929 – Abd al-Rahman III, faced with the threat of invasion by the Fatimids, proclaims himself Caliph of Córdoba, breaking all ties with the Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad. Under the reign of Abd al-Rahman III Muslim Al-Andalus reaches its greatest height before its slow decline over the next four centuries.
Madrid is recaptured from Muslim forces. The encounter between the two rulers finally took place in 939, when, at the so-called ditch of Simancas (Shant Mankus), Ramiro II of León severely defeated the Muslims, and Abd al-Rahman III narrowly escapes with his life. After that defeat Abd al-Rahman III resolved never to take personal charge of another expedition. But Madrid recaptured by Muslims in 940.
953 – Emperor Otto I sends representatives to Córdoba to ask Caliph Abd al-Rahman III to call off some Muslim raiders who had set themselves up in Alpine passes and are attacking merchant caravans going in and out of Italy.
974 – A Córdoban expedition under Ibn Tumlus crushes a rebellion in Seville.
976 – Caliph Al-Hakam II dies, and Al-Mansur takes over in the name of his protégé Hisham II, becoming a military dictator usurping caliphal powers and launching a big number of offensive campaigns against the Christians. The Christians take advantage of the resulting confusion and commence raids into Muslim territory.
Al-Mansur sacks Barcelona.
977 – Al-Mansur volunteers to lead the army against the Christians, and is successful.
983 – After failing in a rebellion in the Maghreb, the Berber Chief Zawi ibn Ziri, of the Tunisian royal family, brings a formidable force of Sanhaja horsemen to join Al-Mansur. However, they are not allowed to cross the straits for many years (sometime 1002–1008).
985 – Under Al-Mansur and subsequently his son, Christian cities are subjected to numerous raids.
1043 – Zaragoza and Toledo fight over the border city of Guadalajara. Toledo pays the Navarrese to raid into Zaragoza; similarly, Zaragoza pays the León–Castilians to raid into Toledo. The Christian armies ravage the respective Muslim lands unchecked.
1054 – Battle of Atapuerca. The army of Ferdinand I of Castile defeats that of his brother García III of Navarra, near Burgos. Several disaffected Navarrese knights join the Castilians before the battle and one of these men is believed to have killed Garcia. Garcia's son Sancho is proclaimed King on the field of battle and the war continues.
1055 – Emir Al-Mutadid of Seville drives Berbers from Algeciras.
1056 – The Almoravids (al-Murabitun) Dynasty begins its rise to power. This Berber dynasty who would rule North Africa and Islamic Iberia until 1147.
1057 – Emir Al-Mutadid of Seville drives Almoravids from Carmona.
1060 – The heretic Berghouata Berbers set up a Taifa in Ceuta, but are eventually crushed by the Almoravids.
Ferdinand I of León imposes an annual tribute on Muslim Zaragoza. Emir Al-Muktadir ibn Hud of Zaragoza drives Slavs from Tortosa when the Tortosans rise against their Slav ruler.
1062 – Ferdinand I of Castile and León invades Muslim Toledo with a large army. Emir Al-Mamun becomes a tributary of Castile. Ferdinand then invades Muslim Badajoz, and extracts tribute from Emir Al-Mutadid of Seville.
1063 – Battle of Graus. During spring, Ramiro I of Aragon besieges Muslim Graus in Zaragozan territory. The Emir al-Muqtadir of Zaragoza leads his army north accompanied by a Castilian contingent under Prince Sancho (the future Sancho II). Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar later known as El Cid is probably in the Castilian contingent. The opposing armies meet and after a protracted struggle Ramiro I is killed and the Aragonese flee (8 May 1063). Pope Alexander II sends an international force to Spain under his standard bearer William of Montreuil. It includes Italian knights, Normans (Robert Crespin, Baron of Lower Normandy), Frenchmen (William, Count of Poitiers and Duke of Aquitaine), and Iberians (Bishop of Vic; Count Ermengol II of Urgel). At the start of July the expedition besieges Barbastro in the Muslim Kingdom of Lleida. The Emir of Lleida (the brother of Muktadir of Zaragoza) makes no attempt to relieve the siege and after 40 days the defenders are forced to surrender when a large stone falls from the walls and blocks the only water supply. 50,000 inhabitants are massacred or enslaved. Count Ermengol II of Urgel is left as governor on behalf of Sancho Ramirez of Aragon. Seville feels obliged to pay Christians tribute.
