinguinus impennis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22694856A93472944. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22694856A93472944.en. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  268. ^ Tsang, S.M. (2020). "Pteropus allenorum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T84882966A84882990. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T84882966A84882990.en. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  269. ^ Burbidge, A.A.; Woinarski, J. (2016). "Pseudomys gouldii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T18551A22398682. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T18551A22398682.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  270. ^ Roycroft, Emily; MacDonald, Anna J.; et al. (6 July 2021). "Museum genomics reveals the rapid decline and extinction of Australian rodents since European settlement". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 118 (27): e2021390118. doi:10.1073/pnas.2021390118. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 8271571. PMID 34183409.
  271. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Chaetoptila angustipluma". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22704348A93964400. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22704348A93964400.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  272. ^ Reports from 1894 are likely of American mink expanding into the sea mink's former range (IUCN).
  273. ^ Helgen, K. & Turvey, S.T. (2016). "Neovison macrodon". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T40784A45204492. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T40784A45204492.en.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  274. ^ Battiston, R. (2020). "Pseudoyersinia brevipennis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T44792108A44798207. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T44792108A44798207.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  275. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Chlorostilbon elegans". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728709A94994346. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728709A94994346.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  276. ^ BirdLife International (2020). "Siphonorhis americana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T22689738A178420953. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T22689738A178420953.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  277. ^ In Réunion. Last seen in Mauritius in 1859 (IUCN).
  278. ^ Mickleburgh, S.; Hutson, A.M.M.; Bergmans, W. & Howell, K. (2008). "Pteropus subniger". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T18761A8580195. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T18761A8580195.en. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  279. ^ Williams, M.C. (2020). "Deloneura immaculata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T6331A168301470. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T6331A168301470.en. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  280. ^ a b c d e Rossi, L., Scuzzarella, C. M., & Angelici, F. M. (2020). Extinct or Perhaps Surviving Relict Populations of Big Cats: Their Controversial Stories and Implications for Conservation. In Problematic Wildlife II (pp. 393-417). Springer, Cham.
  281. ^ a b c d e f g Kitchener, A. C.; Breitenmoser-Würsten, C.; Eizirik, E.; Gentry, A.; Werdelin, L.; Wilting, A.; Yamaguchi, N.; Abramov, A. V.; Christiansen, P.; Driscoll, C.; Duckworth, J. W.; Johnson, W.; Luo, S.-J.; Meijaard, E.; O'Donoghue, P.; Sanderson, J.; Seymour, K.; Bruford, M.; Groves, C.; Hoffmann, M.; Nowell, K.; Timmons, Z.; Tobe, S. (2017). "A revised taxonomy of the Felidae: The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group" (PDF). Cat News (Special Issue 11).
  282. ^ Only known by the holotype, though a scops owl of unknown species was filmed in Siau in 2017. http://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/siau-scops-owl-otus-siaoensis/text
  283. ^ Annual Report of the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture (1897), p. 334.
  284. ^ U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (2016). "Cervus canadensis canadensis (Eastern Elk)" , fws.gov; retrieved 23 June 2017.
  285. ^ Brook, S.M.; Pluháček, J.; Lorenzini, R.; Lovari, S.; Masseti, M.; Pereladova, O.; Mattioli, S. (2018). "Cervus canadensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T55997823A142396828. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T55997823A142396828.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  286. ^ Gill et al. (2013) Are elk native to Texas?
  287. ^ "Hibiscadelphus bombycinus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 1998: e.T30774A9577547. 1998. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1998.RLTS.T30774A9577547.en.
  288. ^ a b c Champion, J.H. (2020) Biogeography and phylogenetics of the Hawaiian endemic Hibiscadelphus, Hau Kuahiwi (Malvaceae).
  289. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Coenocorypha barrierensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T62178398A95191768. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T62178398A95191768.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  290. ^ Battiston, R. (2020). "Ameles fasciipennis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T44791445A170111359. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T44791445A170111359.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  291. ^ Grubb, P., & d'Huart, J.P. (2010) Rediscovery of the Cape warthog Phacochoerus aethiopicus: a review. Journal of East African Natural History, 99(2), 77-102.
  292. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Gallinula nesiotis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728763A94995836. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728763A94995836.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  293. ^ Two unconfirmed sightings in 2003 (IUCN).
  294. ^ BirdLife International (2018). "Pareudiastes pacificus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T22692854A129449004. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T22692854A129449004.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  295. ^ Bonaccorso, F.J.; Helgen, K.; Allison, A. (2019). "Pteropus pilosus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T18749A22086230.
  296. ^ Tsang, S.M. (2020). "Pteropus brunneus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T18718A22078015. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T18718A22078015.en. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  297. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Psittacula exsul". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22685465A93074571. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22685465A93074571.en.
  298. ^ Unconfirmed kill in 1878. Renko, Amanda. "EXTINCT: Seeking a bird last seen in 1878". Star Gazette. Star Gazette. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
  299. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Camptorhynchus labradorius". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22680418A92862623. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22680418A92862623.en.
  300. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Coturnix novaezelandiae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22678955A92795779. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22678955A92795779.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  301. ^ Burbidge, A.A.; Woinarski, J. (2016). "Potorous platyops". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T18103A21960570. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T18103A21960570.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021. Database entry includes justification for why this species is listed as extinct
  302. ^ Sillero-Zubiri, C. (2015). "Dusicyon australis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T6923A82310440. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T6923A82310440.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  303. ^ a b Unconfirmed sighting in 2010 (IUCN).
