Timeline of knowledge about galaxies, clusters of galaxies, and large-scale structure

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Timeline of galaxies, clusters of galaxies, and large-scale structure of the universe

Pre-20th century[edit]

Early 20th century[edit]

Mid-20th century[edit]

Late 20th century[edit]

Early 21st century[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Josep Puig Montada (September 28, 2007). "Ibn Bajja". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
  2. ^ Kepple, George Robert; Glen W. Sanner (1998). The Night Sky Observer's Guide. 1. Willmann-Bell, Inc. p. 18. ISBN 0-943396-58-1. 
  3. ^ "Observatoire de Paris (Abd-al-Rahman Al Sufi)". Retrieved 2007-04-19. 
  4. ^ "Observatoire de Paris (LMC)". Retrieved 2007-04-19. 
  5. ^ O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews .
  6. ^ Mohamed, Mohaini (2000). Great Muslim Mathematicians. Penerbit UTM. pp. 49–50. ISBN 983-52-0157-9. 
  7. ^ Hamid-Eddine Bouali; Mourad Zghal; Zohra Ben Lakhdar (2005). "Popularisation of Optical Phenomena: Establishing the First Ibn Al-Haytham Workshop on Photography" (PDF). The Education and Training in Optics and Photonics Conference. Retrieved 2008-07-08. 
  8. ^ Livingston, John W. (1971). "Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah: A Fourteenth Century Defense against Astrological Divination and Alchemical Transmutation". Journal of the American Oriental Society. American Oriental Society. 91 (1): 96–103 [99]. JSTOR 600445. doi:10.2307/600445. 
  9. ^ Britt, Robert Roy. "Milky Way’s Central Structure Seen with Fresh Clarity."
  10. ^ SPACE.com 16 August 2005.
  11. ^ Devitt, Terry "Galactic survey reveals a new look for the Milky Way." 16 August 2005
  12. ^ "Dark matter galaxy hints seen 10bn light-years away". BBC News. 2012-01-18. 
  13. ^ Wall, Mike (2013-01-11). "Largest structure in universe discovered". Fox News. 
  14. ^ Horvath I.; Hakkila J. & Bagoly Z. (2014). "Possible structure in the GRB sky distribution at redshift two". arXiv:1401.0533Freely accessible. 
  15. ^ Horvath I.; Hakkila J. & Bagoly Z. (2013). "The largest structure of the Universe, defined by Gamma-Ray Bursts". Bibcode:2013arXiv1311.1104H. arXiv:1311.1104Freely accessible. 
  16. ^ Klotz, Irene (2013-11-19). "Universe's Largest Structure is a Cosmic Conundrum". discovery. Retrieved 2013-11-22.