Timeline of nursing history

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A girl reads to a convalescent while a nurse brings in the patient's medicine

Prior to the 17th century[edit]

  • 1–500 AD (approximately)– Nursing care mostly included hygiene and comfort needs of persons and families. Religious organizations were the care providers.(Craven & Hirnle)
  • 55 AD – Phoebe is nursing history's most noted deaconess.[1]
  • 300 – Entry of women into nursing.(Crisp & Taylor)
  • 380 AD – The first general hospital is established in Rome by Fabiola.[1]

17th century[edit]

  • The Reformation – The 17th century was the time of the Reformation when the breakdown of religious orders meant that monasteries, hospitals and nursing care facilities were closed in most Protestant areas.[1]
  • 1633 Sisters of Charity founded.(Crisp & Taylor)
  • 1633 – The founding of the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul, Servants of the Sick Poor by Sts. Vincent de Paul and Louise de Marillac.[2] The community would not remain in a convent, but would nurse the poor in their homes, "having no monastery but the homes of the sick, their cell a hired room, their chapel the parish church, their enclosure the streets of the city or wards of the hospital."[3]
  • 1645 – Jeanne Mance establishes North America's first hospital, l'Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal.
  • 1654 and 1656 – Sisters of Charity care for the wounded on the battlefields at Sedan and Arras in France.
  • 1660 – Over 40 houses of the Sisters of Charity exist in France and several in other countries; the sick poor are helped in their own dwellings in 26 parishes in Paris.

17th–18th century were considered the "age of reason". A lot of myths were contradicted by scientific fact.(Daly, Speedy & Jackson)

19th century[edit]

  • 1835 – Nursing Society of Philadelphia (NSP)
  • 1850 – instructional school for nurses opened by NSP.
  • 1853 – Crimean war.
  • 1854 – Nightingale appointed as the Superintendent of Nursing Staff.
  • 1856 – A charitable organisation known as the "Nightingale Fund for Nursing" was founded in Britain, to commemorate Nightingale's work in the Crimean War.(Daly, Speedy & Jackson)
  • 1856 – Establishment of Melbourne Lying-in Hospital and Infirmary for Diseases peculiar to Women and Children.(Daly, Speedy & Jackson)
  • 1861–1865 – The Civil war, American Army nurses corps.
  • 1872, 73 – formal nursing training programs were established, establishment of formal education.


  • 1811 – The opening of Sydney Hospital. Convict men and women undertook the nursing.(Crisp & Taylor): 4



  • 1838 – The first trained nurses arrived in Sydney, they were five Irish Sisters of Charity.(Crisp & Taylor)


  • 1840 – Settlement of New Zealand as a colony and the establishment of state hospitals. (Crisp & Taylor)
  • 1841 – People considered to be mentally ill were considered criminals. The first case of insanity in New Zealand's society was recorded in 1841 (Papps, E, 2002).
  • 1844 – Dorothea Dix testifies to the New Jersey legislature regarding the state's poor treatment of patients with mental illness.
  • 1847 – Wellington Hospital was established, The first New Zealand Hospital.(Barber & Towers 1976)
  • 1848 – The Yarra Bend Asylum was opened so that those mentally ill could be moved out of gaol. This asylum was later known as Melbourne.(Crisp & Taylor):4


  • 1850 – Florence Nightingale, a pioneer of modern nursing, begins her training as a nurse at the Institute of St. Vincent de Paul at Alexandria, Egypt.[5]
  • 1851 – Florence Nightingale completed her nursing training at Kaiserwerth, Germany, a Protestant religious community with a hospital facility. She was there for approximately 3 months, and at the end, her teachers declared her trained as a nurse.(Wojnar 2010)
  • 1853 – Florence Nightingale went to Paris to study with the Sisters of Charity and was later appointed superintendent of the English General Hospitals in Turkey.(Crisp & Taylor)
  • 1854 – The first lunatic asylum built. Opened in Wellington, New Zealand.(Crisp & Taylor)
  • 1854 – Florence Nightingale and 38 volunteer nurses are sent to Turkey on October 21 to assist with caring for the injured of the Crimean War.
  • 1854 – In a letter written November 15, 1854, to Dr Bowman, Florence Nightingale gives definite statistics:

    on Thursday last [i.e.Nov 8] we had 1715 sick and wounded in this hospital (among whom, 120 cholera patients) and 650 severely wounded in...the General Hospital...when a message came to me to prepair for 510 wounded....