  304. ^ BirdLife International (2018). "Ophrysia superciliosa". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T22679141A132051220. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T22679141A132051220.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  305. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Chlorostilbon bracei". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22687333A93148138. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22687333A93148138.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  306. ^ Turvey, S.T.; Helgen, K. (2017). "Oryzomys antillarum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T136540A22388029. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T136540A22388029.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  307. ^ Powell, R. (2011). "Cyclura onchiopsis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
  308. ^ Seddon, M.B. (2011). "Leiostyla lamellosa". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2011: e.T11459A3279758. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-1.RLTS.T11459A3279758.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  309. ^ Seddon, M.B. (2011). "Pseudocampylaea loweii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2011: e. Retrieved 10 November 2017.{{cite iucn}}: error: malformed |page= identifier (help)
  310. ^ Unconfirmed sighting in 1936 (Hume, 2017).
  311. ^ BirdLife International (2018). "Pterodroma caribbaea". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T22698097A132625182. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T22698097A132625182.en.
  312. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Miller, R.R., Williams, J.D., & Williams, J.E. (1989). Extinctions of North American fishes during the past century. Fisheries, 14(6), 22-38.
  313. ^ Koeck, M. (2019). "Characodon garmani". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T4530A3000349. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-2.RLTS.T4530A3000349.en.
  314. ^ Turvey, S.T.; Helgen, K. (2017). "Megalomys luciae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T12981A22377126. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T12981A22377126.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  315. ^ In captivity. Last seen in the wild between 1860 and 1865 (Bryden, 1889).
  316. ^ Bryden, H. (1889). Kloof and Karoo. London: Longmans, Green and Co. pp. 393–403. ASIN B00CNE0EZC.
  317. ^ Hack, M.A.; East, R.; Rubenstein, D.I. (2008). "Equus quagga ssp. quagga". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T7957A12876306. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T7957A12876306.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  318. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Zapornia sandwichensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22692693A93364994. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22692693A93364994.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  319. ^ Millar, A.J.K. (Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney, Australia) (2003). "Vanvoorstia bennettiana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2003: e.T43993A10838671. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2003.RLTS.T43993A10838671.en.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  320. ^ Walker, Brett (2008). The Lost Wolves of Japan. University of Washington Press.
  321. ^ a b Knight, J. (1997) "On the extinction of the Japanese wolf." Asian Folklore Studies, Vol. 56, Nº1.
  322. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Columba versicolor". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22690218A93265793. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22690218A93265793.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  323. ^ Burbidge, A.A.; Woinarski, J. (2016). "Lagorchestes leporides". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T11163A21954274. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T11163A21954274.en. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  324. ^ Tim Flannery; Peter Schouten (2001). A gap in nature. ISBN 9780871137975.
  325. ^ Fukui, D. & Sano, A. (2020). "Pipistrellus sturdeei". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T17365A22123157. Retrieved 10 July 2020.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  326. ^ a b Acevedo, P., & Cassinello, J. (2009). Biology, ecology and status of Iberian ibex Capra pyrenaica: a critical review and research prospectus. Mammal Review, 39(1), 17-32.
  327. ^ Unconfirmed report in 1984 (IUCN).
  328. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Gallirallus lafresnayanus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22692388A93351848. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22692388A93351848.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  329. ^ 1891 reports were based on hearsay (Taylor, 1979).
  330. ^ Taylor, R.H. (1979) "How the Macquarie Island parakeet became extinct." New Zealand Journal of Ecology, pp. 42-45.
  331. ^ Unconfirmed report from 2007. https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/103823616/125584125#geographic-range
  332. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Ixobrychus novaezelandiae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22697307A93607264. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22697307A93607264.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  333. ^ Unconfirmed reports until 1995 (Hume, 2017).
  334. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Rhodacanthis flaviceps". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22720745A94681389. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22720745A94681389.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  335. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Akialoa lanaiensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T103823431A119549974. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T103823431A119549974.en. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  336. ^ Unconfirmed sighting in 1937 (IUCN).
  337. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Ciridops anna". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22720840A94686158. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22720840A94686158.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  338. ^ A 1907 sighting is considered erroneous (IUCN).
  339. ^ Leary, T.; Helgen, K.; Hamilton, S. (2020). "Nyctimene sanctacrucis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T14961A22008025. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T14961A22008025.en. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  340. ^ Turvey, S.T.; Dávalos, L. (2019). "Oligoryzomys victus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T15255A22357957. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T15255A22357957.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  341. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Poodytes rufescens". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728902A95000164. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728902A95000164.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  342. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Cabalus modestus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728873A94999473. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728873A94999473.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  343. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Palaeornis wardi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22685437A93073309. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22685437A93073309.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  344. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Chloridops kona". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728825A94998118. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728825A94998118.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  345. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Porphyrio mantelli". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728833A94998264. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728833A94998264.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  346. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Diaphorapteryx hawkinsi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T22733394A119260892. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T22733394A119260892.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  347. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Traversia lyalli". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22698593A93691279. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22698593A93691279.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  348. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Rhodacanthis palmeri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22720749A94681538. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22720749A94681538.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  349. ^ Unconfirmed sighting in 1911 (Glover, 1942).
  350. ^ Glover, A. (1942), Extinct and vanishing mammals of the western hemisphere, with the marine species of all the oceans, American Committee for International Wild Life Protection, pp. 205-206.
