Timeline of feminism

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The following is a timeline of the history of feminism. It contains feminist and antifeminist events.

6th century BCE[edit]

  • 6th century BCEMahapajapati Gotami, the aunt and foster mother of Buddha, was the first woman to receive Buddhist ordination.[1]

4th century BCE[edit]

5th century (approximately)[edit]

  • 5th centuryPrajñādhara (Prajnatara), the twenty-seventh Indian Patriarch of Zen Buddhism and teacher of Bodhidharma, is believed to have been a woman

7th century[edit]

  • 7th century – Reforms under sharia law provide women in the Muslim world with new rights, including prohibition of female infanticide and the recognition of women's full personhood.[3]

12th century[edit]

  • 12th century – Philosopher Ibn Rushd argues that women are equal to men in all respects and possess equal capacities to shine in peace and in war.[4]
  • 12th century – The first female Zen master, as well as the first Zen abbess, was the Japanese abbess Mugai Nyodai (born 1223 - died 1298).[5][6]

14th century[edit]

15th century[edit]

16th century[edit]

  • 1529Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa publishes Declamatio de nobilitate et praecellentia foeminei sexus (Declamation on the Nobility and Preeminence of the Female Sex), declaring the theological and moral superiority of women.

17th century[edit]

18th century[edit]

  • 18th centuryJohn Wesley allowed women to preach within his Methodist movement.
  • 1718 – In Sweden female taxpaying members of city guilds are allowed to vote in local elections and national elections.
  • 1755 – Women were allowed to vote in Corsica.[9]
  • 1756–1778 – One woman, Lydia Taft, is allowed to vote in Uxbridge, Massachusetts town meeting.[10]
  • 1758 – In Sweden female taxpaying members of city guilds are no longer allowed to vote in local elections.
  • Circa 1770 – Mary Evans Thorne was appointed class leader by Joseph Pilmore in Philadelphia, probably the first woman in America to be so appointed.[11]
  • 1769 – Women were no longer allowed to vote in Corsica.[9]
  • 1771 – In Sweden female taxpaying members of city guilds are no longer allowed to vote in national elections.
  • 1781 – In Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, philosopher Jeremy Bentham argues for gender equality.
  • 1790Nicolas de Condorcet's De l'admission des femmes au droit de cité (For the Admission to the Rights of Citizenship For Women) argues for women's suffrage.
  • 1792Mary Wollstonecraft publishes A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, saying that women are essential to the nation and deserving of an education.
  • 1795 – Women are no longer allowed to vote; previously tax-paying women had been allowed.

19th century[edit]

  • Early 19th century – A fundamental belief[12] of the Society of Friends (Quakers) has always been the existence of an element of God's spirit in every human soul. Thus all persons are considered to have inherent and equal worth, independent of their gender, and this led to an acceptance of female ministers. In 1660, Margaret Fell (1614–1702) published a famous pamphlet to justify equal roles for men and women in the denomination, titled: "Women's Speaking Justified, Proved and Allowed of by the Scriptures, All Such as Speak by the Spirit and Power of the Lord Jesus And How Women Were the First That Preached the Tidings of the Resurrection of Jesus, and Were Sent by Christ's Own Command Before He Ascended to the Father (John 20:17)." In the United States, in contrast with almost every other organized denomination, the Society of Friends (Quakers) has allowed women to serve as ministers since the early 19th century. Furthermore, in England in the 17th century Elizabeth Hooton became the first female Quaker minister.[13]
  • 19th century – Women's mosques, called nusi, and female imams have existed since the 19th century in China and continue today.
  • 19th centuryHannah Rachel Verbermacher, also known as the Maiden of Ludmir (Ludmirer Moyd), became the only female Rebbe in the history of the Hasidic movement; she lived in Ukraine and Israel.
  • 1807 – The Primitive Methodist Church in Britain first allowed female ministers.
  • 1810 – The Christian Connection Church, an early relative of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) and the United Church of Christ, ordained women as early as 1810.
  • 1815Clarissa Danforth was ordained in New England. She was the first woman ordained by the Free Will Baptist denomination.
  • 1815 – The first petition for the African Methodist Episcopal Church General Conference to license women to preach is defeated.[14]
  • 1838 – Women are allowed to vote in the Pitcairn Islands.
  • 1843Marion Kirkland Reid publishes A Plea for Woman,[15] which proposes a transatlantic Western agenda for women's rights, including voting rights.
  • 1843 – Women were first included in Mormon prayer circles on September 28, 1843.[16]
  • 1848 – The Seneca Falls Convention, the first women's rights convention, is held in Seneca Falls, New York.
  • 1848 – The Conference of Badasht was held that set in motion the public existence and promulgation of the Bábí religion.[17] Around eighty men and Táhirih attended the conference. The conference is considered by Bábís and Bahá'ís as a signal moment that demonstrated that Islamic Sharia law had been abrogated and superseded by Bábí law,[18][19] as well as a key demonstration of the thrust of raising the social position of women.[20]
  • Caroline Norton campaigns extensively for women's rights, helping induce the British Parliament to pass the Custody of Infants Act 1839, the Matrimonial Causes Act 1857, and the Married Women's Property Act 1870.
  • 1850s – Women including Barbara Leigh Smith, Bessie Rayner Parkes, and Anna Jameson meet at London's Langham Place to discuss legislative reforms.
  • 1853Antoinette Brown Blackwell was the first woman ordained as a minister in the United States.[21] She was ordained by a church belonging to the Congregationalist Church.[22] However, her ordination was not recognized by the denomination. She later quit the church and became a Unitarian. The Congregationalists later merged with others to create the United Church of Christ, which ordains women.[23]
  • Queen Victoria calls feminism the "mad, wicked folly of 'Woman's Rights'".[24][25]
  • 1859 – The British Society for Promoting the Employment of Women is established.
  • 1861 – Mary A. Will was the first woman ordained in the Wesleyan Methodist Connection by the Illinois Conference in the United States. The Wesleyan Methodist Connection eventually became the Wesleyan Church.
  • 1861 – Property-owning women are allowed to vote in local elections in South Australia.
  • 1862 – In Sweden women were allowed to vote in local elections.[26]
  • 1863Olympia Brown was ordained by the Universalist denomination in 1863, the first woman ordained by that denomination, in spite of a last-moment case of cold feet by her seminary which feared adverse publicity.[27] After a decade and a half of service as a full-time minister, she became a part-time minister in order to devote more time to the fight for women's rights and universal suffrage. In 1961, the Universalists and Unitarians joined to form the Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA).[28] The UUA became the first large denomination to have a majority of female ministers.
  • 1863 – The Grand Principality of Finland was part of the Russian Empire from 1809 to 1917 and enjoyed a high degree of autonomy. In 1863, taxpaying women were granted municipal suffrage in the countryside.[26]
  • 1864 – Women in Victoria, Australia were unintentionally enfranchised by the Electoral Act (1863), and proceeded to vote in the following year's elections.
  • 1864 – In the former Kingdom of Bohemia, taxpaying women and women in "learned professions" were allowed to vote by proxy and made eligible to the legislative body in 1864.[26]
  • 1865 – The Electoral Act in Victoria, Australia was amended in 1865 to stop women from voting.[29]
  • 1865 – The Salvation Army was founded, which in the English Methodist tradition always ordained both men and women. However, there were initially rules that prohibited a woman from marrying a man who had a lower rank.
  • 1866 – Helenor M. Davison was ordained as a deacon by the North Indiana Conference of the Methodist Protestant Church, probably making her the first ordained woman in the Methodist tradition.
  • 1869John Stuart Mill publishes The Subjection of Women, possibly written jointly with his wife Harriet Taylor Mill, arguing for equality between the sexes.
  • 1869 – The Municipal Franchise Act in the United Kingdom gives single women ratepayers the right to vote in local elections.[30][31] (Partial female suffrage in national elections in 1918; universal franchise in 1928.)
  • 1869 – Margaret Newton Van Cott became the first woman in the Methodist Episcopal Church to receive a local preacher's license.[11]
  • 1869 – Lydia Sexton (of the United Brethren Church) was appointed chaplain of the Kansas State Prison at the age of 70, the first woman in the United States to hold such a position.
  • 1871 – Celia Burleigh became the first female Unitarian minister.
  • 1872 – In 1872, taxpaying women were granted municipal suffrage in the cities in the Grand Principality of Finland.
  • 1876 – Anna Oliver was the first woman to receive a Bachelor of Divinity degree from an American seminary (Boston University School of Theology).
  • 1879 – The Church of Christ, Scientist was founded by a woman, Mary Baker Eddy.[32]
  • 1880Anna Howard Shaw was the first woman ordained in the Methodist Protestant Church, an American church which later merged with other denominations to form the United Methodist Church.[33]
  • 1881 – Property-owning women were allowed to vote in the Isle of Man.
  • 1881 – The Isle of Man is the first free-standing jurisdiction to grant women the right to vote.
  • 1884Julie Rosewald, called "Cantor Soprano" by her congregation, became America’s first female cantor, serving San Francisco’s Temple Emanu-El from 1884 until 1893, although she was not ordained.[34][35] She was born in Germany.[36]
  • 1884 – In Canada widows and spinsters were granted the right to vote within municipalities in Ontario.[37]
  • 1886 – Louise "Lulu" Fleming becomes the first black woman to be commissioned for career missionary service by the Women’s Baptist Foreign Missionary Society of the West.[14]
  • 1888 – Sarah E. Gorham becomes the first woman missionary of the African Methodist Episcopal Church appointed to a foreign field.[14]
  • 1888 – Fidelia Gillette may have been the first ordained woman in Canada. She served the Universalist congregation in Bloomfield, Ontario, during 1888 and 1889. She was presumably ordained in 1888 or earlier.
  • 1889 – The Nolin Presbytery of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church ordained Louisa Woosley as the first female minister of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, USA.[38]
  • 1889Franceville grants universal suffrage.[39] Loses self-rule within months.
  • 1889 – Ella Niswonger was the first woman ordained in the American United Brethren Church, which later merged with other denominations to form the American United Methodist Church, which has ordained women with full clergy rights and conference membership since 1956.[11][40]
  • 1890 – On September 14, 1890, Ray Frank gave the Rosh Hashana sermon for a community in Spokane, Washington, thus becoming the first woman to preach from a synagogue pulpit, although she was not a rabbi.[41]
  • 1892 – Anna Hanscombe is believed to be the first woman ordained by the parent bodies which formed the Church of the Nazarene in 1919.
  • 1892 – Women in New Zealand (including Maori women) were allowed to vote.[42]
  • 1893 – Women were allowed to vote in the Cook Islands.
  • 1894 – Julia A. J. Foote was the first woman to be ordained as a deacon by the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church.
  • 1894 – South Australia grants universal suffrage, extending the franchise to all women, the first in Australia to do so. Women are also granted the right to stand for parliament, making South Australia the first in the world to do so.
  • 1894 – The Local Government Act in the United Kingdom confirmed single women’s right to vote in local elections and extended this franchise to some married women.
  • 1899 – Women are allowed to vote in Western Australia.

