Timeline of hadrosaur research

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Skeletal mounts of Shantungosaurus giganteus

This timeline of hadrosaur research is a chronological listing of events in the history of paleontology focused on the hadrosauroids, a group of herbivorous ornithopod dinosaurs popularly known as the duck-billed dinosaurs. Scientific research on hadrosaurs began in the 1850s,[1] when Joseph Leidy described the genera Thespesius and Trachodon based on scrappy fossils discovered in the western United States. Just two years later he published a description of the much better-preserved remains of an animal from New Jersey that he named Hadrosaurus.[2]

The early 20th century saw such a boom in hadrosaur discoveries and research that paleontologists' knowledge of these dinosaurs "increased by virtually an order of magnitude" according to a 2004 review by Horner, Weishampel, and Forster. This period is known as the great North American Dinosaur rush because of the research and excavation efforts of paleontologists like Brown, Gilmore, Lambe, Parks, and the Sternbergs. Major discoveries included the variety of cranial ornamentation among hadrosaurs as scientist came to characterize uncrested, solid crested, and hollow crested species.[2] Notable new taxa included Saurolophus, Corythosaurus, Edmontosaurus, and Lambeosaurus.[3] In 1942 Richard Swann Lull and Wright published what Horner, Weishampel, and Forster characterized as the "first important synthesis of hadrosaurid anatomy and phylogeny".[2]

More recent discoveries include gigantic hadrosaurs like Shantungosaurus giganteus from China.[4] At 15 meters in length and nearly 16 metric tons in weight it is the largest known hadrosaur and is known from a nearly complete skeleton.[5]

Hadrosaur research has continued to remain active even into the new millennium. In 2000, Horner and others found that hatchling Maiasaura grew to adult body sizes at a rate more like a mammal's than a reptile. That same year, Case and others reported the discovery of hadrosaur bones in Vega Island, Antarctica. After decades of such dedicated research, hadrosaurs have become one of the best understood group of dinosaurs.[2]

19th century[edit]

1850s[edit]

Illustration of the Thespesius syntype
Illustration of Trachodon teeth
The first mounted dinosaur skeleton, that of Hadrosaurus

1856

1858

1860s[edit]

1868

  • Leidy collaborated with artist Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins to mount Hadrosaurus foulkii for the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. This became both the first mounted dinosaur skeleton ever mounted for public display and also one of the most popular exhibits in the history of the Academy. Estimates have the Hadrosaurus exhibit as increasing the number of visitors by up to 50%.[8]

1869

1870s[edit]

1870

1871

1872

1874

1875

1876

1880s[edit]

Type specimen of Claosaurus

1883

1888

1889

1890s[edit]

1890

1892

20th century[edit]

1900s[edit]

1900

1902

1903

1910[edit]

Artist's restoration of Edmontosaurus regalis

1910

1912

1913

  • Brown described the new genus and species Hypacrosaurus altispinus.[4]
  • Cutler excavated a juvenile Gryposaurus now catalogued by the Canadian Museum of Nature as CMN 8784. The site of the excavation has since been designated "quarry 252".[13]
  • Winter: Cutler partly prepared the young Gryposaurus specimen, possibly in Calgary while working on dinosaurs for Euston Sisely.[13]

1914

1915

  • Charles H. Sternberg's crew excavated a Corythosaurus from quarry 243 in Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta, Canada. The specimen would later be displayed at the Calgary Zoo.[14]
  • Matthew observed that fossils of hadrosaur eggs and hatchlings were absent in coastal areas and suggested that hadrosaurs may have preferred nesting grounds further inland. He believed that these inland nesting grounds were actually where hadrosaurs first evolved and therefore to breed, hadrosaurs retraced their ancestors route back to their place of origin. After hatching, the young hadrosaurs would spend some time inland maturing before migrating out to more coastal areas.[15]
Prosaurolophus maximus specimen collected 1921, Royal Ontario Museum

1916

1917

1918

1920s[edit]

Artist's restoration of Parasaurolophus

1920

1922

1923

1924

Artist's restoration of Tanius

1925

1926

1929

1930s[edit]

Skeletal mount of Bactrosaurus

1930

1931

1933

Skeletal mount of Nipponosaurus

1935

1936

1939

1940s[edit]

Skeletal mount of Orthomerus

1942

1943

1945

1946

1950s[edit]