  351. ^ Prins, G. "Columba palumbus maderensis". Zoological Museum Amsterdam. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2010
  352. ^ Turvey, S.T.; Helgen, K. (2017). "Megalomys desmarestii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T12980A22377057. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T12980A22377057.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  353. ^ Timm, R.; Álvarez-Castañeda, S.T.; Lacher, T. (2017). "Oryzomys nelsoni". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T15583A22388135. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T15583A22388135.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  354. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Drepanis pacifica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22720848A94686625. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22720848A94686625.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  355. ^ Boeskorov, G.G. (2003) The genetics of the modern moose and a review of its taxonomy. Cranium 20, Vol. 2: 31-45.
  356. ^ Sipko, T.P. & Kholodova, M.V. (2009) Fragmentation of Eurasian moose populations during periods of population depression. Alces, Vol. 45: 25-34
  357. ^ Platenberg R., Powell R. (2016). "Borikenophis sanctaecrucis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T40791A115177079. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T40791A71740001.en. Retrieved 15 December 2017.{{cite iucn}}: error: |doi= / |page= mismatch (help)
  358. ^ Freyhof, J.; Kottelat, M. (2008). "Coregonus hiemalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T135671A4175929. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T135671A4175929.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  359. ^ Lumsden, L.F.; Reardon, T.B. (2020). "Nyctophilus howensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T15006A22009211.
  360. ^ NatureServe Explorer
  361. ^ Unconfirmed report from 1977 (Hume, 2017).
  362. ^ Unconfirmed reports from natives until the 1950s (IUCN).
  363. ^ Burbidge, A.A.; Woinarski, J. (2016). "Chaeropus ecaudatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T4322A21965168. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T4322A21965168.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  364. ^ NatureServe
  365. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Viridonia sagittirostris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22720784A94682950. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22720784A94682950.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  366. ^ Hochkirch, A. (2014). "Melanoplus spretus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2014. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-1.RLTS.T51269349A55309428.en.
  367. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Mergus australis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22680496A92864737. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22680496A92864737.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  368. ^ Unconfirmed reports until 1970 (IUCN).
  369. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Turnagra tanagra". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728820A94997902. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728820A94997902.en. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  370. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Caracara lutosa". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728892A94999996. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728892A94999996.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  371. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Microgoura meeki". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2012: e.T22691086A39248835. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012-1.RLTS.T22691086A39248835.en.
  372. ^ Unconfirmed reports between 1910 and 1996. Yoshiyuki M., Imaizumi Y., Record of Canis hodophirax Temminck, 1839 captured in the garden of the Castle of Fukui, Fukui Prefecture, Japan.
  373. ^ Ishiguro, Naotaka; Inoshima, Yasuo; Shigehara, Nobuo (2009). "Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of the Japanese Wolf (Canis Lupus Hodophilax Temminck, 1839) and Comparison with Representative Wolf and Domestic Dog Haplotypes". Zoological Science. 26 (11): 765–70
  374. ^ Morita M., Yagi H., 2015, Size estimation of so-called "Chichibu wild dog" from photographs: comparison with known structures and application of super-impose method., ISSN 1345-1987, Animate (12), pp. 1–10 (pdf)
  375. ^ Unconfirmed reports until 1963 (IUCN).
  376. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Turnagra capensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22705595A94026176. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22705595A94026176.en. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  377. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Anthornis melanocephala". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728814A94997726. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728814A94997726.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  378. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Drepanis funerea". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22720852A94686803. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22720852A94686803.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  379. ^ Barrie, Heather; Robertson, Hugh (2005). The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand (Revised ed.). Viking.
  380. ^ Unconfirmed sighting in 1963. Higgins, Peter Jeffrey; Peter, John M; Cowling, SJ, eds. (2006). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume 7: Boatbill to Starlings, Part A: Boatbill to Larks. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
  381. ^ Mey, Eberhard (1990): Eine neue ausgestorbene Vogel-Ischnozere von Neuseeland, Huiacola extinctus (Insecta, Phthiraptera). Zoologischer Anzeiger 224(1/2): 49-73
  382. ^ Auld, T.; Weston, P. (2020). "Persoonia laxa". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T113204000A113309830. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T113204000A113309830.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  383. ^ NatureServe
  384. ^ In captivity. Last seen in the wild in 1879. Tadeusz Jezierski, Zbigniew Jaworski: Das Polnische Konik. Die Neue Brehm-Bücherei Bd. 658, Westarp Wissenschaften, Hohenwarsleben 2008
  385. ^ "Hibiscadelphus wilderianus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 1998: e.T30397A9536660. 1998. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1998.RLTS.T30397A9536660.en.
  386. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Quiscalus palustris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22724314A94859972. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22724314A94859972.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  387. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Turnix novaecaledoniae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  388. ^ Possible but unconfirmed remains were found in the excrement of a cat in 2005 (IUCN).
  389. ^ Vasconcelos, R. (2013). "Chioninia coctei". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2013: e.T13152363A13152374. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T13152363A13152374.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  390. ^ BirdLife International (2018). "Hydrobates macrodactylus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T22698530A132651919. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T22698530A132651919.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  391. ^ Unconfirmed report in 1976 (IUCN).
  392. ^ BirdLife International (2019). "Charmosyna diadema". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T22684689A156512185. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T22684689A156512185.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  393. ^ In captivity. Last confirmed sighting in the wild in 1901. Greenberg, J. (2014) A Feathered River Across the Sky: The Passenger Pigeon's Flight to Extinction. New York: Bloomsbury USA. ISBN 978-1-62040-534-5.
