Timeline of nursing history

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A girl reads to a convalescent while a nurse brings in the patient's medicine

Prior to the 16th century[edit]

16th century[edit]

17th century[edit]

  • 1618–1648 – The Thirty Years' War – Catholic–Protestant wars rocked Europe, killing 8 million.
  • 1633 – The founding of the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul, Servants of the Sick Poor by Sts. Vincent de Paul and Louise de Marillac.[5] The community would not remain in a convent, but would nurse the poor in their homes, "having no monastery but the homes of the sick, their cell a hired room, their chapel the parish church, their enclosure the streets of the city or wards of the hospital."[6]
  • 1645 – French nurse Jeanne Mance established Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal, North America's first hospital.
  • 1654 and 1656 – Sisters of Charity cared for the wounded on the battlefields at Sedan and Arras in France.
  • 1660 – Over 40 houses of the Sisters of Charity existed in France and several in other countries; the sick poor were helped in their own houses in 26 parishes in Paris.

18th century[edit]

The 18th century was considered the Age of Reason. A lot of myths were contradicted by scientific fact.[7] Jamaican "doctresses" such as Cubah Cornwallis, Sarah Adams and Grace Donne, the mistress and healer to Jamaica's most successful planter, Simon Taylor, had great success using hygiene and herbs to heal the sick and wounded.[8]

19th century[edit]

Florence Nightingale (1820–1910)


  • 1805 – Mary Seacole is born in the Colony of Jamaica, as Mary Grant, the daughter of Mrs Grant, a successful Jamaican doctress with a reputation for healing the sick and wounded in that island, using hygiene and herbs.


  • 1811 – The grand re-opening of Sydney Hospital (founded 1788 as a tent hospital). Convict men and women undertook the nursing.[1]





Mary Seacole
  • 1850 – Instructional school for nurses opened by NSP.
  • 1850 – Florence Nightingale, a pioneer of modern nursing, begins her training as a nurse at the Institute of St. Vincent de Paul at Alexandria, Egypt.[15]
  • 1851 – Florence Nightingale completed her nursing training at Kaiserwerth, Germany, a Protestant religious community with a hospital facility. She was there for approximately 3 months, and at the end, her teachers declared her trained as a nurse.[16]
  • 1853 – Crimean War.
  • 1851 – Mrs Seacole travelled to Panama, where she worked at healing sufferers from cholera and other diseases.
  • 1853 – Seacole returned to the Colony of Jamaica, where she worked at healing sufferers from yellow fever.
  • 1853 – Florence Nightingale went to Paris to study with the Sisters of Charity and was later appointed superintendent of the English General Hospitals in Turkey.[12]
  • 1854 – The first lunatic asylum was opened in Wellington, New Zealand.[12]
  • 1854 – Florence Nightingale appointed as the Superintendent of Nursing Staff.
  • 1854 – Florence Nightingale and 38 volunteer nurses are sent to Turkey on October 21 to assist with caring for the injured of the Crimean War.
  • 1854 – In a letter written November 15, 1854, to Dr Bowman, Florence Nightingale gives definite statistics:

    on Thursday last [i.e.Nov 8] we had 1715 sick and wounded in this hospital (among whom, 120 cholera patients) and 650 severely wounded in...the General Hospital...when a message came to me to prepair for 510 wounded....

    — (Seymer 1932)
  • 1855 – Mary Seacole leaves London on January 31 to establish a "British Hotel" at Balaklava in the Crimea, where she nursed wounded British soldiers using herbs and practised good hygiene.
  • 1856 – Biddy Mason is granted her freedom and moves to Los Angeles. She works as a nurse and midwife and becomes a successful businesswoman.
  • 1856– The Melbourne lying-in Hospital and Infirmary for diseases Peculiar to Women and Children established.[7]
  • 1856 – A charitable organisation known as the Nightingale Fund for Nursing was founded in Britain, to commemorate Nightingale's work in the Crimean War.[7]
  • 1856 – Establishment of Melbourne Lying-in Hospital and Infirmary for Diseases peculiar to Women and Children.[7]
  • 1857 – Ellen Ranyard creates the first group of paid social workers in England and pioneers the first district nursing programme in London.[17]
  • 1857 – The Sisters of Charity opened the first St Vincent's Hospital at Sydney's Pott's Point, Australia. Today, the St Vincent's hospitals provide a considerable proportion of public health services.[12]
  • 1857 – Seacole published her autobiography, The Wonderful Adventures of Mrs Seacole in Many Lands.
  • 1859 – Florence Nightingale published her views on nursing care in "Notes on Nursing". The basis of nursing practice was based on her ideas from this.[18]


