Timeline of the Ottoman Empire

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This article provides a timeline of the Ottoman Empire

See also Timeline of the Republic of Turkey, a chronology of the successor state to the Ottoman Empire.

This timeline is incomplete; some important events may be missing. Please help add to it.

Rise (1299–1453)[edit]

Year Date Event
c. 1299 The reign of Osman I, founder of the Ottoman Empire, began.
1302 July 27 Battle of Bapheus. The first war between the Ottomans and Byzantines.
1326 Orhan Gazi's accession to the throne.
1326 Siege of Bursa. The Ottomans conquered Bursa. After the conquest the city was the capital.
1329 June 10–11 Battle of Pelekanon. The Ottomans completed their conquest of Bythinia and the north-western corner of Anatolia.
1328-31 Siege of Nicaea. The Ottomans conquered Nicaea.
1362 March Orhan Gazi's to death. Murad I accession to the throne.
1364 Battle of Sırp Sındığı. Bulgaria had to pay taxes, and the decline of the Bulgarian Empire.
1369 Edirne was conquered. From 1413 to 1458 the city was the capital.
1371 September 27 Battle of Maritsa. Serbia was forced to declare loyalty to the Ottoman Empire.
1385-87 Battle of Pločnik..
1389 June 15 Battle of Kosovo. Most of Serbia is conquered. Murad I lost his life in this war.[1][2] Bayezid I accession to the throne.
1396 September 25 Battle of Nicopolis. Bulgaria was conquered.
1399 The Bursa great mosque was built by the Bayezid I. The first to be built by the Ottoman Darü'ş-şifa (worship and education center) Bayezid 1.
1402 July 20 Battle of Ankara. Ottomans entered the short-term period of stagnation. The battle is also significant in Ottoman history as being the only time a Sultan has been captured in person.[3]
1402-13 Ottoman Interregnum or Ottoman Civil War. This process Bayezid I 1402 at the Battle of Ankara, Turco-Mongol warlord Tamerlane defeated as a result of falling prisoner appeared. Crumbling Ottoman unity, the year in 1413 was restored by Mehmed I.
1413 July 5 Battle of Çamurlu. Mehmed I accession to the throne.
1422 Siege of Constantinople (1422). The first comprehensive siege of Constantinople by the Ottomans.
1427-28 Germiyanids was conquered by the Ottomans.
1432 March 30 Mehmed the Conqueror's birth.
1443-44 Crusade of Varna.
1444 November 10 Battle of Varna. Mora and Bulgaria was connected to the Ottoman State. It began to increase the authority of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans.
1448 October 17–20 Battle of Kosovo II. Balkans fully entered the Ottoman domination.

Classical Age (1453–1566)[edit]

Year Date Event
1453 May 29 Mehmed II (the Conqueror) captures Constantinople, and the final Byzantine emperor Constantine XI dies in the fighting.
1460 Mehmed II conquers Morea.
1461 Mehmed II conquers Trabzon thus ends Empire of Trebizond.
1461 Isfendiyarids joined the Ottoman lands.
1462 Mehmed II begins to build his Topkapi Palace.
1463 Bosnia was conquered.
1463-79 Ottoman–Venetian War
1473 Battle of Otlukbeli; Mehmed II defeats Uzun Hasan of Akkoyunlu Turkmens.
1475 Gedik Ahmet Pasha captures Caffa. Crimea becomes vassal of the Ottoman Empire.
1478 Albania is conquered.
1480 Gedik Ahmet Pasha captures Otranto, the southeast corner of Italy as a base for further attacks on Italy (only to evacuate after the death of Mehmet II).
1481 May 3 Mehmed II dies. Bayezid II ascended to the throne.
1481 Sultan Cem and Bayezid II has experienced a struggle for the throne between. This event is important for the Ottoman history. There has been standstill and internal conflicts.
1482 Herzegovina was conquered.
1485-91 Ottoman–Mamluk War.
1487 Karamanids was conquered.
1498 Montenegro was conquered.
1499-1503 Ottoman–Venetian War (1499–1503)

