Timeline of psychiatry
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Early history of psychiatry
- 1550 BCE
- 6th century BCE
- 4th century BCE
- 280 BCE
Greek physician and philosopher Herophilus studied the nervous system and distinguished between sensory nerves and motor nerves.
- 250 BCE
Greek anatomist Erasistratus studied the brain and distinguished between the cerebrum and cerebellum.
- 9th century
The first bimaristan was built in Baghdad, followed by several others throughout the Arab world. By the 13th century, they had become large, complex, and divided into several different specialized units. A number of these hospitals contained wards for mentally ill patients.
- 11th century
Persian physician Avicenna recognized "physiological psychology" in the treatment of illnesses involving emotions, and developed a system for associating changes in the pulse rate with inner feelings.
Bethlehem Royal Hospital in Bishopsgate outside the wall of London, one of the most famous old psychiatric hospitals was founded as a priory of the Order of St. Mary of Bethlem to collect alms for Crusaders; after the English government secularized it, it started admitting mental patients by 1377 (1403?), becoming known as Bedlam Hospital; in 1547 it was acquired by the City of London, operating until 1948; it is now part of the British NHS Foundation Trust.
Psychiatry in the Enlightenment
After being plagued with guilt over the Salem Witch Trials, influential New England Puritan minister Cotton Mather broke with superstition by advancing physical explanations for mental illnesses over demonic explanations.
French physician Philippe Pinel was appointed to Bicêtre Hospital in south Paris, ordering chains removed from mental patients, and founding Moral Treatment. In 1809 he published the first description of dementia praecox (schizophrenia).
The York Retreat in England was founded by Quakers, becoming known for humane treatment and serving as a model.
Psychiatry in the 19th century
American physician Benjamin Rush became one of the earliest advocates of humane treatment for the mentally ill with the publication of Medical Inquiries and Observations, upon the Diseases of the Mind, the first American textbook on psychiatry.
What became the Royal College of Psychiatrists, then known as the Association of Medical Officers of Asylums and Hospitals for the Insane, was founded in England, receiving a royal charter in 1926.
The Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the Insane (AMSAII), the forerunner of the American Psychiatric Association (APA), was founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Dr. Samuel Cartwright, a prominent Louisiana physician and one of the leading authorities in his time on the medical care of people referred to as "negroes", identified two mental disorders peculiar to slaves: Drapetomia, or the disease causing slaves to run away; Dysaethesia Aethiopica which proposed a theory for the cause of laziness among slaves. Today, both are considered examples of scientific racism.
French physician Bénédict Augustin Morel published Traite des Maladies Mentales (2 vols.); the 2nd ed. (1860) coined the term "dementia praecox" (demence precoce) for patients suffering from "stupor" (melancholia). In 1857 he published Traité des Dégénérescences, promoting an understanding of mental illness based upon the theory of Degeneration, which became one of the most influential concepts in psychiatry for the rest of the century.
Sigmund Freud and Josef Breuer of Austria published Studies on Hysteria, based on the case of Bertha Pappenheim (known as Anna O.), developing the Talking Cure; Freud and Breuer later split over Freud's obsession with sex.
Early 20th century psychiatry
Swiss-born psychiatrist Adolf Meyer became director of the New York State Psychiatric Institute, influencing American psychiatry with his "common sense" approach which included keeping detailed patient records; he coined the term "mental hygiene".
Boris Sidis opened the Sidis Psychotherapeutic Institute (a private hospital) at Maplewood Farms in Portsmouth, NH for the treatment of nervous patients using the latest scientific methods.
Alfred Adler left Freud's Psychoanalytic Group to form his own school of thought, accusing Freud of overemphasizing sexuality and basing his theory on his own childhood.
The American Psychoanalytic Association (APsaA) was founded.
The Société Psychanalytique de Paris was founded with the endorsement of Sigmund Freud; the Nazis closed it in 1940.
Austrian physician Julius Wagner-Jauregg won the Nobel Prize for his invention of malarial therapy as a treatment for general paralysis of the insane (neurosyphilis). He first initiated the treatment in 1917.
Indian Association for Mental Hygiene established.
Hungarian psychiatrist Sándor Ferenczi published a paper claiming that patient accounts of childhood sexual abuse are true, providing a psychological explanation, causing Freud to break with him.
The Controversial Discussions between Sigmund Freud's daughter Anna Freud and Melanie Klein, founder of Object Relations Theory caused the British Psychoanalytical Society to permanently split into three camps.
Ritalin (Methylphenidate) was synthesized.
Indian Psychiatric Society established.
Lithium carbonate's ability to stabilize mood highs and lows in bipolar mood disorder (manic depression) was demonstrated by Australian psychiatrist John Cade, becoming the first effective medicine for the treatment of mental illness.