  • 1860 – In May 1860 advertisements appeared seeking young lady nurses for training, but responses were not overwhelming; however, in July 1860 15 hand-picked probationers entered the Nightingale Training School, and the pattern for modern nursing came into being.[19]
  • 1860 – Florence Nightingale publishes "Note on Nursing: What it is and what it is not"[20]
  • 1860 – Crisp et al. 2011 state that the Nightingale training school for nurses in England at the St Thomas' hospital, London was established at this time.
  • 1860–1883 – As 16,000 single women emigrated to New Zealand, 582 identified their occupation as a nurse (including monthly nurse, sick nurse, trained nurse, nurse girl, midwife, hospital nurse or professional nurse.)[21]
  • 1861 – Sally Louisa Tompkins opens a hospital for Confederate soldiers in July. She is later made an officer in the army, the only woman to receive that honor.
  • 1861–1865 – The American Civil War, American Army nurses corps.
  • 1863 – The International Red Cross was established in Geneva, Switzerland, by five private individuals,[22]
  • 1865 – Mary Tattersall, a nurse who served in the Crimean War arrived was Timaru Hospital's first matron.[23]
  • 1867 – Jane Currie Blaikie Hoge publishes her memoirs of nursing in the Union Army, The Boys in Blue.
  • 1868 – Lucy Osburn and her four Nightingale nurses arrived at Sydney Infirmary (later Sydney Hospital).[12]: 4 
  • 1868 – Sir Henry Parkes requested that Nightingale is to provide trained nurses for New South Wales.[12]: 4 
  • 1868 – Cathinka Guldberg, who had trained as a Deaconess at Kaiserswerth, started the first nursing school in Norway at the Deaconess Institute of Christiania and became its first director.[24]: 148 


  • 1870 – New Zealand had 37 hospitals as a result of the population increase of the Gold Rush.[12]: 4 
  • 1871 – Nightingale-trained matron appointed to the Alfred Hospital, Melbourne.[12]
  • 1872–1873 – formal nursing training programs were established, establishment of formal education.
  • 1873 – Linda Richards graduates from the New England Hospital for Women and Children Training School for Nurses and officially becomes America's First Trained Nurse.
  • 1873 – The first nursing school in the United States, based on Florence Nightingale's principles of nursing, opens at Bellevue Hospital, New York City.
  • 1874 – Group of Anglican nuns arrive in South Africa (Bloemfontein) to work as nurses. Among them was Sr. Henrietta Stockdale who started the first training for nurses in Africa.[25]
  • 1876 – The Japanese term (Kangofu 看護婦 or nurse) is used for the first time.[26]
  • 1879 – Mary Eliza Mahoney graduates from the New England Hospital for Women and Children Training School for Nurses and becomes the first black professional nurse in the U.S.[27]



Kate Marsden

20th century[edit]


French nurse's uniform, 1900


Chief Nurse Higbee, USN



World War II[edit]

U.S. Navy Nurse and released POW aboard USS Benevolence, 1945.


  • 1942 – Beveridge Report recommends comprehensive health care funded through National Insurance.[61]
  • 1943 – Mary Elizabeth Lancaster (Carnegie) is appointed the acting director of the Division of Nursing Education at Hampton Institute in Hampton, Virginia. Through her direction the first baccalaureate nursing program in the Commonwealth of Virginia is created.[33]
  • 1943 – The Mid-Atlantic state of Delaware was the first to admit the African American nurses to membership as a state nurses.[62]
  • 1944 – Ludwig Guttmanns Spinal Unit at Stoke Mandeville was formally opened on 1 February with one patient and twenty-six beds.[63]
  • 1944 – The first baccalaureate nursing program in the Commonwealth of Virginia is created at the Hampton University School of Nursing.[33]
  • 1948– The first baccalaureate nursing program in the State of Alabama is established at Tuskegee University under the leadership of Dr. Lillian H. Harvey, Dean.[64]
  • 1948 – The National Health Service is launched on July 5.
  • 1949 – Mary Elizabeth Carnegie is the first black person elected to the board of the Florida Nurses Association with the right to speak and vote.[65]
  • 1949 – Formation of College of Nursing Australia.[12]




