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Timeline of the Kashmir conflict

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The following is a timeline of the Kashmir conflict.

1846-1947: Kashmir before 1947

  • 1846: Jammu and Kashmir(J&K) State is created for the first time with the signing on 16 March of the Second Treaty of Amritsar between the British East India company and Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu. It is an addendum to the Treaty of Lahore signed one week earlier on 9 March 1846 which gives the terms of surrender of the Sikh Durbar at Lahore to the British. The Sikhs cannot pay part of the demand made by the British; Gulab Singh steps in on their behalf to pay Rs. 7,500,000, and in return receives Kashmir Valley, part of the Sikh territories, to add to Jammu and Ladakh already under his rule. Gulab Singh accepts overall British sovereignty. Kashmir Valley is a Muslim majority[1][2] region speaking the Kashmiri language and a distinct culture called Kashmiriyat.
  • 1857: The War of independence, The Subcontinent fractured into hundreds of states.
  • 1931: The movement against the repressive Maharaja Hari Singh begins. It is brutally suppressed by the State forces. Hari Singh is part of a Hindu Dogra dynasty, ruling over a majority Muslim State. The predominantly Muslim population was kept poor, illiterate and was not adequately represented in the State's services.[3] The Glancy Commission appointed by the Maharaja publishes a report in April 1932, confirming the existence of the grievances of the State's subjects and suggests recommendations providing for adequate representation of Muslims in the State's services; Maharaja accepts these recommendations but delays implementation, leading to another agitation in 1934. Maharaja grants a Constitution providing a Legislative Assembly for the people, but the Assembly turns out to be powerless. The 1931 protest led to the Quit Kashmir movement against the Maharajah in 1946 by the Kashmir leader Sheikh Abdullah, and eventually to the Azad Kashmir movement which gained momentum a year later.
  • 1932: All Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference founded by Sheikh Abdullah in collaboration with Chaudhry Ghulam Abbas to fight for the rights of State's Muslims.[4]
  • 1937: Sheikh Abdullah's first meeting with Jawaharlal Nehru in a Lahore railway station.[5]
  • 1938: Sheikh Abdullah renames Muslim Conference to National Conference and throws it open to people of all religions.[4]
  • 23 March 1940: The Lahore Resolution is proposed by Muhammad Ali Jinnah and seconded by Sikandar Hayat Khan and Fazlul Haq. Referring to British India, it states "That geographically contiguous units are demarcated into regions which should be so constituted, with such territorial readjustments as may be necessary, that the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in a majority, as in the North-Western and Eastern zones of India should be grouped to constitute Independent States in which the constituent units shall be autonomous and sovereign". There is no mention of "Pakistan", an acronym invented by Chaudhury Rehmat Ali in England, but the Lahore Resolution later becomes known as the Pakistan Resolution.[6]
  • 1941: Chaudhry Ghulam Abbas breaks off from National Conference and revives the old Muslim Conference. The Muslim Conference becomes a client of the Jinnah-led Muslim League.[7]
  • 1941: 71,667 Kashmiris join the British Indian Army for the World War II, seven-eighths of them Muslim, mainly from the Poonch-Mirpur area.[5]
  • April 1944: Sheikh Abdullah proposes a Naya Kashmir (New Kashmir) programme to the Maharaja, calling for a constitutional monarchy.[8]
  • Summer 1944: Mohammad Ali Jinnah visits Kashmir, supports Muslim Conference in preference to National Conference.[5]
  • May 1946: Sheikh Abdullah launches the "Quit Kashmir" movement against the Maharaja. He is arrested. Jawaharlal Nehru attempts to go to Kashmir to defend Abdullah. He is arrested and forced to leave the State.[5]
  • October 1946: Muslim Conference launches a `Campaign of Action' demanding the end of autocratic rule by the Maharaja. Chaudhry Ghulam Abbas imprisoned.[9]

1947: Kashmir Unrest and Accession

  • January 1947: Elections held for the State's legislative assembly. The National Conference boycotts the elections. The Muslim Conference wins 16 seats.[9]
April 1947
  • April: Hindus and Sikhs of Sialkot flee to Jammu in the face of increasing tensions.[10] The exodus increases in June and continues till August.