— (Seymer 1932)
  • 1855 – Mary Seacole leaves London on January 31 to establish a "British Hotel" at Balaklava in the Crimea.
  • 1856 – Biddy Mason is granted her freedom and moves to Los Angeles. She works as a nurse and midwife and becomes a successful businesswoman.
  • 1856– The Melbourne lying-in Hospital and Infirmary for diseases Peculiar to Women and Children established.(Daly, Speedy & Jackson)
  • 1857 – Ellen Ranyard creates the first group of paid social workers in England and pioneers the first district nursing programme in London.[6]
  • 1857 – The Sisters of Charity opened the first St Vincent's Hospital at Sydney's Pott's Point, Australia. Today, the St Vincent's hospitals provide a considerable proportion of public health services.(Crisp & Taylor)
  • 1859 – Florence Nightingale published her views on nursing care in "Notes on Nursing". The basis of nursing practice was based on her ideas from this.(Wesley 1995)


  • 1860 – In May 1860 advertisements appeared seeking young lady nurses for training, but responses were not overwhelming; however, in July 1860 15 hand-picked probationers entered the Nightingale Training School, and the pattern for modern nursing came into being.[7]
  • 1860 – Florence Nightingale publishes "Note on Nursing: What it is and what it is not"[8]
  • 1860 – Template:Harvpr state that the Nightingale training school for nurses in England at the St Thomas' hospital, London was established at this time.
  • 1860–1883 – As 16,000 single women emigrated to New Zealand 582 identified their occupation as a nurse (including monthly nurse, sick nurse, trained nurse, nurse girl, midwife, hospital nurse or professional nurse.)[9]
  • 1861 – Sally Louisa Tompkins opens a hospital for Confederate soldiers in July. She is later made an officer in the army, the only woman to receive that honor.
  • 1863 – The International Red Cross was established in Geneva, Switzerland, by five private individuals,[10]
  • 1865 – Mary Tattershall a nurse who served in the Crimean War arrived and was Timaru Hospital's first matron.[11]
  • 1867 – Jane Currie Blaikie Hoge publishes her memoirs of nursing in the Union Army, The Boys in Blue.
  • 1868 – Lucy Osburn and her four Nightingale nurses arrived at Sydney Infirmary (later Sydney Hospital).(Crisp & Taylor):4
  • 1868 – Sir Henry Parkes requested that Nightingale is to provide trained nurses for New South Wales.(Crisp & Taylor):4
  • 1868 – Cathinka Guldberg, who had trained as a Deaconess at Kaiserswerth, started the first nursing school in Norway at the Deaconess Institute of Christiania and became its first director.(Seymer 1932):148


  • 1870 – New Zealand had 37 hospitals as a result of the population increase of the gold rush.(Crisp & Taylor):4
  • 1871 – Nightingale-trained matron appointed to the Alfred Hospital, Melbourne.(Crisp & Taylor)
  • 1873 – Linda Richards graduates from the New England Hospital for Women and Children Training School for Nurses and officially becomes America's First Trained Nurse.
  • 1873 – The first nursing school in the United States, based on Florence Nightingale's principles of nursing, opens at Bellevue Hospital, New York City.
  • 1876 – The Japanese term (Kangof or nurse) is used for the first time.[12]
  • 1879 – Mary Eliza Mahoney graduates from the New England Hospital for Women and Children Training School for Nurses and becomes the first black professional nurse in the U.S.[13]
  • 1874 – Group of Anglican nuns arrive in South Africa (Bloemfontein) to work as nurses. Among them was Sr. Henrietta Stockdale who started the first training for nurses in Africa.[14]