1064 – Ferdinand I of León-Castile besieges Muslim Coimbra from 20 January 1064 – 9 July 1064. The Muslim governor who surrendered is allowed to leave with his family, but 5,000 inhabitants are taken captive, and all Muslims are forced out of Portuguese territory across the Mondego river.
1065 – Civil War in Castile-León. In April Emir Al-Muqtadir of Zaragoza, aided by 500 Sevillian knights, besieges Barbastro. The governor, Count Ermengol II of Urgel, is killed in a sortie, and a few days later the city falls, whereupon the Iberian and French garrison is put to the sword, thus bringing an end to Pope Alexander II's prototype crusade. At around the same time Emir Al-Muqtadir breaks off relationships with Castile, and Ferdinand I leads a punitive expedition into Zaragoza – taking Alquezar – and then into Valencia. Despite him being a tributary of Castile, Emir Mamun of Toledo leads to force in support of his son-in-law Emir Abd al-Malik. Mamun subsequently dethrones Abd al-Malik and incorporates Valencia into the Kingdom of Toledo. Ferdinand falls dangerously ill and retires from the field. King Ferdinand dies in León on 28 December 1065, and his empire is divided between his three sons: Sancho II in Castile, Alfonso VI in León, and Garcia in Galicia.
Joseph and other Jews in Granada are attacked and murdered; many escapees flee to the north. "More than 1,500 Jewish families, numbering 4,000 persons, fell in one day, December 30, 1066."
1067 – The Castilian army under Sancho II and the Alferez Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar – already known as El Cid by this time – besiege Zaragoza. The siege is lifted after Emir Al-Muqtadir pays a large ransom and promises tribute. War of the three Sanchos: Castile versus Aragon and Navarre. Aragon severely mauls the Castilians at Viana, however status quo is restored when the Zaragozan Vali of Huesca invades Aragon from the south.
1068 – Alfonso VI of León leads a campaign against Badajoz, but withdraws when Emir Mamun ibn Dhi-I-Nun of Toledo intercedes. Badajoz becomes tributary to León. Later the Emir of Badajoz dies and his two sons dispute the succession.
1069 – Alfonso VI of León overruns Badajoz early in the year. Seville takes Córdoba. The army consists of an advance guard of 300 horses and a main body of 1000.
1071 – Battle of Pedroso (between Braga and the River Cávado) where Garcia II of Galicia suppresses the rebellion of his Portuguese subjects under Count Nuno Mendes, last count of Portugal of the Vímara Peres House. Count Nuno Mendes is killed and Garcia II of Galicia proclaims himself King of Portugal. Sometime after 18 January 1071 and before May, Garcia II of Galicia is captured by his brother Sancho II of Castile (It is unclear if Garcia was captured in open battle at Santarém or by trickery). Garcia purchases his release and retires to the court of his tributary Al-Mutamid of Seville. Galicia is divided between his brothers Sancho and Alfonso.
1073 – The Emir of Granada rejects the Castilian demand for tribute, however, Abbad III al-Mu'tamid, the Emir of Seville offers to pay instead. Consequently, a joint Muslim-Castilian force builds the fortress of Belillos, from which the garrison raid into Granada.
1074 – Emir Al-Mutamid of Seville drives the Almoravids from Jaén.
1075 – Toledo takes Córdoba from Seville with the help of Castilian troops.
1076 – Emir Ahmad al-Muqtadir drives Slavs from Denia. Ferdinand I of León-Castile besieges Muslims and takes Coria in Badajoz. After the Emir of Toledo dies, Seville takes Córdoba back from his son al-Qadir.
1078 – Ibn Ammar acquires Murcia nominally on behalf of Seville but in reality as his own. Seville takes Valencia from Toledo. As a result, Al-Qadir of Toledo is forced from the city by a coup and his opponents acknowledge al-Mutawwakil of Badajoz as their new ruler. The Almoravids take Tangier. Ceuta hangs on as the last Zanata outpost because its fleet can supply it from sea.
