Timeline of feminism
The following is a timeline of the history of feminism. It should contain events within the ideologies and philosophies of feminism. It should not contain material about changes in women's legal rights. See also: Timeline of women's legal rights (other than voting), Timeline of women's suffrage and Women's suffrage.
- First-wave feminism was a period of feminist activity and thought that occurred within the 19th and early 20th century throughout the world. It focused on legal issues, primarily on gaining women's suffrage (the right to vote).
- 1963: The Feminine Mystique was published; it is a book written by Betty Friedan which is widely credited with starting the beginning of second-wave feminism in the United States. Second-wave feminism was a period of feminist activity and thought that began in the early 1960s in the United States, and spread throughout the Western world and beyond. In the United States the movement lasted through the early 1980s.
- Black feminism became popular in response to the sexism of the civil rights movement and racism of the feminist movement.
- Fat feminism originated in the late 1960s. Fat feminism, often associated with "body-positivity", is a social movement that incorporates feminist themes of equality, social justice, and cultural analysis based on the weight of a woman or a non-binary feminine person.
- Radical feminism emerged in the United States. It is a perspective within feminism that calls for a radical reordering of society in which male supremacy is eliminated in all social and economic contexts. That said, radical feminists also recognize that women's experiences differ according to other divisions in society such as race and sexual orientation.
- 1967: "The Discontent of Women", by Joke Kool-Smits, was published; the publication of this essay is often regarded as the start of second-wave feminism in the Netherlands. In this essay, Smit describes the frustration of married women, saying they are fed up being solely mothers and housewives.
- 1969: Chicana feminism, also called Xicanisma, is a sociopolitical movement in the United States that analyzes the historical, cultural, spiritual, educational, and economic intersections of Mexican-American women that identify as Chicana. The 1969 Chicano Youth Liberation Conference began the Chicano movement and eventually, MEChA. At the conference, women began to get involved in the male-dominated dialogue to address feminist concerns. After the conference, women returned to their communities as activists and thus began the Chicana feminist movement.
- In the 1970s, French feminist theorists approached feminism with the concept of écriture féminine (which translates as female, or feminine writing).
- The term materialist feminism emerged in the late 1970s; materialist feminism highlights capitalism and patriarchy as central in understanding women's oppression. Under materialist feminism, gender is seen as a social construct, and society forces gender roles, such as bearing children, onto women. Materialist feminism's ideal vision is a society in which women are treated socially and economically the same as men. The theory centers on social change rather than seeking transformation within the capitalist system.
- The radical lesbian movement is a francophone lesbian movement roughly analogous to English-language lesbian separatism. Inspired by the writings of philosopher Monique Wittig, the movement originated in France in the early 1980s, spreading soon after to the Canadian province of Quebec.
- In Turkey and Israel, second-wave feminism began in the 1980s.
- Difference feminism was developed by feminists in the 1980s, in part as a reaction to popular liberal feminism (also known as "equality feminism"), which emphasizes the similarities between women and men in order to argue for equal treatment for women. Difference feminism, although it is still aimed at equality between men and women, emphasizes the differences between men and women and argues that identicality or sameness are not necessary in order for men and women, and masculine and feminine values, to be treated equally. Liberal feminism aims to make society and law gender-neutral, since it sees recognition of gender difference as a barrier to rights and participation within liberal democracy, while difference feminism holds that gender-neutrality harms women "whether by impelling them to imitate men, by depriving society of their distinctive contributions, or by letting them participate in society only on terms that favor men".
- Equity feminism (also stylized equity-feminism) is a form of liberal feminism discussed since the 1980s, specifically a kind of classical liberal feminism and libertarian feminism.
- Third-wave feminism is associated with the emergence of riot grrrl, the feminist punk subculture, in the early 1990s in Olympia, Washington. In 1991 Anita Hill testified in Washington, D.C. to an all-male, all-white Senate Judiciary Committee that Clarence Thomas, nominated for the Supreme Court of the United States, had sexually harassed her. Rebecca Walker responded to Thomas's appointment with an article in Ms. Magazine, "Becoming the Third Wave" (1992), which coined the term third wave: "Do not vote for them unless they work for us. Do not have sex with them, do not break bread with them, do not nurture them if they don't prioritize our freedom to control our bodies and our lives. I am not a post-feminism feminist. I am the Third Wave." The third wave focused on abolishing gender-role stereotypes and expanding feminism to include women of all races, classes and cultures.
- Fourth-wave feminism began around 2012 and is characterized by a focus on the empowerment of women and the use of internet tools, and is centered on intersectionality.
- Margalit Fox (5 February 2006). "Betty Friedan, Who Ignited Cause in 'Feminine Mystique,' Dies at 85". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
- "Publication of "The Feminine Mystique" by Betty Friedan - Jewish Women's Archive". jwa.org.
