Timeline of glaciation
There have been five or six major ice ages in the history of Earth over the past 3 billion years. The Late Cenozoic Ice Age began 34 million years ago, its latest phase being the Quaternary glaciation, in progress since 2.58 million years ago.
Within ice ages, there exist periods of more severe glacial conditions and more temperate referred to as glacial periods and interglacial periods, respectively. The Earth is currently in such an interglacial period of the Quaternary glaciation, with the last glacial period of the Quaternary having ended approximately 11,700 years ago, the current interglacial being known as the Holocene epoch. Based on climate proxies, paleoclimatologists study the different climate states originating from glaciation.
Known ice ages
|Name of ice age||Years BP (Ma)||Geological period||Era|
(incl. Hirnantian and
Late Ordovician glaciation)
|Late Cenozoic Ice Age
(incl. Quaternary glaciation)
The third ice age, and possibly most severe, is estimated to have occurred from 720 to 635 Ma (million years) ago, in the Neoproterozoic Era, and it has been suggested that it produced a second "Snowball Earth" i.e. a period during which Earth was completely covered in ice. It has been suggested also that the end of this second cold period was responsible for the subsequent Cambrian Explosion, a time of rapid diversification of multi-cellular life during the Cambrian Period. However, this hypothesis is still controversial, though is growing in popularity among researchers, as evidence in its favour has mounted.[who?]
A minor series of glaciations occurred from 460 Ma to 430 Ma. There were extensive glaciations from 350 to 250 Ma.
The Late Cenozoic Ice Age has seen extensive ice sheets in Antarctica for the last 34 Ma. During the last 3 Ma ice sheets have also developed on the northern hemisphere. This phase is known as the Quaternary glaciation, and has seen more or less extensive glaciation. These first appeared with a dominant periodicity of 41,000 years, but after the Mid-Pleistocene Transition this changed to high-amplitude cycles with an average period of 100,000 years.
Nomenclature of Quaternary glacial cycles
Whereas the first 30 million years of the Late Cenozoic Ice Age mostly involved Antarctica, the Quaternary has seen numerous ice sheets extending over parts of Europe and North America that are currently populated and easily accessible. Early geologists therefore named apparent sequences of glacial and interglacial periods of the Quaternary Ice Age after characteristic geological features, and these names varied from region to region. It is now more common for researchers to refer to the periods by their marine isotopic stage number. The marine record preserves all the past glaciations; the land-based evidence is less complete because successive glaciations may wipe out evidence of their predecessors. Ice cores from continental ice accumulations also provide a complete record, but do not go as far back in time as marine data. Pollen data from lakes and bogs as well as loess profiles provided important land-based correlation data. The names system has mostly been phased out by professionals, who instead use the marine isotopic stage indexes for all technical discussions. For example, there are five Pleistocene glacial/interglacial cycles recorded in marine sediments during the last half million years, but only three classic interglacials were originally recognized on land during that period (Mindel, Riss and Würm).
Land-based evidence works acceptably well back as far as MIS 6, but it has been difficult to coordinate stages using just land-based evidence before that. Hence, the "names" system is incomplete and the land-based identifications of ice ages previous to that are somewhat conjectural. Nonetheless, land based data is essentially useful in discussing landforms, and correlating the known marine isotopic stage with them.
Historical nomenclature in the Alps
- Biber (2.6–1.8 Ma, Gelasian)
- Biber-Danube interglacial (not in use)
- Danube (1.8–1.0 Ma, Calabrian)
- Danube-Gunz interglacial (not in use)
- Günz (1.0–0.4 Ma, MIS 21 – MIS 11 ?)
- Günz-Haslach interglacial (not in use)
- Haslach (seldom used)
- Haslach-Mindel interglacial (not in use)
- Mindel (MIS 12?, MIS 10)
- Mindel-Riss interglacial (MIS 9)
- Riss (MIS 8-6)
- Riss-Würm interglacial (MIS 5e)
- Würm (MIS 5d-2)
Historical nomenclature in Great Britain and Ireland
- Bramertonian Stage
- Baventian Stage/Pre-Pastonian
- Pastonian Stage
- Beestonian stage
- Cromerian Stage (MIS 21-13 ?)
- Anglian Stage (MIS 12, perhaps also MIS 10 ?)
- Hoxnian Stage (MIS 11, perhaps also MIS 9 ?)
- Wolstonian Stage (MIS 8–6, perhaps also MIS 10–9 ?)