  • 1881 – Clara Barton becomes the first President of the American Red Cross, which she founded.
  • 1881 – Created the first Portuguese Nursing School at Coimbra, Portugal.
  • 1884 – Mary Agnes Snively, the first Ontario nurse trained according to the principles of Florence Nightingale, assumes the position of Lady Superintendent of the Toronto General Hospital’s School of Nursing.
  • 1885 – Following the Hospital and Charitable Aids Act, conditions improved.(MacDonald,1990).
  • 1885 – The first nurse training institute is established in Japan, thanks to the pioneering work of Linda Richards.[12]
  • 1886 – The first regular training school in India is established in Bombay, with funds provided by the governor general.(Bullough & Bullough 1969):144
  • 1886 – The Nightingale, the first American nursing journal, is published.[15]
  • 1886 – Spelman Seminary establishes the first nursing program specifically for African-Americans.[16]
  • 1888 – The monthly journal The Trained Nurse begins publication in Buffalo, New York.[17]


  • 1890 – Kate Marsden, founder of the St. Francis Leprosy Guild, travels to Yakutia, Siberia in search of a herb reputed to cure leprosy.[18]
  • 1891 – Cape Colony establishes the first nursing registration in the British Empire.(Bullough & Bullough 1969):144
  • 1891 – Hampton University began as the Hampton Training School for Nurses in conjunction with Kings Chapel Hospital for Colored and Indian Boys and the Abbey Mae Infirmary.[19] This school was started on the campus of Hampton Institute at Strawberry Banks in what is now the City of Hampton, Virginia. On this campus sits the Emancipation Oak, the site of the first reading of the Emancipation Proclamation in the South. Alice Bacon was instrumental in starting the Hampton Training School for Nurses. The school was commonly called Dixie Hospital, now known as the Sentara Hampton CarePlex, and its first graduate was Anna DeCosta Banks. Elnora D. Daniel, the first black nurse to serve as the president of a university [Chicago State University] was Dean of Hampton University School of Nursing in the 1980s.[20]
  • 1882 – Inspector of hospitals in New Zealand sent for Nightingale nurses from Britain.(Potter & Perry):5
  • 1893 – Lillian Wald, the founder of Visiting Nurse Service of New York in the U.S., begins teaching a home class on nursing for Lower East Side (New York) women after a trying time at an orphanage where children were maltreated.
  • 1893 – The Nightingale Pledge, composed by Lystra Gretter, is first used by the graduating class at the old Harper Hospital in Detroit, Michigan in the spring.
  • 1893 – Ellen Dougherty (New Zealand's first State Registered Nurse) began working as matron of Palmerston North Hospital.[21]
  • 1897 – The American Nurses Association holds its first meeting in February, as the "Associated Alumnae of Trained Nurses of the United States and Canada".
  • 1897 – Jane Delano becomes Superintendent of Bellevue Hospital.[22]
  • 1899 – Japan establishes a licensing system for modern nursing professionals with the introduction of the "Midwives Ordinance".[12]
  • 1899 – Anna E. Turner goes to Cuba on a cattle boat with nine other nurses to serve two years at a yellow fever hospital in Havana.[22]
  • 1899 – The International Council of Nurses is formed.
  • 1899 – Australasian Trained Nurses Association is founded in New South Wales.(Crisp & Taylor)
  • 1899–1902 – During the 1899–1902 South African (Boer) War, nurses from Canada, Australia and New Zealand serve as private citizens or with the British nursing forces.

20th century[edit]


French nurse's uniform, 1900


  • 1910 – Florence Nightingale dies on 13 August at the age of 90.(Bloy 2012)
  • 1910 – Akenehi Hei, the first qualified Maori Nurse in New Zealand dies on November 28, 1910 after contracting typhoid from family members.[31]
  • 1914 – New Zealand Nurses worked alongside the British, Australian, American and Canadian nurses in World War I.(Rodgers 1994)
  • 1915 – Edith Cavell is executed by a German firing squad on October 12 for helping hundreds of Allied soldiers escape to the Netherlands.
  • 1915 – The New Zealand Army Nursing Service set up in 1915, largely at the urging of Hester Maclean (1863–1932).
  • 1916 – The Royal College of Nursing is founded.
  • 1917 – Mrs. Annie Kamauoha is recognized as Hawaii's first graduate nurse from the Queen's Hospital Training School for Nurses. Her pin was designed by Queen Liliuokalani and was presented to her by the queen before the queen died later that year.
  • 1917 – Standardized curriculum established by the National League for Nursing Education.(Lewenson 2004)
  • 1918 – Lenah Higbee is awarded the Navy Cross for distinguished service in the line of her profession and unusual and conspicuous devotion to duty as superintendent of the U.S. Navy Nurse Corps. She is the first living woman to receive this honor.
  • 1918 – Frances Reed Elliot is enrolled as the first African–American in the American Red Cross Nursing Service on July 2.[32]
  • 1918 – Viola Pettus, a legendary African–American nurse in Texas, won fame for her courageous care of victims of the Spanish Influenza, including members of the Ku Klux Klan.
  • 1919 – The UK passes the Nursing Act of 1919, which provides for registration of nurses, but it will not become effective until 1923. The first name entered in the register as SRN 001 was Ethel Gordon Fenwick.[citation needed]