16th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1514 Battle of Chaldiran; Selim I defeats Ismail I of the Safavids; East Anatolia under Ottoman control.
1516 Battle of Marj Dabiq; Selim I defeats Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri of Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. Syria and Palestine under Ottoman rule.
1517 Battle of Ridaniya; Selim I defeats Tuman bay II of Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. Egypt under Ottoman rule.
1517 Piri Reis; presented the first world map of the Selim I.
1519 Hayreddin Barbarossa, ruler of much of Algeria, agrees to become a provincial governor under the Ottomans.
1519 Jelali revolts.
1520 The reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (Suleiman I) begins.
1521 Suleiman I conquers Belgrade.
1522 Suleiman I captures Rhodes.
1526 Battle of Mohács. Suleiman I defeats Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia.
1529 Suleiman I besieges Vienna.
1534-6 Suleiman I leads the Two Iraqs campaign against the Safavids, annexing Baghdad.
1536 Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha was executed.
1538 The Holy League navy is defeated in the Batte of Preveza.
1541 Conquest of Buda and establishment of Ottoman rule over Hungary.
1551 Siege of Tripoli (1551). Tripoli is taken over.
1552 August Capture of Muscat. Muscat in the management of the Portuguese Empire, Seized by the Ottomans.
1560 Battle of Djerba.
1565 Failed siege of Malta.

Transformation (1566-1700)[edit]

Year Date Event
1566 The reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (Suleiman I) ends. Siege of Szigetvár.
1569 The great fire of Istanbul Burns.
1570-73 Ottoman–Venetian War (1570–73). Conquest of Cyprus.
1571 Battle of Lepanto. The Holy League defeat the Ottomans.
1571 Fire of Moscow (1571). Crimean khan Devlet I Giray raided the city of Moscow.
1574 Conquest of Tunis. Selim II death. Murad III accession to the throne.
1575 Selimiye Mosque was built by architect Mimar Sinan between 1569 and 1575.
1578 Ottoman–Safavid War (1578–90). When this war ended, the Ottomans reached the widest extent in the east.
1590 Treaty of İstanbul between Ottoman Empire and the Safavids; Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia as well as western Iran under Ottoman rule. Reaching the widest border in the east of the Ottomans.
1593 June 22 Battle of Sisak.
1593-1606 Long Turkish War. The series of wars that lasted 13 years, ended with the Peace of Zsitvatorok.
1596 October 23–26 Battle of Keresztes.

17th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1603-18 Ottoman–Safavid War. The Ottomans lost the lands they won with the Ferhat Pasha Treaty.
1609 Kuyucu Murad Pasha suppresses the Jelali revolts.
1612 Treaty of Nasuh Pasha between Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia. Ottoman Empire gives up some gains of Treaty of Istanbul of 1590.
1615 Treaty of Serav ratifies Treaty of Nasuh Pasha
1622 May 20 Regicide of Osman II.
Revolt of Abaza Mehmed Pasha.
1648 Deposition of Sultan Ibrahim, enthronement of Mehmed IV.
1651 Assassination of Kösem Sultan.
1656 Köprülü Mehmed Pasha is appointed Grand Vizier.
1658 Köprülü Mehmed carries out extensive purges of the imperial cavalry.
Revolt of Abaza Hasan Pasha.
Ottoman conquest of Ineu (Yanova).
1661 Death of Köprülü Mehmed Pasha. His son Fazıl Ahmed Pasha becomes Grand Vizier.
1663-64 Austro-Turkish War. War ended with the Peace of Vasvár.
1669 Ottoman conquest of Heraklion (Kandiye).
1672-76 Polish–Ottoman War. Ottoman conquest of Kamianets-Podilskyi (Kamaniçe). The war end of the Ottoman Empire reached its maximum size in europe.
1676 Death of Fazıl Ahmed Pasha. His brother-in-law Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha becomes Grand Vizier.
1683 September 12 Battle of Vienna. Ottoman defeat.
December 25 Execution of Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha.
1686 Buda lost to the Austrian Habsburgs.
1687 Deposition of Mehmed IV.
1697 September 11 Battle of Zenta. Ottoman defeat. Grand Vizier was killed.
1699 Ottomans cede most of Hungary to Austria in the Treaty of Karlowitz.