  394. ^ Unconfirmed sightings in the wild between 1902 and 1907. Fuller, E. (2014). The Passenger Pigeon. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-16295-9.
  395. ^ Unidentified calls heard in 1960 could be of this species. Williams, G. R. & Harrison, M. (1972): The Laughing Owl Sceloglaux albifacies (Gray. 1844): A general survey of a near-extinct species. Notornis 19(1): 4-19.
  396. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Sceloglaux albifacies". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22689496A93232295. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22689496A93232295.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  397. ^ Bangs, E.E. et al. (1982) "Effects of increased human populations on wildlife resources of the Kenai Peninsula." In Transsactions of the Forty-Seventh North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference, ed. Kenneth Sabol (Washington, D.C., 1982)
  398. ^ Unconfirmed sighting in 1998 (Hume, 2017).
  399. ^ IUCN
  400. ^ a b BirdLife International (2016). "Aplonis fusca". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22710511A94249210. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
  401. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Zosterops strenuus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22714223A94406811. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22714223A94406811.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  402. ^ In captivity. Last confirmed sighting in the wild in 1910, with unconfirmed reports until the 1930s (IUCN).
  403. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Conuropsis carolinensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22685776A93087087. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22685776A93087087.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  404. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Dysmorodrepanis munroi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T22720738A111776369. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-1.RLTS.T22720738A111776369.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  405. ^ a b Carbyn, L.N. et al. (1995) Ecology and conservation of wolves in a changing world. University of Alberta Press, 620 pages.
  406. ^ a b c d e Chambers, S. M., Fain, S. R., Fazio, B., & Amaral, M. (2012). An account of the taxonomy of North American wolves from morphological and genetic analyses. North American Fauna, (77), 1-67.
  407. ^ Marshallia grandiflora NatureServe
  408. ^ Parker, W.T. (1990) Red Wolf Recovery Plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 110 pages.
  409. ^ Freyhof, J.; Kottelat, M. (2008). "Coregonus fera". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T135627A4165119. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T135627A4165119.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  410. ^ A Biological Survey of North Dakota, Vernon, B. (1926) North American Fauna, Number 49: pp. 150–156.
  411. ^ Cook (6 July 1964). "News Release" (PDF). Fish and Wildlife Service. United States Department of the Interior. p. I. Retrieved 26 January 2018. Extinct Mammals of the United States: Plains wolf, Canus lupus nubilus (1926) — Great Plains
  412. ^ Leonard, Jennifer A.; Vilà, Carles; Wayne, Robert K. (2004). "FAST TRACK: Legacy lost: Genetic variability and population size of extirpated US grey wolves (Canis lupus)". Molecular Ecology. 14 (1): 9–17. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2004.02389.x. PMID 15643947. S2CID 11343074.
  413. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Ptilinopus mercierii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22691495A93314660. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22691495A93314660.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  414. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Himatione fraithii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T103829706A119553201. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T103829706A119553201.en.
  415. ^ Gonzalez-Oliva, L. (2020). "Monteverdia lineata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T147088627A149821996. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T147088627A149821996.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  416. ^ NatureServe
  417. ^ Storer, T.I. & Tevis, L.P. (1996) California Grizzly. University of California Press, 335 pages.
  418. ^ Harper, F. (1945) Extinct and vanishing mammals of the Old World. American Committee for International Wild Life Protection, 850 pages.
  419. ^ Álvarez-Castañeda, S.T.; Castro-Arellano, I. (2018). "Neotoma bryanti ssp. anthonyi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T14576A124171511. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T14576A124171511.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  420. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Alopecoenas salamonis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22691056A93301654. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22691056A93301654.en. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  421. ^ Bashkirov, I. S. (1939). "Caucasian European Bison". Moscow: Central Board for Reserves, Forest Parks and Zoological Gardens, Council of the People's Commissars of the RSFSR: 1–72. [In Russian.]
  422. ^ Puzek, Z.; et al. (2002). European Bison Bison bonasus: Current State of the Species and an Action Plan for Its Conservation. Bialowieza: Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences.
  423. ^ Peter Maas. "Equus hemionus hemippus". The Extinction Website. Archived from the original on 6 May 2010. Retrieved 20 November 2009.
  424. ^ Keir, M. (2020). "Ochrosia kilaueaensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T33562A83804687. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T33562A83804687.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  425. ^ Juillet, N. (2011). "Viola cryana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2011: e.T165210A5990668. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-1.RLTS.T165210A5990668.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  426. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Gerygone insularis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22704724A93982219. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22704724A93982219.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  427. ^ "Scientific Illustration". Scientific Illustration. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  428. ^ Kerbis Peterhans, J. & Lavrenchenko, L. (2008). "Nilopegamys plumbeus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T40766A10363474. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T40766A10363474.en.
  429. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Psephotellus pulcherrimus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22685156A93061054. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22685156A93061054.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  430. ^ Bates, M.F.; Jacobsen, N. (2018). "Tetradactylus eastwoodae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T21663A115653635. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T21663A115653635.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  431. ^ de Lange, P.; Martin, T.; McCormack, G. (2014). "Acalypha wilderi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2014: e.T199821A2612719. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-1.RLTS.T199821A2612719.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  432. ^ Unconfirmed report in 2002 (Hume, 2017).
  433. ^ Mesterházy, A. (2020). "Scleria chevalieri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T140414966A140414986. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T140414966A140414986.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  434. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Hypotaenidia pacifica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  435. ^ Unconfirmed sightings in 1975 (IUCN).