  • 1921 – Sophie Mannerheim, a pioneer of modern nursing in Finland, accepts the chairmanship of the Finnish Red Cross.
  • 1922 – Filipino Nurses Association was founded.The FNA was admitted as member of the International Council of Nurses (ICN) in 1929.The FNA which was renamed Philippine Nurses Association (PNA) in 1962 continues to uphold its vision to uplift the ideals and spirit of the nursing profession in the country and to win for the profession the respect and recognition of the international community
  • 1923 – The Nursing Act of 1919 becomes effective and Ethel Gordon Fenwick is the first nurse registered in the UK.
  • 1923 – Yale School of Nursing becomes the first autonomous school of nursing in the U.S. with its own dean, faculty, budget, and degree meeting the standards of the University. The curriculum was based on an educational plan rather than on hospital service needs.[33]
  • 1923 – Mary Breckinridge, the founder of the Frontier Nursing Service, travels 700 miles on horseback surveying the health needs of rural Kentuckians.[34]
  • 1923 – The first Brazilian higher education institution of nursing, named after nursing pioneer Ana Néri, is launched in Rio de Janeiro by Carlos Chagas, aiming at implementing the "Nightingale model" nationwide.[35]
  • 1925 – New Zealand attempted to have a nursing programme available at the University of Otago. (Crisp, Taylor, Douglas & Rebeiro, 2013)
  • 1926 – 20 July New Zealands's first sister was appointed by the board at Auckland hospital New Zealand.[36]
  • 1929 – The Japanese Nursing Association is established.[12]


World War II[edit]

U.S. Navy Nurse and released POW aboard USS Benevolence, 1945.


  • 1942 – Beveridge Report recommends comprehensive health care funded through National Insurance.[39]
  • 1943 – Mary Elizabeth Lancaster (Carnegie) is appointed the acting director of the Division of Nursing Education at Hampton Institute in Hampton, Virginia. Through her direction the first baccalaureate nursing program in the Commonwealth of Virginia is created.[19]
  • 1943 – The southern state of Delaware was the first to admit the African American nurses to membership as a state nurses.[40]
  • 1944 – Ludwig Guttmanns Spinal Unit at Stoke Mandeville was formally opened on 1 February with one patient and twenty-six beds.[41]
  • 1944 – The first baccalaureate nursing program in the Commonwealth of Virginia is created at the Hampton University School of Nursing.[19]
  • 1948– The first baccalaureate nursing program in the State of Alabama is established at Tuskegee University under the leadership of Dr. Lillian H. Harvey, Dean.[42]
  • 1948 – The National Health Service is launched on July 5.
  • 1949 – Mary Elizabeth Carnegie is the first black person elected to the board of the Florida Nurses Association with the right to speak and vote.[43]
  • 1949 – Formation of College of Nursing Australia.(Crisp & Taylor)


  • 1951 – The National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses merges with the American Nurses Association.[13]
  • 1951 – Males join the United Kingdom same register of nurses as females for the first time.[citation needed]
  • 1951 – National Association for Practical Nurse Education and Service[44] (NAPNES) along with professional nursing organizations and the U.S. Department of Education created Vocational Nursing standards for education and the LPN / LVN level of nursing was created in the United States.
  • 1952 – The introduction of sedatives transforms mental health nursing.(Crisp & Taylor)
  • 1952 – Hildegard Peplau presents Interpersonal Relations Theory.(Alligood & Tomey)
  • 1953 – The National Students Nurses' Association (NSNA) is established.(Potter & Perry)
  • 1954 – One of the first PhD programs in nursing is offered at the University of Pittsburgh.[45]
  • 1955 – Elizabeth Lipford Kent becomes the first African American to earn a PhD in nursing.[16]
  • 1956 – The Columbia University School of Nursing is the first in the U.S. to grant a master's degree in a clinical nursing specialty.[46]



