Timeline of liver cancer

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This is a timeline of liver cancer, describing especially major discoveries and advances in treatment of the disease.

Big picture[edit]

Year/period Key developments
19th century First recorded attempts of hepatic surgery.[1]
1960s Hepatitis B is found to be a leading cause of liver cancer.[2] First liver transplant performed.
1980s Tumor ablation develops.[2]
1990s Liver transplantation becomes a standard treatment for certain patients with liver cancer, extending life expectancy for years and sometimes leading to cure.[2]
2000s The introduction of sorafenib in considered to mark a new era of liver cancer research and treatments.[2] Obesity is linked to liver cancer deaths.
Recent years As of 2010, liver cancer resulted in 754,000 deaths, up from 460,000 in 1990, making it the third leading cause of cancer death after lung and stomach.[3] Current treatment options for liver cancer are surgery, tumor ablation, tumor embolization, radiation therapy, targeted therapy and chemotherapy.[4]

Full timeline[edit]

Year/period Type of event Event Location
1870 Development First hepatic surgery is performed.[1]
1911 Development The first anatomical resection for liver cancer is performed during a right lobectomy.[1]
1950 Organization The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases is founded as an organization of scientists and healthcare professionals committed to preventing and curing liver disease.[5] United States
1956 Discovery Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (a rare form of hepatocellular carcinoma that typically affects young adults) is first described.[6]
1957 Development The first comprehensive description of the liver, including the identification of its eight functional sections, is published.[2]
1963 Treatment First liver transplant is performed in a patient with liver cancer.[7]
1964 Development Researchers introduce the first effective strategy to assess how well the liver is working, an important factor in treatment decisions for liver cancer.[2]
1965 Treatment Radioactive isotope Yttrium-90 (Y90) is first used for the treatment of inoperable liver cancer, for which previously there are no treatment options.[8]
1966 Organization The European Association for the Study of Liver Diseases is founded.[9] Marburg, Germany
1968 Organization The Latin American Association for the Study of the Liver (ALEH) is founded.[5] Sao Paulo, Brazil
1973 Development Child-Pugh score system develops as a method used to assess the prognosis of chronic liver disease. The system, which remains in use today, considers the results of three specific blood tests, the presence of fluid in the abdomen and cognitive function.[10]
1975 Treatment Research shows that advanced liver cancers respond to single-drug treatment with doxorubicin (Adriamycin).[11]
1981 Treatment United States FDA approves the first vaccine against hepatitis B, one of the primary causes of liver cancer.[12] United States
1983 Treatment A new technique called tumor ablation helps patients who cannot undergo surgery by shrinking and, in some cases, destroying smaller liver tumors.[13]
1983 Treatment Ultrasound-guided percutaneous ethanol injection in hepatic tumors is introduced.[14]
1989 Treatment Interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) for metastatic liver lesions is described. Since then, lasers are used to deliver local, controlled heat deposition in multiple organs.[13]
1991 Discovery Hepatitis C virus is first associated with hepatocellular carcinoma.[15]
1993 Treatment Percutaneous radio frequency ablation is introduced as a technique to treat liver tumors. The procedure is performed under ultrasound guidance. A small needle is inserted into the posterior aspect of the tumor, and ethanol is slowly injected into the lesion.[14]
1994 Development Researchers describe the infectious agent Helicobacter hepaticus and its role in causing active hepatitis and associated liver tumors in mice.[16]
1996 Treatment Research shows that liver transplantation is an effective treatment option for certain patients with cirrhosis and tumors that are confined to the liver.[17]
1998 Discovery Research links non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to increased liver cancer risk.[18]
2002 Discovery Researchers discover that liver cancers develop as a result of disruptions along multiple pathways, resulting in many genetically varied forms of liver cancer.[19]
2003 Discovery Study links obesity to higher risk of death from liver cancer, along with several other cancer types.[20] United States
2006 Organization The International Liver Cancer Association (ILCA) is established. It is the only international organization devoted exclusively to liver cancer research for experts from all related disciplines.[21]
2007 Treatment Study shows that drug sorafenib (Nexavar), extends the lives of patients with advanced, inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma, the most common form of liver cancer.[22]
2008 Development New criteria provides detailed guidance to help doctors select patients most likely to benefit from liver transplants, based on tumor size, spread and response to previous therapy.[23]
2012 Organization The South Asian Association for the Study of the Liver is founded.[5] Dhaka, Bangladesh
2016 Discovery Study shows that liver cancer risk rises up to 10 times with low selenium levels in the blood.[24] United States
2016 Treatment Bayer’s Stivarga is found to improve liver cancer survival rates after trial.[25] Germany