Battle of Coria. Alfonso VI (already king of Castile and León) defeats the Muslim Emir of Badajoz, Al-Mutawwakkil. Al-Mutawwakkil renounces control of Toledo and al-Qadir is reinstated. A Leonese garrison is established at Zorita to the east of Toledo.
1080 – Ibn Ammar forced to flee Murcia.
1081 – El Cid, now a mercenary because he had been exiled by Alfonso IV of Castile, enters the service of the Moorish king of the northeast Spanish city of Zaragosa, al-Mu'tamin, and would remain there for his successor, al-Mu'tamin II.
1082 – Battle of Almenar. Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar, leading the army of Al-Mutamin of Zaragoza, defeats a combined army of the kings of Valencia (Al-Mundhir), Lleida (Al-Hayib), Aragon (Sancho Ramírez), and the Count of Barcelona (Berenguer Ramón II, who is captured). When Emir Al-Mutamid of Seville pays his tribute in debased coinage, Alfonso of León-Castile leads an expedition in Muslim territory.
1083 – In June–July Almoravids take Ceuta – the last outpost of the Zanata – and put to death the ruler, al-Muizz ibn Badis. Ships from Seville may have aided the attack. The same summer Alfonso of León-Castile reaches Tarifa overlooking the Straits of Gibraltar. Castile under Alfonso VI of León and Castile takes Madrid.
1084 – The Muslim army of Zaragoza under El Cid defeats the Aragonese. In autumn the Castilians start a loose siege of Toledo.
Castile under Alfonso VI of León and Castile, Emperor of all Spains, takes Toledo.
1086 – Several Muslim Emirs (namely Abbad III al-Mu'tamid) ask the Almoravid leader Yusuf ibn Tashfin for help against Alfonso VI of León and Castile. In this year Yusuf ibn Tashfin passed the straits to Algeciras and inflicted a severe defeat on the Christians at the Battle of az-Zallaqah (North of Badajoz). He was debarred from following up his victory by trouble in North Africa which he had to settle in person.
In spring the Castilians besiege Zaragoza, but the siege is called off when the Almoravids land in the south. In June the Almoravids advance guard of 500 men take possession of Algeciras. The remaining 12–20,000 soon follow. Castilians under Alvar Fañez install al-Qadir as Emir of Valencia.
Almoravids, rampage through parts of Iberia, especially Granada and Lucena. There are persecutions and massacres. The wealthier Jews flee to Christian-held Iberia.
The Christian advance obliges the Muslim kings of Granada, Seville and Badajoz to call to their aid the Almoravids.
Battle of az-Zallaqah: At Sagrajas (Friday 23 October 1086) north-east of Badajoz, the Almoravids (12,000 or 20,000 men) under Yusuf ibn Tashfin and Andalusians (including Kings of Seville, Granada, Málaga, and Badajoz) defeat a predominantly Leonese-Castilian army (possibly 50-60,000 men including Jews, Aragonese, Italian and French) under Alfonso VI of León and Castile. The Andalusians encamp separately from the Almoravids. The Christian vanguard (Alvar Fañez) surprise the Andalusian camp before dawn; the men of Seville (Al-Mutamid) hold firm but the remaining Andalusians are chased off by the Aragonese cavalry. The Christian main body then attacks the Almoravids, but are held by the Lamtuma, and then withdraw to their own camp in response to an outflanking move by ibn Tashufin. The Aragonese return to the field, do not like what they see, and start a withdraw which turns to a rout. The Andalusians rally, and the Muslims drive Alfonso to a small hill. Alfonso and 500 knights escape in the night to Toledo. Al-Mutamid proposes that the Christians are pursued and crushed, but Ibn Tashufin retires back to his African domains leaving only 3,000 troops to defend the east of Al-Andalus. Al-Mutamid and the Almoravid generals Sir ibn Abi Bakr and Dawud ibn Aisha are reported to have fought well during the battle.
1087 – Alfonso VI of León and Castile takes the fortress of Aledo in the territory of Murcia, blocking the route from Seville and Granada to the eastern provinces.
After his crushing defeat at Zallaqa, Alfonso VI of León and Castile swallows his pride and recalls El Cid from exile.