  • 1971 – The Carpenter report was released, this was a review released by New Zealand centered around the nursing education system, the report advocated training nurses in an educational environment. The government however decided that polytechs not universities were more appropriate for this, however the consequences of this were that nurses were only diploma level not degree level.[12]
  • 1973 – Christchurch and Wellington Polytechnics offer diploma-level nursing education; Massey and Victoria Universities (Wellington) start their post-registration bachelor's degrees.[12]
  • 1974 – Yale Nursing School dean Florence Wald et al. found Connecticut Hospice, launching the hospice movement in the U.S.
  • 1974 – The classic definition of health which has endured for many years, was actually provided by the World Health Organization.[12]
  • 1975 – First nursing diploma program in Australia in a College of Advanced Education (CAE) in Melbourne, followed quickly by programs in New South Wales, South Australia and Western Australia.[12]
  • 1976 – The first master's degree program in nursing for a historically Black College or University[86] (HBCU) founded at Hampton University School of Nursing.[33]
  • 1976 – The Nurses' Health Study began[87]
  • 1976 – Roy Adaptation Theory published, Sister Callista Roy nursing theorist
  • 1977 – The M. Elizabeth Carnegie Nursing Archives is created by Dr. Patricia E. Sloan at the Hampton University School of Nursing.[33] This is the only repository for memorabilia on minority nurses in the United States. The focus of the archives is African American nurses.
  • 1978 – Estelle Massey Osborne becomes the first black nurse to be inducted as honorary fellow in the American Academy of Nursing.[30]
  • 1978 – Barbara Nichols is the first black nurse to be elected president of the American Nurses Association.[30]
  • 1978 – Elizabeth Carnegie is the first black to be elected president of the American Academy of Nursing.[30]
  • 1979 – The first iteration of a clinical doctorate, a nursing doctorate (ND), was established at Case Western Reserve University.[88]
  • 1979 – Dr. Watson's first book published, based on her theory of caring.[89]



  • 1990 – Florence Nightingale's birthday (May 12) is declared the official Nursing Day in Japan.[26]
  • 1992 – Eddie Bernice Johnson is the first nurse elected to the U.S. Congress.
  • 1993 – After reforms in 1993, nursing education in Sweden is changing from vocational training to academic education.[92]
  • 1999 – Elnora D. Daniel is the first black nurse elected president of a major university, Chicago State University.[30]
  • 1999 – The first doctor of philosophy degree program in nursing for a Historically Black College or University[86] (HBCU) is founded at Hampton University School of Nursing.[33] This doctoral program is unique in that it is the only doctoral program in the country that focuses on family and family-related nursing research.
  • 1999 –

    I define caring as a "nurturing way of relating to a valued 'other' toward whom one feels a personal sense of commitment and responsibility"

    — (Swanson 1991), page 162
  • 1999 – 9-day strike of nurses and midwives in Ireland.[93][94]

21st century[edit]


