Timeline of kidney cancer
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This is a timeline of kidney cancer, describing especially major discoveries and advances in treatment of the disease.
General important events
|19th century||First descriptions of renal carcinoma are recorded. Nephrectomy is developed.|
|20th century||More types of kidney cancers are described. Nephrology is established in the second half of the century.|
|Prior to 1980s||Very limited alternatives are available to treat kidney cancer. For patients whose cancer has not spread beyond the kidneys, complete surgical removal of the kidney is often, but not always, effective. For those with more advanced disease, however, the available chemotherapy and radiation treatments have little effect and survival is usually limited to a few months.|
|1980s onward||New imaging modalities such as ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging come into widespread use.|
|1990s||Immunotherapy is introduced, which enables doctors to extend the lives of some patients whose cancer have spread.|
|Present time||Currently, most cases of kidney cancer occur in the developed world, with the highest incidence in North America and Europe, and the lowest incidence in Africa and Asia. Treatments today include surgery, ablation, active surveillance, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy and chemotherapy.|
|Year/period||Type of event||Event||Location|
|1613||Development||German physician Daniel Sennert publishes his text Practicae Medicinae making the first reference suggesting a tumor arising in the kidney.|
|1810||Development||Case of renal carcinoma is first described.||France|
|1877||Development||German surgeon Carl Langenbuch performs the first nephrectomy (kidney removal) for neoplastic disease.|
|1899||Development||German pathologist Max Wilms first describes nephroblastomas (kidney cancer in children), today also known as Wilms' tumors.|
|1932||Development||J. R. Hand and A. Broders first report a relationship between histological grade and cancer-specific survival in patients with renal cell carcinoma, showing that patients with high grade of RCC are more likely to die and die sooner after diagnosis than those with low grade tumors.|
|1941||Development||First description of hypercalcemia in renal cell carcinoma, separating into two categories: metastatic and nonmetastatic.|
|1956||Development||French physician Pierre Masson first describes tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma of the kidney.|
|1957||Treatment||Thalidomide is launched to the market as a immunomodulatory drug. Today it is used for treating some cancers, including kidney cancer.||Germany|
|1960||Development||Nephrology, the discipline that studies the kidney and its functions, is established.|
|1967||Discovery||Juxtaglomerular cell tumor, a rare kidney tumor of the juxtaglomerular cells, is first described.|
|1978||Development||Researchers show that nephrectomy alone has a minimal effect on survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.|
|1978||Discovery||Clear-cell sarcoma of the kidney is first described.|
|1985||Development||Researchers discover that immunotherapy with interleukin 2 leads to long term tumor shrinkage in some patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.|
|1990||Treatment||American physician Ralph Clayman performs the first laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (LRN) for a kidney tumor.|
|1990||Organization||The Kidney Cancer Association is founded. It provides patient information on the disease, its treatment, and clinical trials among other services.||Evanston, Illinois, US|
|1992||Treatment||DFA approves interleukin 2, which soon becomes standard therapy for advanced renal cell carcinoma.||United States|
|1995||Discovery||Renal medullary carcinoma (a rare type of cancer that affects the kidney) is first described.|
|1995–1997||Treatment||Cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation are introduced as alternatives to surgery into small renal tumors.|
|2000||Discovery||Researchers discover that combination of kidney removal and immunotherapy increases survival time by 50 percent in patients with advanced renal cancer.|
|2000||Organization||Kidney Cancer UK is founded as a charity to support "kidney cancer patients, their carers, medical professionals and scientific researchers."||United Kingdom|
|2001||Development||The UCLA Integrated Staging System (UISS) prognostic model for renal cell carcinoma is developed.||Los Angeles, California, US|
|2004||Treatment||First robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (ralpn) is introduced.|
|2004||Development||WHO introduces new classification of renal cell carcinoma, based on pathology and genetic abnormalities. Malignant tumors: clear cell renal cell carcinoma, multilocular clear cell renal cell carcinoma, papillary renal cell carcinoma, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, carcinoma of the collecting ducts of Bellini, renal medullary carcinoma, xp11 translocation carcinomas, carcinoma associated with neuroblastoma, mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma, and renal cell carcinoma unclassified.|
|2005||Treatment||FDA approves Nexavar (sorafenib) for treating advanced kidney cancer.||United States|
|2006||Treatment||FDA approves Sutent (sunitinib malate) for kidney cancer patients because of its ability to reduce the size of tumors.||United States|
|2007||Treatment||Intravenous drug temsirolimus (TEMSR) is approved for treating advanced renal cell carcinoma.|
|2008||Treatment||Oncophage is approved for use as a vaccine therapy against kidney cancer.||Russia|
|2009||Treatment||FDA approves Votrient (pazopanib) as an oral medication that interferes with angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels needed for solid tumors to grow. It is a kinase inhibitor indicated for the treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.||United States|
|2009||Treatment||Bevacizumab is approved for treating metastatic renal cell carcinoma after multiple studies confirm benefit when combining with interferon.|
|2009||Treatment||FDA approves everolimus to treat metastatic kidney cancer that has progressed after treatment with either sorafenib or sunitinib.||United States|
|2012||Report||With 338,000 new cases diagnosed, kidney cancer becomes the twelfth most common cancer in the world (joint position with pancreatic cancer).|
|2012||Treatment||FDA approved Inlyta (axitinib) as a prescription medicine used to treat advanced renal cell carcinoma when one prior drug treatment for this disease has not worked.||United States|
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