1088 – Yusuf ibn Tashfin arrives back in Algeciras (May–June) and is joined by al-Mutamid of Seville and Abd Allah of Granada, plus support from Almería and Murcia (but not the Emirs). The combined army besieges Aledo for 4 months, but Yusuf ibn Tashfin returns to Africa unsuccessful.
1090 – Yusuf ibn Tashfin returns to the Peninsula for the third time, takes over the kingdoms of Granada and Málaga in September and is back in Africa by the end of the year. However, this time his nephew Sir ibn Abi Bakr is left to continue the conquest. Between 30 April 1090 and 8 May 1090, Christian troops enter Santarém, Lisbon and Sintra. These were recently ceded by the Al-Mutawwakil of Badajoz in return for protection from the Almoravids.
Yusuf ibn Tashfin, King of the Almoravids, captures Granada.
1091 – The Almoravids led by Muhammad ibn al-Hajj take Córdoba and the Guadalquivir valley early in the year, and then defeat a Castilian force under Álvar Fáñez who were attempting to aid Al-Mutamid of Seville. In September Seville surrenders without much of a fight to Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr. Subsequently, other Almoravids armies take Aledo and Almería. Ronda also falls and the Almoravid commander Garur executes al-Radi (the son al-Mutamid of Seville).
1092 – With El Cid away in Zaragoza, the Valencians under the qadi Ibn Jahhaf and supported by a small Almoravid force, drive the Castilian garrison out and execute their Emir al-Qadir. Ibn Jahhaf promptly sets himself up at Emir and starts negotiating with both El Cid and the Almoravids.
Toledo falls to the Reconquista and will remain in Christian hands thereafter
1093 – An Almoravid army (Abu Bakr ibn Ibrahiim) approaches Valencia but then retreats without striking a blow.
Almoravid Sir ibn Abi Bakr takes Badajoz and Lisbon. Fall of the Taifa of Badajoz.
El Cid captures Valencia from the Moors, carving out his own kingdom along the Mediterranean that is only nominally subservient to Alfonso VI of León and Castile. Valencia would be both Christian and Muslim, with adherents of both religions serving in his army.
The Almoravids from Morocco land near Cuarte and lay siege to Valencia with 50,000 men. El Cid, however, breaks the siege and forces the Almoravids to flee – the first Christian victory against the hard-fighting Africans.
1095 – The Almoravids take Santarém.
1097 – El Cid defeats Almoravid (Ali ibn al-Hajj) at the Battle of Bairén south of Valencia.
Almoravid (Muhammad ibn al-Hajj) defeat Castilians (Alfonso VI) at Consuegra. El Cid's son, Diego, is one of the dead.
Almoravid (Muhammad ibn Aisha) defeat Castilians (Alva Fañez) at Cuenca before ravaging the lands of Valencia.
Yusuf ibn Tashfin assumes the title of Amir al Muslimin (Prince of the Muslims).
1099 – The Almoravids besiege El Cid's Valencia, where he dies on 10 July 1099.
1100 – Molina falls to the Reconquista and will remain in Christian hands thereafter
Beginning of 12th century – According to estimates, the Muslim population in Iberia may have reached 5.5 million, including Arabs, Berber and indigenous converts.
1102 – The followers of El Cid leave Valencia and the Muslims occupy the Peninsula as far as Zaragoza; Battle of Mollerussa near Lleida on 14 September.
Main Muslim mosque in Toledo converted to a church, Muslim population is sparse.
Christians evacuate Valencia in April–May. Almoravid (Mazdali, presumably ibn Tilankan; Muhammad ibn Fatima) occupy the city. Of the Taifa states only Zaragoza, Majorca, and Albarracin remain independent.
1103 – Ali, the brother of the Almoravid governor of Granada, Muhammad ibn al-Hajj, is killed in battle with the Castilians near Talavera.
1105 – The Almohads, founded by Ibn Tumart, began as a religious movement to rid Islam of impurities. Most specifically, the Almohads were opposed to anthropomorphisms which had slipped into Iberian Islam. Ibn Tumart's successor, Abd al-Mu'min, turned the movement against non-Muslims, specifically Jews and Christians. Sweeping across North Africa and into Muslim Iberia, the zealous Almohads initiate riots and persecutions of both Muslims and non-Muslims. In some towns Jews and Christians are given the choice of conversion, exile, or death.