  • 21 April: Maharaja greeted by a gathering of 40,000 demobolised soldiers in Poonch. He was `specially impressed and alarmed', according to Azad Kashmir sources.[11]
May 1947
  • May: The Maharani of Jammu and Kashmir along with Yuvraj Karan Singh initiates discusions with Justice Mehr Chand Mahajan to come in as the Prime Minister of Kashmir. Mahajan shows reluctance.[12][13]
June–July 1947
  • 19 June: Lord Mountbatten visits Kashmir for 5 days to persuade the Maharaja to accede to India or Pakistan. Maharaja shows reluctance.[14]
  • July: The Maharaja forces the disarming of demobilised soldiers in Poonch and Mirpur. Muslims complain that the arms they deposited with the police were distributed to Hindus and Sikhs for self-defence.[11]
  • 22 July: The Muslim Conference declares in favour of the State's accession to Pakistan.[15]
  • 23 July: State's Prime Minister Ram Chandra Kak visits Delhi for 5 days, meeting Mountbatten as well as the political leaders of Congress and Muslim League. He explains that the State has decided not to accede to either Dominion.[14]
August 1947
  • 1 August: Mahatma Gandhi visits the Maharaja; impresses upon him the need to be prompt in deciding on the State's accession.[16]
  • 11 August: Maharaja dismisses Prime Minister Ram Chandra Kak and replaces him with the retired Major Janak Singh. Concurrently a second approach is made to Justice Mahajan to come in as the Prime Minister. Due to floods and partition violence, the message reaches him only on 25 August.[17]
  • 11–13 August: Partition violence erupts in Sialkot, driving the surviving Hindus and Sikhs to Jammu.[18]
  • 14–15 August: Independence and Partition of British India into India and Pakistan. Kashmir signs Standstill Agreement with Pakistan. India requests further discussions for a Standstill agreement.
  • 18 August: In one of the worst train massacres of Partition, Lohars and Kashmiris of Nizamabad kill all the Hindu and Sikh passengers of Wazirabad-Jammu train.[19]
  • 20 August: Pakistan Army formulates `Operation Gulmarg' to organise a tribal invasion of Kashmir.[20]
  • 23 August: Rebels under the command of Sardar Abdul Qayyum fire on the State Forces at Bagh.[21] According to Major General Henry Lawrence Scott, the Chief of Staff of State Forces, they were incited by 30 Muslims from West Punjab that entered the State a few days earlier.[22]
  • 25 August: Maharani's emissary delivers invitation to Justice Mahajan, with a repeated request on 7 September.[17]
September 1947
  • Early September: Pakistan Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan charges Mian Iftikharuddin with organising a revolt in Kashmir. Iftikharuddin introduces the Muslim Conference leader Sardar Ibrahim to Colonel Akbar Khan. Sardar Ibrahim requests and receives arms for the rebels.[23]
  • 4 September: Henry Lawrence Scott informs the Maharaja that 400 armed Muslims infiltrated from Kahuta into the state to terrorize the Hindu and Sikh minorities.[24][25] On the same day, Civil & Military Gazette reported that there was an `uprising' in the Poonch area.[26]
  • 9 September: Pakistan cuts off supplies of petrol, sugar, salt and kerosene and stops trade in timber, fruits, fur and carpets in violation of the standstill agreement.[27]
  • 12 September: Liaquat Ali Khan approves the plan for "Armed Revolt inside Kashmir" prepared by Colonel Akbar Khan and another plan prepared by Sardar Shaukat Hayat Khan. Khurshid Anwar of Muslim League National Guard is dispatched to the Frontier to mobilise the tribals for an attack.[28][29]
  • 13 September: Pakistan accepts the accession of the Junagadh State.