  • 1971 – Florence Wald and her associates found Hospice, Inc., thus establishing the hospice movement in the United States of America
  • 1971 – The Carpenter report was released, this was a review released by New Zealand centered around the nursing education system, the report advocated training nurses in an educational environment. The government however decided that polytechs not universities were more appropriate for this, however the consequences of this were that nurses were only diploma level not degree level.(Crisp & Taylor)
  • 1973 – Christchurch and Wellington Polytechnics offer diploma-level nursing education; Massey and Victoria Universities (Wellington) start their post-registration bachelor's degrees.(Crisp & Taylor)
  • 1974 – The classic definition of health which has endured for many years, was actually provided by the World Health Organization.(Crisp & Taylor)
  • 1975 – First nursing diploma program in Australia in a College of Advanced Education (CAE) in Melbourne, followed quickly by programs in New South Wales, South Australia and Western Australia.[51]
  • 1976 – The first master's degree program in nursing for a historically Black College or University[52] (HBCU) founded at Hampton University School of Nursing.[19]
  • 1976 – The Nurses' Health Study began[53]
  • 1976 – Roy Adaptation Theory published, Sister Callista Roy nursing theorist
  • 1977 – The M. Elizabeth Carnegie Nursing Archives is created by Dr. Patricia E. Sloan at the Hampton University School of Nursing.[19] This is the only repository for memorabilia on minority nurses in the United States. The focus of the archives is African American nurses.
  • 1978 – Estelle Massey Osborne becomes the first black nurse to be inducted as honorary fellow in the American Academy of Nursing.[16]
  • 1978 – Barbara Nichols is the first black nurse to be elected president of the American Nurses Association.[16]
  • 1978 – Elizabeth Carnegie is the first black to be elected president of the American Academy of Nursing.[16]
  • 1979 – The first iteration of a clinical doctorate, a nursing doctorate (ND), was established at Case Western Reserve University.[54]
  • 1979 – Dr Watson's first book published, based on her theory of caring.(Parker & Smith 2010)



  • 1990 – Florence Nightingale's birthday (May 12) is declared the official Nursing Day in Japan.[12]
  • 1992 – Eddie Bernice Johnson is the first nurse elected to the U.S. Congress.
  • 1993 – After reforms in 1993, nursing education in Sweden is changing from vocational training to academic education.[57]
  • 1999 – Elnora D. Daniel is the first black nurse elected president of a major university, Chicago State University.[16]
  • 1999 – The first doctor of philosophy degree program in nursing for a Historically Black College or University[52] (HBCU) is founded at Hampton University School of Nursing.[19] This doctoral program is unique in that it is the only doctoral program in the country that focuses on family and family-related nursing research.
  • 1999 –

    I define caring as a "nurturing way of relating to a valued 'other' toward whom one feels a personal sense of commitment and responsibility"

— (Swanson 1991), page 162
  • 1999 – 9-day strike of nurses and midwives in Ireland.[58][59]

21st century[edit]