- Sarah Gamble, ed. The Routledge companion to feminism and postfeminism (2001) p. 25
- Boling, Patricia (2011). "On Learning to Teach Fat Feminism". Feminist Teacher. 21 (2): 110–123. doi:10.5406/femteacher.21.2.0110. ISSN 0882-4843. JSTOR 10.5406/femteacher.21.2.0110.
- Willis, Ellen (1984). "Radical Feminism and Feminist Radicalism". Social Text. 9/10: The 60's without Apology (9/10): 91–118. doi:10.2307/466537. JSTOR 466537.
- Willis, Ellen (1984). "Radical Feminism and Feminist Radicalism". Social Text (9/10): 91–118. doi:10.2307/466537. JSTOR 466537.
- Giardina, Carol. (2010). Freedom for women : Forging the Women's Liberation Movement, 1953-1970. University Press of Florida. ISBN 0-8130-3456-6. OCLC 833292896.
- Editors. "Feminist Consciousness: Race and Class – MEETING GROUND OnLine". Retrieved 2020-09-15.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- "Joke Smit: feministe en journaliste". 6 October 2012.
- "Exploring the Chicana Feminist Movement". The University of Michigan. Retrieved 2015-06-09.
- Wright, Elizabeth (2000). Lacan and Postfeminism (Postmodern Encounters). Totem Books or Icon Books. ISBN 978-1-84046-182-4.
- Jackson, Stevi (May–August 2001). "Why a materialist feminism is (Still) Possible—and necessary". Women's Studies International Forum. 24 (3–4): 283–293. doi:10.1016/S0277-5395(01)00187-X.
- Turcotte, Louise. (foreword) The Straight Mind and Other Essays, Monique Wittig, Beacon Press, 1992, ISBN 0-8070-7917-0, p. ix
- Badran, Margot, Feminism in Islam: Secular and Religious Convergences (Oxford, Eng.: Oneworld, 2009) p. 227
- Freedman, Marcia, "Theorizing Israeli Feminism, 1970–2000", in Misra, Kalpana, & Melanie S. Rich, Jewish Feminism in Israel: Some Contemporary Perspectives (Hanover, N.H.: Univ. Press of New England (Brandeis Univ. Press) 2003) pp. 9–10
- Voet, Rian (1998). Feminism and Citizenship. SAGE Publications Ltd.
- Grande Jensen, Pamela. Finding a New Feminism: Rethinking the Woman Question for Liberal Democracy. p. 3.
- Black, Naomi (1989). Social Feminism. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-2261-4.
- Halfmann, Jost (28 July 1989). "3. Social Change and Political Mobilization in West Germany". In Katzenstein, Peter J. (ed.). Industry and Politics in West Germany: Toward the Third Republic. p. 79. ISBN 0801495954.
Equity-feminism differs from equality-feminism
- "Liberal Feminism". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 18 October 2007. Retrieved 24 February 2016. (revised 30 September 2013)
- Piepmeier, Alison (2009). Girl Zines: Making Media, Doing Feminism. New York: New York University Press. p. 45.
- Walker, Rebecca (January 1992). "Becoming the Third Wave" (PDF). Ms.: 39–41. ISSN 0047-8318. OCLC 194419734. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-01-15. Retrieved 2018-01-22.
- Baumgardner, Jennifer; Richards, Amy (2000). Manifesta: Young Women, Feminism, and the Future. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-374-52622-1.
- Hewitt, Nancy (2010). No Permanent Waves. Rutgers University Press. pp. 99. ISBN 978-0-8135-4724-4.
- Tong, Rosemarie (2009). Feminist Thought: A More Comprehensive Introduction (Third ed.). Boulder: Westview Press. pp. 284–285, 289. ISBN 978-0-8133-4375-4. OCLC 156811918.
- Abrahams, Jessica (14 August 2017). "Everything you wanted to know about fourth wave feminism—but were afraid to ask". Prospect. Archived from the original on 17 November 2017. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
- Grady, Constance (2018-03-20). "The waves of feminism, and why people keep fighting over them, explained". Vox. Retrieved 2020-06-27.
- Munro, Ealasaid (September 2013). "Feminism: A Fourth Wave?". Political Insight. 4 (2): 22–25. doi:10.1111/2041-9066.12021. Republished as Munro, Ealasaid (5 September 2013). "Feminism: A fourth wave?". The Political Studies Association. Archived from the original on 2 December 2018. Retrieved 1 December 2018. / "Feminism: A fourth wave? | The Political Studies Association (PSA)". Feminism: A fourth wave? | The Political Studies Association (PSA). Retrieved 2020-06-27.