  • 13-18 September: Justice Mehr Chand Mahajan visits Kashmir and accepts the Maharaja's invitation to be the Prime Minister of the state.[30][31]
  • 19 September: Mahajan meets Jawaharlal Nehru and Vallabhbhai Patel in Delhi to apprise them of the situation in the state. He indicates Maharaja's willingness to accede to India but asks for political reforms to be delayed. Nehru demands the release of Sheikh Abdullah.[32]
  • 20 September: Muslim Conference informs Jinnah that there was "atrocious military oppression in Poonch."[33] According to Sardar Ibrahim, a people's militia of 50,000 ex-servicemen was raised to form an `Azad Army'.[34]
  • 26 September: Civil & Military Gazette reports on `Exodus of Muslims from Jammu'. 50,000 Muslims are said to have migrated to West Punjab.[35] The Jammu city's Muslim population is said to have been halved.[36]
  • 27 September: Nehru writes to Vallabhbhai Patel predicting a Pakistani incursion into Kashmir. He recommends that the Maharaja "make friends" with the National Conference.[37]
  • 29 September: Sheikh Abdullah released from prison.[32] Henry Lawrence Scott, the Chief of Staff of the State Forces leaves his position. Records that about 100,000 Muslims from East Punjab and an equal number of non-Muslims from West Punjab were safely escorted through Jammu by the State Forces.[38]
October 1947
  • 3 October: Khwaja Ghulam Nabi Gilkar, under the assumed name "Mr. Anwar," issues the proclamation of a provisional `Azad Kashmir' government in Muzaffarabad. This government fails with the arrest of Anwar in Srinagar.[39][40]
  • 5 October: Nehru is informed by Dwarakanath Kachru that the Maharaja had lost control of the western districts of the state.[41]
  • 7 October: Maharaja imposes rigorous precensorship of Press, especially of all views regarding the State's accession.[42]
  • 8-9 October: Owen Pattan post on Jhelum river captured by rebels. Sehnsa and Throchi abandoned by State Forces after attack.[21]
  • 10 October: Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel expedites Justice Mahajan's leave from Punjab High Court enabling him to accept Prime Ministership. Mahajan visits Indian leaders and Lord Mountbatten in Delhi before proceeding to Srinagar.[43]
  • 14 October: Bhimber falls into rebel hands after an attack of light tanks, presumably by Pakistan Army.[21]
  • 15 October: Mehr Chand Mahajan takes charge as Prime Minister of the state. A concentration of 6,000 tribesmen reported at Abbotabad-Mansehra.[21]
  • 21-22 October: Pro-Pakistan members of the Maharaja's army rebel at Domel (Muzaffarabad) and take control of the Jhelum river bridge.[39]
  • 22 October: Pakistan precipitates the first Indo-Pakistani War by launching tribal lashkar (militia) from Waziristan in an effort to overthrow the Maharaja's government.[44] Thousands of Pashtuns from Pakistan's North West Frontier Province, recruited covertly by Pakistani Army, invade Kashmir, along with the Poonch rebels, allegedly incensed by the atrocities against fellow Muslims in Poonch and Jammu. The tribesmen engage in looting and killing along the way.[45] Maharaja of Kashmir asks India for help while the tribals halt in Baramulla to loot and plunder.
  • 24 October: A second provisional government of Azad Kashmir established at Palandri under the leadership of Sardar Ibrahim.[46] New Delhi receives the news of tribal invasion via two channels, from General Gracey of Pakistan Army communicated to General Lockhart and from R. L. Batra, the Deputy Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir, to Nehru.[47]
  • 26 October: The Maharaja of the State of Jammu and Kashmir signs the Instrument of Accession (IOA), acceding the state to the Indian Union. India accepts the accession, regarding it provisional[48] until such time as the will of the people can be ascertained.