  • 2002 – The Nursing and Midwifery Council takes over from the UKCC as the UK's regulatory body.
  • 2003 – Primary Health Care framework document is released by New Zealand Ministry of Health.(Crisp & Taylor)
  • 2004 – The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) recommends that all advanced practice nurses earn a Doctor of Nursing Practice degree.[60]
  • 2004 – The New Zealand Health Practitioners Competence Assurance (2003) Act comes into full power on 18 September. This covers the requirements for nurses to have current competences relating to their scope of practice.[61]
  • 2004 – The National Council of State Boards of Nursing initiated its Nursing License Compact which allows an RN who holds a license in one Compact state (USA), to work in another Compact state without having that state's license. (As of 2015 there are twenty-four Compact states and four with pending legislation to join.)[62]
  • 2007 – ICN Conference is held in Yokohama, Japan.
  • 2008 – National Council for State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) issues final report: "NCSBN Consensus Model for APRN Regulation: Licensure, Accreditation, Certification & Education".[63]
  • 2009 – Carnegie Foundation releases the results of its study of nursing education, "Educating Nurses: A Call for Radical Transformation".[64]
  • 2010 – Institute for the Future of Nursing (IFN) releases evidence-based recommendations to lead change for improved health care.[65]
  • 2010 – A national registration for all nurses and midwives came into force in Australia in July.(Daly, Speedy & Jackson)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c (Grippando & Mitchell) (cited in (Craven & Hirnle))
  2. ^ Susan E. Dinan, Women and Poor Relief in Seventeenth-Century France. The Early History of the Daughters of Charity (Ashgate, 2006)
  3. ^ The Catholic Encyclopedia. 1913. p. 605. 
  4. ^ http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/9412/ch4.html&date=2009-10-25+06:13:18
  5. ^ http://www.discovernursing.com/newsletter_view.aspx?id=29
  6. ^ "infed.org - Ellen Ranyard ("LNR"), Bible women and informal education". infed.org. 
  7. ^ M. Masson A Pictorial History Of Nursing (1985).
  8. ^ "Notes on Nursing". google.com. 
  9. ^ Orchard, S. (1997). More ‘ woman of good character’: Nurses who came to new Zealand as immigrant settlers during the period 1860 to 1883. In N.Chick & J.Rodgers (Eds.) Looking back, moving forward: Essays in the history of New Zealand nursing and midwifery (pp. 5–16). Palmerston North: Department of Nursing and Midwifery Massey University.
  10. ^ Science museum, n.d.
  11. ^ MacDonald, 1990
  12. ^ a b c d e f "Overview of Japanese Nursing System - Japanese Nursing Association". nurse.or.jp. 
  13. ^ a b http://www.nursingworld.org/hof/mahome.htm
  14. ^ Pioneers of Professional Nursing in South Africa, Loots, I & Vermaak, M. Publisher P.J. de Villiers Bloemfontein 1975
  15. ^ http://nahrs.library.kent.edu/resource/reports/weeding.html online
  16. ^ a b c d e f "Diversity & Inclusion". aetna.com. 
  17. ^ http://ublib.buffalo.edu/libraries/units/hsl/history/bull11.html
  18. ^ http://www.stfrancisleprosy.org/history.html
  19. ^ a b c d e f Hampton University
  20. ^ http://nursing.hamptonu.edu/about/history.cfm
  21. ^ Kellaway, J., & Maryan, M. (1993). A century of care: Palmerston North Hospital 1893– 1993. Double Bay: Focus Books.
  22. ^ a b c "Arlington National Cemetery - Home". arlingtoncemetery.org. 
  23. ^ McLauchlan, G. (1989). The illustrated encyclopedia of New Zealand. Auckland: David Bateman
  24. ^ Sue Light. "British Military Nurses - Scarlet Finders". scarletfinders.co.uk. 
  25. ^ "In Memory of Nurses." Washington Post. May 3, 1905.
  26. ^ "Support". nzno.org.nz. 
  27. ^ New Zealand Nurses Organisation [NZNO], 2009
  28. ^ http://www.cna-nurses.ca/CNA/about/history/default_e.aspx
  29. ^ "Nurse Akenehi Hei, who was the first Maori nurse to qualify in 1908, outside her tent hospital". christchurchcitylibraries.com. 
  30. ^ "Our History". American Red Cross. 
  31. ^ Dow, D. (2009). Remembering the unsung heroines. New Zealand Doctor, 36.
  32. ^ "Our History" (PDF). American Red Cross. 
  33. ^ "Home > Yale School of Medicine - Yale School of Medicine". yale.edu. 