20th century[edit]

  • 1902Commonwealth of Australia (The Australian Constitution gave the federal franchise to all persons allowed to vote for the lower house in each state unless the Commonwealth Parliament stipulated otherwise. Thus, South Australian and Western Australian women could vote in the first federal election in 1901. During the first Parliament, the Commonwealth passed legislation extending federal franchise to non-Aboriginal women in all states.)
  • 1902 – Women were allowed to vote in New South Wales, Australia.
  • 1903 – Women were allowed to vote in Tasmania, Australia.
  • 1905 – Women were allowed to vote in Latvia.
  • 1905 – Women were allowed to vote in Queensland, Australia.
  • 1906 – The Grand Principality of Finland was the first country to have universal suffrage. First country to give the right to vote and right to stand for elections to everyone of age regardless of wealth, race, gender, or social class.[43]
  • 1906 – Perhaps inspired by the Franceville experiment, the Anglo-French Condominium of the New Hebrides granted women the right to vote in municipal elections and to serve on elected municipal councils. (These rights applied only to British, French, and other colonists, not to indigenous islanders.)[44]
  • 1908 – Women were allowed to vote in local elections in Denmark.
  • 1908 – Women were allowed to vote in Victoria, Australia.
  • 1909 – The Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee) began ordaining women in 1909.
  • 1909 – Women were first elected to the procurer of the Bahá'í Local Spiritual Assembly of Chicago - the Bahai Temple Unity. Of the nine members elected by secret ballot three were women with Corinne True (later appointed as a Hand of the Cause) serving as an officer.[45]
  • 1910s – During World War I, women enter the labor force in large numbers for the first time.
  • 1911Ann Allebach was the first Mennonite woman to be ordained. This occurred at the First Mennonite Church of Philadelphia.
  • 1911 – Women were allowed to vote in Argentina. (A doctor, Julieta Lanteri, sued and won the right to vote.)
  • 1911St. Joan's International Alliance, founded in 1911, was the first Catholic group to work for women being ordained as priests.[46][47]
  • 1912Olive Winchester, born in America, became the first woman ordained by any trinitarian Christian denomination in the United Kingdom when she was ordained by the Church of the Nazarene.[48]
  • 1913 – Women were allowed to vote in Norway.[49]
  • 1913 – The Prisoners (Temporary Discharge for Ill Health) Act 1913 (also known as the "Cat and Mouse Act") is passed in Britain under Herbert Henry Asquith's Liberal government in 1913. Suffragettes who were undertaking hunger strikes at the time would now be released from prison as soon as they became ill. The strikes themselves were now technically legal. However, the Act allowed for the re-imprisonment of the hunger strikers upon their recovery on their original charges. The nickname of the Act came about because of a cat’s habit of playing with its prey (a mouse) before finishing it off.[50]
  • 1914 – The Assemblies of God was founded and ordained its first woman pastors in 1914.
  • 1915 – Women were given full voting rights in Denmark.
  • 1916 – Women were allowed to vote in Manitoba, Canada.
  • 1916 – Women were allowed to vote in Saskatchewan, Canada..
  • 1916 – Women were allowed to vote in Alberta, Canada.
  • 1917 – The Church of England appointed female "bishop's messengers" to preach, teach, and take missions in the absence of men.
  • 1917 – The Congregationalist Church (England and Wales) ordained their first woman, Constance Coltman (née Todd), at the King's Weigh House, London.[51] Its successor is the United Reformed Church[52] (a union of the Congregational Church in England and Wales and the Presbyterian Church of England in 1972). Since then two more denominations have joined the union: The Reformed Churches of Christ (1982) and the Congregational Church of Scotland (2000). All of these denominations ordained women at the time of Union and continue to do so. The first woman to be appointed General Secretary of the United Reformed Church was Roberta Rominger in 2008.
  • 1917 – Women were allowed to vote in the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.
  • 1917 – Women were allowed to vote in Armenia.
  • 1917 – Women were allowed to vote in the Belarusian People's Republic.
  • 1917 – Women were allowed to vote in Estonia.
  • 1917 – Women were allowed to vote in Latvia (as an independent country).
  • 1917 – Women were allowed to vote in Lithuania.
  • 1917 – Women were allowed to vote in British Columbia, Canada..
  • 1917 – Women were allowed to vote in Ontario, Canada..
  • 1917 – Women were allowed to vote in Canada (limited to war widows, women serving overseas, and women with family serving overseas.)
  • 1917 – Women were allowed to vote in Poland.
  • 1917 – Women were allowed to vote in the Russian Republic.
  • 1917 – Women were allowed to vote in the Ukrainian People's Republic.
  • 1917 – Women were allowed to vote in Uruguay (per Constitution).
  • 1917 – Women were allowed to stand in election in the Netherlands.
  • 1918Alma Bridwell White, head of the then-named Pillar of Fire Church (today Pillar of Fire International), became the first female bishop of the United States.

Austria

  • 1918 – Women were allowed to vote in Canada (only women over 21, and "not alien-born", and meeting provincially determined property qualifications.)
  • 1918' – Women were allowed to vote in Austria.
  • 1918' – Women were allowed to vote in Nova Scotia, Canada..
  • 1918' – Women were allowed to vote in the Moldavian SSR.
  • 1918' – Women were allowed to vote in the United Kingdom (see Representation of the People Act 1918: suffrage only applied to women above the age of 30, compared to 21 for men and 19 for those who had fought in World War One. Various property qualifications remained.)
  • 1919 – The universal franchise was established in the Isle of Man.
  • 1919 – Women were allowed to vote in Belgium (only at municipal level).
  • 1919 – Women in New Zealand (including Maori women) were allowed to stand for election.[42]
  • 1919 – The universal franchise was established in Sweden in 1919, which went into effect at the 1921 elections.

Belgium (only at municipal level)