  • 27 October: The Indian army enters the state to repel the invaders. Sheikh Abdullah endorses the accession but terms it ad hoc which would be ultimately decided by the people of Jammu and Kashmir. He is appointed head of the emergency administration.[49]
  • 31 October: Major William Brown, the commander of the Gilgit Scouts, leads a coup against the governor of Gilgit, imprisoning him. A provisional government is declared by the local people of Gilgit.[50][51]
November 1947
  • 1 November: Lord Mountbatten and Mohammad Ali Jinnah meet in Lahore, as the Governors Generals of India and Pakistan respectively. Mountbatten offers India's proposal that the accession of Junagadh, Hyderabad as well as Kashmir should be decided by a reference to the will of the people. Jinnah rejects the offer.[52]
  • 5–6 November: Convoys of Muslim refugees going to West Punjab attacked by armed bands supported by State troops. Very few survive.[53]
  • 9 November: Another convoy of Muslim refugees is guarded by Indian troops, who repel the attackers killing 150 of them. No furher attacks on covoys reported after this incident.[53]
  • 16 November: Pakistan's Political Agent Khan Mohammad Alam Khan arrives in Gilgit and takes over the administration. The provisional government is dismissed.[51]
  • 25 November: Massacre of 20,000 Hindus and Sikhs taking shelter at Mirpur in what is now Azad Kashmir.[54]
  • 26 November: Liaquat Ali Khan meets Nehru in Delhi. Nehru asks for the raiders to be withdrawn. Khan demands an `impartial administration' in Kashmir and proposes that the UN be invited to hold a plebiscite.[55] However, the next day India's Defence Committee was informed that Pakistan was reinforcing tribesman.[56]
  • 28 November: Horace Alexander estimates that 200,000 Muslims were affected by the anti-Muslim violence in Jammu. Mahatma Gandhi speaks about it in his prayer meeting. Reproaches Sheikh Abdullah for not curtailing the Maharaja's powers.[57]
  • 30 November: Indian forces withdraw from Kotli. Mirpur ransacked. Large concentrations of insurgents reported at Sialkot, Gujrat and Jhelum.[58]
December 1947
  • 8 December: Meeting between Nehru and Liaquat Ali Khan, along with ministers and Lord Mountbatten. Montbatten proposes that the UN be invited to break the deadlock.[59]
  • 15-20 December: Indian forces losing ground. Nehru contemplates escalating the war across the international border, but decides against it.[60]
  • 24 December: Indian forces evicted from Jhangar by rebels. However, they repel the attack on Naushera by 27 December. India reinforces Kashmir by an additional brigade.[61]
  • 28 December: Mountbatten urges Nehru "to stop the fighting and to stop it as soon as possible."[61]
  • 31 December: India refers the Kashmir problem to the UN Security Council. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 continues into 1948.

1948-1957: Plebiscite Conundrum

  • 1948: India takes the Kashmir problem to the United Nations (UN) Security Council on 1 January.
  • 1949: On 1 January, a ceasefire between Indian and Pakistani forces leaves India in control of most of the valley, as well as Jammu and Ladakh, while Pakistan gains control of part of Kashmir including what is now Azad Kashmir and Gilgit–Baltistan. Pakistan claimed it is merely supporting an indigenous rebellion in Azad Kashmir and Northern Territories against repression.
  • 1949: On 5 January 1949, UNCIP (United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan) resolution states that the question of the accession of the State of Jammu and Kashmir to India or Pakistan will be decided through a free and impartial plebiscite.[62] As per the 1948[63] and 1949 UNCIP Resolutions, both countries accept the principle, that Pakistan secures the withdrawal of Pakistani intruders followed by withdrawal of Pakistani and Indian forces, as a basis for the formulation of a Truce agreement whose details are to be arrived in future, followed by a plebiscite; However, both countries fail to arrive at a Truce agreement due to differences in interpretation of the procedure for and extent of demilitarisation one of them being whether the Azad Kashmiri army is to be disbanded during the truce stage or the plebiscite stage.[64]
  • 1949: On 17 October, the Indian Constituent Assembly adopts Article 370 of the Constitution, ensuring a special status and internal autonomy for Jammu and Kashmir, with Indian jurisdiction in Kashmir limited to the three areas agreed in the IOA, namely, defence, foreign affairs and communications.