1106 – Yusuf ibn Tashfin dies and his son, Ali, takes over the Almoravid empire.
1108 – The Almoravids under Tamim ibn Yusuf ibn Tashfin, the brother of the ruler; another general is Muhammad ibn Fatima, the grandson of Sir ibn Abi Bakr, take the small town of Uclés to the east of Toledo, but a ridge top fortress holds out. Alfonso VI of León and Castile sends a relieving army under Alvar Fañez. The Almoravids decisively beat the Castilians and many leaders are killed, including Sancho, Alfonso's only son (by Zaïda, a Muslim princess) and heir. Subsequently, the Almoravids pretend to withdraw then launch a successful surprise attack on the castle. As a result, the Christians abandon Cuenca and Huete.
Almoravid (Tamim ibn Yusuf ibn Tashfin) storm Talavera on the Tagus to the west of Toledo. The country to the north and south of Toledo is ravaged and the city unsuccessfully besieged for a month. Alvar Fañez leads the defence. Emir Ali ibn Yusuf ibn Tashfin joined this year's Jihad but does not mention him in the actions.
1110 – Al-Mustain of Zaragoza leads an expedition against the Christians, but is killed at Valtierra. His son, Imad al-Din, fails to establish his rule and the Almoravid (ibn al-Hajj) marches in (30 May 1110).
1111 – Almoravids led by Sir ibn Abi Bakr occupy Lisbon and Santarém in the west. These cities were occupied by the Almoravids in 1094-95 this suggests a fluctuating border in Portugal.
1112 – By this time the Aragonese have taken Huesca. Almoravid (ibn al-Hajj) raids into Aragonese territory and reaches the foothills of the Pyrenees.
1114 – A major Almoravid expedition (ibn al-Hajj from Zaragoza and Ibn Aisha of Valencia) raids into Catalonia. The army ravages Christian territory but is ambushed on its return and both Almoravid generals are killed. The Catalans under Count Ramon Berengar III take over the Balearic Islands upon the death of Emir Mubashir ibn Sulayman of Majorca.
1115 – The new Almoravid governor of Zaragoza, Abu Bakr ibn Ibrahim ibn Tifilwit, lays siege to Barcelona for 20 days. The Almoravids withdraw when Count Ramon Berengar III returns from Majorca. The Almoravid fleet takes the Balearic Islands. The Almoravid general and governor of Granada Mazdali ibn Tilankan dies in battle this year. He led expeditions against the Christians from 1111, so he might have led an expedition separate from those of Abu Bakr and the fleet. His son, Muhammad, governor of Córdoba, also dies in battle this year (against the Castilians), so it may have been the same expedition.
1117 – Almoravids under Emir Ali ibn Yusuf himself take Coimbra, but abandon the city after a few days.
1118 – Alfonso I of Aragon takes Saragossa from the Muslims. Settlers in the reconquered no-man's lands of Castile are granted fueros, special rights.
The Aragonese led Alfonso–I the Battler seize Zaragoza and most of the central lands of the Ebro. The siege of Zaragoza lasts from 22 May 1118 to 18 December 1118. The garrison has 20 mangonels and is supported by a determined militia. As a result of a plea for help of 3 December the Almoravid governor of Valencia sends a relief force, but this is too small to help. Lleida only remains in Muslim hands because it is tributary to Barcelona.
Zaragoza falls to the Reconquista and will remain in Christian hands thereafter
1120 – Alfonso I of Aragon decisively defeats an Almoravid army including many Andalusian volunteers at Cutanda in summer.
1121 – The Aragonese take Calatayud. The Córdobans rebel against the Almoravids, and drive the governor and his troops from the city. The Emir Ali ibn Yusuf ibn Tashfin leads an army from Africa to suppress the rebellion. The Almoravids besiege the city, and persuade the Córdobans to lay down their arms.
1125 – In September, Alfonso I of Aragon sets out south with an army of 4,000 knights. He travels down the east coast, bypasses the cities and ravages the countryside. He reaches Guadix unopposed in December.
1126 – The Almoravids deport Christians to Morocco.