Illustration of the skull of Tsintaosaurus

1952

1953

1958

1960s[edit]

Skeletal reconstruction of Parasaurolophus cyrtocristatus

1960

1961

1964

  • Ostrom supported Krausel's 1922 claim that fossil plant material found associated with an Edmontosaurus annectens mummy was actually its gut contents.[7]

1967

  • Russel and Chamney studied distribution of hadrosaur in Maastrichtian North America. The concluded that Edmontosaurus regalis lived near the coasts while Hypacrosaurus altispinus and Saurolophus osborni lived slightly more inland.[15]

1968

1970s[edit]

1970

  • Galton argued that the anatomy of the hadrosaur pelvis was more consistent with a horizontal posture like that seen in modern flightless birds than with the "kangaroo" posture they were often reconstructed in.[7]

1971

  • Dodson argued that hadrosaurs may not have fed exclusively on land.[7]

1973

1975

Skeletal mount of Maiasaura and hatchlings
  • Dodson found evidence for sexual and ontogenetic dimorphism in two different kinds of lambeosaurine using morphometrics.[16]

1976

1979

1980s[edit]

Hotton argued that some hadrosaurs may have migrated

1980

  • Hotton argued that some hadrosaurs may have migrated seasonally in a north-south direction.
Artist's restoration of Barsboldia
Skeletal reconstruction and size comparison Lambeosaurus (now Magnapaulia) laticaudus

1981

1982

  • Suslov and Shilin described the new genus and species Arstanosaurus akkurganensis.[9]
  • Carpenter disputed the idea that hadrosaurs only nested in upland environments, instead arguing that fossil hadrosaur eggs and hatchlings were only absent from coastal deposits because the chemistry of the ancient soils were simply too acidic to preserve them.[7]
  • Thulborn argued that hadrosaurs may have been able to run at speeds of up to 14–20 km/hr for sustained periods.[7]

1983

  • Horner observed that Maiasaura peeblesorum is only known to have lived in the upper regions of contemporary coastal plains.[15]
  • Weishampel described hadrosaur chewing and cranial kinetics.[7]
  • Weishampel and Weishampel[clarification needed] reported the presence of hadrosaur remains on the Antarctic Peninsula.[15]
Illustration of a Jaxartosaurus skull

1984

  • Wu described the new genus and species Jaxartosaurus fuyuensis.[9]
  • Milner and Norman argued that hadrosaurs evolved in Asia.[15]
  • Horner observed that fossil eggs and hadrosaur hatchlings were common in sediments deposited in the upper regions of what were once coastal plains.[15]
  • Weishampel described hadrosaur chewing and cranial kinetics.[7]
  • Norman described hadrosaur chewing and cranial kinetics.[7]
  • Weishampel argued that hadrosaurs fed mainly on vegetation of 2 m in height or less but had a maximum browsing height of 4 m.[7]
  • Bonaparte and others described the new species Kritosaurus australis.[4]

1985

  • Norman and Weishampel described hadrosaur chewing and cranial kinetics.[7]

1987

  • Horner observed that fossil eggs and hadrosaur hatchlings were common in sediments deposited in the upper regions of what were once coastal plains.[15]
  • Farlow argued that their highly developed chewing abilities and large gut volumes meant hadrosaurs werehighly adapted to feeding on nutrient poor, fibrous vegetation.[7]

1988

1990s[edit]

Artist's restoration of Amurosaurus

1990

  • Brett-Surman described the new genus Anatotitan for Anatosaurus copei.
  • Horner argued that the hadrosaurids were not a natural group, and instead that the two major groups of hadrosaurs, the generally uncrested hadrosaurines and the crested lambeosaurs had separate origins within the Iguanodontia. Horner though that the uncrested hadrosaurs were descended from a relative of Iguanodon, while the crested lambeosaurs were descended from a relative of Ouranosaurus. However, this proposal would find no support in any subsequent research publication.[10]
  • Weishampel and Horner found the Hadrosauridae to be a natural group after all.[10] They also found cladistic support for the traditional division of Hadrosauridae into the subfamilies Hadrosaurinae and Lambeosaurinae.[10]
  • Weishampel reported the presence of hadrosaurs on the Antarctic peninsula.[15][clarification needed]

1991

1992

Scientists began reconstructing the hadrosaur family tree in the 1990s.