  • 1919 – Women were allowed to vote in the country of Georgia.
  • 1919 – Women were allowed to vote in Hungary (full suffrage granted in 1945.)
  • 1919 – Women were allowed to vote in Luxembourg.
  • 1919 – Women were allowed to vote in the Netherlands (right to stand in election granted in 1917.)
  • 1919 – Women were allowed to stand for election into parliament in New Zealand.
  • 1919 – Women were allowed to vote in New Brunswick (women could not stand for office in New Brunswick until 1934).
  • 1919 – Women were allowed to vote and stand for election into parliament in Southern Rhodesia.
  • 1920s – Some Baptist denominations started ordaining women.
  • 1920 – Women were allowed to vote in Albania.
  • 1920 – Women were allowed to vote in Czechoslovakia.
  • 1920 – The Methodist Episcopal Church granted women the right to become licensed as local preachers.
  • 1920 – The Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is passed, guaranteeing women the right to vote in the United States.
  • 1921 – Women were allowed to vote in Sweden.
  • 1922 – The Jewish Reform movement's Central Conference of American Rabbis stated that "...woman cannot justly be denied the privilege of ordination."[53] However, the first woman in Reform Judaism to be ordained (Sally Priesand) was not ordained until 1972.
  • 1922 – The Annual Conference of the Church of the Brethren granted women the right to be licensed into the ministry, but not to be ordained with the same status as men.
  • 1922 – Women were allowed to vote in Burma.
  • 1922 – Women were allowed to vote in Yucatán, Mexico (regional and congress elections only).
  • 1922 – In the Irish Free State—now known as the Republic of Ireland&mdash equal suffrage for women was granted upon independence from the UK.
  • 1924 – The Methodist Episcopal Church granted women limited clergy rights as local elders or deacons, without conference membership.
  • 1924Ida B. Robinson founded the Mount Sinai Holy Church of America and became the organization's first presiding bishop and president.
  • 1924 – Women were allowed to vote in Ecuador. (A doctor, Matilde Hidalgo de Prócel, sued and won the right to vote.)
  • 1924 – Women were allowed to vote in Spain (only for single women and widows in local elections. First women mayors.)
  • 1924 – Women were allowed to vote in Mongolia. (No electoral system was in place prior to this year.)
  • 1924 – Women were allowed to vote in Saint Lucia.
  • 1924 – Women were allowed to vote in the Kazakh SSR.
  • 1924 – Women were allowed to vote in the Tajik SSR.
  • 1925 – Women were allowed to vote in Italy (local elections only).
  • 1925 – Women were allowed to vote in the Dominion of Newfoundland—franchise only at age 25, men could vote at age 21.
  • 1927 – Women were allowed to vote in the Turkmen SSR.
  • 1927 – Women were allowed to vote in Uruguay (Women's suffrage was broadcast for the first time in 1927, in the plebiscite of Cerro Chato.)
  • 1928 – In the United Kingdom, the Representation of the People (Equal Franchise) Act 1928 gives women electoral equality with men.
  • 1929 – Izabela Wiłucka-Kowalska was the first woman to be ordained by the Old Catholic Mariavite Church in Poland.
  • 1929 – Women were allowed to vote in Romania (local elections only, with restrictions).[54]
  • 1929 – Women were allowed to vote in Puerto Rico.
  • 1929 – Women were allowed to vote in Ecuador (The right of women to vote was written into the Constitution)
  • 1930 – A predecessor church of the Presbyterian Church (USA) ordained its first female as an elder.
  • 1930 – White women were allowed to vote in South Africa (Women's Enfranchisement Act, 1930; only granted to white women on the same basis as white men)
  • 1930 – In Turkey women won the right to vote in municipal elections on March 20, 1930. That year Turkey held first election that allows women to vote.[55] On December 5, 1934 Turkish women were granted full universal suffrage. Turkish women who participated for the parliament elections as a first time on February 8, 1935 obtained 18 seats.
  • 1930 – Women were allowed to stand for office in New Brunswick.
  • 1930 – Women were allowed to vote in Ceylon (Sri Lanka).
  • 1930 – Women were allowed to vote in Chile (only at municipal level for female owners of real estate; Legislative Decree No. 320.)
  • 1930 – Women were allowed to vote in Portugal (with restrictions following level of education.)
  • 1932 – Women were allowed to vote in Brazil.
  • 1932 – Women were allowed to vote in the Maldives.
  • 1932 – Women were allowed to vote in Thailand (Siam).
  • 1930 – Universal suffrage was established in Spain.
  • 1934 – Women were allowed to vote in Chile (only at municipal level; Law No. 5,357.)
  • 1934 – Women were allowed to vote in Cuba.
  • 1934 – Portugal expands suffrage.
  • 1934 – Women were allowed to vote in Tabasco, Mexico (regional and congress elections only).
  • 1934 – On December 5, 1934 Turkish women were granted full universal suffrage.
  • 1935 – Women were allowed to vote in the British Raj (same year as men, retained by India and Pakistan after independence in 1947).
  • 1935 – Turkish women who participated for the parliament elections as a first time on February 8, 1935 obtained 18 seats.
  • 1935Regina Jonas was ordained privately by a German rabbi and became the world's first female rabbi.
  • 1936Lydia Emelie Gruchy became the first female minister in the United Church of Canada. In 1953, the Reverend Lydia Emelie Grouchy was the first Canadian woman to receive an honorary Doctor of Divinity.[56]
  • 1937 – The Netherlands Dutch East Indies began passive suffrage for European women.
  • 1937 – Women were allowed to vote in the Philippines.[42]
  • 1938Tehilla Lichtenstein became the first Jewish American woman to serve as the spiritual leader of an ongoing Jewish congregation, although she was not ordained.[57]
  • 1938 – Women were allowed to vote in Bolivia.
  • 1938 – Women were allowed to vote in Bulgaria (mothers only.)
  • 1938 – Women were allowed to vote in Uzbek SSR.
  • 1939 – Women were allowed to vote in El Salvador.[42]
  • 1939 – Women were allowed to vote in Romania (on equal terms with men, but both men and women had restrictions; in practice the restrictions affected women more than men.)[58][59]
  • 1940 – Women were allowed to vote in Quebec.
  • 1941 – Women were allowed to vote in the Netherlands Dutch East Indies (for European women only.)
  • 1941 – Women were allowed to vote in Panama (with restrictions).
  • 1942 – Women were allowed to vote in the Dominican Republic.
  • 1944 – Florence Li Tim Oi became the first woman to be ordained as an Anglican priest. She was born in Hong Kong, and was ordained in Guandong province in unoccupied China on January 25, 1944, on account of a severe shortage of priests due to World War II. When the war ended, she was forced to relinquish her priesthood, yet she was reinstated as a priest later in 1971 in Hong Kong. "When Hong Kong ordained two further women priests in 1971 (Joyce Bennett and Jane Hwang), Florence Li Tim-Oi was officially recognised as a priest by the diocese."[60] She later moved to Toronto, Canada, and assisted as a priest there from 1983 onwards.
  • 1944 – Women were allowed to vote in Bermuda (property-holding women only.)[61]
  • 1944 – Women were given full voting rights in Bulgaria.
  • 1944 – Women were allowed to vote in Jamaica.
  • 1945 – Women had full suffrage in Hungary.
  • 1945 – Women were allowed to vote in France (October 21.)
  • 1945 – Women were allowed to vote in Indonesia (Dutch East Indies)
  • 1945 – Women were allowed to vote in Italy.[62]
  • 1945 – Women were allowed to vote in Japan.
  • 1945 – Women were allowed to vote in Senegal.
  • 1945 – Women were allowed to vote in Togo (French Togoland).
  • 1945 – Women were allowed to vote in Yugoslavia.
  • 1946 – The United Nations establishes a Commission on the Status of Women.
  • 1946 – Women were allowed to vote in Cameroon.
  • 1946 – Women were allowed to vote in Djibouti (French Somaliland).
  • 1946 – Women were allowed to vote in Guatemala.
  • 1946 – Women were allowed to vote in Kenya.
  • 1946 – Women were allowed to vote in North Korea.[63]
  • 1946 – Women were allowed to vote in Liberia (Americo women only; indigenous men and women were not enfranchised until 1951)
  • 1946 – Women were allowed to vote in the British Mandate for Palestine.
  • 1946 – Portugal expanded suffrage.
  • 1946 – Women were allowed to vote in Romania.[58]
  • 1946 – Women were allowed to vote in Venezuela.
  • 1946 – Women were allowed to vote in Vietnam.
  • 1947 – The Lutheran Protestant Church started to ordain women as priests.[64]
  • 1947 – Women were allowed to vote in Argentina.[65]
  • 1947 – Women were allowed to vote in the Republic of China (includes Taiwan (with restrictions.)
  • 1947 – Women were allowed to vote in Malta.
  • 1947 – Women were allowed to vote in Mexico (only at municipal level).
  • 1947 – Women were allowed to vote in Nepal.
  • 1947 – Women were allowed to vote in Pakistan (Pakistan declared independence on the 14th of August 1947).
  • 1947 – Women were allowed to vote in Singapore.
  • 1947 – The Czechoslovak Hussite Church started to ordain women.
  • 1948 – The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Denmark started to ordain women.
  • 1948 – The Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the UN includes Article 21: The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures. [66]
  • 1948 – Women were allowed to vote in Belgium.
  • 1948 – Women were allowed to vote in Israel (upon its establishment).
  • 1948 – Women were allowed to vote in South Korea.
  • 1948 – Women were allowed to vote in Niger.
  • 1948 – Women were allowed to vote in Surinam.
  • 1949 – The Old Catholic Church (in the U.S.) started to ordain women.
  • 1949Eleanora Figaro became the first black woman to receive the papal honor Pro Ecclesia et Pontifice.
  • 1949 – Women were allowed to preach in the Church of Scotland from 1949.
  • 1949Simone de Beauvoir publishes The Second Sex.
  • 1949 – Women were allowed to vote in Chile (the right was expanded to all elections on January 8 by Law No. 9,292.)
  • 1949 – Women were allowed to vote in the Netherlands Antilles (Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Sint Maarten, Saba, and Sint Eustatius.)[67]
  • 1949 – Women were allowed to vote in the People's Republic of China.
  • 1949 – Women were allowed to vote in Costa Rica.
  • 1949 – Women were allowed to vote in Syria.
  • 1950 – Women were allowed to vote in Barbados.
  • 1950 – Women were allowed to vote in Haiti.
  • 1950 – Women were allowed to vote in India (same year as men.)
  • 1950 – In August 1950, amidst the success of Dianetics, Hubbard held a demonstration in Los Angeles' Shrine Auditorium where he presented a young woman called Sonya Bianca (a pseudonym) to a large audience including many reporters and photographers as "the world's first Clear." However, despite Hubbard's claim that she had "full and perfect recall of every moment of her life", Bianca proved unable to answer questions from the audience testing her memory and analytical abilities, including the question of the color of Hubbard's tie. Hubbard explained Bianca's failure to display her promised powers of recall to the audience by saying that he had used the word "now" in calling her to the stage, and thus inadvertently froze her in "present time," which blocked her abilities.[68][69]
  • 1951 – Women were allowed to vote in Antigua and Barbuda.
  • 1951 – Women were allowed to vote in Dominica.
  • 1951 – Women were allowed to vote in Grenada.
  • 1951 – Women were allowed to vote in Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla.
  • 1951 – Women were allowed to vote in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.
  • 1951 – From 1951 until 1953, Paula Ackerman served as Temple Beth Israel’s spiritual leader. In so doing, she achieved the distinction of becoming the first woman to assume spiritual leadership of a mainstream American Jewish congregation, although she was never ordained.[70]
  • 1952 – United Nations enacts Convention on the Political Rights of Women.
  • 1952 – Women were allowed to vote in Bolivia.
  • 1952 – Women were allowed to vote in the Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast).
  • 1952 – Women were allowed to vote in Greece.
  • 1952 – Women were allowed to vote in Lebanon.
  • 1952 – Queen Elizabeth II became the Supreme Governor of the Church of England.[71][72]
  • 1953 – Women were allowed to vote in Bhutan.
  • 1953 – Women were allowed to vote in British Guiana (now Guyana).
  • 1953 – Women were allowed to vote in Mexico (extended to all women and for national elections).
  • 1954 – Women were allowed to vote in British Honduras (now Belize).
  • 1954 – Women were allowed to vote in the Gold Coast (now Ghana).
  • 1955 – Women were allowed to vote in Cambodia.
  • 1955 – Women were allowed to vote in Ethiopia (and Eritrea, as then a part of Ethiopia.)
  • 1955 – Women were allowed to vote in Honduras.
  • 1955 – Women were allowed to vote in Nicaragua.
  • 1955 – Women were allowed to vote in Peru.
  • 1956 – Maud K. Jensen was the first woman to receive full clergy rights and conference membership (in her case, in the Central Pennsylvania Conference) in the Methodist Church.
  • 1956 – Women were allowed to vote in Dahomey (now Benin).
  • 1956 – Women were allowed to vote in Comoros.
  • 1956 – Women were allowed to vote in Egypt.
  • 1956 – Women were allowed to vote in Gabon.
  • 1956 – Women were allowed to vote in Mali (French Sudan).
  • 1956 – Women were allowed to vote in Mauritius.
  • 1956 – Women were allowed to vote in Pakistan (right extended to national level, previously only literate women could vote.)[73]
  • 1956 – Women were allowed to vote in Somalia (British Somaliland).
  • 1956 – The Presbyterian Church (USA) ordained its first female minister, Margaret Towner.[74]
  • 1957 – In 1957 the Unity Synod of the Moravian Church declared of women's ordination "in principle such ordination is permissible" and that each province is at liberty to "take such steps as seem essential for the maintenance of the ministry of the Word and Sacraments;" however, while this was approved by the Unity Synod in 1957, the Northern Province of the Moravian Church did not approve women for ordination until 1970 at the Provincial Synod, and it was not until 1975 that the Revd Mary Matz became the first female minister within the Moravian Church.[75]
  • 1957 – Women were allowed to vote in Colombia. (by Constitution)[76]
  • 1957 – Women were allowed to vote in Malaya (now Malaysia).
  • 1957 – Women were allowed to vote in Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe).
  • 1958 – Women ministers in the Church of the Brethren were given full ordination with the same status as men.[77]
  • 1958 – The Church of Sweden became the first Lutheran church to ordain female pastors in 1958.
  • 1958 – Women were allowed to vote in Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso).
  • 1958 – Women were allowed to vote in Chad.
  • 1958 – Women were allowed to vote in Guinea.
  • 1958 – Women were allowed to vote in Laos.
  • 1958 – Women were allowed to vote in South Nigeria.
  • 1959 – Women were allowed to vote in Brunei.
  • 1959 – Women were allowed to vote in Vaud.
  • 1959 – Women were allowed to vote in Neuchâtel.
  • 1959 – Women were allowed to vote in Madagascar (Malagasy Republic).
  • 1959 – Women were allowed to vote in San Marino.
  • 1959 – Women were allowed to vote in Tanganyika (now Tanzania).