  436. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Pomarea nukuhivae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22732936A95052074. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22732936A95052074.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  437. ^ "Archived copy". www.ihbc.org.uk. Archived from the original on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  438. ^ Tirira, D.G.; Weksler, M. (2019). "Nesoryzomys darwini". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T14706A22390382. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T14706A22390382.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  439. ^ Álvarez-Castañeda, S.T.; Castro-Arellano, I.; Lacher, T. (2018). "Neotoma bryanti ssp. bunkeri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T14577A124171652. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T14577A124171652.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  440. ^ Platenberg, R.; de Queiroz, K.; Mahler, D.L. (2020). "Anolis roosevelti". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T1319A18967413. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T1319A18967413.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  441. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Tympanuchus cupido". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22679514A92817099. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22679514A92817099.en.
  442. ^ Rebecca Heisman (2016). "Tympanuchus cupido cupido (Heath Hen)" , jstor.org; retrieved 23 June 2017.
  443. ^ Rebelo, A.G.; Mtshali, H.; von Staden, L. (2020). "Leucadendron spirale". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T113166006A185559739. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T113166006A185559739.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  444. ^ Dulvy, N.K.; Kyne, P.M.; Finucci, B.; White, W.T. (2020). "Carcharhinus obsoletus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T115696622A115696628. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T115696622A115696628.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  445. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Moho nobilis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22704342A93964244. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22704342A93964244.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  446. ^ Tirira, D., Dowler, R., Boada, C. & Weksler, M. (2008). "Nesoryzomys indefessus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T14708A4456597. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T14708A4456597.en.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  447. ^ Marini, A. & Talbi, M. (2008) Desertification and Risk Analysis Using High and Medium Resolution Satellite Data: Training Workshop on Mapping Desertification, Springer Science & Business Media, 274 pages.
  448. ^ Crivelli, A.J. (2006). "Salmo pallaryi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2006: e.T61190A12440688. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T61190A12440688.en. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  449. ^ a b c Bergman, C. (2003). "10 - Partial List of Extinctions". Wild Echoes: Encounters with the Most Endangered Animals in North America. University of Illinois Press. p. 256. ISBN 0-252-07125-5.
  450. ^ Unconfirmed sightings between 1977 and 2011 (IUCN).
  451. ^ Woinarski, J.; Burbidge, A.A. (2016). "Caloprymnus campestris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T3626A21961545. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T3626A21961545.en. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  452. ^ Salvador, A. (1985). Guía de campo de los anfibios y reptiles de la Península Ibérica, Islas Baleares y Canarias. Santiago García.
  453. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Columba jouyi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22690222A93265958. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22690222A93265958.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  454. ^ Unconfirmed reports in 1985 (Hume, 2017).
  455. ^ Last dated in New Guinea in 3050 BCE. Louys, J.; Braje, T. J.; Chang, C.-H.; Cosgrove, R.; Fitzpatrick, S. M.; Fujita, M.; Hawkins, S.; Ingicco, T.; Kawamura, A.; MacPhee, R. D. E.; McDowell, M. C.; Meijer, H. J. M.; Piper, P. J.; Roberts, P.; Simmons, A. H.; van den Bergh, G.; van der Geer, A.; Kealy, S.; O'Connor, S. (2021). "No evidence for widespread island extinctions after Pleistocene hominin arrival". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 118 (20): e2023005118. Bibcode:2021PNAS..11823005L. doi:10.1073/pnas.2023005118. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 8157961. PMID 33941645.
  456. ^ Last dated in mainland Australia in 1277-1229 BCE. White, L.C. et al. (2018) High-quality fossil dates support a synchronous, Late Holocene extinction of devils and thylacines in mainland Australia. Biology Letters, 14(1), 20170642.
  457. ^ Last confirmed wild sighting in Tasmania in 1931. Sleightholme, Stephen R.; Gordon, Tammy J.; Campbell, Cameron R. (2020). "The Kaine capture - questioning the history of the last Thylacine in captivity". Australian Zoologist. 41: 1–11.
  458. ^ Unconfirmed sightings between 1937 and 2000. Brook, Barry W.; Sleightholme, Stephen R.; Campbell, Cameron R.; Jarić, Ivan; Buettel, Jessie C. (2021). "Extinction of the Thylacine". doi:10.1101/2021.01.18.427214. S2CID 231714223. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  459. ^ Burbidge, A.A.; Woinarski, J. (2016). "Thylacinus cynocephalus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T21866A21949291. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T21866A21949291.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  460. ^ Bronner, G. (2015). "Cryptochloris wintoni". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T5748A21287143. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T5748A21287143.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  461. ^ Unconfirmed sighting in 1972 (Rossi, 2020).
  462. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Porphyrio paepae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T62263064A119207668. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T62263064A119207668.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  463. ^ Gonzalez-Oliva, L. (2020). "Banara wilsonii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T35254A149816104. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T35254A149816104.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  464. ^ Unconfirmed sighting in 1967 (Hume, 2017).
  465. ^ Unconfirmed sighting in 1992. Bolgiano, C. & Roberts, J. (2005) The Eastern Cougar: Historic Accounts, Scientific Investigations, and New Evidence. Stackpole Books, 246 pages.
  466. ^ "Northeast Region, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service".
  467. ^ In captivity. Last seen in the wild in 1932 (IUCN).