  34. ^ http://www.frontiernursing.org/History/HowFNSbegan.shtm
  35. ^ http://www.eean.ufrj.br/sobre/sobre.htm
  36. ^ Brown, M., Masters, D., & Smith, B. (1994). Nurses of Auckland: The History of the General Nursing Programme in the Auckland School of nursing. Auckland, New Zealand.
  37. ^ http://www.nzno.org.nz/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=oOwndMOjzeE%3D&tabid=338
  38. ^ "The Army Nurse Corps". army.mil. 
  39. ^ "NHS Nursing in the 1950s". nursingtimes.net. 
  40. ^ "History Timeline 1930 to 1959". upenn.edu. 
  41. ^ Allan, 2004
  42. ^ http://www.tuskegee university.edu
  43. ^ "M. Elizabeth Carnegie, 91; Advocated for Black Nurses". washingtonpost.com. 
  44. ^ "NAPNES". napnes.org. 
  45. ^ "Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP)". pitt.edu. 
  46. ^ http://www.nursing.hs.columbia.edu/about-school/history.html
  47. ^ http://www.mnpa.us/NPHistory.pdf
  48. ^ "The Philippine Nurses Association". 
  49. ^ http://www.nhs.uk/England/AboutTheNhs/History/1958To1967.cmsx
  50. ^ "History of Hospice Care". National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization. 
  51. ^ Crisp, J., Taylor, C., Douglas, C., & Rebeiro, G. (2013). Potter & Perry's Fundamentals of nursing (4th ed). NSW, Australia: Mosby Elsevier. ISBN 9780729541107
  52. ^ a b http://www2.ed.gov/about/inits/list/whhbcu/edlite-list.html
  53. ^ a b Dave. "Home - Nurses' Health Study". nhs3.org. 
  54. ^ "Welcome to the ADVANCE Network". advanceweb.com. 
  55. ^ "Media Reviews – Florence Nightingale Museum". Nursing History Review 20: 209–211. 2012. doi:10.1891/1062-8061.20.209. 
  56. ^ http://www.nursinglibrary.org/portal/main.aspx?PageID=4017
  57. ^ Pilhammar Andersson, Ewa (1999). "From Vocational Training to Academic Education: The Situation of the Schools of Nursing in Sweden". Journal of Nursing Education 38 (1): 33–38. doi:10.3928/0148-4834-19990101-1. 
  58. ^ Clarke, Jean; O'Neil, Catherine S (2001). "An analysis of how the Irish Times portrayed Irish nursing during the 1999 strike". Nursing Ethics 8 (4): 350–359. doi:10.1177/096973300100800407. 
  59. ^ Brown, Gary B; Greaney, Anna-Marie; Kelly-Fitzgibbon, Mary E; McCarthy, Jane (2006). "The 1999 Irish nurses' strike: nursing versions of the strike and self-identity in a general hospital". Journal of Advanced Nursing 56 (2): 200–208. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.03998.x. 
  60. ^ "American Association of Colleges of Nursing - Home". nche.edu. 
  61. ^ "Health Practitioners Competence Assurance Act". Ministry of Health NZ. 
  62. ^ "Nurse Licensure Compact". NCSBN. 
  63. ^ "404 Error page" (PDF). NCSBN. 
  64. ^ "Page not found". Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. 
  65. ^ "The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health". iom.edu. 


  • D'Antonio, Patricia (2010). American Nursing: A History of Knowledge, Authority, and the Meaning of Work. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0801895647. 
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  • Dock, Lavinia Lloyd (1920) A Short history of nursing from the earliest times to the present dayfull text online; abbreviated version of her four volume A History of Nursing vol 3 online
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  • Lewenson, Sandra B. (2004). "Integrating nursing history into the curriculum". Journal of Professional Nursing 20 (6): 374–380. doi:10.1016/j.profnurs.2004.08.003. History was always part of the curriculum but declined in emphasis and time dedicated to it 
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Britain and Commonwealth[edit]


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  • Campbell, D'Ann (1984) Women at War with America: Private Lives in a Patriotic Era ch 2, on military nurses in World War Two
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  • Kalisch, Philip Arthur, and Beatrice J. Kalisch (2003)[1986] The Advance of American Nursing (2nd ed.); retitled as American Nursing: A History (4th ed.)
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  • Potter, Patricia A.; Perry, Anne Griffin; Stockert, Patricia; Hall, Amy (2012). Fundamentals of Nursing (8th ed.). ISBN 978-0323079334. 
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