Timeline of the Holocaust

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A timeline of the Holocaust is detailed in the events listed below. Also referred to as the Shoah (in Hebrew), the Holocaust was a genocide in which some six million European Jews were killed by Nazi Germany and its World War II collaborators. About 1.5 million of the victims were children. Two-thirds of the nine million Jews who had resided in Europe were murdered. The following timeline has been compiled from a variety of sources including the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.[1][2][3][4][5]

Timeline[edit]

Date Major Events
24 February 1920 In a speech before approximately 2,000 people in the Munich Festival of the Hofbräuhaus, Adolf Hitler proclaimed the 25-Point Program of the German Workers' Party, later renamed the National Socialist (Nazi) German Workers' Party. Among other things, the program called for the establishment of a Pan-German state, with citizenship, residency, and other civil rights reserved for ethnic Germans only, explicitly excluding Jews and all non-Germans.
18 July 1925 Adolf Hitler publishes Mein Kampf.
July 1932 Nazis became the largest party in the Reichstag, capturing 230 of the 608 seats in the German federal election of July, 1932.
30 January 1933 Adolf Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany
27 February 1933 The Reichstag fire. The subsequent Reichstag Fire Decree suspends the German Constitution and most civil liberties.
9 March 1933 Dachau concentration camp opens.
23 March 1933 Enabling Act of 1933 enacted; lets Hitler rule by decree.
1 April 1933 Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses begins.
7 April 1933 Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service, banning most Jews and Communists from government employment, is passed. Shortly after, a similar law affects lawyers, doctors, tax consultants, musicians, and notaries.
29 April 1933 Gestapo (German Secret Police) established
10 May 1933 Nazi book burnings begin. Books deemed "un-German," including all works by Jewish authors, are consumed in ceremonial bonfires.
July 1933 The Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring, calling for compulsory sterilization of the "inferior"
21 September 1933 – 23 December 1933 Leipzig trial acquits 3 of 4 men accused of Reichstag fire. Furious, Hitler establishes a People's Court to try political crimes.
15 September 1935 Nuremberg Laws are unanimously passed by the Reichstag. Jews are no longer citizens of Germany and cannot marry Germans.
15 July 1937 Buchenwald concentration camp opens
12 March 1938 Austria annexed by Nazi Germany (the Anschluss). All German anti-Jewish laws now apply in Austria.
29 May 1938 Hungary, under Miklós Horthy, passes the first of a series of anti-Jewish measures emulating Germany's Nuremberg Laws.
14 July 1938 Manifesto of Race published in Fascist Italy, led to stripping the Jews of Italian citizenship and governmental and professional positions
9–10 November 1938 Kristallnacht
13 May 1939 MS St. Louis sails from Hamburg to Cuba with 937 refugees, mostly Jews. Only 29 are allowed in. The rest, refused by Cuba, the United States and Canada are returned to Europe.
18 October 1939 first shipment of Jews to Lublin Reservation
1 September 1939 German invasion of Poland starts World War II in Europe
May 1940 Auschwitz I opens
22 June 1941 Operation Barbarossa Germany invades the Soviet Union
3 September 1941 First gassings at Auschwitz using Zyklon B
29–30 September 1941 Babi Yar massacre of 33,771 Jews
20 January 1942 Wannsee Conference plans "final solution"
27 March 1942 first of at least 75,721 French Jews deported from France, to Auschwitz
6 July 1942 Anne Frank and her family go into hiding
22 July 1942 first deportation from Warsaw Ghetto to Treblinka during Grossaktion Warsaw
23 July 1942 – 19 October 1943 Treblinka death camp operates, 700-900 thousand Jews murdered
19 November 1942 first shipment of Jews from Norway
19 April 1943 – 16 May 1943 Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
2 August 1943 Treblinka revolt
14 October 1943 Sobibór revolt and escape
19 March 1944 German troops occupy Hungary
early May 1944 first transport of Hungarian Jews, to Auschwitz, began
23 June 1944 Red Cross representatives see elaborately staged Nazi propaganda ruse at Theresienstadt designed to portray camps as benign
20 July 1944 Attempt to assassinate Hitler fails
23 July 1944 Majdanek, first major death camp liberated, by the advancing Soviet Red Army
1 August 1944 Warsaw Uprising begins
4 August 1944 Anne Frank and her family arrested and eventually deported to Auschwitz
7 October 1944 Crematorium IV at Auschwitz destroyed in Sonderkommando uprising
25 November 1944 Heinrich Himmler orders the gas chambers of Auschwitz destroyed as incriminating evidence of genocide
27 January 1945 Auschwitz death camp liberated by the Soviets. Anniversary is observed as International Holocaust Remembrance Day.
c. February or March 1945 Anne Frank and her sister Margot die in Bergen-Belsen
11 April 1945 Buchenwald death camp liberated by the Americans
15 April 1945 Bergen-Belsen death camp liberated by the British
29 April 1945 Dachau liberated by the Americans and Ravensbrück by the Soviets
30 April 1945 Adolf Hitler suicide
5 May 1945 Mauthausen liberated by the Americans
8 May 1945 Theresienstadt liberated by the Soviets
8 May 1945 VE day — Germany surrenders unconditionally
23 May 1945 Heinrich Himmler suicide
20 November 1945 – 1 October 1946 first Nuremberg trials, of 24 top Nazi officials
2 July 1946 Orson Welles' The Stranger, first feature film with concentration camp footage, released. Hundreds more feature films and documentaries about the Holocaust would be made.
25 June 1947 The Diary of a Young Girl, Anne Frank's diary, is published in the Netherlands [6]
11 July 1947 SS Exodus departs France for the British Mandate of Palestine. Her 4,515 passengers, mostly Holocaust survivors, are intercepted by the British Navy and shipped back to camps in Germany.
14 May 1948 State of Israel declares independence
11 May 1960 Adolf Eichmann, one of the major organizers of the Holocaust, is captured in Argentina, and brought to Israel where he is tried, convicted.
31 May 1962 Adolf Eichmann executed

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ College of Education, University of South Florida (September 9, 2000). "HOLOCAUST TIMELINE 1933-1945". Tampa, Florida.
  2. ^ The History Place (June 30, 2014). "Holocaust Timeline". A chronicle of the Nazi persecution of the Jews.
  3. ^ Holocaust Encyclopedia (2017). "The Holocaust and World War II: Timeline". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
  4. ^ JewishGen.org (April 2, 2002). "A Timeline of the Holocaust (1939-1945)". New York, NY.
  5. ^ Museum of Tolerance (February 2017). "Timeline of the Holocaust". Los Angeles, CA: A Simon Wiesenthal Center Museum.
  6. ^ Anne Frank’s diary is published, Anne Frank House web site, accessed 4 April 2017