  • 2002 – The Nursing and Midwifery Council takes over from the UKCC as the UK's regulatory body.
  • 2003 – Primary Health Care framework document is released by New Zealand Ministry of Health.[12]
  • 2004 – The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) recommends that all advanced practice nurses earn a Doctor of Nursing Practice degree.[95]
  • 2004 – The New Zealand Health Practitioners Competence Assurance (2003) Act comes into full power on 18 September. This covers the requirements for nurses to have current competences relating to their scope of practice.[96]
  • 2004 – The National Council of State Boards of Nursing initiated its Nursing License Compact which allows an RN who holds a license in one Compact state (USA), to work in another Compact state without having that state's license. (As of 2015 there are twenty-four Compact states and four with pending legislation to join.)[97]
  • 2007 – ICN Conference is held in Yokohama
  • 2008 – Courtney Lyder becomes the first male minority dean of a nursing school in the United States.[98]
  • 2008 – National Council for State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) issues final report: "NCSBN Consensus Model for APRN Regulation: Licensure, Accreditation, Certification & Education".
  • 2009 – Carnegie Foundation releases the results of its study of nursing education, "Educating Nurses: A Call for Radical Transformation".
  • 2010 – Institute for the Future of Nursing (IFN) releases evidence-based recommendations to lead change for improved health care.[99]
  • 2010 – A national registration for all nurses and midwives came into force in Australia in July.[7]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Craven & Hirnle 2011.
  2. ^ Mitchell & Grippando 1992 (cited in Craven & Hirnle 2011)
  3. ^ a b Crisp et al. 2012, p. 4.
  4. ^ a b Mitchell & Grippando 1992.
  5. ^ Dinan 2006.
  6. ^ Herbermann, Charles George; Pace, Edward Aloysius; Pallen, Condé Bénoist; Shahan, Thomas Joseph; Wynne, John Joseph (1913). The Catholic Encyclopedia. p. 605.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Daly, Speedy & Jackson 2014.
  8. ^ Moira Ferguson, Nine Black Women (London: Routledge, 1998), p. 68.
  9. ^ "WebCite query result". Archived from the original on 2009-10-20. {{cite web}}: Cite uses generic title (help)
  10. ^ a b Bloy 2012.
  11. ^ "Pennsylvania Hospital History: Historical Timeline – Obstetrics". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Crisp et al. 2012.
  13. ^ Papps 2012 in Crisp et al. 2012, p. 4
  14. ^ Barber & Towers 1976.
  15. ^ "Page not found – Discover Nursing". Archived from the original on 14 July 2007. Retrieved 28 November 2016. {{cite web}}: Cite uses generic title (help)
  16. ^ Wojnar 2010.
  17. ^ "infed.org – Ellen Ranyard ("LNR"), Bible women and informal education". infed.org. 2013-02-04.
  18. ^ Wesley 1995.
  19. ^ Masson 1985.
  20. ^ Nightingale, Florence (1860). Notes on Nursing. Harrison.
  21. ^ Orchard, S. (1997). More 'woman of good character': Nurses who came to new Zealand as immigrant settlers during the period 1860 to 1883. In Chick & Rodgers 1997, pp. 5–16
  22. ^ Science museum, n.d.
  23. ^ "Tattersall, Mary". January 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  24. ^ Seymer 1932.
  25. ^ Loots 1975.
  26. ^ a b c d e f "Overview of Japanese Nursing System – Japanese Nursing Association". nurse.or.jp.
  27. ^ a b "The Hall of Fame Inductees: Mary Eliza Mahoney". nursingworld.org. Archived from the original on 9 July 2000. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  28. ^ a b c Bullough & Bullough 1969.
  29. ^ "NAHRS - Nursing and Allied Health Resources Section". Archived from the original on 2004-08-21. Retrieved 2006-09-19. online
  30. ^ a b c d e f "Diversity & Inclusion". aetna.com.
  31. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-09-03. Retrieved 2006-09-19.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  32. ^ "Kate Marsden - Founder of St. Francis Leprosy Guild". Archived from the original on 2006-01-13. Retrieved 2006-09-15.
  33. ^ a b c d e f "School of Nursing". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  34. ^ "Hampton University : School of Nursing : History". Archived from the original on 2011-09-20. Retrieved 2011-06-26.
  35. ^ a b Potter & Perry.
  36. ^ Kellaway & Maryan 1993.
  37. ^ a b Arlington National Cemetery – Notable Graves – Medicine
  38. ^ McLauchlan 1989.
  39. ^ "British Military Nurses".
  40. ^ "The Nurse Practice Act – Rochester Regional Health, New York". Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  41. ^ "In Memory of Nurses." Washington Post. May 3, 1905.
  42. ^ Monuments and Memorials: Spanish American War Nurses – ArlingtonCemetery.mil
  43. ^ "Support". nzno.org.nz.
  44. ^ New Zealand Nurses Organisation [NZNO], 2009
  45. ^ "Canadian Nurses Association - History". Archived from the original on 2006-09-27. Retrieved 2006-09-15.