  • 1959 – Women were allowed to vote in Tunisia.
  • 1959 – The Reverend Gusta A. Robinette, a missionary, was ordained in the Sumatra (Indonesia) Conference soon after The Methodist Church granted full clergy rights to women in 1956. She was appointed District Superintendent of the Medan Chinese District in Indonesia becoming the first female district superintendent in the Methodist Church.
  • 1960 – The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Sweden started ordaining women.
  • 1960 – Women were allowed to vote in Cyprus (upon its establishment).
  • 1960 – Women were allowed to vote in Gambia.
  • 1960 – Women were allowed to vote in Geneva.
  • 1960 – Women were allowed to vote in Tonga.
  • 1960 – The first contraceptive pill, Enovid, is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
  • 1961 – Women were allowed to vote in Burundi.
  • 1961 – Women were allowed to vote in Mauritania.
  • 1961 – Women were allowed to vote in Malawi.
  • 1961 – Women were allowed to vote in Paraguay.
  • 1961 – Women were allowed to vote in Rwanda.
  • 1961 – Women were allowed to vote in Sierra Leone.
  • 1962 – Women were allowed to vote in Algeria.
  • 1962 – The Australian franchise was extended to Aboriginal men and women.
  • 1962 –The right to vote in Brunei was revoked for women and men.
  • 1962 – Women were allowed to vote in Monaco.
  • 1962 – Women were allowed to vote in Uganda.
  • 1962 – Women were allowed to vote in Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia).
  • 1963Betty Friedan publishes The Feminine Mystique, widely credited with sparking the beginning of second-wave feminism in the United States.
  • 1963 – Women were allowed to vote in the Congo.
  • 1963 – Women were allowed to vote in Equatorial Guinea.
  • 1963 – Women were allowed to vote in Fiji.
  • 1963 – Women were allowed to vote in Iran (See Iranian constitutional referendum, 1963).
  • 1963 – Women were allowed to vote in Kenya.
  • 1963 – Women were allowed to vote in Morocco.
  • 1964Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 becomes law in the U.S., barring employment discrimination on account of sex, race, etc. by private employers, employment agencies, and unions.
  • 1964 – Women were allowed to vote in Bahamas.
  • 1964 – Women were allowed to vote in Libya.
  • 1964 – Women were allowed to vote in Papua New Guinea (Territory of Papua & Territory of New Guinea).
  • 1964 – Women were allowed to vote in Sudan.
  • 1964Addie Davis became the first Southern Baptist woman to be ordained.[78] However, the Southern Baptist Convention stopped ordaining women in 2000, although existing female pastors are allowed to continue their jobs.
  • 1965 – Women were allowed to vote in Afghanistan.[79]
  • 1965 – Women were allowed to vote in Botswana (Bechuanaland)
  • 1964 – Women were allowed to vote in (Basutoland).
  • 1965Rachel Henderlite became the first woman ordained in the Presbyterian Church in the United States; she was ordained by the Hanover Presbytery in Virginia.[80][81]
  • 1965 – According to Jacqui Ceballos, "Women at a 1965 SDS conference [were] put down with she just needs a good screw; the following year SDS women [were] pelted with tomatoes when they demand[ed] a plank on women's liberation." [82] SDS was an American organization.[83]
  • 1966 – Woman elders were introduced in 1966 in the Church of Scotland.
  • 1966 – Women were allowed to vote in Basel-Stadt.
  • 1967 – Women were allowed to vote in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • 1967 – In Ecuador women's vote made obligatory, like that of men.[84]
  • 1967 – Women were allowed to vote in Kiribati (Gilbert Islands).
  • 1967 – Women were allowed to vote in Tuvalu (Ellice Islands).
  • 1967 – Women were allowed to vote in South Yemen.
  • 1967 – The Presbyterian Church in Canada started ordaining women.
  • 1967 – Margaret Henrichsen became the first American female district superintendent in the Methodist Church.
  • 1967 – The first and only national [American] convention of the National Conference for New Politics is held, which Shulamith Firestone attends; a woman's caucus is formed there, and it (led by Shulamith Firestone and Jo Freeman) tries to present its own demands to the plenary session.[85] However, the women are told their resolution is not important enough for a floor discussion, and when through threatening to tie up the convention with procedural motions they succeed in having their statement tacked to the end of the agenda, it is never discussed.[86] When the National Conference for New Politics Director Willam F. Pepper refuses to recognize any of the women waiting to speak and instead calls on someone to speak about the American Indian, five women, including Firestone, rush the podium to demand to know why.[86] But Willam F. Pepper pats Firestone on the head and says, "Move on little girl; we have more important issues to talk about here than women's liberation," or possibly, "Cool down, little girl. We have more important things to talk about than women's problems."[85][86]
  • 1968 – Women ministers were introduced in the Church of Scotland in 1968.
  • 1968 – Women were allowed to vote in Basel-Landschaft, Switzerland.
  • 1968 – Universal suffrage was established in Bermuda.
  • 1968 – Women were allowed to vote in Nauru.
  • 1968 – Portugal claimed to have established "equality of political rights for men and women", although a few electoral rights were reserved for men.
  • 1968 – Women were allowed to vote in Swaziland.
  • 1969 – The common identification of Mary Magdalene with other New Testament figures was rejected in the 1969 revision of the General Roman Calendar, with the comment regarding her liturgical celebration on 22 July: "No change has been made in the title of today's memorial, but it concerns only Saint Mary Magdalene, to whom Christ appeared after his resurrection. It is not about the sister of Saint Martha, nor about the sinful woman whose sins the Lord forgave (Luke 7:36–50)."[87] Elsewhere it said of the Roman liturgy of 22 July that "it will make mention neither of Mary of Bethany nor of the sinful woman of Luke 7:36–50, but only of Mary Magdalene, the first person to whom Christ appeared after his resurrection".[88]
  • 1969 – In 1969, the New Left is present at a Counter-Inaugural held in America to counter Richard Nixon’s first inauguration, at which the antiwar leader Dave Dellinger, serving as master of ceremonies, incorrectly announces, "The women have asked all the men to leave the stage."[89] After that, SDS activist Marilyn Salzman Webb attempts to speak about women's oppression, and SDS men heckle her, shouting, "Take her off the stage and fuck her!" and so forth until she was drowned out.[89][90][91][92] Later Webb receives a threatening phone call which she thinks is from Cathy Wilkerson, but that was not confirmed, and it may have been from a government agent.[91]
  • 1969 – The first accredited Women's Studies course was held in 1969 at Cornell University.[93]
  • 1970 – The Northern Province of the Moravian Church approved women for ordination in 1970 at the Provincial Synod, but it was not until 1975 that the Revd Mary Matz became the first female minister within the Moravian Church.[75]
  • 1970 – On September 27, 1970, St. Teresa of Avila was proclaimed the first female Doctor of the Church by Pope Paul VI.[94]
  • 1970 – In 1970 Ludmila Javorova attempted ordination as a Catholic priest in Czechoslovakia by a friend of her family, Bishop Felix Davidek (1921–88), himself clandestinely consecrated, due to the shortage of priests caused by communist persecution; however, an official Vatican statement in February 2000 declared the ordinations invalid while recognizing the severe circumstances under which they occurred.
  • 1970 – On November 22, 1970, Elizabeth Alvina Platz became the first woman ordained by the Lutheran Church in America, and as such was the first woman ordained by any Lutheran denomination in America.[95] The first woman ordained by the American Lutheran Church, Barbara Andrews, was ordained in December 1970.[96] On January 1, 1988 the Lutheran Church in America, the American Lutheran Church, and the Association of Evangelical Lutheran Churches merged to form the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, which continues to ordain women.[97] (The first woman ordained by the Association of Evangelical Lutheran Churches, Janith Otte, was ordained in 1977.[98])
  • 1970 – The first two Women's Studies Programs in the United States were established in 1970 at San Diego State College (now San Diego State University) and SUNY-Buffalo. The SDSU program was initiated after a year of intense organizing of women's consciousness raising groups, rallies, petition circulating, and operating unofficial or experimental classes and presentations before seven committees and assemblies.[99][100]
  • 1970 – Women were allowed to vote in Andorra.
  • 1970 – Women were allowed to vote in North Yemen.
  • 1971 – Women were allowed to vote in Switzerland (on the federal level; women's suffrage was introduced on the Cantonal level from 1958–1990).
  • 1971 – Venerable Voramai, also called Ta Tao Fa Tzu, became the first fully ordained Thai woman in the Mahayana lineage in Taiwan and turned her family home into a monastery.
  • 1971Joyce Bennett and Jane Hwang were the first regularly ordained priests in the Anglican Church in Hong Kong.
  • 1972 – American feminists Gloria Steinem and Letty Cottin Pogrebin co-found Ms. magazine.[101][102]
  • 1972Title IX of the United States Education Amendments of 1972 is enacted.
  • 1972 – Freda Smith became the first female minister to be ordained by the Metropolitan Community Church.[103]
  • 1972Sally Priesand became America's first female rabbi ordained by a rabbinical seminary, and the second formally ordained female rabbi in Jewish history, after Regina Jonas.[104][105]
  • 1972 – The first scholarly journal in interdisciplinary women's studies, Feminist Studies, began publishing in 1972.[106]
  • 1972 – Women were allowed to vote in Bangladesh (upon its establishment).
  • 1973Emma Sommers Richards became the first Mennonite woman to be ordained as a pastor of a Mennonite congregation (Lombard Mennonite Church in Illinois).[107]
  • 1973 – The Supreme Court of the United States rules in Roe v. Wade that laws prohibiting abortion are unconstitutional. States are constitutionally allowed to place regulations on abortion which fall short of prohibition after the first trimester.[108]
  • 1973 – Women were allowed to vote in Bahrain.[109] (Bahrain did not hold elections until 2002.)[110]
  • 1974 – The Methodist Church in the United Kingdom started to ordain women again (after a lapse of ordinations).
  • 1974Sandy Eisenberg Sasso became the first female rabbi to be ordained in Reconstructionist Judaism.[111]
  • 1974 – On July 29, 1974, Bishops Daniel Corrigan, Robert L. DeWitt, and Edward R. Welles of the US Episcopal Church, with Bishop Antonio Ramos of Costa Rica, ordained eleven women as priests in a ceremony that was widely considered "irregular" because the women lacked "recommendation from the standing committee," a canonical prerequisite for ordination. The "Philadelphia Eleven", as they became known, were Merrill Bittner, Alison Cheek, Alla Bozarth (Campell), Emily C. Hewitt, Carter Heyward, Suzanne R. Hiatt (d. 2002), Marie Moorefield, Jeannette Piccard (d. 1981), Betty Bone Schiess, Katrina Welles Swanson (d. 2006), and Nancy Hatch Wittig.
  • 1974 – Women were allowed to vote in Jordan.
  • 1974 – Women were allowed to vote in the Solomon Islands.
  • 1975 – Women were allowed to vote in Angola.
  • 1975 – Women were allowed to vote in Cape Verde.
  • 1975 – Women were allowed to vote in Mozambique.
  • 1975 – Women were allowed to vote in São Tomé and Príncipe.
  • 1975 – Women were allowed to vote in Vanuatu (New Hebrides).
  • 1975 – The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Latvia decided to ordain women as pastors, although since 1993, under the leadership of Archbishop Janis Vanags, it no longer does so.
  • 1975 – Dorothea W. Harvey became the first woman to be ordained by the Swedenborgian Church.[112]
  • 1975Barbara Ostfeld-Horowitz became the first female cantor ordained in Reform Judaism.
  • 1975 – The Revd Mary Matz became the first female minister in the Moravian Church.
  • 1975Jackie Tabick, born in Dublin, became the first female rabbi ordained in England.[113]
  • 1975 – The Rt. Rev. George W. Barrett, of the US Episcopal Church, ordained four women in an irregular ceremony in Washington, D.C.; these women are known as the Washington Four.[114][114][115]
  • 1976 – Women were allowed to vote in Province of East Timor of Indonesia.
  • 1976 – All restrictions on women voting in Portugal were dropped by the Carnation Revolution.
  • 1976Michal Mendelsohn (born Michal Bernstein) became the first presiding female rabbi in a North American congregation when she was hired by Temple Beth El Shalom in San Jose, California, in 1976.[116][117]
  • 1976 – The Anglican Church in Canada ordained six female priests.[118]
  • 1976 – The Revd. Pamela McGee was the first female ordained to the Lutheran ministry in Canada.
  • 1976 – Karuna Dharma became the first fully ordained female member of the Buddhist monastic community in the U.S.[119]
  • 1977 – The Anglican Church in New Zealand ordained five female priests.
  • 1977 – Pauli Murray became the first African American woman to be ordained as an Episcopal priest in 1977.[120]
  • 1977 – Women were allowed to vote in Guinea-Bissau.
  • 1977 – The first woman ordained by the Association of Evangelical Lutheran Churches, Janith Otte, was ordained in 1977.[98]
  • 1977 – On January 1, 1977, Jacqueline Means became the first woman ordained to the priesthood in the Episcopal Church.[121] 11 women were "irregularly" ordained to the priesthood in Philadelphia on July 29, 1974, before church laws were changed to permit women's ordination.[122] They are often called the "Philadelphia 11". Church laws were changed on September 16, 1976.[122]
  • 1977 – The National Women's Studies Association (of the United States) was established in 1977.[123]
  • 1978 – Women were allowed to vote in the Marshall Islands.
  • 1978 – Women were allowed to vote in the Federated States of Micronesia.
  • 1978 – Women were allowed to vote in North Nigeria.
  • 1978 – Women were allowed to vote in Palau.
  • 1978Bonnie Koppell became the first female rabbi to serve in the U.S. military.[124]
  • 1978Linda Rich became the first female cantor to sing in a Conservative synagogue, specifically Temple Beth Zion in Los Angeles, although she was not ordained.[125]
  • 1978Mindy Jacobsen became the first blind woman to be ordained as a cantor in the history of Judaism.[126]
  • 1978Lauma Lagzdins Zusevics was ordained as the first woman to serve as a full-time minister for the Latvian Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.[127]
  • 1979 – The Reformed Church in America started ordaining women as ministers.[128] Women had been admitted to the offices of deacon and elder in 1972.
  • 1979Linda Joy Holtzman became one of the first women in the United States to serve as the presiding rabbi of a synagogue, when she was hired by Beth Israel Congregation of Chester County, which was then located in Coatesville, Pennsylvania.[129] She had graduated in 1979 from the Reconstructionist Rabbinical College in Philadelphia, yet was hired by Beth Israel despite their being a Conservative congregation.[130] She was thus the first woman to serve as a rabbi for a Conservative congregation, as the Conservative movement did not then ordain women.[131]