Alfonso I of Aragon defeats the Almoravids at Arinzul near Lucena. After symbolically fishing at Motril on the south coast, Alfonso returns home undefeated.
1129 – Alfonso I of Aragon defeats an Almoravid army led by Ali ibn Majjuz, the governor of Seville deep inside Valencian territory. This is probably at Cullera or Alcalá near Alzira.
Decline and submission to Christian rule (1130–1481)
1133 – The Christian militia of Toledo reach the gates of Seville and kill the Almoravid governor (Abu Hafs Umar ibn Ali ibn al-Hajj). Further damage is averted by the intervention of Tashfin ibn Ali ibn Yusuf.
1134 – Almoravid (Tashfin ibn Ali ibn Yusuf) raids in the Caceres area.
1145 – The Córdobans evict the Almoravid governor at the beginning of the year and raise up Hamdin ibn Huhammad ibn Hamdin as Emir. A Zaragozan adventurer in Castilian employ (Sayf al-Dawla ibn Hud al-Mustansir) briefly seizes power from ibn Hamdin in March but flees to the Levante due to popular hostility. Ibn Hamdin returns to power but is soon dispossessed by the Almoravid (Yahya ibn Ali ibn Ghaniya). In March the Andalusian Jund in Valencia raise up the qadi Marwan ibn Abd al-Aziz as Emir. When he cannot pay them they replace him with their own leader Ibn Iyad.
The Taifa of Badajoz again becomes independent and takes the Taifa of Mértola.
1146 – Al-Mustansir accepts the crowns of Valencia and Murcia from the hands of Ibn Iyad. The Christians defeat the Valencians (Al-Mustansir) near Albacete killing Al-Mustansir in the process. Ibn Iyad reassumes the title of Emir. Ibn Iyad dies in an obscure conflict and Muhammad ibn Sa'd ibn Mardanish becomes ruler.
The Taifa of Mértola gains independence from Badajoz.
March – King Afonso I of Portugal takes the Taifa of Santarém in a surprise attack.
Santarém falls to the Reconquista and will remain in Christian hands thereafter
An international Christian coalition attacks Almería by land and sea. Alfonso VII of Castile and Sancho Ramirez of Navarre march overland taking Andújar and Baeza en route. Ramon Berengar IV of Aragon-Catalonia and a Genoese naval contingent join them at Almería. There is no opposition from the Almoravid fleet. Almería falls on 17 Oct and is given to the Genoese.
A Crusaders' fleet arrives at the Portuguese city of Porto, and are convinced to join King Afonso I of Portugal in the Siege of Lisbon, which falls after several months. Some Muslims are killed, and the city was thoroughly plundered by the Crusaders.
Lisbon falls to the Reconquista and will remain in Christian hands thereafter
The towns of Almada and Palmela, just south of Lisbon, are taken from the Moors by the Portuguese.
A new Berber dynasty, the Almohads, led by Emir Abd al-Mu'min al-Kumi, takes North Africa from the Almoravids and soon invades the Iberian Peninsula.
1150 – The Taifas of Badajoz and of Beja and Évora are taken by the Almohads.
1151 – The Almohads, another more conservative African Muslim dynasty who have displaced the Almoravids, retake Almería. Jews and Mozárabes (Christians in Muslim lands) flee to the northern Christian kingdoms of Spain, or to Africa and the East, including Rambam.
King Afonso I of Portugal tries and fails to take Alcácer do Sal from the Moors.
1165 – Faked conversions become widespread with the accession of the sultan Abu Yakub. His son, Yakub Al-Mansur (1184–1199) imposes several restrictions upon the new converts. They could marry only among themselves and were forbidden to engage in large-scale trading, Doubting the sincerity of their conversion, in 1198, he also ordered them to wear a special degrading garb: a blue tunic one cubit long with ridiculously long wide sleeves. The converts were compelled to wear a blue skullcap which fell below their ears in the shape of a donkey's packsaddle, instead of the usual turbans.
King Afonso I of Portugal is wounded by a fall from his horse in Badajoz, and is captured by the competing forces of King Ferdinand II of León. As ransom King Afonso I was obliged to surrender almost all the conquests he had made in Galicia in the previous years, as well as Badajoz, that the Leonese gave back to the Almohads as a vassal territory.