  468. ^ Duckworth, J.W.; Robichaud, W.; Timmins, R. (2015). "Rucervus schomburgki". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T4288A79818502. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-3.RLTS.T4288A79818502.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  469. ^ BirdLife International (2018). "Turdus ravidus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T22708835A129654803. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T22708835A129654803.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  470. ^ In captivity. Last confirmed wild sighting in 1924; unconfirmed sightings between 1943 and the 1970s (IUCN).
  471. ^ Burbidge, A.A.; Woinarski, J. (2018) [errata version of 2016 assessment]. "Macropus greyi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T12625A128952836. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T12625A21953169.en. Retrieved 25 September 2021.
  472. ^ Verdecia, R. (2020). "Roystonea stellata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T38690A87708976. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
  473. ^ Bogan, A.E.; et al. (Mollusc Specialist Group) (2000). "Epioblasma arcaeformis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2000: e.T7863A12858623. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2000.RLTS.T7863A12858623.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  474. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Akialoa obscura". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T22728910A119550231. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T22728910A119550231.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  475. ^ BirdLife International (2018). "Vanellus macropterus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T22693962A129590644. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T22693962A129590644.en.
  476. ^ Unconfirmed sighting in 1966 (Boug & Islam, 2018).
  477. ^ Boug, A. & Islam, M.Z. (2018) "Dating Saudi Arabian Desert Surface Assemblages with Arabian Ostrich Struthio camelus syriacus Eggshell by C14: Propositions for Palaeoecology and Extinction". Biodiversity International Journal, Vol. 2, Issue 1: 107-113.
  478. ^ Mesterházy, A. (2020). "Eriocaulon inundatum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T140416589A140416594. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T140416589A140416594.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  479. ^ In captivity. Last confirmed sighting in the wild in 1929, a dubious one in 2004 (Hume, 2017).
  480. ^ Unconfirmed sighting in 1956 (Rossi, 2020).
  481. ^ Barnett, R.; Yamaguchi, N.; Barnes, I.; Cooper, A. (2006). "Lost populations and preserving genetic diversity in the lion Panthera leo: Implications for its ex situ conservation" (PDF). Conservation Genetics. 7 (4): 507–514. doi:10.1007/s10592-005-9062-0. S2CID 24190889. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 August 2006.
  482. ^ Unconfirmed sightings in the 1960s (IUCN).
  483. ^ Burbidge, A.A.; Woinarski, J. (2016). "Perameles eremiana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T16570A21965953. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T16570A21965953.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  484. ^ Unconfirmed recordings in 2008. Collins, Michael D. (2011). "Putative audio recordings of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis)" (PDF). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 129 (3): 1626–1630. Bibcode:2011ASAJ..129.1626C. doi:10.1121/1.3544370. PMID 21428525. supplemental material Archived 4 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  485. ^ Collins, Michael D. (2017). "Video evidence and other information relevant to the conservation of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis)". Heliyon. 3 (1): e00230. doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2017.e00230. PMC 5282651. PMID 28194452.
  486. ^ a b BirdLife International (2020). "Campephilus principalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T22681425A182588014. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  487. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Zapornia palmeri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22692672A93363618. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22692672A93363618.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  488. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Hypotaenidia wakensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22692447A93354203. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22692447A93354203.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  489. ^ Unconfirmed sighting in 2011 (IUCN).
  490. ^ BirdLife International (2018). "Rhodonessa caryophyllacea". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T22680344A125558688. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22680344A125558688.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  491. ^ Turvey, S. & Helgen, K. (2008). "Geocapromys thoracatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T9003A12949306. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T9003A12949306.en. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  492. ^ FishBase team RMCA.; Geelhand, D. (2016). "Barbus microbarbis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T61247A47242030. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T61247A47242030.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  493. ^ Mesterházy, A. (2020). "Eriocaulon jordanii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T140416686A140416698. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-2.RLTS.T140416686A140416698.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  494. ^ Álvarez-Castañeda, S.T.; Castro-Arellano, I.; Lacher, T. (2018). "Neotoma bryanti ssp. martinensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T14580A124171713. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T14580A124171713.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  495. ^ Reid, J.W. (1996). "Afrocyclops pauliani". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 1996: e.T611A13066717. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1996.RLTS.T611A13066717.en. Retrieved 14 November 2021.
  496. ^ Unconfirmed sighting in 1975 (IUCN).
  497. ^ Lowry, L. (2017). "Zalophus japonicus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T41667A113089431. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-1.RLTS.T41667A113089431.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  498. ^ Unconfirmed sighting in 1962. Adam, P.J. (2004) "Monachus tropicalis". Mammalian Species, Vol. 747, pp. 1-9.
  499. ^ Kyle Baker; Jason Baker; Larry Hanse; Gordon T. Waring (March 2008). "Endangered Species Act 5-Year Review Caribbean Monk Seal (Monachus tropicalis)". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Marine Fisheries Service.
  500. ^ Lowry, L. (2015). "Neomonachus tropicalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T13655A45228171. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T13655A45228171.en.
  501. ^ In Ilin. Last dated in Mindoro in 50 BCE (Louys et al., 2021).
  502. ^ Gerrie, R. & Kennerley, R. (2016). "Crateromys paulus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T5501A115071934. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T5501A22415490.en.{{cite iucn}}: error: |doi= / |page= mismatch (help)
  503. ^ Fuentes, A.C.D.; Martínez Salas, E.; Samain, M.-S. (2020). "Faramea chiapensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T126612753A126613426. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T126612753A126613426.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  504. ^ Mamilov, N. (2020). "Schizothorax saltans". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T169838762A169838772. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T169838762A169838772.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  505. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Evarra eigenmanni". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 1996: e.T8432A12911760. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1996.RLTS.T8432A12911760.en. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  506. ^ Unconfirmed recording in 1997 (Hume, 2017).