  • 1951: First post-independence elections. The UN passes a resolution to the effect that such elections do not substitute a plebiscite, because a plebiscite offers the option of choosing between India and Pakistan.[64] Sheikh Abdullah wins, mostly unopposed. There are widespread charges of election rigging which continue to plague most of the subsequent elections.[65]
  • 1947-1952: Sheikh Abdullah drifts from a position of endorsing accession to India in 1947 to insisting on the self-determination of Kashmiris in 1952.[66] In July 1952, he signs Delhi Agreement with the Central government on Centre-State relationships, providing for autonomy of the State within India and of regions within the State;
  • 1953-1954: In 1953, the governments of India and Pakistan agree to appoint a Plebiscite Administrator by the end of April 1954. Abdullah procrastinates in confirming the accession of Kashmir to India. In August 1953, Abdullah is dismissed and arrested. Bakshi Ghulam Mohammed is installed in power, who then gets the accession formally ratified in 1954. Pakistan and US sign a Mutual Defence Assistance Agreement in May 1954. Indian Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru states that he is concerned about the cold-war alignments and that such an alliance affects the Kashmir issue.[67]
  • 1956-1957: On 30 October 1956, the state Constituent Assembly adopts a constitution for the state declaring it an integral part of the Indian Union. On 24 January 1957, UN passes another resolution stating that such actions would not constitute a final disposition of the State.[68] India's Home Minister, Pandit Govind Ballabh Pant, during his visit to Srinagar, declares that the State of Jammu and Kashmir is an integral part of India and there can be no question of a plebiscite to determine its status afresh. India would resist plebiscite efforts from then on.[69] Kashmiri activists continue to insist on the promised self-determination.

1963 - 1987: Rise of Kashmiri Nationalism

  • 1963-1964: On 27 December, mass upsurge occurs in Kashmir Valley when the holy relic is found missing from the Hazratbal Shrine; the lost relic is recovered on 4 January 1964. Protest demonstrations occur in Kashmir Valley and Pakistan held parts of the State in December against Articles 356 and 357 of the Indian Constitution being extended to the state, by virtue of which the Center can assume the government of the State and exercise its legislative powers. The special status accorded to the State under Article 370, continues to get eroded over years[70]
  • 1965: Indo-Pakistani War of 1965: Pakistan takes advantage of the discontent in the Valley and sends in a few thousand armed Pakistani infiltrators across the cease-fire line in August in Operation Gibraltar, and incidents of violence increase in Kashmir Valley; A full Indo-Pakistani war breaks out which ends in a ceasefire on 23 September.
  • 1966: In January, Tashkent Declaration is signed by both countries agreeing to revert to pre-1965 position, under Russian mediation. Pakistan supported guerrilla groups in Kashmir increase their activities after the ceasefire. Kashmiri nationalists Amanullah Khan and Maqbool Bhat form another Plebiscite Front with an armed wing called the Jammu and Kashmir National Liberation Front(NLF) in Azad Kashmir, with the objective of freeing Kashmir from Indian occupation.[71]
  • 1972: Republic of India and Pakistan agree to respect the cease-fire as Line of Control. India and Pakistan sign the Simla Agreement in July, which has a clause that the final settlement of Kashmir will be decided bilaterally in the future and that both the sides shall respect the LOC.
  • 1976: Maqbool Bhat is arrested on his return to the Valley. Amanullah Khan moves to England and NLF becomes Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front(JKLF).
  • 1979: The USSR invades Afghanistan. The US and Pakistan are involved in training, recruiting, arming, and unleashing the Mujahedin on Afghanistan.[72] The mujahedin so recruited would take on their own agenda of establishing Islamic rule in Kashmir from the late 1980s.
  • 13 April 1984: The Indian Army takes Siachen Glacier region of Kashmir. Maqbool Bhat is executed.

