Timeline of food

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Prehistoric times[edit]

A hearth with cooking utensils
  • 2.5-1.8 million years ago: The discovery of the use of fire and the sharing of the benefits of the use of fire may have created a sense of sharing as a group. Earliest estimate for invention of cooking, by phylogenetic analysis.[1]
  • 2 to 5 million years ago: Hominids shift away from the consumption of nuts and berries to begin the consumption of meat.[2][3]
  • 250,000 years ago: Hearths appear, accepted archeological estimate for invention of cooking.[4]
  • 170,000 years ago: Cooked starchy roots and tubers in Africa[5][6]
  • 40,000 years ago: First evidence of human fish consumption: isotopic analysis of the skeletal remains of Tianyuan man, a modern human from eastern Asia, has shown that he regularly consumed freshwater fish.[7][8]
  • 30,000 years ago: Earliest archaeological evidence for flour, which was likely processed into an unleavened bread, dates to the Upper Palaeolithic in Europe.[9]
  • 25,000 years ago: The fish-gorge, a kind of fish hook, appears.[10]
  • 13,000 BCE: Contentious evidence of oldest domesticated rice in Korea.[11] Their 15,000-year age challenges the accepted view that rice cultivation originated in China about 12,000 years ago.[11] These findings were received by academia with strong skepticism,[12] and the results and their publicizing has been cited as being driven by a combination of nationalist and regional interests.[13]
  • 11,500 - 6200 BCE: Genetic evidence published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) shows that all forms of Asian rice, both indica and japonica, spring from a single domestication that occurred 8,200–13,500 years ago in China of the wild rice Oryza rufipogon.[14]


Fresh figs cut open showing the flesh and seeds inside

4000-1 BCE[edit]

Ripening olives
Modern aquaculture


  • 8th century: The original type of sushi, known today as narezushi (馴れ寿司, 熟寿司), first developed in Southeast Asia and spread to south China, is introduced to Japan.[47][48]
  • 8th century: Chronicles from monasteries mention Roquefort being transported across the Alps[49]
  • 9th century: First record of cucumbers cultivation in France[30]
  • ~800: Cod becomes an important economic commodity in international markets. This market has lasted for more than 1,000 years, enduring the Black Death, wars and other crises, and is still an important Norwegian fish trade.[50]
  • ~800: By this date, watermelon reaches India.[30]
  • 822: First mention of hops added to beer, by the Carolingian Abbot Adalard of Corbie[51]
  • 879: Gorgonzola cheese is mentioned for the first time.[49]
  • 961: Watermelons, introduced by the Moorish, reported to be cultivated in Cordoba, Spain.[30]
  • 997: The term "pizza" first appears "in a Latin text from the southern Italian town of Gaeta [...], which claims that a tenant of certain property is to give the bishop of Gaeta 'duodecim pizze' ['twelve pizzas'] every Christmas Day, and another twelve every Easter Sunday".[52][53]


Bog butter from A Descriptive Catalogue of the Antiquities in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy, 1857

16th century[edit]

17th century[edit]

18th century[edit]

An examen chimique du pommes de terre ("A chemistry exam of the potatoes") by Antoine-Augustin Parmentier promoted the introduction of potatoes to France.
  • 18th century: Soufflé appears in France. Cakes and pastries also begin to appear, thanks to the increasing availability of sugar and the rising of the chef profession.[61]
  • 18th century: Pizza begins to appear in Naples.[62]
  • Early 1700s: Introduction of potatoes in Russia.[59]
  • ~1700: Sparkling beer as we know it appears, due to maturation in bottles becoming available.[61]
  • 1719: Potatoes first introduced in North America: Scottish-Irish settlers bring them to New Hampshire.[59]
  • 1740: The harsh winter of 1740 damages many crops but not potatoes, hastening their adoption in Europe.[18]
  • 1760: Egg nog was invented in North Carolina and was a common alcoholic beverage.[63]
  • 1767: Soda Water was invented in Leeds, England.[64][failed verification]
  • 1770: Potato introduced in Australasia by Captain James Cook.[59]
  • 1772: Antoine-Augustin Parmentier writes the treaty Examen chymique des pommes de terres, promoting the introduction of potato in France.[65]
  • 1774-1779: First shops selling ice cream appear in North America.[66]
  • 1778: Captain James Cook introduces watermelons to the Hawaii islands.[30]
  • 1794: Potatoes are finally firmly part of the Dutch cuisine.[18]

19th century[edit]

20th century[edit]