1170 – The Almohads transfer their capital to Seville.
1171 – Almohad Muslims begin building the Alcázar, their palace.
1172 – Almohads capture Murcia. Almohads take over Valencia when ibn Mardanish dies.
1179 – Castile and Aragon agree on future partition of Al-Andalus.
1184 – The Portuguese defeat the Almohads at Santarém.
1190 – Maimonides writes the Moreh Nebukhim, or Guide to the Perplexed, using rationalism to reconcile Judaism with Aristotle's laws of nature, and Shloshah-Asar Ikkarim, the Thirteen Articles of Faith.
1195 – The Almohads defeat the Castilians at Alarcos.
1199 – The Almohad Caliph Abu Yusuf Ya'qub al-Mansur dies and is succeeded by Muhammad an-Nasir.
1200 – Ibn Tumart's successor, Abd al-Mumin, turned the movement against non-Muslims, specifically Jews and Christians. Sweeping across North Africa and into Muslim Iberia, the zealous Almohads initiated riots and persecutions of Muslims and non-Muslims. In some towns Jews and Christians were given the choice of conversion, exile, or death.
1203 – The Almohads take Majorca from the Almoravid.
The Nasrid ruler, Mohammed ibn Alhamar, approaches Ferdinand III of Castile to propose that in return for cooperating in the conquest of Muslim Seville, Granada would be granted independence as a subject of Castile. Fernando agrees and takes Seville.
1237 – Mohammed ibn Alhamar enters Granada, soon to become the new capital of his dominion. On returning to Granada, the embarrassed ibn-Alhamar announces "there is no victor but Allah", which was to become the motto of the Nasrid dynasty and to be inscribed all over the Alhambra palace.
1238 – Aragon captures Valencia. Aragonese forces include urban militia.
James I retakes Valencia, Albarracin, Alpuente, Tortosa from the Muslims, all of which would remain in Christian hands thereafter. He also gains control of the prized paper manufacturing centre at Xàtiva.
1243 – James I retakes Murcia from the Moors and it will remain in Christian control thereafter.
1244 – Arjona and Baeza fall to the Reconquista and will remain in Christian hands thereafter.
1247 – Having had time to secretly regroup his forces Al-Azraq breaks the treaty that he had signed in 1245 and leads a revolt in Valencia.
The Muslim rebels in Valencia retreat into the territory controlled by the Mudéjar lord Al-Azraq who holds 8 castles in the Alcalá valley. They seize more castles and continue a successful guerrilla war.
1252–1284 – Alfonso X the Wise continues the Christian reconquest of the peninsula and is obliged to face the Mudéjar revolts of Andalusia and Murcia. He seeks election as emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in 1257. He drafts the Fuero de las Leyes, the forerunner of the Siete Partidas.
1256 – Fighting flares up between the Valencia rebels and the Aragonese.
1257 – Muslims use some form of incendiary weapon at Niebla.
1258 – King James I of Aragon takes al-Azraq's main citadel and suppresses the Valencian rebellion.
1262 – Niebla and Cádiz falls to the Reconquista and will remain in Christian hands thereafter.
1264 – Muslim revolt in Andalusia.
1266 – Lorca, Murcia, Purchena and Segura are retaken from the Muslims and will remain in Christian hands thereafter.
1410 – An attack against Granada is led by Ferdinand, regent of Castile and future king of Aragon. He does not take Granada, but he takes the city of Antequera. This is considered the most important victory against the Muslims since the reign of Alfonso XI.
1415 – Portugal takes the city of Ceuta in North Africa.
1462 – Castile takes Gibraltar again.
Castile-Aragón conquers the emirate of Granada (1481–1491)
26 December 1481 – The Granadines (Emir Abu l-Hasan Ali) surprise the Castilian garrison of Zahara on a stormy night. The population is enslaved.