  46. ^ "Nurse Akenehi Hei, who was the first Maori nurse to qualify in 1908, outside her tent hospital". christchurchcitylibraries.com.
  47. ^ "Our History". American Red Cross.
  48. ^ "University of Minnesota School of Nursing History". University of Minnesota. 2016-03-23. Retrieved 3 June 2017.
  49. ^ Dow, D. (2009). Remembering the unsung heroines. New Zealand Doctor, 36.
  50. ^ Rodgers 1994.
  51. ^ Lewenson 2004.
  52. ^ "Our History" (PDF). American Red Cross.
  53. ^ "Ethel Fenwick's story". www.nmc.org.uk. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  54. ^ "Home > Yale School of Medicine – Yale School of Medicine". yale.edu.
  55. ^ "How FNS Began". Archived from the original on 2004-09-21. Retrieved 2006-09-15.
  56. ^ "EEAN - Sobre a Escola de Enfermagem Anna Nery da UFRJ". Archived from the original on 2010-02-14. Retrieved 2010-02-18.
  57. ^ Brown, Masters & Smith 1994.
  58. ^ Mounments and Memorials: Nurses Memorial – Arlington.Cemetery.mil
  59. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-02-10. Retrieved 2012-07-19.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  60. ^ "The Army Nurse Corps". army.mil.
  61. ^ "NHS Nursing in the 1950s". nursingtimes.net. 2008-01-10.
  62. ^ "History Timeline 1930 to 1959". upenn.edu.
  63. ^ Allan, 2004
  64. ^ http://www.tuskegee[permanent dead link] university.edu
  65. ^ Sullivan, Patricia (2008-03-07). "M. Elizabeth Carnegie, 91; Advocated for Black Nurses". washingtonpost.com.
  66. ^ "Nursing and Medicine in the Korean War".
  67. ^ "Nurses (Scotland) Act 1951". legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  68. ^ "NAPNES". napnes.org.
  69. ^ Alligood & Tomey.
  70. ^ "Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP)". pitt.edu. Archived from the original on 2010-06-14.
  71. ^ "Statute 69 page 579" (PDF). Retrieved 2020-01-07.
  72. ^ O'Lynn, Chad E.; Tranbarger, Russell E., eds. (2006). Men in Nursing: History, Challenges, and Opportunities. New York: Springer Publishing. p. 88. ISBN 978-0826103499. Retrieved June 22, 2013.
  73. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-12-09. Retrieved 2007-02-02.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  74. ^ "Nursing for Graduates. New course in Edinburgh". The Glasgow Herald. 7 May 1960. p. 4. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
  75. ^ "Medical News". The British Medical Journal. 1 (5185): 1580–1582. 21 May 1960. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.5185.1580. S2CID 220219355.
  76. ^ FAAN, Vern L. Bullough, RN, PhD; MLS, Lilli Sentz (January 2004). American Nursing: A Biographical Dictionary: Volume 3. Springer Publishing Company. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-8261-1747-2.
  77. ^ "Col Ruby Bradley". HeraldScotland. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  78. ^ Sewell, T (1998). All aboard we're getting a life. London: Voice Enterprises. pp. 55–57. ISBN 978-1872841007.
  79. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-05-16. Retrieved 2010-07-04.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  80. ^ Laurie L. Weinstein (1999). Gender Camouflage: Women and the U.S. Military. NYU Press. pp. 23–. ISBN 978-0-8147-1907-7.
  81. ^ "The Philippine Nurses Association". Archived from the original on 2012-12-04.
  82. ^ "History of the NHS - the NHS from 1958 to 1967". Archived from the original on 2006-06-21. Retrieved 2006-09-19.
  83. ^ "History of Hospice Care". National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization.
  84. ^ "Dr. Luther Christman, Nursing Pioneer, Passes Away at 96". University of Michigan School of Nursing. Retrieved December 21, 2018.
  85. ^ Adlam, Dotchin & Hayward 2009.
  86. ^ a b "White House Initiative on Historically Black Colleges and Universities | U.S. Department of Education". Archived from the original on 2003-10-05. Retrieved 2003-10-05.
  87. ^ a b Dave. "Home – Nurses' Health Study". nhs3.org.
  88. ^ "Welcome to the ADVANCE Network". advanceweb.com. Archived from the original on 2012-07-22.
  89. ^ Parker & Smith 2010.
  90. ^ "Media Reviews – Florence Nightingale Museum". Nursing History Review. 20: 209–211. 2012. doi:10.1891/1062-8061.20.209. S2CID 219213433.
  91. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-02-19. Retrieved 2007-01-13.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  92. ^ Andersson 1999.
  93. ^ Clarke & O'Neill 2001.
  94. ^ Brown et al. 2006.
  95. ^ "American Association of Colleges of Nursing – Home". nche.edu.
  96. ^ "Health Practitioners Competence Assurance Act". Ministry of Health NZ.
  97. ^ "Nurse Licensure Compact". NCSBN.
  98. ^ Bloomekatz, Ari (October 9, 2013) "A Nurse Who's Healing Patients and Himself", Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 21, 2018.
  99. ^ "The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health". iom.edu. Archived from the original on 2011-06-22.