  • 1979 – Earlean Miller became the first African-American woman ordained in the Lutheran Church in America (LCA), the largest of three denominations that later combined to form the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.[132]
  • 1980Marjorie Matthews, at the age of 64, was the first woman elected as a bishop in the United Methodist Church.[133][134]
  • 1980 – Women were allowed to vote in Iraq.[109]
  • 1981Lynn Gottlieb became the first female rabbi to be ordained in the Jewish Renewal movement.
  • 1981Kinneret Shiryon, born in the United States, became the first female rabbi in Israel.[135][136]
  • 1981 – Ani Pema Chodron is an American woman who was ordained as a bhikkhuni (a fully ordained Buddhist nun) in a lineage of Tibetan Buddhism in 1981. Pema Chödrön was the first American woman to be ordained as a Buddhist nun in the Tibetan Buddhist tradition.
  • 1981Karen Soria, born and ordained in the United States, became Australia's first female rabbi.[137][138]
  • 1982 – Nyambura J. Njoroge became the first female ordained minister in the Presbyterian Church of East Africa.[139]
  • 1983 – An Anglican woman was ordained in Kenya.
  • 1983 – Three Anglican women were ordained in Uganda.
  • 1983Elyse Goldstein, born in the United States and ordained in 1983, became the first female rabbi in Canada.[140][141][142]
  • 1984 – Women were allowed to vote in Liechtenstein.
  • 1984 – Mississippi ratifies the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, but women in Mississippi had the right to vote since 1920.
  • 1984 – The Southern Baptist Convention adopted a resolution opposing women’s ordination in 1984.[143]
  • 1984 – The Community of Christ (known at the time as the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints) authorized the ordination of women. They are the second largest Latter Day Saint denomination. A schism brought on by this change and others led to the formation of the Restoration Branches movement, the Restoration Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints and the Remnant Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints all of which reject female priesthood, although not always the ordination of women in all contexts.
  • 1984Leontine Kelly, the first black woman bishop of a major religious denomination in the United States, is elected head of the United Methodist Church in the San Francisco area.
  • 1984 – Dr. Deborah Cohen became the first certified Reform mohelet (female mohel); she was certified by the Berit Mila program of Reform Judaism.[144]
  • 1985 – Women were allowed to vote in Kuwait.[145]
  • 1985 – According to the New York Times for 1985-FEB-14: "After years of debate, the worldwide governing body of Conservative Judaism has decided to admit women as rabbis. The group, the Rabbinical Assembly, plans to announce its decision at a news conference...at the Jewish Theological Seminary...". In 1985 Amy Eilberg became the first female rabbi to be ordained in Conservative Judaism.[146]
  • 1985 – The first women deacons were ordained by the Scottish Episcopal Church.
  • 1985Judy Harrow became the first member of CoG (Covenant of the Goddess, a Wiccan group) to be legally registered as clergy in New York City in 1985, after a five-year effort requiring the assistance of the New York Civil Liberties Union.[147]
  • 1986 – Women were allowed to vote in the Central African Republic.
  • 1986Rabbi Julie Schwartz became the first female Naval chaplain in the U.S.[148]
  • 1987Erica Lippitz and Marla Rosenfeld Barugel became the first female cantors in Conservative Judaism.
  • 1987Joy Levitt became the first female president of the Reconstructionist Rabbinical Association.[149]
  • 1987 – The first female deacons were ordained in the Church of England.[150]
  • 1987 – The American Bar Association's Commission on Women in the Profession was established in 1987.[151] Hillary Clinton was its first chair.[151] According to its website, the Commission "forges a new and better profession that ensures that women have equal opportunities for professional growth and advancement commensurate with their male counterparts." [152]
  • 1988 – The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland started to ordain women.
  • 1988 – Virginia Nagel was ordained as the first Deaf female priest in the Episcopal Church.[153]
  • 1988Jetsunma Ahkon Lhamo, an American woman formerly called Catharine Burroughs, became the first Western woman to be named a reincarnate lama.[154]
  • 1988 – The Episcopal Church elected Barbara Harris as its first female bishop.[155]
  • 1989 – Women were allowed to vote in Namibia (its independence was established that year; formerly it was South-West Africa).
  • 1989Einat Ramon, ordained in New York, became the first female native-Israeli rabbi.[156]
  • 1990s – The Riot grrrl movement, sometimes seen as the beginning of third-wave feminism, begins.
  • 1990Pauline Bebe became the first female rabbi in France, although she was ordained in England.[157][158]
  • 1990 – Women were allowed to vote in Samoa (Western Samoa).
  • 1990 In Switzerland, the Canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden is forced by the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland to accept women's suffrage.
  • 1990 – Penny Jamieson became the first female Anglican diocesan bishop in the world. She was ordained a bishop of the Anglican Church in New Zealand in June 1990.[159]
  • 1990 – Anglican women were ordained in Ireland.
  • 1990 – Sister Cora Billings was installed as a pastor in Richmond, VA, becoming the first black nun to head a parish in the U.S.[14]
  • 1990 – The Cantors Assembly, an international professional organization of cantors associated with Conservative Judaism, began allowing women to join.[160]
  • 1990 – The first Ph.D. program in Women's Studies was established at Emory University the United States in 1990.[161]
  • 1991 – The Presbyterian Church of Australia ceased ordaining women to the ministry in 1991, but the rights of women ordained prior to this time were not affected.
  • 1991 – The Cooperative Baptist Fellowship, which supports ordaining women, was founded in 1991.[143]
  • 1992Naamah Kelman, born in the United States, became the first female rabbi ordained in Israel.[162][163]
  • 1992 – In March 1992 the first female priests in Australia were appointed; they were priests of the Anglican Church in Australia.[164]
  • 1992 – Maria Jepsen became the world's first woman to be elected a Lutheran bishop when she was elected bishop of the North Elbian Evangelical Lutheran Church in Germany, but she resigned in 2010 after allegations that she failed to properly investigate cases of sexual abuse.[165]
  • 1992 – In November 1992 the General Synod of the Church of England approved the ordination of women as priests.[166]
  • 1992 – The Anglican Church of South Africa started to ordain women.
  • 1992 – Rabbi Karen Soria became the first female rabbi to serve in the U.S. Marines, which she did from 1992 until 1996.[167]
  • 1992 – The "Year of the Woman" sees four women enter the United States Senate to join the two already there.
  • 1993Janet Reno is nominated and confirmed as the first female U.S. Attorney General.
  • 1993Rebecca Dubowe became the first Deaf woman to be ordained as a rabbi in the United States.[168]
  • 1993 – The Communauté Evangélique Mennonite au Congo (Mennonite Evangelical Community of Congo) voted to ordain women as pastors.[169]
  • 1993Valerie Stessin became the first female Conservative rabbi to be ordained in Israel.[156]
  • 1993Chana Timoner became the first female rabbi to hold an active duty assignment as a chaplain in the U.S. Army.[170]
  • 1993 – Victoria Matthews was elected as the first female bishop of the Anglican Church of Canada; however she resigned in 2007, stating that "God is now calling me in a different direction".[171] In 2008, she was ordained as Bishop of Christchurch, becoming the first woman to hold that position.[172]
  • 1993Rosemarie Kohn became the first female bishop to be appointed in the Church of Norway.[173][174]
  • 1993 – Leslie Friedlander became the first female cantor ordained by the Academy for Jewish Religion (New York).[175][176]
  • 1993Maya Leibovich became the first native-born female rabbi in Israel.[177]
  • 1993Ariel Stone, also called C. Ariel Stone, became the first American Reform rabbi to lead a congregation in the former Soviet Union, and the first liberal rabbi in Ukraine.[109][178][179] She worked as a rabbi in Ukraine from 1993 until 1994, leaving her former job at the Temple of Israel in Miami.[109][178][180]
  • 1994Lia Bass was ordained by the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York, thus becoming the first Latin-American female rabbi in the world as well as the first woman from Brazil to be ordained as a rabbi.[181][182][183][184]
  • 1994 – The first women priests were ordained by the Scottish Episcopal Church.
  • 1994 – Women were allowed to vote in Kazakhstan.
  • 1994 – Rabbi Laura Geller became the first woman to lead a major metropolitan congregation, specifically Temple Emanuel in Beverly Hills.[185][186]
  • 1994 – Indrani Rampersad was ordained as the first female Hindu priest in Trinidad.[187]
  • 1994 – On March 12, 1994, the Church of England ordained 32 women as its first female priests.[188]
  • 1994Amina Wadud, born in the United States, became the first woman in South Africa to deliver the jum'ah khutbah, at the Claremont Main Road Mosque in Cape Town.
  • 1994 – The Gender Equity in Education Act becomes law in the U.S. It bans sex-role stereotyping and gender discrimination in the classroom.[189]
  • 1994Marital rape is declared illegal in the United Kingdom as part of the Criminal Justice Act.
  • 1995 – The Sligo Seventh-day Adventist Church in Takoma Park, Maryland, ordained three women in violation of the denomination's rules - Kendra Haloviak, Norma Osborn, and Penny Shell.[190]
  • 1995 – The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Denmark ordained its first female bishop.[191]
  • 1995Bea Wyler, born in Switzerland, became the second female rabbi in Germany (the first being Regina Jonas),and the first to officiate at a congregation.[192][193]
  • 1995 – The Christian Reformed Church voted to allow women ministers, elders and evangelists. In 1998, the North American Presbyterian and Reformed Council (NAPARC) suspended the CRC's membership because of this decision.
  • 1995Lise-Lotte Rebel was elected as the first female bishop in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Denmark.[194]
  • 1995 – In May 1995, Bola Odeleke was ordained as the first female bishop in Africa. Specifically, she was ordained in Nigeria.[195]
  • 1996Fauziya Kasinga, a 19-year-old member of the Tchamba-Kunsuntu tribe of Togo, is granted asylum by the United States after leaving an arranged marriage to escape female genital mutilation; this sets a precedent in US immigration law because it is the first time female genital mutilation is accepted as a form of persecution.[196][197]
  • 1996 – Italy amended its rape laws, toughening the punishment for sexual assault and reclassifying it from a moral offense to a criminal felony.[198]
  • 1996 – Women were no longer allowed to vote in Afghanistan.[79][199]
  • 1996 – Through the efforts of Sakyadhita, an International Buddhist Women Association, ten Sri Lankan women were ordained as bhikkhunis in Sarnath, India.[200]
  • 1996Subhana Barzagi Roshi became the Diamond Sangha's first female roshi (Zen teacher) when she received transmission on March 9, 1996, in Australia. In the ceremony Subhanna also became the first female roshi in the lineage of Robert Aitken Roshi.[201]
  • 1997 – Rosalina Rabaria became the first female priest in the Philippine Independent Church.[202]
  • 1997 – Women were allowed to vote in municipal elections in Qatar.
  • 1997 – Christina Odenberg became the first female bishop in the Church of Sweden.[203]
  • 1997Chava Koster, born in the Netherlands and ordained in the United States, became the first female rabbi from the Netherlands.[204]
  • 1998Nelinda Primavera-Briones was elected as the first female bishop of the United Church of Christ in the Philippines (UCCP).[205]
  • 1998 – The General Assembly of the Nippon Sei Ko Kai (Anglican Church in Japan) started to ordain women.
  • 1998 – The Guatemalan Presbyterian Synod started to ordain women.
  • 1998 – The Old Catholic Church in the Netherlands started to ordain women.
  • 1998 – On July 28, 1998, Ava Muhammad became the first female minister in the Nation of Islam, heading Muhammad's Mosque 15 in Atlanta, Ga., one of the largest mosques in the country.[206][207] In addition to administering day-to-day affairs there she was named Southern Regional Minister, giving her jurisdiction over Nation of Islam mosque activity in Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and parts of Tennessee.[208]
  • 1998 – Some Orthodox Jewish congregations started to employ women as congregational interns, a job created for learned Orthodox Jewish women. Although these interns do not lead worship services, they perform some tasks usually reserved for rabbis, such as preaching, teaching, and consulting on Jewish legal matters. The first woman hired as a congregational intern was Julie Stern Joseph, hired in 1998 by the Lincoln Square Synagogue of the Upper West Side.[209][210]
  • 1998Nelly Shulman, born in Russia and ordained in England, became the first female rabbi from Russia and the first female rabbi in Belarus, serving as the chief reform rabbi of Minsk, Belarus.[211][212]
  • 1998 – Sherry Chayat, born in Brooklyn, became the first American woman to receive transmission in the Rinzai school of Buddhism.
  • 1998 – In 1998 Kay Ward became the first female bishop in the Moravian Church.[75]
  • 1998 – After 900 years without such ordinations, Sri Lanka again began to ordain women as fully ordained Buddhist nuns, called bhikkhunis.
  • 1998Gail E. Mengel and Linda L. Booth became the first two women apostles in the Community of Christ.
  • 1998 – The Baptist Faith and Message was amended in 1998 to declare "a wife is to submit herself graciously" to her husband.
  • 1999 – The Independent Presbyterian Church of Brazil allowed the ordination of women as either clergy or elders.
  • 1999 – The Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA) became the first large denomination to have a majority of female ministers. In April 1999, female ministers outnumbered their male counterpart 431 to 422.
  • 1999 – Beth Lockard was ordained as the first Deaf pastor in the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.[213][214]
  • 1999 – The first female bishop of the Czechoslovak-Hussite church, Jana Šilerová, was elected to a 7-year term of office in April 1999.[215]
  • 1999Tamara Kolton became the first rabbi of either sex (and therefore, because she was female, the first female rabbi) to be ordained in Humanistic Judaism.
  • 1999 – Women were no longer allowed to vote in Kuwait.[145]
  • 1999Katalin Kelemen, born in Hungary but ordained at Leo Baeck College in England, was inducted as the rabbi of the Sim Shalom Progressive Jewish Congregation in Budapest, Hungary, thus becoming the first female rabbi in Hungary.[216][217][218][219]
  • 1999Angela Warnick Buchdahl, born in Seoul, Korea,[220] became the first Asian-American person to be ordained as a cantor in the world when she was ordained by HUC-JIR, an American seminary for Reform Judaism.[221]