- Ipswichian interglacial (MIS 5e)
- Devensian glaciation (MIS 5d-2)
- Flandrian interglacial (MIS 1)
Historical nomenclature in Northern Europe
- Tiglian interglacial
- Waalian interglacial
- Menapian glacial stage
- Cromerian complex (MIS 21-13 ?)
- Elster glaciation (MIS 10, perhaps also MIS 12 ?)
- Holstein interglacial (MIS 9 ?)
- Saale glaciation (ended with MIS 6)
- Eem interglacial (MIS 5e)
- Weichsel glaciation (MIS 5d-2)
Historical nomenclature in North America
- Nebraskan glaciation (replaced by Pre-Illinoian in modern scientific literature)
- Aftonian interglacial (replaced by Pre-Illinoian in modern scientific literature)
- Kansan glaciation (replaced by Pre-Illinoian in modern scientific literature)
- Yarmouthian (stage) (replaced by Pre-Illinoian in modern scientific literature)
- Illinoian stage (MIS 10, sometimes also MIS 8 ?)
- Sangamonian (MIS 5e, sometimes also 5d-5a)
- Wisconsin glaciation (MIS 4-2, sometimes also 5d-5a)
Historical nomenclature in South America
- Caracoles (Río Frío) glaciation
- Río Llico (Colegual) glaciation
- Santa María (Casma) glaciation
- Valdivia interglacial (MIS 5e)
- Llanquihue glaciation (at least MIS 4-2)
It has proved difficult to correlate the traditional regional names with the global marine and ice core sequences. The indexes of MIS often identify several distinct glaciations that overlap in time with a single traditional regional glaciation. Some modern authors use the traditional regional glacial names to identify such a sequence of glaciations, whereas others replace the word "glaciation" with "complex" to refer to a continuous period of time that also includes warmer stages. As shown in the table below, it is only during the last 200-300 thousand years that the time resolution of the traditional nomenclature allow for clear correspondence with MIS indexes. In particular there has been a lot of controversy regarding the glaciations MIS 10 and MIS 12, and their correspondence to the Elster and Mindel glaciations of Europe.
|Extensive interglacial (similar to Holocene)|
|Extensive glaciation (similar to LGM)|
|AC = Ambiguous correlation|
For sources to the tables, see the individual linked articles.
- Brunhes–Matuyama reversal – The most recent geomagnetic reversal event (about 780,000 years ago)
- Geologic time scale – system that relates geological strata to time
- Glacial history of Minnesota
- Glacial period – Interval of time within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances
- Ice age – Period of long-term reduction in temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere
- Last glacial period
- Walker, M., Johnsen, S., Rasmussen, S. O., Popp, T., Steffensen, J.-P., Gibbard, P., Hoek, W., Lowe, J., Andrews, J., Bjo¨ rck, S., Cwynar, L. C., Hughen, K., Kershaw, P., Kromer, B., Litt, T., Lowe, D. J., Nakagawa, T., Newnham, R., and Schwander, J. 2009. Formal definition and dating of the GSSP (Global Stratotype Section and Point) for the base of the Holocene using the Greenland NGRIP ice core, and selected auxiliary records. J. Quaternary Sci., Vol. 24 pp. 3–17. ISSN 0267-8179.
- Robert E. Kopp; Joseph L. Kirschvink; Isaac A. Hilburn & Cody Z. Nash (2005). "The Paleoproterozoic snowball Earth: A climate disaster triggered by the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 (32): 11131–6. Bibcode:2005PNAS..10211131K. doi:10.1073/pnas.0504878102. PMC 1183582. PMID 16061801.
- "Chart". International Commission on Stratigraphy. Archived from the original on 2017-01-13. Retrieved 2017-02-14.
- Miracle Planet: Snowball Earth, (2005) documentary, Canadian Film Board, rebroadcast 25 April 2009 on the Science Channel (HD).
- van Andel, Tjeerd H. (1994). New Views on an Old Planet: A History of Global Change (2nd ed.). Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-44755-3.
- Rieu, Ruben; et al. (2007). "Climatic cycles during a Neoproterozoic "snowball" glacial epoch". Geology. 35 (4): 299–302. Bibcode:2007Geo....35..299R. doi:10.1130/G23400A.1.
- Brovkin, V.; Calov, R.; Ganopolski, A.; Willeit, M. (April 2019). "Mid-Pleistocene transition in glacial cycles explained by declining CO2 and regolith removal | Science Advances". Science Advances. 5 (4): eaav7337. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aav7337. PMC 6447376. PMID 30949580.
- Gibbard, P.; van Kolfschoten, T. (2004). "Chapter 22: The Pleistocene and Holocene Epochs" (PDF). In Gradstein, F. M.; Ogg, James G.; Smith, A. Gilbert (eds.). A Geologic Time Scale 2004. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-78142-8.