1482 – Forces of Castile–Aragon (2500 cavalry and 3000 infantry) under Rodrigo Ponce de León, Marquis of Cadiz gather at Marchena (25 Feb), march to Antequera, cross the Sierra Alzerifa, and then seize Granadine Alhama on a stormy night before dawn (28 February 1482). Abu l-Hasan attempts to retake Alhama by siege (5–19 March) but withdraws unsuccessfully to Granada. Muslim troops from Ronda raid the Arcos area to try to tempt the Marquis out of Alhama. In support of his men at Alhama, King Ferdinand marches to Lucena, sends reinforcements to Alhama (30 April 1482), withdraws to Córdoba to organise a major force, and then formally takes over Alhama (14 May 1482).
1483 – Battle of Axarquia. A fast moving Castilian force raids into the mountains of Axarquia. Emir Muhammad XII of Granada becomes the first King of Granada to be captured by the Christians.
1484 – The Castilian-Aragónese army led by King Ferdinand II of Aragon assembles at Antequera in Spring, marches to Álora, raids Coín, Cazabonela, Almjia, Cártama, Pupiana, Alhendrin, and the fertile valley of Málaga before returning to Antequera. They capture Álora and Senetil and raid into the fertile valley of Granada.
1485 – Al-Zagal drives Muhammad XII from Almería. Muhammad XII flees to King Ferdinand II of Aragon, at Córdoba. Ferdinand besieges Coín and Cártama. Al-Zagal then attempts to relieve the sieges, but first Coín falls (27 April 1485) then Cártama (28 April 1485). The garrison of Ronda raids Medina Sidonia but returns to find its city besieged by Ferdinand in early May. Abu Hasan of Granada dies and Al-Zagal assumes title of Emir in late May; Al-Zagal defeats a Christian foraging party from Alhama on his way to Granada. Three groups of Castilian–Aragonese march toward Moclin (late Aug). Al-Zagal ambushes and defeats the first group, although it is rescued by the second group of Christians in early September. Al-Zagal enters Moclin. The third Castilian-Aragonese group (Ferdinand) joins the other two and they take the castles of Cambil and Albahar (23 September 1485). The Castilian-Aragonese of Alhama also take the castle of Zalea in September.
1489 – Spain captures Baza. Al-Zagal surrenders to Spain.
Almería falls to the Reconquista.
1491 – Granada surrenders to the Castilian-Aragonese forces. Abu 'abd Allah Muhammad XII, Emir of Granada, relinquishes the last Muslim-controlled city in the Iberian Peninsula to the expanding Crown of Castile, and signs the Treaty of Granada.
1492–1507 – The remaining Muslims in the Crown of Castile were ordered to become Catholic. King Ferdinand ordered to convert mosques to Christian churches. The king then appeals to the reigning Pope Julius II (nephew of Sixtus IV) to grant the aspirations of these new Christians. This new Christian population, forcibly converted, will come to be known as the Moriscos. Jews who were forcefully converted are known as marranos.
1499-1501 – A Muslim rebellion in Granada, following forced conversion of Muslims, contrary to terms of surrender; The rebellion was defeated in 1501.
1501-1502 All Muslims in the Crown of Castile (including the former Emirate of Granada) were forced to convert to Christianity.
1504 – The Oran fatwa was issued, following the forced conversion of 1501-1502, providing the basis of the secret practice of Islam in Spain.
1516 – King Charles I, the grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella, rises to the throne of both Castile and Aragon. With the conquest of Granada and Iberian Navarre, the modern state of Spain is formed. Muslims in the kingdom of Navarre are forced to convert,
1519–1522 – Revolt of the Brotherhoods in the Kingdom of Valencia. A middle-class rebellion simultaneously targeting the noble landed class and Muslim peasantry, resulting in the killing and forced conversions of many of the latter, known as Mudéjars.
1526 – After convening a council to examine the problem, King Charles I declares that the forced conversions of the Muslims of Valencia and Aragon were valid, because they could have chosen death rather than convert.
1568 – Rebellion of the Alpujarras. After King Philip II introduces laws prohibiting Moorish culture, the people who had forcefully converted to Christianity in order to remain in Spain, then known as Moriscos, revolt under the leadership of Aben Humeya in Granada. The rebellion is suppressed in 1571 by John of Austria, Philip II's half-brother, and rebels are deported to different parts of the northern half of the Iberian peninsula.
1570 – Around 80,000 Moriscos are deported from the Kingdom of Granada resettled in towns and villages throughout Andalusia and Castile.