21st century[edit]

  • 2000 – The Baptist Union of Scotland voted to allow their individual churches to make local decisions as to whether to allow or prohibit the ordination of women.
  • 2000 – The Baptist Faith and Message was amended in 2000 to state, "While both men and women are gifted for service in the church, the office of pastor is limited to men as qualified by Scripture."
  • 2000 – The Mennonite Brethren Church of Congo ordained its first female pastor in 2000.[222]
  • 2000Helga Newmark, born in Germany, became the first female Holocaust survivor ordained as a rabbi. She was ordained in America.[223][224]
  • 2000 – In July 2000 Vashti McKenzie was elected as the first female bishop in the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church.[225]
  • 2000 – The Lutheran Evangelical Protestant Church (GCEPC) has ordained women since its inception in the year 2000.
  • 2000 – The Mombasa diocese of the Anglican Church in Kenya began to ordain women.
  • 2000 – The Church of Pakistan ordained its first female deacons. It is a united church which dates back to the 1970 local merger of Anglicans, Methodists, Presbyterians, Lutherans and other Protestant denominations.
  • 2001Angela Warnick Buchdahl, born in Seoul, Korea,[220] became the first Asian-American person to be ordained as a rabbi in the world; she was ordained by HUC-JIR, an American seminary for Reform Judaism.[221]
  • 2001Eveline Goodman-Thau became the first female rabbi in Austria; she was born in Austria but ordained in Jerusalem.[226]
  • 2001 – Women were allowed to vote in Afghanistan.[79]
  • 2001Deborah Davis became the first cantor of either sex (and therefore, since she was female, the first female cantor) in Humanistic Judaism; however, Humanistic Judaism has since stopped graduating cantors.
  • 2001Brigitte Boehme became the first female president of the Evangelical Church of Bremen.
  • 2002Sharon Hordes became the very first cantor in Reconstructionist Judaism. Therefore, since she was a woman, she became their first female cantor.
  • 2002 – Rabbi Pamela Frydman became the first female president of OHALAH (Association of Rabbis for Jewish Renewal)[227]
  • 2002Avitall Gerstetter became the first female cantor in Jewish Renewal and the first female cantor in Germany.[228][229]
  • 2002 – The Danube Seven (Christine Mayr-Lumetzberger, Adelinde Theresia Roitinger, Gisela Forster, Iris Muller, Ida Raming, Pia Brunner and Angela White), a group of seven women from Germany, Austria, and the United States, were ordained on a ship on the Danube on 29 June 2002 by Rómulo Antonio Braschi, an Independent Catholic bishop whose own episcopal ordination was considered 'valid but illicit' by the Roman Catholic Church. The women's ordinations were not, however, recognised as being valid by the Roman Catholic Church. As a consequence of this violation of canon law and their refusal to repent, the women were excommunicated in 2003.[230][231] Since then several similar actions have been held by Roman Catholic Womenpriests, a group in favor of women's ordination in Roman Catholicism; this was the first such action.[232]
  • 2002Khenmo Drolma, an American woman, became the first Bhikkhuni (fully ordained Buddhist nun) in the Drikung Kagyu lineage of Buddhism, traveling to Taiwan to be ordained.
  • 2002 – A 55-year-old Buddhist nun, Varanggana Vanavichayen, became the first female monk to be ordained in Thailand. She was ordained by a Sri Lankan woman monk in the presence of a male Thai monk. Theravada scriptures, as interpreted in Thailand, require that for a woman to be ordained as a monk, the ceremony must be attended by both a male and female monk.[233]
  • 2002Jacqueline Mates-Muchin was ordained by Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion in New York, and thus became the first Chinese-American rabbi.[234][235][236]
  • 2003 – Ayya Sudhamma became the first American-born woman to receive bhikkhuni ordination in Sri Lanka.
  • 2003Sarah Schechter became the first female rabbi in the U.S. Air Force.[237][238]
  • 2003 – Women were allowed to vote in Oman.
  • 2003Sandra Kochmann, born in Paraguay, became the first female rabbi in Brazil.
  • 2003 – Born in Canada and educated in England, Nancy Morris became Scotland's first female rabbi in 2003.[239]
  • 2003 – Rabbi Janet Marder was named the first female president of the Reform Movement's Central Conference of American Rabbis (CCAR) on March 26, 2003, making her the first woman to lead a major rabbinical organization and the first woman to lead any major Jewish co-ed religious organization in the United States.[240]
  • 2003 – On February 28, 2003, Dhammananda Bhikkhuni, formerly known as Chatsumarn Kabilsingh, became the first Thai woman to receive full ordination as a Theravada nun. She was ordained in Sri Lanka.
  • 2003Sivan Malkin Maas became the first Israeli to be ordained as a rabbi in Humanistic Judaism; she was ordained by the International Institute for Secular Humanistic Judaism in 2003.[241][242]
  • 2003 – Canadian Aviel Barclay became the world's first known traditionally trained female sofer.[243][244]
  • 2003 – In the summer of 2003, two of the Danube Seven, Christine Mayr-Lumetzberger (from Austria) and Gisela Forster (from Germany), were ordained as bishops by several male bishops of independent churches not affiliated with the Vatican. These ordinations were done in secret and are not recognised as valid by the Roman Catholic Church. At the death of the male bishops, their identities will be revealed.[231] Since then several similar actions have been held by Roman Catholic Womenpriests, a group in favor of women's ordination in Roman Catholicism; this was the first such action for female bishops.[232]
  • 2003 – The Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003 (Pub.L. 108–105, 117 Stat. 1201, enacted November 5, 2003, 18 U.S.C. § 1531,[245] PBA Ban) is enacted; it is a United States law prohibiting a form of late-term abortion that the Act calls "partial-birth abortion", referred to in medical literature as intact dilation and extraction.[246]
  • 2004 – Khenmo Drolma, an American woman, became the first westerner of either sex to be installed as an abbot in the Drikung Kagyu lineage of Buddhism, being installed as the abbot of the Vajra Dakini Nunnery in Vermont (America's first Tibetan Buddhist nunnery) in 2004.
  • 2004Barbara Aiello, born and ordained in the United States, became the first female rabbi in Italy.[247]
  • 2004 – In Canada, Yasmin Shadeer led the night 'Isha prayer for a mixed-gender (men as well as women praying and hearing the sermon) congregation. This is the first recorded occasion in modern times where a woman led a congregation in prayer in a mosque.
  • 2004 – Genevieve Benay (from France), Michele Birch-Conery (from Canada), Astride Indrican (from Latvia), Victoria Rue (from the USA), Jane Via (from the USA), and Monika Wyss (from Switzerland) were ordained as deacons on a ship in the Danube. The women's ordinations were not, however, recognised as being valid by the Roman Catholic Church. As a consequence of this violation of canon law and their refusal to repent, the women were excommunicated. Since then several similar actions have been held by Roman Catholic Womenpriests, a group in favor of women's ordination in Roman Catholicism; this was the first such action for female deacons.[248]*
  • 2004 – Maria Pap was elected to the position of district dean in the Unitarian Church of Transylvania, the highest post ever held by a woman in that Church.[249]
  • 2005The Lutheran Evangelical Protestant Church, (LEPC) (GCEPC) in the USA elected Nancy Kinard Drew as its first female Presiding Bishop.
  • 2005 – Annalu Waller, who had cerebral palsy, was ordained as the first disabled female priest in the Scottish Episcopal Church.[250][251]
  • 2005 – Women were allowed to vote in Kuwait.[145]
  • 2005Floriane Chinsky, born in Paris and ordained in Jerusalem, became Belgium's first female rabbi.[252]
  • 2005 – In April 2005, Raheel Raza, born in Pakistan, led Toronto's first woman-led mixed-gender Friday prayer service, delivering the sermon and leading the prayers of the mixed-gender congregation organized by the Muslim Canadian Congress to celebrate Earth Day in the backyard of the downtown Toronto home of activist Tarek Fatah.
  • 2005 – On July 1, 2005, Pamela Taylor, a Muslim convert since 1986, became the first woman to lead Friday prayers in a Canadian mosque, and did so for a congregation of both men and women. Pamela Taylor is an American convert to Islam and co-chair of the New York-based Progressive Muslim Union. In addition to leading the prayers, Taylor also gave a sermon on the importance of equality among people regardless of gender, race, sexual orientation and disability.
  • 2005Elisa Klapheck, born in Germany, became the first female rabbi in the Netherlands.[253]
  • 2005 – On March 18, 2005, an American woman named Amina Wadud (an Islamic studies professor at Virginia Commonwealth University) gave a sermon and led Friday prayers for a Muslim congregation consisting of men as well as women, with no curtain dividing the men and women. Another woman, Suheyla El-Attar, sounded the call to prayer while not wearing a headscarf at that same event. This was done in the Synod House of the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York after mosques refused to host the event. This was the first time a woman led a mixed-gender Muslim congregation in prayer in American history.
  • 2005Nancy Wilson was elected Moderator of the international Metropolitan Community Churches, thus making her the second person, and the first woman, to serve in that role since the Metropolitan Community Church’s founding.[254][255]
  • 2005 – Rola Sleiman became Lebanon's first officially appointed female pastor.[256]
  • 2006 – Women were allowed to vote in United Arab Emirates (this was initially very limited; but it was slightly expanded by 2011).
  • 2006Susan Wehle became the first American female cantor in Jewish Renewal in 2006; however, she died in 2009.[257]
  • 2006 – The Episcopal Church elected Katharine Jefferts Schori as its first female Presiding Bishop, or Primate.[258]
  • 2006Merle Kodo Boyd, born in Texas, became the first African-American woman ever to receive Dharma transmission in Zen Buddhism.
  • 2006 – For the first time in American history, a Buddhist ordination was held where an American woman (Sister Khanti-Khema) took the Samaneri (novice) vows with an American monk (Bhante Vimalaramsi) presiding. This was done for the Buddhist American Forest Tradition at the Dhamma Sukha Meditation Center in Missouri.
  • 2006 – The Tamil Evangelical Lutheran Church ordained its first six female pastors.[259]
  • 2006 – Sharon Ballantyne was ordained as the first blind minister in the United Church of Canada.[260]
  • 2007 – The Worldwide Church of God, a denomination with about 860 congregations worldwide, decided to allow women to serve as pastors and elders. This decision was reached after several years of study. Debby Bailey became the first female elder in the Worldwide Church of God in 2007.[261]
  • 2007 – The current Dalai Lama stated that the next Dalai Lama could possibly be a woman, remarking "If a woman reveals herself as more useful the lama could very well be reincarnated in this form".[262]
  • 2007Susan Johnson became the first female national bishop in the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada.[263]
  • 2007Tanya Segal, born in Russia and ordained in Jerusalem, became the first full-time female rabbi in Poland.[264]
  • 2007Jen Taylor Friedman, a British woman, became the first female sofer to scribe a Sefer Torah.[265]
  • 2007 – Nerva Cot Aguilera became Latin America's first female bishop, as the bishop of the Episcopal Church of Cuba.[266]
  • 2007 – The synod of the Christian Reformed Church voted 112-70 to allow any Christian Reformed Church congregation that wishes to do so to ordain women as ministers, elders, deacons and/or ministry associates; since 1995, congregations and regional church bodies called "classes" already had the option of ordaining women, and 26 of the 47 classes had exercised it before the vote in June.[267]