  507. ^ Cummings, K.; Cordeiro, J. (2011). "Alasmidonta mccordi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2011: e.T780A13078346. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T780A13078346.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  508. ^ BirdLife International (2020). "Campephilus imperialis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T22681417A179185354. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T22681417A179185354.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  509. ^ a b Hoddle, M. A critical analysis of the extinction of Levuana iridescens in Fiji by Bessa remota. Department of Enthomology at U.C. Riverside.
  510. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Levuana irridescens". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 1996: e.T11919A3315160. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1996.RLTS.T11919A3315160.en. As of 06/03/2020, IUCN's page lists this species name, last collection, and original range incorrectly.
  511. ^ Finlayson, H.H. (1961). "On central Australian mammals. Part IV-The distribution and status of central Australian species". Records of the South Australian Museum. 14: 141–191.
  512. ^ Burbidge, A.A.; Woinarski, J. (2016). "Onychogalea lunata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T15331A21957917. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T15331A21957917.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  513. ^ NatureServe (2013). "Noturus trautmani". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2013: e.T14908A19032932. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T14908A19032932.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  514. ^ De-Yuan Hong & Stephen Blackmore (2015). The Plants of China. Cambridge University Press. p. 407. ISBN 978-1107070172. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
  515. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1998). "Ormosia howii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 1998: e.T32433A9706669. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1998.RLTS.T32433A9706669.en.
  516. ^ a b c d Noecker, Robert J. "Endangered Species List Revisions: A Summary of Delisting and Downlisting" (PDF). CRS Report for Congress.
  517. ^ Burbidge, A.A.; Woinarski, J. (2016). "Macrotis leucura". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T12651A21967376. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T12651A21967376.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  518. ^ Leite, Y. & Patterson, B. (2008). "Juscelinomys candango". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T10946A3228892. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T10946A3228892.en. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  519. ^ Sparks, J.S. (2016). "Pantanodon madagascariensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T15949A58297104. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T15949A58297104.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  520. ^ Nedoluzhko, A. V., Sharko, F. S., Tsygankova, S. V., Boulygina, E. S., Barmintseva, A. E., Krasivskaya, A. A., ... & Mugue, N. S. (2020). Molecular phylogeny of one extinct and two critically endangered Central Asian sturgeon species (genus Pseudoscaphirhynchus) based on their mitochondrial genomes. Scientific reports, 10(1), 1-7.
  521. ^ Legler, J. & Vogt, R.C. (2013) The turtles of Mexico: Land and freshwater forms. University of California Pres, 416 pages.
  522. ^ Unconfirmed sighting in 2015 (IUCN).
  523. ^ BirdLife International (2020). "Leucopeza semperi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T22721873A180049729. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T22721873A180049729.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  524. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Paroreomyza flammea". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T22720823A119118273. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T22720823A119118273.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  525. ^ "Du Toit's Torrent Frog". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). 18 December 2015. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  526. ^ Flores, D. (2016). "Cryptonanus ignitus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T41320A22177809. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  527. ^ Pryce, D. (2021). "Sympetrum dilatatum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2021: e.T21226A193512121. Retrieved 16 November 2021.
  528. ^ Unconfirmed sighting in 2006 (Hume, 2017).
  529. ^ "Eskimo Curlew Species Profile". Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  530. ^ Smith, A. (2007). Eskimo Curlew.
  531. ^ Sparks, J.S. (2016). "Ptychochromis onilahy". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T44504A58308545. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T44504A58308545.en. Retrieved 14 November 2021.
  532. ^ Bruegmann, M.M. & Caraway, V. (2003). "Achyranthes atollensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2003: e.T44074A10847953. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2003.RLTS.T44074A10847953.en.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  533. ^ Torres, A.G.; Guerrero, R.D. III, Nacua, S.S.; Gimena, R.V.; Eza, N.D.; Kesner-Reyes, K.; Villanueva, T.R.; Alcantara, A.J.; Rebancos, C.M. (2020). "Barbodes disa". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T18888A192625192. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T18888A192625192.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  534. ^ Torres, A.G.; Guerrero, R.D. III, Nacua, S.S.; Gimena, R.V.; Eza, N.D.; Kesner-Reyes, K.; Villanueva, T.R.; Alcantara, A.J.; Rebancos, C.M. (2020). "Barbodes flavifuscus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T18889A192625334. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T18889A192625334.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  535. ^ Torres, A.G.; Guerrero, R.D. III, Nacua, S.S.; Gimena, R.V.; Eza, N.D.; Kesner-Reyes, K.; Villanueva, T.R.; Alcantara, A.J.; Rebancos, C.M. (2020). "Barbodes lanaoensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T18892A192625785. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T18892A192625785.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  536. ^ Torres, A.G.; Guerrero, R.D. III, Nacua, S.S.; Gimena, R.V.; Eza, N.D.; Kesner-Reyes, K.; Villanueva, T.R.; Alcantara, A.J.; Rebancos, C.M. (2020). "Barbodes pachycheilus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T4135A192624182. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T4135A192624182.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  537. ^ Torres, A.G.; Guerrero, R.D. III, Nacua, S.S.; Gimena, R.V.; Eza, N.D.; Kesner-Reyes, K.; Villanueva, T.R.; Alcantara, A.J.; Rebancos, C.M. (2020). "Barbodes palata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T20687A192626734. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T20687A192626734.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  538. ^ Torres, A.G.; Guerrero, R.D. III, Nacua, S.S.; Gimena, R.V.; Eza, N.D.; Kesner-Reyes, K.; Villanueva, T.R.; Alcantara, A.J.; Rebancos, C.M. (2020). "Barbodes resimus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T12751A192624320. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T12751A192624320.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  539. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Coenocorypha iredalei". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22727515A94951415. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22727515A94951415.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  540. ^ Unconfirmed sighting in 1971 (IUCN).