1987 - Now: Kashmir Insurgency

  • 1987: Farooq Abdullah wins the elections. The Muslim United Front (MUF) accuses that the elections have been rigged. The insurgency in the valley increases in momentum from this point on, given the consistent failure of democracy[65] and limited employment opportunities. The MUF candidate Mohammad Yousuf Shah is not only cheated in the rigged elections, but also imprisoned and he would later become Syed Salahuddin, chief of militant outfit Hizb-ul-Mujahedin. His election aides called the HAJY group - Abdul Hamid Shaikh, Ashfaq Majid Wani, Javed Ahmed Mir and Mohammed Yasin Malik - would join the JKLF.[73][74] Amanullah Khan takes refuge in Pakistan, after being deported from England and begins to direct operations across the LoC. Young disaffected Kashmiris in the Valley such as the HAJY group are recruited by JKLF.[75]
  • 1988: Protests begin in the Valley along with anti-India demonstrations, followed by police firing and curfew.
  • 1989: End of Soviet occupation of Afghanistan releases a great deal of militant energy and weapons to Kashmir. Pakistan provides arms and training to both indigenous and foreign militants in Kashmir, thus adding fuel to the smouldering fire of discontent in the valley.[76][77][78]
  • 1990: In January, Jagmohan is appointed as the Governor. Farooq Abdullah resigns. On 20 January, an estimated 100 people are killed when a large group of unarmed protesters are fired upon by the Indian troops at the Gawakadal bridge. With this incident, it becomes an insurgency of the entire population. On 1 March, an estimated one million take to the streets and more than forty people are killed in police firing.[79] On 13 February, Lassa Kaul, director of Srinagar Doordarshan, is killed by the militants for implementing pro-Indian media policy. Though the JKLF tries to explain that the killings of Pandits were not communal, the murders cause a scare among the minority Hindu community. The rise of new militant groups, some warnings in anonymous posters and some unexplained killings of innocent members of the community contribute to an atmosphere of insecurity for the Kashmiri Pandits. Joint reconciliation efforts by members from both Muslim and Pandit communities are actively discouraged by Jagmohan.[80] Most of the estimated 162,500 Hindus in the Valley, including the entire Kashmiri Pandit community, flee the Valley in March.
  • 1990 and after: An officially estimated 10,000 desperate Kashmiri youth cross-over to Pakistan for training and procurement of arms. Indigenous and foreign militant groups besides pro-India renegade militants proliferate[81] through the 1990s with an estimated half a million Indian security forces deployed in the Kashmir Valley since the 1990s with increasing violence and human right violations by all sides leading to tens of thousands of civilian casualties.[82][83]
  • 1999: Kargil War
  • 14–16 July 2001: General Pervez Musharraf and Atal Behari Vajpayee meet for peace talks.
  • October 2001: Kashmiri assembly in Srinagar attacked (38 people dead).
  • December 2001: Attack on Indian parliament in New Delhi.
  • 2 May 2003: India and Pakistan restore diplomatic ties.
  • 11 July 2003: Delhi-Lahore bus service resumes
  • 24 September 2004: Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and President Musharraf meet in New York during UN General Assembly.
  • July 2006 : Second round of Indo-Pakistani peace talks.
  • June 2010: Following the killing of a young Kashmiri Tufail Ahmad Mattoo, protest demonstrations continue in Kashmir for months.
  • June 2011: September - Indian forces kill three Pakistani soldiers in firing across the Line of Control. India accuses Pakistan of opening fire first.
  • June 2012: August - The Chief Minister of Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir, Omar Abdullah, says that the security situation there is not yet conducive to the revoking of the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA) in the state.
  • June 2012: September - Indian President Pranab Mukherjee visits Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir within two months of taking up office. Despite the threat of protests from separatists, see Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir, the visit passes off without any security incident.[84]
  • 2014: Despite boycott calls by separatist Hurriyat leaders, Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly election, 2014 saw highest voters turnout in last 25 years since insurgency erupted in the region. Indian authorities claimed that this is vote of Kashmiri people in favour of democracy of India..[85][86][87][88][89]

See also


  1. ^ "Figures II". Retrieved 5 December 2014. 