  • 2007 – Myokei Caine-Barrett, born and ordained in Japan, became the first female Nichiren priest in her affiliated Nichiren Order of North America.[268]
  • 2007Becky L. Savage was ordained as the first woman to serve in the First Presidency of the Community of Christ.
  • 2007 – The U.S. Supreme Court rules in Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. that employees cannot challenge ongoing pay discrimination if the employer’s original discriminatory pay decision occurred more than 180 days earlier, even when the employee continues to receive paychecks that have been discriminatorily reduced.[269]
  • 2008Sarah Palin is the first female vice presidential nominee of the Republican Party.[270]
  • 2008 – Mildred "Bonnie" Hines was elected as the first female bishop in the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church.[271]
  • 2008 – The Revd Joaquina Filipe Nhanala was elected to oversee the Mozambique area for the United Methodist Church, thus becoming the first female United Methodist bishop in Africa.[272]
  • 2008 – Kay Goldsworthy became the first female bishop of the Anglican Church in Australia.[164]
  • 2008 – On 17 October 2008, Amina Wadud, born in the United States, became the first woman to lead a mixed-gender congregation in prayer in the United Kingdom when she performed the Friday prayers at Oxford's Wolfson College.
  • 2008 – After a 10-year process of advanced training culminating in a ceremony called shitsugo (literally "room-name"), Sherry Chayat received the title of roshi and the name Shinge ("Heart/Mind Flowering") from Eido Roshi, which was the first time that this ceremony was held in the United States.[273]
  • 2008 – Rabbi Julie Schonfeld was named the new executive vice president of the Conservative movement's Rabbinical Assembly, becoming the first female rabbi to serve in the chief executive position of an American rabbinical association.[274]
  • 2009 – The first Bhikkhuni ordination in Australia in the Theravada Buddhist tradition was performed in Perth, Australia, on 22 October 2009 at Bodhinyana Monastery. Abbess Vayama together with Venerables Nirodha, Seri, and Hasapanna were ordained as Bhikkhunis by a dual Sangha act of Bhikkhus and Bhikkhunis in full accordance with the Pali Vinaya.[275]
  • 2009Karen Soria became the first female rabbi in the Canadian Forces; she was assigned to 3 Canadian Forces Flying Training School in Portage La Prairie, Manitoba.[276]
  • 2009 – The Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD) elected Margot Käßmann as its first female Presiding Bishop, or Primate; she received 132 out of 142 votes. However, she chose to resign in 2010, after she was caught drink driving, although the Council of the EKD judged unanimously that it was not grounds for a resignation.[277]
  • 2009Alysa Stanton, born in Cleveland and ordained by a Reform Jewish seminary in Cincinnati, became the world's first black female rabbi.[278]
  • 2009Lynn Feinberg became the first female rabbi in Norway, where she was born.[279][280]
  • 2009 – The Revd Jana Jeruma-Grinberga became Britain's first female bishop in a mainstream British church, the Lutheran Church in Great Britain.[281]
  • 2009Tannoz Bahremand Foruzanfar, who was born in Iran, became the first Persian woman to be ordained as a cantor in the United States.[282][283]
  • 2009Ilse Junkermann became the first female bishop of the Evangelical Church in Central Germany.[284]
  • 2009 – Guillermina Chaparro became the first female president of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Venezuela.[284]
  • 2009 – Wu Chengzhen became the first female Fangzhang (meaning principal abbot) in Taoism's 1,800-year history after being enthroned at Changchun Temple in Wuhan, capital of Hubei province, in China. Fangzhang is the highest position in a Taoist temple.
  • 2009Eva Brunne became the bishop of Stokholm and Tuulikki Koivunen Bylund became bishop of Härnösands, in the Church of Sweden.[285][286]
  • 2009 – On July 19, 2009, 11 women received semicha (ordination) as kohanot from the Kohenet Institute, based at the Isabella Freedman Jewish Retreat Center, becoming their first priestess ordainees.[287]
  • 2009 – The White House Council on Women and Girls, a council which forms part of the Office of Intergovernmental Affairs, was established by Executive Order 13506 on March 11, 2009 with a broad mandate to advise the United States President on issues relating to the welfare of women and girls.[288]
  • 2009 – The Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009 (Pub.L. 111–2, S. 181) is enacted; it is a federal statute in the United States that amends the Civil Rights Act of 1964.[289] The new act states that the 180-day statute of limitations for filing an equal-pay lawsuit regarding pay discrimination resets with each new paycheck affected by that discriminatory action.[289]
  • 2010 – The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland elected Irja Askola of the Diocese of Helsinki as its first female bishop.[290]
  • 2010Sara Hurwitz, an Orthodox Jewish woman born in South Africa, was given the title of "rabbah" (sometimes spelled "rabba"), the feminine form of rabbi. As such, she is considered by some to be the first female Orthodox rabbi.[291][292]
  • 2010 – The Soto Zen Buddhist Association (SZBA) approved a document honoring the women ancestors in the Zen tradition at its biannual meeting on October 8, 2010. Female ancestors, dating back 2,500 years from India, China, and Japan, could thus be included in the curriculum, ritual, and training offered to Western Zen students.[293]
  • 2010 – For the first time in the history of the Church of England, more women than men were ordained as priests (290 women and 273 men).[294]
  • 2010 – The first American women to be ordained as cantors in Jewish Renewal after Susan Wehle's ordination were Michal Rubin and Abbe Lyons, both ordained on January 10, 2010.
  • 2010 – The International Rabbinic Fellowship, a fellowship of about 150 Orthodox rabbis, adopted a resolution stating that properly trained Orthodox Jewish women should have the opportunity to serve as "teachers of Torah", "persons who can answer questions and provide guidance to both men and women in all areas of Jewish law in which they are well-versed", "clergy who function as pastoral counselors", "spiritual preachers and guides who teach classes and deliver divrei Torah and derashot, in the synagogue and out, both during the week and on Shabbatot and holidays", "spiritual guides and mentors helping arrange and managing life-cycle events such as weddings, bar- and bat-mitzvah celebrations and funerals, while refraining from engaging in those aspects of these events that Halakha does not allow for women to take part in" and "presidents and full members of the boards of synagogues and other Torah institutions"; the resolution does not, however, mention whether these women should or can be ordained or what titles they can hold.[295]
  • 2010 – In 2010, at the Orthodox Jewish synagogue Hebrew Institute of Riverdale, Lamelle Ryman led a Friday-night service as a cantor would. No other Orthodox synagogue in the U.S. had ever before had a woman lead a Kabbalat Shabbat service, although Orthodox institutions like the Darkhei Noam prayer group in New York and the Shira Hadasha congregation in Jerusalem already did have women leading Kabbalat Shabbat. In addition, there had been a female-led Kabbalat Shabbat in a Washington Heights apartment in Manhattan — most of the worshippers came from the Yeshiva University community — in 1987 that drew little attention or opposition. In any case, Lamelle Ryan was not ordained as a cantor, and as of 2010 Orthodox Judaism does not ordain women as cantors.[296]
  • 2010Alina Treiger, born in Ukraine, became the first female rabbi to be ordained in Germany since World War II (the very first female rabbi ordained in Germany was Regina Jonas, ordained in 1935).[297]
  • 2010 – The first Sefer Torah scribed by a group of women (six female sofers, who were from Brazil, Canada, Israel, and the United States) was completed; this was known as the Women's Torah Project.[298][299]
  • 2010 – The first Tibetan Buddhist nunnery in America (Vajra Dakini Nunnery in Vermont), offering novice ordination in the Drikung Kagyu lineage of Buddhism, was officially consecrated.
  • 2010 – Teresa E. Snorton was elected as the first female bishop in the Christian Methodist Episcopal Church.[300][301]
  • 2010 – In Northern California, 4 novice nuns were given the full bhikkhuni ordination in the Thai Therevada tradition, which included the double ordination ceremony. Bhante Gunaratana and other monks and nuns were in attendance. It was the first such ordination ever in the Western hemisphere. The following month, more full ordinations were completed in Southern California, led by Walpola Piyananda and other monks and nuns. The bhikkhunis ordained in Southern California were Lakshapathiye Samadhi (born in Sri Lanka), Cariyapanna, Susila, Sammasati (all three born in Vietnam), and Uttamanyana (born in Myanmar).
  • 2010 – Raheel Raza, born in Pakistan, became the first Muslim-born woman to lead a mixed-gender British congregation through Friday prayers.
  • 2010 – Delegates of the Fellowship of the Middle East Evangelical Churches unanimously voted in favor of a statement supporting the ordination of women as pastors, during their Sixth General Assembly. An English translation of the statement reads, "The Sixth General Assembly supports the ordination of the women in our churches in the position of ordained pastor and her partnership with men as an equal partner in decision making. Therefore we call on member churches to take leading steps in this concern."[302]
  • 2010 – With the October 16, 2010, ordination of Margaret Lee, in the Peoria-based Diocese of Quincy, Illinois, women have been ordained as priests in all 110 dioceses of the Episcopal Church in the United States.[303][304]
  • 2011 – Kirsten Eistrup, 55, became the first female priest in the Danish Seamen's Church in Singapore. She was also the Lutheran Protestant Church's first female pastor in Asia.[64]
  • 2011 – Kirsten Fehrs became the first female bishop in the North Elbian Evangelical Lutheran Church.
  • 2011 – Annette Kurschus became the first female praeses of the Evangelical Church of Westphalia.
  • 2011Sandra Kviat became the first female rabbi from Denmark; she was ordained in England.[305]
  • 2011Antje Deusel was ordained by Abraham Geiger College, thus becoming the first German-born woman to be ordained as a rabbi in Germany since the Nazi era.[306][307]
  • 2011 – From October 2010 until spring 2011, Julie Seltzer, one of the female sofers from the Women's Torah Project (see above in 2010), scribed a Sefer Torah as part of an exhibition at the Contemporary Jewish Museum in San Francisco. This makes her the first American female sofer to scribe a Sefer Torah; Julie Seltzer was born in Philadelphia and is non-denominationally Jewish.[298][308][309][310]
  • 2011 – The Tehran Mobeds Anjuman (Anjoman-e-Mobedan) announced that for the first time in the history of Iran and of the Zoroastrian communities worldwide, women had joined the group of mobeds (Zoroastrian priests) in Iran as mobedyars (female Zoroastrian priests); the women hold official certificates and can perform the lower-rung religious functions and can initiate people into the religion.
  • 2011 – Eva Marie Jansvik became the first female priest in the Norwegian Seamen's Church in Singapore.[311]
  • 2011 – One third of the Catholic theology professors in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland (144 people) signed a declaration calling for women’s ordination and opposing "traditionalism" in the liturgy.[312]
  • 2011 – Mary Whittaker became the first deaf person to be ordained into the Church of Scotland.[313]