  541. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Tadorna cristata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22680021A92839214. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22680021A92839214.en.
  542. ^ NatureServe
  543. ^ NatureServe
  544. ^ D. Pryce & L. White (2014). "Labidura herculeana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2014: e.T11073A21425735. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-3.RLTS.T11073A21425735.en.
  545. ^ IUCN (2008). "Mystacina robusta: O'Donnell, C". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. doi:10.2305/iucn.uk.2008.rlts.t14260a4427606.en.
  546. ^ BirdLife International (2017). "Akialoa stejnegeri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T103823250A119550506. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T103823250A119550506.en. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  547. ^ a b Cummings, K.; Cordeiro, J. (2012). "Epioblasma torulosa". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2012: e.T62262A3111385. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T62262A3111385.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  548. ^ Unconfirmed sightings in 1982-1983. "Search for the kouprey: trail runs cold for Cambodia's national animal". Phnom Penh Post, April 2006. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
  549. ^ Timmins, R.J.; Burton, J. & Hedges, S. (2016). "Bos sauveli". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T2890A46363360. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  550. ^ Mejía Guerrero, O. (2019). "Evarra bustamantei". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T8431A3145702. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-2.RLTS.T8431A3145702.en. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  551. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Evarra tlahuacensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 1996: e.T8433A12911859. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1996.RLTS.T8433A12911859.en. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  552. ^ IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group (2016). "Gazella saudiya". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T8980A50187890. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T8980A50187890.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  553. ^ Nature Serve
  554. ^ Hanssens, M. (2004). "Aplocheilichthys sp. nov. 'Naivasha'". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004: e.T61225A12451418. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T61225A12451418.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  555. ^ Miller, K.A.; Garske, L.; Edgar, G. (2007). "Desmarestia tropica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2007: e.T63585A12684515. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2007.RLTS.T63585A12684515.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  556. ^ Kelly, D.L. (1998). "Myrcia skeldingii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 1998: e.T33796A9805664. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1998.RLTS.T33796A9805664.en. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
  557. ^ Torres, A.G.; Guerrero, R.D. III, Nacua, S.S.; Gimena, R.V.; Eza, N.D.; Kesner-Reyes, K.; Villanueva, T.R.; Alcantara, A.J.; Rebancos, C.M. (2020). "Barbodes truncatulus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T15634A192624604. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T15634A192624604.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  558. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Hypotaenidia poeciloptera". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22728740A94995068. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22728740A94995068.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  559. ^ Torres, A.G.; Guerrero, R.D. III, Nacua, S.S.; Gimena, R.V.; Eza, N.D.; Kesner-Reyes, K.; Villanueva, T.R.; Alcantara, A.J.; Rebancos, C.M. (2020). "Barbodes herrei". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T18890A192625464. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T18890A192625464.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  560. ^ Unconfirmed sighting in 1990 (Hume, 2017).
  561. ^ IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group (2020). "Pristimantis anotis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T56423A109538689. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T56423A109538689.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  562. ^ Torres, A.G.; Guerrero, R.D. III, Nacua, S.S.; Gimena, R.V.; Eza, N.D.; Kesner-Reyes, K.; Villanueva, T.R.; Alcantara, A.J.; Rebancos, C.M. (2020). "Barbodes clemensi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T18886A192625045. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T18886A192625045.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  563. ^ Torres, A.G.; Guerrero, R.D. III, Nacua, S.S.; Gimena, R.V.; Eza, N.D.; Kesner-Reyes, K.; Villanueva, T.R.; Alcantara, A.J.; Rebancos, C.M. (2020). "Barbodes palaemophagus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T15633A192624463. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T15633A192624463.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  564. ^ "Round Island Burrowing Boa". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). 29 January 2020. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  565. ^ Torres, A.G., Guerrero, R.D. III, Nacua, S.S., Gimena, R.V., Eza, N.D., Kesner-Reyes, K., Villanueva, T.R., Alcantara, A.J. & Rebancos, C.M. (2020). "Barbodes tras". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T18901A90997500. Retrieved 3 January 2021.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  566. ^ IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. (2020). "Pseudoeurycea exspectata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T59376A54381158. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  567. ^ Gallo-Reynoso, J.P. et al. (2008) "Probable occurrence of a brown bear (Ursus arctos) in Sonora, Mexico, in 1976." The Southwestern Naturalist, Vol. 53, Issue 2: 256-260 pages.
  568. ^ Torres, A.G.; Guerrero, R.D. III, Nacua, S.S.; Gimena, R.V.; Eza, N.D.; Kesner-Reyes, K.; Villanueva, T.R.; Alcantara, A.J.; Rebancos, C.M. (2020). "Barbodes katolo". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T18891A192625645. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T18891A192625645.en. Retrieved 18 November 2021.