1993

  • Hunt and Lucas described the new genus and species Anasazisaurus horneri.[11] They also described the new genus and species Naashoibitosaurus ostromi.[6]
  • Weishampel, Norman, and Griogescu named the clade Euhadrosauria.[11]
  • Weishampel and others proposed a node-based definition for the Hadrosauridae: the descendants of the most recent common ancestor shared by Telmatosaurus and Parasaurolophus.[17] They found the hadrosaurs to be a natural group, contrary to Horner's 1990 arguments that the hadrosaur subfamilies were descended from different kinds of iguanodont.[10] They also found cladistic support for the traditional division of Hadrosauridae into the subfamilies Hadrosaurinae and Lambeosaurinae.[10]
  • Clouse and Horner reported the presence of hadrosaur egg, embryo and hatchling fossils from the Judith River Formation of Montana. Since these sediments were deposited in a low-lying coastal plain, the researchers' discovery contradicted previous hypotheses that hadrosaurs either didn't nest in lowland areas or that local ancient soil was too acidic to preserve them.[7]

1994

1996

  • Chin and Gill described Maiasaura peeblesorum coprolites from an ancient nesting ground of that species. The coprolites were "blocky", irregularly-shaped masses that preserved plant fragments. The researchers identified it as feces because the masses contained fossilized dung beetle burrows. The plant material suggested a diet consisting mainly of conifer stems.[7]

1997

  • Forster found the hadrosaurs to be a natural group, contrary to Horner's 1990 arguments that the hadrosaur subfamilies were descended from different kinds of iguanodont.[10] They also found cladistic support for the traditional division of Hadrosauridae into the subfamilies Hadrosaurinae and Lambeosaurinae.[10] She preferred to define the Hadrosauridae as the most recent common ancestor of the hadrosaurines and lambeosaurines and all of its descendants. Unlike the definition used by Weishampel and others in 1993, this definition excluded Telmatosaurus.[18]

1999

  • Sereno found the hadrosaurs to be a natural group, contrary to Horner's 1990 arguments that the hadrosaur subfamilies were descended from different kinds of iguanodont.[10]

21st century[edit]

Artist's restoration of Charonosaurus jiayinensis

2000s[edit]

2000

  • Godefroit, Zan, and Jin described the new genus and species Charonosaurus jiayinensis.[4]
  • Case and others reported the presence of hadrosaurs on the Antarctica peninsula.[2] The remains studied were found on Vega Island and represent the southernmost known hadrosaur fossils. When the animals were still alive, this site was probably at a latitude of about 65 degrees South.[15]
  • Horner and others studied the histology of Maiasaura peeblesorum bones. They found that Maiasaura only took 8–10 years to reach adult body size. A 7 metres (23 ft) adult Maiasaura could have an adult body mass of over 2,000 kilograms (4,400 lb) despite hatching at a length of about half a meter and with a body mass of less than a kilogram. This disparity implies a rate or growth similar to those found in modern mammals.[7]
Artist's restoration of Olorotitan arharensis

2001

  • Horner and others published additional research on the histology of Maiasaura peeblesorum bones.[7]

2003

Left ilium of Cedrorestes

2004

2005

2006

2007

Artist's reconstruction of an Angulomastacator skull

2008

2009

2010s[edit]

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Artist's restoration of Probrachylophosaurus

