Timeline of portable computers

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Year Price CPU @ MHz Computer name Comment
1954 Vacuum tube: Diode gates, tube amplifiers and electrical delay lines @ 1 DYSEAC For the military, movable by truck.
1955 ~US$86,074 (821,000 in 2019) Custom vacuum tube CPU @ 0.01 Monrobot V For the military, movable by truck. Used for surveying and mapmaking.
1957 ~US$70,500 (641,800 in 2019) / RECOMP II Transistorized: Printed circuit cards @ ? RECOMP I CP-266 For the military, movable by two men.
1959 ~US$1,600,000 (14,000,000 in 2019) / MOBIDIC A Custom transistor CPU (inverter logic) @ 1 / MOBIDIC B MOBIDIC Truck-based for the military, five were built and deployed. Sylvania later offered a commercial version as the S 9400.

Clock speed is unknown but ADD instructions are documented as taking 16μs, i.e. ~62k ADD/s.

1960 ~US$6,900,000 (59,600,000 in 2019) (development)[1] Modular circuit boards @ 0.448 FADAC For the military, movable by two men.
1960 ~US$125,600 (1,074,600 in 2019) Standard Modular System with complementary diode-transistor logic @ 0.087 IBM 1401 Truck-based for military,[2][3] also touring Datamobile[4] for demos.
1960 ~US$40,500 (346,500 in 2019)[5] Plug-in circuit modules @ 2[6][7] PB 250 Portable as the control computer for commercial mobile (by van) data systems. Can operate entirely from a battery.
1961 ~US$500,000 (4,300,000 in 2019) Custom transistor CPU @ 1 BASICPAC For the military, movable by truck.
1962 ~US$40,000 (340,000 in 2019) Circuit modules (micromodular)[8] @ ? L-2010 For the military.
1967 Integrated circuit @ ? CDC 449 For the military.[9][10][11]
1975 US$8975 IBM PALM processor @ 1.9 IBM 5100 Portable Computer[12] 64K = US$17,975.
1975 US$4000 Motorola 6800 @ 1 MIT Suitcase Computer 4K SRAM, approx. 20 lbs. Built by David Emberson in the MIT Digital Systems Laboratory as a thesis project. Currently in the collection of Dr. Hoo-Min D. Toong.
1976 US$50,000 Z80? @ 1 Xerox NoteTaker
1977 US$2495 Z80 Versatile 2[13][14]
1978 US$10,225 IBM PALM processor @ 1.9 IBM 5110[15]
1979 US$375 6502 @ 1, 1K Rockwell AIM-65 20 Character alphanumeric display.[13][16][17]
1979 US$3250 Custom HP 8-bit @ 0.613 Hewlett-Packard Model 85[18]
1980 ? PA512 Made in Serbia.
1980 US$230 SC43177, SC43178 TRS-80 Pocket Computer[19]
1980 Intel 8085 @ 2.0 Portal R2E CCMC The Portal was a portable microcomputer designed and marketed by the studies and developments department of the French firm R2E Micral in 1980 at the request of the company CCMC specializing in payroll and accounting. It was equipped with a central 64 KB RAM, a keyboard with 58 alpha numeric keys and 11 numeric keys (separate blocks), a 32-character screen, a floppy disk: capacity = 140000 characters, of a thermal printer: speed = 28 characters / second, an asynchronous channel, a synchronous channel, a 220 V power supply. Designed for an operating temperature of 15–35 °C, it weighed 12 kg and its dimensions were 45 x 45 x 15 cm. It provided total mobility. Its operating system was PROLOGUE.
1981 US$1795 Z80 @ 4.0 Osborne 1
1981 US$795 2x Hitachi 6301 @ 0.614 Epson HX-20[20]
1981 Z80 compatible Husky (computer)[21]
1982 8088 @ 4.77 Columbia Data Products
1982 Z80A @ 4 Grundy NewBrain
1982 Z80 @ 2.5 Kaypro
1982 US$8000[22] 8086 @ ? Grid Compass 1100 NASA laptop
1982 Z80 @ 4.0 Osborne Executive
1983 x86 Hyperion (computer)
1983 x86 Compaq Portable
1983 US$1099 80C85 @ 2.4 TRS-80 Model 100 40 x 8 LCD
1983 Z80A, 8086, 128K Seequa Chameleon[13]
1983 Z80A @ 3.4 Sord IS-11
1983 US$1595 Z80A @ 4 Zorba
1984 US$4225 8088 @ 4.77 IBM 5155[23]
1984 Z80 Actrix (computer)
~1984 8088 @ 4.77 Bondwell-8
1984 US$995 Z80 @ 2.45 Epson PX-8 Geneva[24]
1984 6502 @ 1.02 Commodore SX-64 First portable with color display
1984 x86 Data General-One
1984 Z80 @ 4.0 Osborne Vixen
1984 80C88 ZP-150
1984 US$595 HP-71B Calculator programmable in BASIC
1984 US$2995 Harris 80C86 @ 5.33 HP 110 80 x 16 LCD, 300 baud modem
1984 1965 GBP 8086 @ 4.77 Apricot Portable First portable computer with 25-line LCD. Included speech recognition, wireless keyboard, and optional wireless mouse.
1985 US$995 Z80 @ 4 Bondwell-2
1985 Harris 80C86 @ 5.33 HP 110 Plus 80 x 25 LCD, 1200 baud modem
1985 US$1899 Toshiba T1100 80C88 @ 4.77 Toshiba T1100 80 x 25 LCD
1986 8088 @ 4.77 IBM 5140
1986 Intel 80286 @ 8 Compaq Portable II
1986 ? LPA512
1987 Z80 Cambridge Z88
1988 Intel 8088 NEC UltraLite
1988 68HC000 @ 8 Atari STacy
1989 Intel 8088 @ 4.9152 Atari Portfolio
1989 US$2000 Intel 80C88 @ 7 Poqet PC (Classic)
1989 8086 @ 9.55 Compaq LTE
1989 Motorola 68000 @ 16 Macintosh Portable
1989 Motorola 68000 @ 15 Outbound Laptop
1991 Motorola 68000 @ 8 ST BOOK[25][26]
1991 NEC V20 @ 5.37 HP 95LX
1991 US$2300 Motorola 68000 @ 16 Apple PowerBook 100
1992 IBM 486SLC @ 25 IBM ThinkPad
1992 Z80, 64K Amstrad NC100
1992 US$4950 CY601 + CY604 @ 25 MHz SPARCbook1 Unix with SunOS
1993 Intel "Hornet" 80186 @ 7.91 HP 100LX
1993 ? AlphaSmart
1994 Intel "Hornet" 80186 @ 7.91 HP 200LX
1995 IBM ThinkPad Butterfly keyboard IBM ThinkPad 701c and 701Cs, famous for their "Butterfly Keyboard" which slides into place when opening the lid
1996 Intel Pentium @ 133 Panasonic Toughbook CF-25 The first Toughbook, an example of a ruggedized laptop
1997 Intel Pentium @ 150 IBM ThinkPad 380
2001 SA-1110 @ 206 SIMpad
2001 Intel Mobile Pentium III-M @ 1.2 Dell Precision M40 One of the world's first mobile workstation notebooks
2002 Intel Pentium 4 @ 2.4 Alienware Area 51-M A early example of a gaming laptop: high performance desktop components in a notebook