  • Andersson, E P (1999). "From Vocational Training to Academic Education: The Situation of the Schools of Nursing in Sweden". J Nurs Educ. 38 (1): 33–38. doi:10.3928/0148-4834-19990101-10. PMID 9921786.
  • Barber, L.; Towers, R. (1976). "Wellington Hospital 1847–1976". Giselle's Journal.
  • Bloy, Marjie (3 January 2012). "Florence Nightingale (1820–1910)".
  • Bullough; Bullough (1969). The Emergence of Modern Nursing.
  • Craven, R. F.; Hirnle, C. J. (2011). Fundamentals of Nursing, Human Health and Function (7th ed.).
  • D'Antonio, Patricia (2010). American Nursing: A History of Knowledge, Authority, and the Meaning of Work. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0801895647.
  • Davies, Celia, ed. (1980) Rewriting Nursing History
  • Dinan, Susan E. (2006). Women and Poor Relief in Seventeenth-Century France. The Early History of the Daughters of Charity. Ashgate / Routledge. ISBN 978-0754655534.
  • Dingwall, Robert, Anne Marie Rafferty, Charles Webster (1988) An Introduction to the Social History of Nursing (Routledge)
  • Dock, Lavinia Lloyd (1920) A Short history of nursing from the earliest times to the present dayfull text online; abbreviated version of her four volume A History of Nursing vol 3 online
  • Donahue, M. Patricia (2010) Nursing, The Finest Art: An Illustrated History (3rd ed.) excerpt and text search
  • Fairman, Julie and Joan E. Lynaugh (2000) Critical Care Nursing: A History excerpt and text search
  • Mitchell, Paula R.; Grippando, Gloria M. (1992). Nursing Perspectives and Issues (5th ed.). Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-0827349834.
  • Judd, Deborah. (2009) A History of American Nursing: Trends and Eras excerpt and text search
  • Lewenson, Sandra B. (2004). "Integrating nursing history into the curriculum". Journal of Professional Nursing. 20 (6): 374–380. doi:10.1016/j.profnurs.2004.08.003. PMID 15599871. History was always part of the curriculum but declined in emphasis and time dedicated to it
  • Lewenson, Sandra B., and Eleanor Krohn Herrmann (2007) Capturing Nursing History: A Guide to Historical Methods in Research
  • Masson, M. (1985). A pictorial history nf Nursing. Hamlyn. ISBN 978-0600500629.
  • Snodgrass, Mary Ellen (2004) Historical Encyclopedia of Nursing from ancient times to the present