21st century[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Organ, Chris (22 August 2011). "Phylogenetic rate shifts in feeding time during the evolution of Homo". PNAS. 108 (35): 14555–14559. Bibcode:2011PNAS..10814555O. doi:10.1073/pnas.1107806108. PMC 3167533. PMID 21873223.
  2. ^ "06.14.99 - Meat-eating was essential for human evolution, says UC Berkeley anthropologist specializing in diet". Berkeley.edu. 1999-06-14. Retrieved 2012-01-31.
  3. ^ "Meat in the human diet: an anthropological perspective. - Free Online Library". Thefreelibrary.com. 2007-09-01. Retrieved 2012-01-31.
  4. ^ Pennisi: Did Cooked Tubers Spur the Evolution of Big Brains?
  5. ^ Wadley, Lym; Backwel, Lucinda; d’Errico, Francesco; Sievers, Christine (2020-01-03). "Cooked starchy rhizomes in Africa 170 thousand years ago". Science. 367 (6473): 87–91. Bibcode:2020Sci...367...87W. doi:10.1126/science.aaz5926. PMID 31896717. S2CID 209677578.
  6. ^ Larbey, Cynthia; Mentzer, Susan M.; Ligouis, Bertrand; Wurz, Sarah; Jones, Martin K. (June 2019). "Cooked starchy food in hearths ca. 120 kya and 65 kya (MIS 5e and MIS 4) from Klasies River Cave, South Africa". Journal of Human Evolution. 131: 210–227. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2019.03.015. PMID 31182202. S2CID 184485363.
  7. ^ Yaowu Hu, Y; Hong Shang, H; Haowen Tong, H; Olaf Nehlich, O; Wu Liu, W; Zhao, C; Yu, J; Wang, C; Trinkaus, E; Richards, M (2009). "Stable isotope dietary analysis of the Tianyuan 1 early modern human". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106 (27): 10971–10974. Bibcode:2009PNAS..10610971H. doi:10.1073/pnas.0904826106. PMC 2706269. PMID 19581579.
  8. ^ First direct evidence of substantial fish consumption by early modern humans in China PhysOrg.com, 6 July 2009.
  9. ^ Revedin, A.; Aranguren, B.; Becattini, R.; Longo, L.; Marconi, E.; Lippi, M. M.; Skakun, N.; Sinitsyn, A.; Spiridonova, E.; Svoboda, J. (2010). "Thirty thousand-year-old evidence of plant food processing". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (44): 18815–18819. Bibcode:2010PNAS..10718815R. doi:10.1073/pnas.1006993107. PMC 2973873. PMID 20956317.
  10. ^ Kenneth F. Kiple (30 April 2007). A Movable Feast: Ten Millennia of Food Globalization. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-46354-6. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
  11. ^ a b "World's 'oldest' rice found", Dr David Whitehouse". BBC News. October 21, 2003. Retrieved April 30, 2011.
  12. ^ Kim, Minkoo (2008). Habu, Junko; Fawcett, Clare; Matsunaga, John M. (eds.). Evaluating multiple narratives: Beyond nationalist, colonialist, imperialist archaeologies. New York: Springer. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-387-76459-7. Most scholars were highly skeptical of Lee's report [...] Most specialists agree that rice is not indigenous to the Korean peninsula. The conventional perspective in East Asian archaeology is that rice cultivation started along the banks of the Yangtze River in southern China and subsequently moved northward.
  13. ^ Kim, Minkoo (2008). "Multivocality, Multifaceted Voices, and Korean Archaeology". Evaluating Multiple Narratives: Beyond Nationalist, Colonialist, Imperialist Archaeologies. New York: Springer. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-387-76459-7.
  14. ^ Molina, J.; Sikora, M.; Garud, N.; Flowers, J. M.; Rubinstein, S.; Reynolds, A.; Huang, P.; Jackson, S.; Schaal, B. A.; Bustamante, C. D.; Boyko, A. R.; Purugganan, M. D. (2011). "Molecular evidence for a single evolutionary origin of domesticated rice". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108 (20): 8351–8356. Bibcode:2011PNAS..108.8351M. doi:10.1073/pnas.1104686108. PMC 3101000. PMID 21536870.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g "The Development of Agriculture". National Geographic. Archived from the original on 2016-04-14. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
  16. ^ "Tracing antiquity of banana cultivation in Papua New Guinea". The Australia & Pacific Science Foundation. Archived from the original on 2007-08-29. Retrieved 2007-09-18.
  17. ^ Denham, T.P.; Haberle, S.G.; Lentfer, C.; Fullagar, R.; Field, J.; Therin, M.; Porch, N.; Winsborough, B. (2003). "Origins of Agriculture at Kuk Swamp in the Highlands of New Guinea" (PDF). Science. 301 (5630): 189–193. doi:10.1126/science.1085255. PMID 12817084. S2CID 10644185.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Potato (white)". The Cambridge World History of Food. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  19. ^ Davidson, s.v. Olives