The era of the new psychopharmacology
The World Psychiatric Association was founded.
The first published clinical trial of chlorpromazine which is the first antipsychotic (invented by Henri Laborit, Jean Delay and Pierre Deniker) was conducted at Sainte-Anne Hospital Center in Paris. Known as Largactil in Europe, it was brought to Montreal by Heinz Lehman and named Thorazine.
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) published the first Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM); it was revised in 1968, 1980/7, 1994, 2000 and 2013.
On the recommendation of the Bhore Committee in 1946, the All India Institute of Mental Health was founded, becoming the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS) in 1974 at Bangalore.
Gregory Bateson, John Weakland, Donald deAvila Jackson, and Jay Haley proposed the double bind theory of schizophrenia, which regards it as stemming from situations where a person receives different or contradictory messages.
The English translation of The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud was published in 24 volumes (1956–74).
United States president John F. Kennedy introduced legislation delegating the National Institute of Mental Health to administer Community Mental Health Centers for those being discharged from state psychiatric hospitals.
The United States U.S. Controlled Substances Act was passed, putting LSD, DMT, Psilocybin, Mescaline, and Marijuana on Schedule I (no accepted medical use).
The Caucus of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Members of the American Psychiatric Association was officially founded. A primary function of the organization was to advocate to the APA on LGBT mental health issues. The caucus changed its name to the Association of Gay and Lesbian Psychiatrists in 1985.
The National Mental Health Programme (NMHP) was launched in India.
The Indian Mental Health Act was drafted by the parliament, but it came into effect in all the states andunion territories of India in April 1993. This act replaced the Indian Lunacy Act of 1912, which had earlier replaced the Indian Lunatic Asylum act of 1858.
The American Neuropsychiatric Association was founded.
The appetite-suppressing hormone leptin was discovered.
U.S. President Bill Clinton signed the Mental Health Parity Act, requiring psychiatric conditions to be considered equal to any other medical or surgical illness by health insurance providers; in 2008 President George W. Bush signed an amended version.
The European Brain Council was founded in Brussels.
The term for schizophrenia in Japan was changed from Seishin-Bunretsu-Byō 精神分裂病 (mind-split-disease) to Tōgō-shitchō-shō 統合失調症 (integration disorder) to reduce stigma. The new name was inspired by the biopsychosocial model; it increased the percentage of patients who were informed of the diagnosis from 37% to 70% over three years.
In 2009 America's professional association of endocrinologists established best practices for transgender children that included prescribing puberty-suppressing drugs to preteens followed by hormone therapy beginning at about age 16, and in 2012 the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry echoed these recommendations.
DSM-5 was published by the American Psychiatric Association. Among other things, it eliminated the term "gender identity disorder," which was considered stigmatizing, instead referring to "gender dysphoria," which focuses attention only on those who feel distressed by their gender identity.
Notes and references
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- Shorter, Edward (1997). A history of psychiatry : from the era of the asylum to the age of Prozac. New York : John Wiley & Sons, 4-5.
- English translation: "Two discourses concerning the soul of brutes which is that of the vital and sensitive of man"., London 1683.
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- Marneros, Andreas (2008). Psychiatry’s 200th birthday. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 193, 1–3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.108.051367
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- Bayer, Ronald (1987). Homosexuality and American Psychiatry: The Politics of Diagnosis. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 3. ISBN 0-691-02837-0.
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- Lichko A.E. Психопатии и акцентуации характера у подростков [Psikhopatii i aktsentuatsii kharaktera u podrostkov], Moscow 1977; Leningrad 1983 (second edition, enlarged & revised)
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- KK Kwong; JW Belliveau; DA Chesler; IE Goldberg; RM Weisskoff; BP Poncelet; DN Kennedy; BE Hoppel; MS Cohen; R Turner; H Cheng; TJ Brady & BR Rosen (1992). "Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Human Brain Activity During Primary Sensory Stimulation". PNAS. 89 (12): 5675–79. doi:10.1073/pnas.89.12.5675. PMC 49355. PMID 1608978.
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- Transgender At 10. Wweek.com (6 August 2014). Retrieved on 26 April 2015.
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- 'Psychiatric bible' tackles grief, binge eating, drinking – CNN.com
- Heinrich Laehr (1893). Gedenktage der Psychiatrie und ihrer Hülfsdisciplinen in allen Ländern (Vierte vermehrte und umgearbeitete Auflage). Berlin: Georg Reimer. [A chronology of events in the history of psychiatry until 1893.]
- Thomas S. Szasz (1977). The manufacture of madness : a comparative study of the inquisition and the mental health movement. New York : Harper & Row, pp. 293-321.
- Michael H. Stone (1997). Healing the mind : a history of psychiatry from antiquity to the present. New York : W. W. Norton, pp. 435-438.