  • 2011 – The Anglican Diocese of Cyprus and the Gulf was allowed to ordain women as priests and appoint them to single charge chaplaincies. On June 5, 2011, Catherine Dawkins was ordained by the bishop of the Anglican Diocese of Cyprus and the Gulf, the Right Revd Michael Lewis, during a ceremony at St Christopher's Cathedral, Manama. This makes her the first female priest in the Middle East.[314][315]
  • 2011 – Stella Bentsi-Enchil, Alberta Kennies Addo and Susanna C. Naana Ackun were ordained as the first female priests of the Anglican Church of Ghana.[316]
  • 2011 – The Evangelical Presbyterian Church's 31st General Assembly voted to allow congregations to call women to ordained ministry, even if their presbytery (governing body) objects for theological or doctrinal reasons. Such congregations will be allowed to leave the objecting presbytery (such as the Central South, which includes Memphis) and join an adjacent one that permits the ordination of women.[317]
  • 2011 – The American Catholic Church in the United States, ACCUS, ordained their first woman priest, Kathleen Maria MacPherson, on June 12, 2011. She is now the pastor of the St. Oscar Romero Pastoral and Outreach Center in El Paso, Texas / Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico.[318]
  • 2011 – In April 2011, the Institute for Buddhist Dialectical Studies (IBD) in Dharamsala, India, conferred the degree of geshe (a Tibetan Buddhist academic degree for monks and nuns) to Venerable Kelsang Wangmo, a German nun, thus making her the world's first female geshe.[319][319][320]
  • 2011 – The first SlutWalk takes place in Toronto.
  • 2012 – Ilana Mills was ordained, thus making her, Jordana Chernow-Reader, and Mari Chernow the first three female siblings in America to become rabbis.[321]
  • 2012Miri Gold, born in the United States, became the first non-Orthodox rabbi (and the first female rabbi) to have her salary paid by the Israeli government.[322]
  • 2012Ephraim Mirvis appointed Lauren Levin as Britain’s first Orthodox female halakhic adviser, at Finchley Synagogue in London.[323]
  • 2012Alona Lisitsa became the first female rabbi in Israel to join a religious council.[324]
  • 2012 – Jo Henderson became the first Anglican priest to be ordained in the United Arab Emirates.[325]
  • 2012Agnes M. Sigurðardóttir became the first female Bishop of Iceland.[326][327][328]
  • 2012 – Eileen Harrop became the first woman from South East Asia (specifically, Singapore) to be ordained by the Church of England.[329]
  • 2012 – Amel Manyon became the first South Sudanese woman to be ordained in the Uniting Church in Australia.[330]
  • 2012 – The Revd Ellinah Ntombi Wamukoya of the Anglican Church of Southern Africa became the bishop-elect of Swaziland and the first woman bishop in any of the 12 Anglican Provinces in Africa.[331] She was consecrated as a bishop in November 2012.[332]
  • 2012 – Pérsida Gudiel became the first woman ordained by the Lutheran Church in Guatemala.[333]
  • 2012 – Mimi Kanku Mukendi became the first female pastor ordained by the Communauté Evangélique Mennonite au Congo (Mennonite Evangelical Community of Congo), although they voted to ordain women as pastors in 1993.[169]
  • 2012 – The Mennonite Church of Congo approved women’s ordination.[222]
  • 2012 – Christine Lee was ordained as the Episcopal Church's first female Korean-American priest.[334]
  • 2012 – Alma Louise De bode-Olton became the first female priest ordained in the Anglican Episcopal Church in Curaçao.[335]
  • 2012 – The Revd Margaret Brenda Vertue of the Anglican Church of Southern Africa became the bishop-elect in the Cape Town area of False Bay and the second woman bishop in any of the 12 Anglican Provinces in Africa.[336]
  • 2012 – The Revd Tine Lindhardt became the bishop-elect of Funen and the third female bishop in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Denmark.[337]
  • 2012Karen Kime became the first Indigenous Australian woman archdeacon in the Anglican Church.[338]
  • 2013 – Melbourne's vicar-general, the Right Reverend Barbara Darling, became the first female bishop to ordain Anglican clergy in Australia.[339]
  • 2013Kay Goldsworthy became the first female bishop, and the second Anglican woman, to appear on a public nomination list for a synod election in Australia (the Newcastle synod election).[340]
  • 2013Linda L. Booth became the first woman elected to serve as president of the Council of Twelve of the Community of Christ.
  • 2013 – Lynn Green was elected as the first female general secretary of the Baptist Union of Great Britain.[341]
  • 2013 – The Rev. Marianne Christiansen became the bishop-elect of Haderslev and the fourth female bishop in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Denmark.[342]
  • 2013 – The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, the largest Lutheran denomination in the U.S., elected its first female presiding bishop (the Revd Elizabeth Eaton).[343]
  • 2013 – Helen-Ann Hartley became the first woman ordained in the Church of England to be elected as a diocesan bishop (in the Diocese of Waikato in New Zealand).[344]
  • 2013 – On September 12, 2013, the Governing Body of the Church in Wales passed a bill to enable women to be ordained as bishops, although none would be ordained for at least a year.[345]
  • 2013 – The Church of Ireland appointed Pat Storey as the first female bishop in Ireland and the UK.[346] The Church of Ireland has permitted the ordination of women as bishops since 1990.[347]
  • 2013 – The Church of Sweden elected Antje Jackelen as Sweden's first female archbishop.[348]
  • 2013 – The Anglican Synod of Ballarat voted to allow the ordination of women as priests.[349]
  • 2013 – Mary Froiland was elected as the first woman Bishop in the South-Central Synod of Wisconsin of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of America.[350]
  • 2013 – On September 22, 2013, Congregation Beth Elohim of New York dedicated a new Torah, which members of Beth Elohim said was the first Torah in New York City to be scribed by a woman.[351] The Torah was scribed by Linda Coppleson.[352]
  • 2013 – The first class of female halachic advisers trained to practice in the US graduated; they graduated from the North American branch of Nishmat’s yoetzet halacha program in a ceremony at Congregation Sheartith Israel, Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue in Manhattan.[353]
  • 2013 – At its meeting on February 7, 2013, the House of Bishops of the Church of England decided that eight senior women clergy, elected regionally, would participate in all meetings of the house until such time as there were six female bishops to sit as of right.[354]
  • 2013 – On October 27, 2013, Sandra Roberts became the first woman to lead a Seventh-day Adventist conference when she was elected as president of the Southeastern California Conference. However, the worldwide Seventh-day Adventist church did not recognize this because presidents of conferences must be ordained pastors and the worldwide church did not recognize the ordination of women.
  • 2013 – Agnes Abuom of Nairobi, from the Anglican Church of Kenya, was elected as moderator of the Central Committee of the World Council of Churches; she is the first woman and the first African to hold this position.[355]
  • 2013 – Dr. Sarah Macneil was appointed as the first female diocesan bishop in Australia.[356]
  • 2013Jean A. Stevens became the first woman to pray in an LDS Church general conference session.[357][358][359]
  • 2013Yeshivat Maharat, located in the United States, became the first Orthodox Jewish institution to consecrate female clergy. The graduates of Yeshivat Maharat do not call themselves "rabbis." The title they are given is "maharat."[360]
  • 2013 – Tibetan women were able to take the Geshe exams for the first time.[361] Geshe is a Tibetan Buddhist academic degree for monks and nuns.
  • 2013 – American military leaders remove their military's ban on women serving in combat, overturning a 1994 rule prohibiting women from being assigned to smaller ground combat units.[362]
  • 2014 – Fanny Sohet Belanger, born in France, was ordained in America and thus became the first French female priest in the Episcopal Church.[363]
  • 2014 – Dr. Sarah Macneil was consecrated and installed as the first female diocesan bishop in Australia (for the Diocese of Grafton in New South Wales).[364]
  • 2014 – The Lutheran Church in Chile ordained Rev. Hanna Schramm, born in Germany, as its first female pastor.[365]
  • 2014 – The Episcopal Diocese of Maryland elected the Rev. Canon Heather Cook as its first female bishop.[366]
  • 2014 – The Bishop of Basel, Felix Gmür, allowed the Basel Catholic church corporations, which are officially only responsible for church finances, to formulate an initiative appealing for equality between men and women in ordination to the priesthood.[367]
  • 2014 – The Association of Catholic Priests in Ireland stated that the Catholic church must ordain women and allow priests to marry in order to survive.[368]
  • 2014 – American rabbi Deborah Waxman was inaugurated as the president of the Reconstructionist Rabbinical College and Jewish Reconstructionist Communities on October 26, 2014.[369] As the president of the Reconstructionist Rabbinical College, she is believed to be the first woman and first lesbian to lead a Jewish congregational union, and the first female rabbi and first lesbian to lead a Jewish seminary; the Reconstructionist Rabbinical College is both a congregational union and a seminary.[370][371]
  • 2014 – The first ever book of halachic decisions written by women who were ordained to serve as poskim (Idit Bartov and Anat Novoselsky) was published.[372] The women were ordained by the municipal chief rabbi of Efrat, Rabbi Shlomo Riskin, after completing Midreshet Lindenbaum women’s college’s five-year ordination course in advanced studies in Jewish law, as well as passing examinations equivalent to the rabbinate’s requirement for men.[372]
  • 2014 – Angeline Franciscan Sister Mary Melone was appointed as the first female rector of a pontifical university in Rome; specifically, the Pontifical Antonianum University.[373]
  • 2014 – The General Synod of the Church of England voted to allow for the ordination of women as bishops.[374]
  • 2014 – Bishop Gayle Harris of the Episcopal Diocese of Massachusetts became the first female Anglican bishop to preside and preach in a Welsh cathedral.[375]
  • 2014 – The Seventh-day Adventist Church’s Women’s Ministries department released The Woman’s Bible, which is the first study Bible specifically designed for women by the Seventh-day Adventist Church, and which is a New King James Version of the Bible that offers more than 100 commentaries, study materials, and profiles on female biblical characters.[376] All the articles in The Woman's Bible were written by Adventist women members, biblical scholars, and pastors.[376]
  • 2014 – Sr. Luzia Premoli, superior general of the Combonian Missionary Sisters, was appointed a member of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, thus becoming the first woman to be appointed a member of a Vatican congregation (which is one of the higher ranking departments of the Roman Curia.) [377]
  • 2014 – It was announced that Lauma Lagzdins Zusevics, an American, was the first woman elected Archbishop of the Latvian Evangelical Lutheran Church Abroad.[127][378]
  • 2014 – Article 475 of Morocco's penal code, which allowed a man to escape punishment for rape by marrying his female victim, was repealed in 2014.[379]
  • 2015 – The Church of England ordained Libby Lane as its first female bishop.[380]
  • 2015 – The Women's Mosque of America, which claims to be America's first female-only mosque, opened in Los Angeles.[381][382]
  • 2015 – Jennie Rosenfeld became the first female Orthodox spiritual advisor in Israel (specifically, she became the spiritual advisor, also called manhiga ruchanit, for the community of Efrat.)[383]
  • 2015 – Women were allowed to vote and run for office in municipal elections in Saudi Arabia.[384]


See also[edit]

References[edit]

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