  20. ^ McGovern PE, Zhang JZ, Tang JG et al. C (2004) Fermented beverages of pre- and proto-historic China. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 101, 17593–17598.
  21. ^ a b c d Lawrie, R. A.; Ledward, D. A. (2006). Lawrie's meat science (7th ed.). Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Limited. ISBN 978-1-84569-159-2.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Rice". The Cambridge World History of Food. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
  23. ^ Zohar, I.; Dayan, T.; Galili, E.; Spanier, E. (2001). "Fish Processing During the Early Holocene: A Taphonomic Case Study from Coastal Israel". Journal of Archaeological Science. 28 (10): 1041–1053. doi:10.1006/jasc.2000.0630.
  24. ^ a b Vergano, Dan (January 19, 2011). "Grapes domesticated 8,000 years ago". USA Today. Retrieved 2013-05-04.
  25. ^ Salque M, Bogucki PI, Pyzel J, Sobkowiak-Tabaka I, Grygiel R, et al. (2012). "Earliest evidence for cheese making in the sixth millennium bc in northern Europe". Nature. Nature Publishing Group. 493 (7433): 522–525. Bibcode:2013Natur.493..522S. doi:10.1038/nature11698. PMID 23235824. S2CID 4322406.
  26. ^ Subbaraman, Nidhi (12 December 2012). "Art of cheese-making is 7,500 years old". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2012.12020. S2CID 180646880. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
  27. ^ DK Jordan (November 24, 2012). "Beyond Wheat". The Neolithic. University of California – San Diego. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
  28. ^ D. Samuel (2000). "Brewing and baking". Ancient Egyptian materials and technology. Eds: P.T. Nicholson & I. Shaw. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-45257-0) p. 558.
  29. ^ Joules L. Quiles (2006). Olive Oil and Health. CABI. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-1-84593-072-1. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Cucumbers, Melons and Watermelons". The Cambridge World History of Food. Archived from the original on 1 June 2013. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  31. ^ Simoons, Frederick J. (July 1971). "The antiquity of dairying in Asia and Africa". Geographical Review. American Geographical Society. 61 (3): 431–439. doi:10.2307/213437. JSTOR 213437.
  32. ^ a b c Pierre Laszlo (1 October 2008). Citrus: A History. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-47028-3. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  33. ^ Black, Jeremy A.; Cunningham, Graham; Robson, Eleanor (13 April 2006). The Literature of Ancient Sumer – Google Books. ISBN 978-0-19-929633-0. Retrieved 21 March 2010.
  34. ^ Parker R (2000) Aquaculture science Page 6. Delmar Thomson Learning.
  35. ^ a b c "Palm Oil". The Cambridge World History of Food. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  36. ^ "Prehistoric brewing: the true story". Archaeo News. 22 October 2001. Retrieved 21 September 2010.
  37. ^ Lucas 2003, p. 383.
  38. ^ Kindstedt 2012, p. 34.
  39. ^ Manning, Katie; Pelling, Ruth; Higham, Tom; Schwenniger, Jean-Luc; Fuller, Dorian Q. (2011). "4500-Year old domesticated pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) from the Tilemsi Valley, Mali: new insights into an alternative cereal domestication pathway". Journal of Archaeological Science. 38 (2): 312–322. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2010.09.007.
  40. ^ History of Cheese. [1] accessed 2007/06/10
  41. ^ In NBC 11196 (5 NT 24, dated Shu-Sin 6), the 'abra's of Dumuzi, Ninkasi, and I'kur receive butter and cheese from the 'abra of Inanna, according to W.W. Hallo, "The House of Ur-Meme", Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 1972; a Sumerian/Akkadian bilingual lexicon of ca 1900 BCE lists twenty kinds of cheese.
  42. ^ Terry G. Powis, W. Jeffrey Hurst, María del Carmen Rodríguez, Ponciano Ortíz C., Michael Blake, David Cheetham, Michael D. Coe & John G. Hodgson (December 2007). "Oldest chocolate in the New World". Antiquity. 81 (314). ISSN 0003-598X. Retrieved 15 February 2011.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  43. ^ Tannahill, Reay (1973). Food in History (Stein and Day. ISBN 0-8128-1437-1). p. 37, 61, 69.
  44. ^ a b James Grout. "Garum". Encyclopaedia Romana. University of Chicago. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
  45. ^ Xenophon, Anabasis, 4.5.26, on Perseus
  46. ^ "Anabasis, by Xenophon (book4)". ebooks.adelaide.edu.au. Retrieved 21 March 2010.
  47. ^ "Sushi History".[self-published source]
  48. ^ "The History of SUSHI". Archived from the original on 2012-06-09.[self-published source]