- Davis, Owen K. "Non-Marine Records: Correlations with the Marine Sequence". Introduction to Quaternary Ecology. University of Arizona. Archived from the original on 2017-07-27.
- Kukla, George (August 2005). "Saalian supercycle, Mindel/Riss interglacial and Milankovitch's dating". Quaternary Science Reviews. 24 (14–15): 1573–83. Bibcode:2005QSRv...24.1573K. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2004.08.023.
- "Menapian Glacial Stage | geology".
- Porter, S.C. (1981). "Pleistocene glaciation in the southern Lake District of Chile". Quaternary Research. 16 (3): 263–292. Bibcode:1981QuRes..16..263P. doi:10.1016/0033-5894(81)90013-2.
- Böse et al. (2012), Quaternary Glaciations of Northern Europe, Quaternary Science Reviews 44, page 17.
- Lisiecki, Lorraine E.; Raymo, Maureen E. (2005). "A Pliocene-Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic δ18O records". Paleoceanography. 20 (1): n/a. Bibcode:2005PalOc..20.1003L. doi:10.1029/2004PA001071.
- German Stratigraphic Commission: Stratigraphische Tabelle von Deutschland 2016
- Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy, Global chronostratigraphical correlation table for the last 2.7 million years, v. 2011
- Kasse (1993), Periglacial environments and climate development during Early Pleistocene Tiglian stage (Beerse Glacial) in northern Belgium, Geologie en Mijnbouw 72, 107-123, Kluwer
- Lee et al. (2011), The Glacial History of the British Isles during the early and Middle Pleistocene: Implications for the long-term development of the British Ice Sheet, Quaternary Glaciations-Extent and Chronology, pages 59-74, Elsevier.
- Cambridge Quaternary Palaeoenvironments Group: Don Glaciation
- Böse et al. (2012), Quaternary Glaciations of Northern Europe, Quaternary Science Reviews 44, 1-25.
- Velichko et al. (2004), Glaciations of the East European Plain – distribution and chronology, Quaternary Glaciations – Extent and Chronology, Elsevier, pages 337-354.
- Stratigraphische Tabellen des Bayerischen Geologischen Landesamtes. Ad hoc AG Geologie der Staatlichen Geologischen Dienste (SGD) and the BGR
- Velichko (2005), Cenozoic Climatic and Environmental Changes in Russia, page 53.
- GeoEssex: Timescale of the Ice Age in Essex
- Kolfschoten, The middle and late Pleistocene and climate sequence at Maastricht-Belvedere - the type locality of the Belvedere interglacial
- Delaney, Catherine (2003). "The Last Glacial Stage (the Devensian) in Northwest England" (PDF). North West Geography. 3 (2): 27–37. ISSN 1476-1580.
- Lokrantz, Hanna; Sohlenius, Gustav (2006). Ice marginal fluctuations during the Weichselian glaciation in Fennoscandia, a literature review (Technical Report TR-06-36) (PDF). Stockholm: Svensk Kärnbränslehantering AB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co).
The dictionary definition of glaciation at Wiktionary
- Aber, J.S. (2006). "Regional Glaciation of Kansas and Nebraska". Emporia KS: Emporia State University.
- Work Group on Geospatial Analysis of Glaciated Environments (GAGE) (2000). "Pre-Wisconsin Glaciation of Central North America". Emporia KS: INQUA Commission on Glaciation, Emporia State University. Archived from the original on May 13, 2008.
- Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy (2011). "Global correlation tables for the Quaternary". Cambridge UK: Department of Geography, University of Cambridge.
- Gibbard, P.L.; Boreham, S.; Cohen, K.M.; Moscariello, A. (2011). "Global chronostratigraphical correlation table for the last 2.7 million years v. 2011". Cambridge UK: Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge. Cite journal requires
- Hambrey, M.J.; Harland, W.B., eds. (1981). Earth's pre-Pleistocene glacial record. Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original on October 11, 2006. 1004 + xv pp. (book downloadable as series of PDF files)
- Silva, P.G.; Zazo,C; Bardají,T.; Baena, J.; Lario, J.; Rosas, A.; Van der Made (2009). "Tabla Cronoestratigráfica del Cuaternario AEQUA V.2" (PDF). Departamento de Geología, Universidad de Salamanca, Spain: Asociación Española para el Estudio del Cuaternario (AEQUA). Archived from the original (PDF 3.6 Mb) on 2012-06-26. (Correlation Chart of European Quaternary and cultural stages and fossils)