Britain and Commonwealth[edit]

  • Adlam, K.; Dotchin, M.; Hayward, S. (2009). "Nursing first year of practice, past, present and future: documenting the journey in New Zealand". Journal of Nursing Management. 17 (5): 570–575. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2834.2008.00932.x. PMID 19575715.
  • Bostridge. Mark (2008) Florence Nightingale: The Making of an Icon
  • Brown, Gary B; Greaney, Anna-Marie; Kelly-Fitzgibbon, Mary E; McCarthy, Jane (2006). "The 1999 Irish nurses' strike: nursing versions of the strike and self-identity in a general hospital". Journal of Advanced Nursing. 56 (2): 200–208. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.03998.x. PMID 17018068.
  • Brown, M.; Masters, D.; Smith, B. (1994). Nurses of Auckland : the history of the general nursing programme in the Auckland School of Nursing. Auckland, NZ. ISBN 978-0473028275.
  • Chick, Norma; Rodgers, Jan A, eds. (1997). Looking back, moving forward : essays in the history of New Zealand nursing and midwifery. Palmerston North, NZ: Massey University, Dept. of Nursing and Midwifery. ISBN 978-0473047542. {{cite encyclopedia}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  • Clarke, Jean; O'Neill, Catherine S (2001). "An Analysis of How The Irish Times Portrayed Irish Nursing During the 1999 Strike". Nurs Ethics. 8 (4): 350–359. doi:10.1177/096973300100800407. PMID 16004089. S2CID 36692426.
  • Crisp, J.; Taylor, C; Douglas, C.; Rebeiro, G., eds. (2012). Potter & Perry's Fundamentals of Nursing (4th ANZ ed.). Mosby. ISBN 978-0729541107. {{cite encyclopedia}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  • Daly, J.; Speedy, S.; Jackson, D. (2014). Contexts of Nursing (4th ed.). Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 978-0729541527.
  • Helmstadter, Carol, and Judith Godden, eds. (2011) Nursing before Nightingale, 1815–1899 (Ashgate)
  • Kellaway, J.; Maryan, M. (1993). A century of care: Palmerston North Hospital 1893–1993. Double Bay, NSW: Focus. ISBN 978-0473021825.
  • Loots, I.; Vermaak, M. (1975). Pioneers of professional nursing in South Africa. Bloemfontein: de Villiers. ISBN 978-0796400055.
  • McLauchlan, G., ed. (1989). The illustrated encyclopedia of New Zealand. Auckland: Bateman. ISBN 978-1869530075.
  • Middleton, J. (2008) NHS nursing in the 1950s. NursingTimes.net. Retrieved from http://www.nursingtimes.net/nhs-nursing-in-the-1950s/461928.article
  • Nelson, Sioban, and Ann Marie Rafferty, eds. (2010) Notes on Nightingale: The Influence and Legacy of a Nursing Icon
  • Papps, E. (2012). "Legal implications in nursing practice: New Zealand". In Crisp, J.; Taylor, C; Douglas, C.; Rebeiro, G. (eds.). Potter & Perry's Fundamentals of Nursing (4th ANZ ed.). Mosby. ISBN 978-0729541107.
  • Seymer, Lucy R. (1932). A general history of nursing. Faber and Faber.
  • Sweet, Helen (2007). "Establishing Connections, Restoring Relationships: Exploring the Historiography of Nursing in Britain". Gender and History. 19 (3): 565–580. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0424.2007.00490.x. S2CID 145247963.


  • Alligood, Martha Raile; Marriner-Tomey, Ann (2009). Alligood, Martha R.; Tomey, Anne M. (eds.). Nursing theorists and their work. ISBN 978-0323056410. {{cite encyclopedia}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  • Campbell, D'Ann (1984) Women at War with America: Private Lives in a Patriotic Era ch 2, on military nurses in World War Two
  • Judd, Deborah (2009) A History of American Nursing: Trends and Eras excerpt and text search
  • Kalisch, Philip Arthur, and Beatrice J. Kalisch (2003)[1986] The Advance of American Nursing (2nd ed.); retitled as American Nursing: A History (4th ed.)
  • Parker, M. E.; Smith, M. C. (2010). Nursing Theories and nursing practice (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Co.
  • Potter, Patricia A.; Perry, Anne Griffin; Stockert, Patricia; Hall, Amy (2012). Fundamentals of Nursing (8th ed.). ISBN 978-0323079334.
  • Rodgers, Jan. A. (1994). A Paradox of Power and Marginality: New Zealand Nurses' Professional Campaign During War 1900–1920 (Ph.D.). Massey University.
  • Sarnecky, Mary T. (1999) A history of the U.S. Army Nurse Corps
  • Wesley, Ruby L. (1995). Nursing theories and models (2nd ed.). Springhouse Pub Co. ISBN 978-0874347449.
  • Wojnar, D. (2009). "Florence Nightingale". In Alligood, Martha R.; Tomey, Anne M. (eds.). Nursing theorists and their work. pp. 71–90. ISBN 978-0323056410.