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ United States. (1969). "Field Artillery Digital Automatic Computer (FADAC) - TOTAL FADAC COSTS". Hearings Cong. 91 sess. 1 Appropriations v. 9 1969. 9: 645 – via HathiTrust.
  2. ^ "IBM 1401: The Mainframe".
  3. ^ "Columbia University Computing History: IBM 1401".
  4. ^ "IBM 1401: Cultural Impacts".
  5. ^ Weik, Martin H. (Mar 1961). "PACKARD BELL 250". ed-thelen.org. A Third Survey of Domestic Electronic Digital Computing Systems.
  6. ^ Beck, Robert Mark (30 December 1960). "PB-250 - A High Speed Serial General Purpose Computer Using Magnetostrictive Delay Line Storage". Managing Requirements Knowledge, International Workshop on(AFIPS): 284–285, 287. doi:10.1109/afips.1960.58. The first production computer was delivered in October 1960.
  7. ^ "The PB-250". www.cca.org.
  8. ^ "The RCA Micromodule". Vintage Computer Chip Collectibles, Memorabilia & Jewelry. Retrieved 2018-03-25.
  9. ^ "Across the Editor's Desk: CONTROL DATA 449 COMPUTER". Computers and Automation. 16 (11): 56. Nov 1967.
  10. ^ Used in translocation backpack system (prototype) and as an onboard computer for Grumman planes
  11. ^ "Control Data 449 Computer Reference Manual" (PDF). bitsavers.trailing-edge.com. Oct 1967. Retrieved 2018-12-22.
  12. ^ "IBM 5100 computer". 090508 oldcomputers.net
  13. ^ a b c "MicrocomputerChronology". Archived from the original on 2012-12-23. 090508 is2.lse.ac.uk
  14. ^ "old-computers.com : The Museum". 090508 old-computers.com
  15. ^ "IBM 5110 computer". 090508 oldcomputers.net
  16. ^ "Weird World of Hardware". 090508 trygve.com
  17. ^ "Rockwell AIM-65 computer". 090508 oldcomputers.net
  18. ^ "Old Computers – rare, vintage, and obsolete computers". 090508 oldcomputers.net
  19. ^ "Radio Shack TRS-80 Pocket Computer". 090508 oldcomputers.net
  20. ^ "Epson HX-20 computer". 090508 oldcomputers.net
  21. ^ "OLD-COMPUTERS.COM : The Museum". 090508 old-computers.com
  22. ^ "World's first laptop. Osborne 1 GRiD Compass 1101". Archived from the original on 2017-07-20.
  23. ^ "IBM 5155 portable computer". 090508 oldcomputers.net
  24. ^ "Epson PX-8 computer". 090508 oldcomputers.net
  25. ^ "Planet Irata: Atari ST Book Notebook Computer". Archived from the original on 2009-10-26. 090508 geocities.com
  26. ^ "Chips in ATARI-Computern mit TOS-Betriebssystem". 090508 xs4all.nl

External links[edit]