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Parks, RW; Garden, OJ (2001). "Liver resection for cancer". World J. Gastroenterol. 7 (6): 766–71. doi:10.3748/wjg.v7.i6.766. PMC 4695590. PMID 11854897.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Progress & Timeline". Retrieved 30 September 2016.
  3. ^ Lozano, R; Naghavi, M; Foreman, K; Lim, S; Shibuya, K; Aboyans, V; Abraham, J; Adair, T; Aggarwal, R; Ahn, S. Y.; Alvarado, M; Anderson, H. R.; Anderson, L. M.; Andrews, K. G.; Atkinson, C; Baddour, L. M.; Barker-Collo, S; Bartels, D. H.; Bell, M. L.; Benjamin, E. J.; Bennett, D; Bhalla, K; Bikbov, B; Bin Abdulhak, A; Birbeck, G; Blyth, F; Bolliger, I; Boufous, S; Bucello, C; et al. (Dec 15, 2012). "Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet. 380 (9859): 2095–128. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0. PMID 23245604.
  4. ^ "Liver cancer treatment". Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  5. ^ Darcy, DG; Chiaroni-Clarke, R; Murphy, JM; Honeyman, JN; Bhanot, U; LaQuaglia, MP; Simon, SM (2015). "The genomic landscape of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma: whole genome sequencing of ten patients". Oncotarget. 6 (2): 755–70. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.2712. PMC 4359253. PMID 25605237.
  6. ^ "Liver Transplantation". Retrieved 30 September 2016.
  7. ^ Ariel, IM (1965). "Treatment of Inoperable Primary Pancreatic and Liver Cancer by the Intra-Arterial Administration of Radioactive Isotopes (Y90 Radiating Microspheres". Ann. Surg. 162 (2): 267–78. doi:10.1097/00000658-196508000-00018. PMC 1476829. PMID 14327011.
  8. ^ "EASL". Retrieved 30 September 2016.
  9. ^ "The Child-Pugh score: Prognosis in chronic liver disease and cirrhosis". 2013-07-16. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  10. ^ Olweny, Charles L. M.; Toya, Tom; Katongole-Mbidde, Edward; Mugerwa, Josua; Kyalwazi, Sebastian K.; Cohen, Herman (1975). "Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with adriamycin. Preliminary communication". Cancer. 36 (4): 1250–1257. doi:10.1002/1097-0142(197510)36:4<1250::AID-CNCR2820360410>3.0.CO;2-X.
  11. ^ "Hepatitis B VIS". Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  12. ^ a b van Sonnenberg, Eric; McMullen, William; Solbiati, Luigi (2008-09-08). Tumor Ablation: Principles and Practice. ISBN 9780387286747.
  13. ^ a b "Hepatocellular Carcinoma (Liver Cancer)". Retrieved 30 September 2016.
  14. ^ El-Serag, Hashem B.; Mason, Andrew C. (2000). "Risk Factors for the Rising Rates of Primary Liver Cancer in the United States". Archives of Internal Medicine. 160 (21): 3227–30. doi:10.1001/archinte.160.21.3227. PMID 11088082.
  15. ^ Zeitune, Bruna Maria Röesler José Murilo Robilotta; Rabelo-Gonçalves, Elizabeth Maria Afonso (2014-04-03). Helicobacter pylori and Liver – Detection of Bacteria in Liver Tissue from Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using Laser Capture Microdissection Technique (LCM). Trends in Helicobacter Pylori Infection. doi:10.5772/57080. ISBN 978-953-51-1239-6.
  16. ^ Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Regalia, Enrico; Doci, Roberto; Andreola, Salvatore; Pulvirenti, Andrea; Bozzetti, Federico; Montalto, Fabrizio; Ammatuna, Mario; Morabito, Alberto; Gennari, Leandro (1996). "Liver Transplantation for the Treatment of Small Hepatocellular Carcinomas in Patients with Cirrhosis". New England Journal of Medicine. 334 (11): 693–700. doi:10.1056/NEJM199603143341104. PMID 8594428.
  17. ^ Hollingsworth, RC; Minton, EJ; Fraser-Moodie, C; Metivier, E; Rizzi, PM; Irving, WL; Jenkins, D; Ryder, SD (1998). "Hepatitis G infection: role in cryptogenic chronic liver disease and primary liver cell cancer in the UK. Trent Hepatitis C virus Study Group". J Viral Hepat. 5 (3): 165–9. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2893.1998.00102.x. PMID 9658369.
  18. ^ Grisham, Joe W.; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S. (August 2002). "Molecular pathogenesis of human hepatocellular carcinoma". Nature Genetics. 31 (4): 339–346. doi:10.1038/ng0802-339. PMID 12149612.
  19. ^ Calle, EE; Rodriguez, C; Walker-Thurmond, K; Thun, MJ (April 2003). "Overweight, Obesity, and Mortality from Cancer in a Prospectively Studied Cohort of U.S. Adults". N. Engl. J. Med. 348 (17): 1625–38. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa021423. PMID 12711737.
  20. ^ "ILCA". Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  21. ^ Llovet, JM; Ricci, S; Mazzaferro, V; et al. (July 2008). "Sorafenib in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma". New England Journal of Medicine. 359 (4): 378–390. CiteSeerX doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0708857. PMID 18650514.
  22. ^ Yao, FY; Kerlan, RK Jr; Hirose, R; Davern; Bass, NM; Feng, S; Peters, M; Terrault, N; Freise, CE; Ascher, NL; Roberts, JP (2008). "Excellent outcome following down-staging of hepatocellular carcinoma prior to liver transplantation: an intention-to-treat analysis". Hepatology. 48 (3): 819–27. doi:10.1002/hep.22412. PMC 4142499. PMID 18688876.
  23. ^ "Liver cancer risk influenced by blood selenium levels". Medical News Today. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
  24. ^ "Bayer's Stivarga improves liver cancer survival rates, trial shows". Retrieved 30 September 2016.