2015

2016

2017

  • Cruzado-Caballero and Powell described the new genus and species Bonapartesaurus rionegrensis.
  • Study of corpolites by Chin, Feldmann & Tashman show hadrosaurs occasionally consumed decaying wood and crustaceans [58]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Horner, Weishampel, and Forster (2004); "Table 20.1: Hadrosauridae", page 443.
  2. ^ a b c d e Horner, Weishampel, and Forster (2004); "Introduction", page 438.
  3. ^ Horner, Weishampel, and Forster (2004); "Table 20.1: Hadrosauridae", pages 439–442.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Horner, Weishampel, and Forster (2004); "Table 20.1: Hadrosauridae", page 441.
  5. ^ Lucas (2001); "Nemegtian Vertebrates", page 181.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Horner, Weishampel, and Forster (2004); "Table 20.1: Hadrosauridae", page 440.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Horner, Weishampel, and Forster (2004); "Paleoecology, Biogeography, and Paleobiology", page 462.
  8. ^ Weishampel and Young (1996); "Haddonfield Hadrosaurus", page 71.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Horner, Weishampel, and Forster (2004); "Table 20.1: Hadrosauridae", page 442.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Horner, Weishampel, and Forster (2004); "Systematics and Evolution", page 457.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Horner, Weishampel, and Forster (2004); "Table 20.1: Hadrosauridae", page 439.
  12. ^ Lund, E.K. and Gates, T.A. (2006). "A historical and biogeographical examination of hadrosaurian dinosaurs." pp. 263 in Lucas, S.G. and Sullivan, R.M. (eds.), Late Cretaceous vertebrates from the Western Interior. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 35.
  13. ^ a b Tanke (2010); "Note 4," page 544.
  14. ^ Tanke (2010); "Note 9," page 546.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Horner, Weishampel, and Forster (2004); "Paleoecology, Biogeography, and Paleobiology", page 461.
  16. ^ a b Horner, Weishampel, and Forster (2004); "Paleoecology, Biogeography, and Paleobiology", page 463.
  17. ^ Horner, Weishampel, and Forster (2004); "Systematics and Evolution", pages 457–458.
  18. ^ Horner, Weishampel, and Forster (2004); "Systematics and Evolution", page 458.
  19. ^ You et al. (2003); "Abstract", page 347.
  20. ^ Kobayashi and Azuma (2003); "Abstract", page 166.
  21. ^ Bolotsky and Godefroit (2004); "Abstract", page 351.
  22. ^ Godefroit, Li, and Shang (2005); "Abstract", page 697.
  23. ^ Prieto-Márquez et al. (2006); "Abstract", page 929.
  24. ^ Gilpin, DiCroce and Carpenter (2007); "Abstract", page 79.
  25. ^ Mo et al. (2007); "Abstract", page 550.
  26. ^ Zhao et al. (2007); "Abstract", page 111.
  27. ^ Godefroit et al. (2008); "Abstract", page 47.
  28. ^ Wagner and Lehman (2009); "Abstract", page 605.
  29. ^ Pereda-Suberbiola et al. (2009); "Abstract", page 559.
  30. ^ Sues and Averianov (2009); "Abstract", page 2549.
  31. ^ Dalla Vecchia (2009); "Abstract", page 1100.
  32. ^ Cruzado-Caballero, Pereda-Suberbiola, and Ruiz-Omeñaca (2010); "Abstract", page 1507.
  33. ^ Prieto-Márquez (2010); "Abstract", page 1.
  34. ^ Juárez Valieri et al. (2010); "Abstract", page 217.
  35. ^ Gates et al. (2011); "Abstract", page 798.
  36. ^ Godefroit et al. (2012); "Abstract", page 335.
  37. ^ Ramírez-Velasco et al. (2012); "Abstract", page 379.
  38. ^ Godefroit et al. (2012); "Abstract", page 438.
  39. ^ Coria, Riga and Casadío (2012); "Abstract", page 552.
  40. ^ Prieto-Márquez and Brañas (2012); "Abstract", page 607.
  41. ^ Prieto-Márquez, Chiappe, and Joshi (2012); "Abstract", page 1.
  42. ^ Prieto-Márquez et al. (2013); "Canardia gen. nov", page 5.
  43. ^ Bell and Brink (2013); "Abstract", page 265.
  44. ^ Prieto-Márquez and Wagner (2013); "Abstract", page 255.
  45. ^ Wang et al. (2013); "Abstract", page 1.
  46. ^ Prieto-Márquez et al. (2014); "Abstract", page 1.
  47. ^ Gates and Scheetz (2014); "Abstract", page 798.
  48. ^ Xing et al. (2014); "Abstract", page 1.
  49. ^ Gates et al. (2014); "Abstract", page 156.
  50. ^ You, Li, and Dodson (2014); "Abstract", page 73.
  51. ^ Shibata and Azuma (2015); "Abstract", page 421.
  52. ^ Mori, Druckenmiller and Erickson (2015); "Abstract".
  53. ^ Freedman Fowler and Horner (2015); in passim.
  54. ^ Shibata et al. (2015); in passim.
  55. ^ Xu et al. (2016); in passim.
  56. ^ Wang et al. (2016); in passim.
  57. ^ Prieto-Márquez et al. (2016); in passim.
  58. ^ Chin, Feldmann & Tashman. (2017) Consumption of crustaceans by megaherbivorous dinosaurs: dietary flexibility and dinosaur life history strategies.

References[edit]

External links[edit]