  49. ^ a b Patrick F. Fox; Paul L. H. McSweeney; Timothy M. Cogan; Timothy P. Guinee (4 August 2004). Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology: Major Cheese Groups. Academic Press. pp. 175–. ISBN 978-0-08-050094-2. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
  50. ^ Barrett, James; Beukens, Roelf; Simpson, Ian; Ashmore, Patrick; Poaps, Sandra; Huntley, Jacqui (2000). "What was the Viking age and when did it happen? A view from Orkney". Norwegian Archaeological Review. 33 (1): 1–39. doi:10.1080/00293650050202600. S2CID 162229393.
  51. ^ Google Books Richard W. Unger, Beer in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance pp57, University of Pennsylvania Press ( 2004), ISBN 0-8122-3795-1.
  52. ^ Salvatore Riciniello (1987) Codice Diplomatico Gaetano, Vol. I, La Poligrafica
  53. ^ Martin Maiden (2012) "Linguistic Wonders Series: Pizza is a German Word", YourDictionary.com Archived March 28, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  54. ^ a b Web Exhibits: Butter. Ancient Firkins.
  55. ^ a b c d D. J. R. Manley (1 January 2000). Technology of Biscuits, Crackers, and Cookies. Woodhead Publishing. pp. 4–. ISBN 978-1-85573-532-3. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  56. ^ "History". Cheddar Gorge Cheese Company. Archived from the original on 2009-08-02. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
  57. ^ Kurlansky, Mark (1997). Cod: A Biography of the Fish That Changed the World. New York: Walker. ISBN 978-0-8027-1326-1.
  58. ^ "492 Years of Good Beer: Germans Toast the Anniversary of Their Beer Purity Law". Der Spiegel 23 April 2008.
  59. ^ a b c d e f g h i Linda Civitello (16 February 2011). Cuisine and Culture: A History of Food and People. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 98–. ISBN 978-0-470-41195-7. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
  60. ^ "Etymology of the word chocolate". Chocolate.be. 2008. Archived from the original on January 22, 2009. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
  61. ^ a b c d Campbell, G. (1999). "Creation and characterisation of aerated food products". Trends in Food Science & Technology. 10 (9): 283–296. doi:10.1016/S0924-2244(00)00008-X.
  62. ^ B. W. Higman (8 August 2011). How Food Made History. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-1-4443-4465-3.
  63. ^ Olver, L. (2015). "Egg nog". The Food Timeline.
  64. ^ Olver, L. (2015). Food Timeline Index. http://www.foodtimeline.org/index.html
  65. ^ Tom Hughes; Meredith Sayles Hughes (2005). Gastronomie!: Food Museums and Heritage Sites of France. Bunker Hill Publishing, Inc. pp. 11–. ISBN 978-1-59373-029-1. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
  66. ^ a b Anne Cooper Funderburg (1995). Chocolate, Strawberry, and Vanilla: A History of American Ice Cream. Popular Press. pp. 34–. ISBN 978-0-87972-692-8. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  67. ^ Andrew F. Smith (2 December 2011). Fast Food and Junk Food: An Encyclopedia of What We Love to Eat: An Encyclopedia of What We Love to Eat. ABC-CLIO. pp. 176–. ISBN 978-0-313-39394-5. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  68. ^ Silver Cloud Estates. "History of Vanilla". Silver Cloud Estates. Retrieved 2008-07-23. In 1837 the Belgian botanist Morren succeeded in artificially pollinating the vanilla flower. On Reunion, Morren's process was attempted, but failed. It was not until 1841 that a 12-year-old slave by the name of Edmond Albius discovered the correct technique of hand-pollinating the flowers.
  69. ^ Bly, Robert W. (2007). All-American Frank: A History of the Hot Dog (1st ed.). New York: PublishAmerica. ISBN 978-1-4137-5062-1.
  70. ^ Pompeo Capella (1997). Manuale degli oli e grassi. Tecniche Nuove. pp. 10–. ISBN 978-88-7081-979-3. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  71. ^ a b W. H. Heick (1991). A Propensity to Protect: Butter, Margarine and the Rise of Urban Culture in Canada. Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0-88920-994-7. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  72. ^ Smith, Andrew F. (November 2008). Hamburger: A Global History (1st ed.). Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-86189-390-1.
  73. ^ Grigoroff, Stamen, 1905. Étude sur une lait fermentée comestible. Le “Kissélo mléko” de Bulgarie. Revue Médicale de la Suisse Romande. Genève. Georg&G., Libraires-Éditeurs. Librairie de L’Université.
  74. ^ "Resolving Canada's conflicted relationship with margarine". CBC News. July 9, 2008. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  75. ^ Kolyohin, Nick (2 July 2021). "Feature: Israeli cultured meat company aims to redefine industry". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 2 July 2021.

Further reading[edit]