  2. ^ "2001 census". Retrieved 5 December 2014. 
  3. ^ Prem Nath Bazaz, Struggle for Freedom in Kashmir , New Delhi 1954, pp.140-166
  4. ^ a b Guha 2004, p. 80.
  5. ^ a b c d Hiro 2015, Chapter 6.
  6. ^ Sikandar Hyat Khan on 11 March 1941 tells the Punjab Legislative Assembly: “No Pakistan scheme was passed at Lahore… As for Pakistan schemes, Maulana Jamal-ud-Din’s is the earliest…Then there is the scheme which is attributed to the late Allama Iqbal of revered memory. He, however, never formulated any definite scheme but his writings and poems have given some people ground to think that Allama Iqbal desired the establishment of some sort of Pakistan. But it is not difficult to explode this theory and to prove conclusively that his conception of Islamic solidarity and universal brotherhood is not in conflict with Indian patriotism and is in fact quite different from the ideology now sought to be attributed to him by some enthusiasts… Then there is Chaudhuri Rahmat Ali’s scheme (*laughter*)…it was widely circulated in this country and… it was also given wide publicity at the time in a section of the British press. But there is another scheme…it was published in one of the British journals, I think Round Table, and was conceived by an Englishman…..the word Pakistan was not used at the League meeting and this term was not applied to (the League’s Lahore) resolution by anybody until the Hindu press had a brain-wave and dubbed it Pakistan…. The ignorant masses have now adopted the slogan provided by the short-sighted bigotry of the Hindu and Sikh press…they overlooked the fact that the word Pakistan might have an appeal – a strong appeal – for the Muslim masses. It is a catching phrase and it has caught popular imagination and has thus made confusion worse confounded…. So far as we in the Punjab are concerned, let me assure you that we will not countenance or accept any proposal that does not secure freedom for all (*cheers*). We do not desire that Muslims should domineer here, just as we do not want the Hindus to domineer where Muslims are in a minority. Now would we allow anybody or section to thwart us because Muslims happen to be in a majority in this province. We do not ask for freedom that there may be a Muslim Raj here and Hindu Raj elsewhere. If that is what Pakistan means I will have nothing to do with it. If Pakistan means unalloyed Muslim Raj in the Punjab then I will have nothing to do with it (*hear, hear*)…. If you want real freedom for the Punjab, that is to say a Punjab in which every community will have its due share in the economic and administrative fields as partners in a common concern, then that Punjab will not be Pakistan but just Punjab, land of the five rivers; Punjab is Punjab and will always remain Punjab whatever anybody may say (*cheers*). This, then, briefly is the future which I visualize for my province and for my country under any new constitution. Intervention (Malik Barkat Ali): The Lahore resolution says the same thing. Premier: Exactly; then why misinterpret it and try to mislead the masses?…” The resolution demands the establishment of an independent state comprising all regions in which Muslims are the majority. The letter “K” in the word "Pakistan" represents Kashmir.
  7. ^ Snedden 2013, p. 327.
  8. ^ Korbel 1966, p. 203.
  9. ^ a b Korbel 1966, p. 23.
  10. ^ Chattha 2009, p. 162.
  11. ^ a b Snedden 2013, p. 41.
  12. ^ Jha, Prem Shankar (March 1998), "Response (to the reviews of The Origins of a Dispute: Kashmir 1947)", Commonwealth and Comparative Politics 36 (1): 113–123, doi:10.1080/14662049808447762, (subscription required (help)) 
  13. ^ Mahajan 1963, p. 113.
  14. ^ a b Ankit, Pandit Ramchandra Kak 2010
  15. ^ Snedden 2013, p. 25.
  16. ^ Noor Ahmad Baba (April 2009). "Kashmir Problem: Gandhian Perspectives and Practices". Epilogue 3 (4): 44-47. 
  17. ^ a b Mahajan 1963, p. 123.
  18. ^ Chattha 2009, pp. 166-167.
  19. ^ Chattha 2009, pp. 144-149.
  20. ^ Singh, Sm Jasbir (1 May 2013), Roar of the Tiger - Illustrated History of Operations in Kashmir by 4th Battalion The Kumaon Regt in 1965 War, Vij Books India Pvt Ltd, pp. 4–, ISBN 978-93-82652-03-8 
  21. ^ a b c d Cheema 2015, p. 57
  22. ^ Ankit, Henry Scott 2010, p. 47.
  23. ^ Bhattacharya 2013, pp. 25-27.
  24. ^ Bhattacharya 2013, p. 29.
  25. ^ Snedden 2013, p. 43.
  26. ^ Hiro 2015, p. 115.
  27. ^ Ankit, October 1947 2010, p. 9
  28. ^ Raghavan 2010, pp. 105-106.
  29. ^ Nawaz 2008, p. 120.
  30. ^ Jha 2003, p. 47.
  31. ^ Mahajan 1963, pp. 124-125.
  32. ^ a b Raghavan 2010, p. 101
  33. ^ Official Records of the United Nations Security Council, Meeting No:234, 1948, pp.250-1:[1]
  34. ^ Snedden 2013, p. 44.
  35. ^ Snedden 2013, p. 51.
  36. ^ Chattha 2009, p. 182.
  37. ^ Guha, Ramachandra (10 February 2011), India After Gandhi: The History of the World's Largest Democracy, Pan Macmillan, p. xvi, ISBN 978-0-330-54020-9 
  38. ^ Ankit, Henry Scott 2010, p. 44.
  39. ^ a b Snedden 2013, p. 59
  40. ^ Gupta 2012, p. 233.
  41. ^ Snedden 2013, p. 67
  42. ^ Snedden 2013, p. 40.
  43. ^ Mahajan 1963, pp. 127-128.
  44. ^ Pakistan Covert Support
  45. ^ "Pathan Tribal Invasion into Kashmir". Retrieved 5 December 2014. 
  46. ^ Snedden 2013, p. 61.
  47. ^ Cheema 2015, p. 58.
  48. ^ "Govt. of India, White Paper on Jammu & Kashmir , Delhi 1948, p.77". Retrieved 5 December 2014. 
  49. ^ "Sheikh Abdullah, Flames of the Chinar, New Delhi 1993, p.97". Retrieved 5 December 2014. 
  50. ^ Gupta 2012, pp. 113-114.
  51. ^ a b Bangash, Yaqoob Khan, "Three Forgotten Accessions: Gilgit, Hunza and Nagar", The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 38 (1): 117–143, doi:10.1080/03086530903538269, (subscription required (help)) 
  52. ^ Noorani, A. G. (2014) [first published in 2013 by Tulika Books], The Kashmir Dispute, 1947-2012, Oxford University Press, pp. 13–14, ISBN 978-0-19-940018-8 
  53. ^ a b Snedden 2013, pp. 53-54.
  54. ^ Snedden 2013, p. 56.
  55. ^ Raghavan 2010, p. 116.
  56. ^ Schofield 2003, p. 65.
  57. ^ Snedden 2013, p. 55.
  58. ^ Raghavan 2010, p. 119.
  59. ^ Raghavan 2010, p. 120.
  60. ^ Raghavan 2010, p. 121.
  61. ^ a b Raghavan 2010, p. 123.
  62. ^ "Resolution adopted at the meeting of the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan on 5 January, 1949.". Retrieved 5 December 2014.  line feed character in |title= at position 81 (help)
  63. ^ "Resolution adopted by the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan on 13 August 1948.". Retrieved 5 December 2014.  line feed character in |title= at position 81 (help)
  64. ^ a b "Kashmir, UN Security Council Resolution 91". Retrieved 5 December 2014. 
  65. ^ a b "Kashmir - Elections". Retrieved 5 December 2014. 
  66. ^ [2] Sheikh Abdullah's positions on Kashmir
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