Stagnation (1700–1827)[edit]

18th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1718 Treaty of Passarowitz signed.
1718 Beginning of Tulip era (up to 1730)
1729 First printing press in Turkish by Ibrahim Muteferrika
1730 Revolt of Patrona Halil. End of Tulip era. Ahmet III is dethroned.
1739 Treaty of Belgrade signed.
1774 Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca signed.

19th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1807 May Kabakçı Mustafa rebellion: Reformist sultan Selim III dethroned.
1808 July 21 Alemdar Mustafa Pasha suppresses the rebellion. But Selim III is dead and Mahmut II becomes the new sultan.
1813 April 23 Second Serbian Uprising: The Serbs revolt.
1821 Greek War of Independence: The Greek War of Independence begins.
1826 June 15 Auspicious Incident: centuries old Janissary corps forcibly disbanded after a rebellion against Mahmud II.

Decline (1828–1908)[edit]

Year Date Event
1830 Algeria is conquered by the French.
1832 July 21 Greek War of Independence: Greek sovereignty is formalized.
1831–1833 Egyptian–Ottoman War.
1853 October 4 Crimean War: The Crimean War with Russia begins, with Britain, France and Sardinia joining on the Ottoman side.
1860 October 21 First newspaper in Turkish published by Agah Efendi.(Tercümen'ı Ahval).
1862 February 5 A united Romanian autonomous state is established.
1876 December 23 Opened the 1876–1877 Constantinople Conference, which ends the Tanzimat reforms after they bankrupt the Empire.[4]
1877 April 24 Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878): Another war with Russia, the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878, begins.
1878 March 3 Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878): The Treaty of San Stefano recognizes Romanian and Serbian independence, as well as the establishment of an autonomous Bulgarian principality under nominal Ottoman protection. Austria-Hungary occupies Bosnia by default.
June 4 Cyprus is occupied by Britain.
1881 Tunisia becomes a French colony.
1882 Egypt goes under British protection.
1885 September 6 The province of Eastern Rumelia is transferred to Bulgarian jurisdiction.

Dissolution (1908–1923)[edit]

20th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1908 July 3 Second Constitutional Era (Young Turk revolution)
October 5 Bulgaria obtains full independence.
October 7 Austria-Hungary annexes Bosnia by mere declaration.
1912 The Ottomans are defeated by Italy in a short war, with the Italians gaining Libya and ending the 340-year Ottoman presence in North Africa.
November 28 First Balkan War: Albania declares independence
1913 May 17 First Balkan War: The Ottoman Empire is nearly wiped out from Europe, save for Istanbul and just enough land around to defend it.
1914 August 2 The Empire enters into World War I on the side of the Central Powers. Cyprus is annexed outright by Britain.
1915 April 24 The Ottoman Empire initiates forced deportation of Armenians.
1915 April 25 The Gallipoli Campaign: Britain unsuccessfully invades the Dardanelles in Turkey.
1920 August 10 Treaty of Sèvres. Rejected by Turkish nationalists and eventually leads to the abolition of the monarchy by the Government of the Grand National Assembly based in Ankara.
1922 November 1 Abolition of the Ottoman dynasty by Republic of Turkey.
1923 July 24 Treaty of Lausanne signed.
1924 March 3 Abolition of the Caliphate by Grand National Assembly of Turkey

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Helmolt, Ferdinand. The World's History, p.293. W. Heinemann, 1907.
  2. ^ Fine, John. The Late Medieval Balkans, p. 410. University of Michigan Press, 1994. ISBN 0-472-08260-4.
  3. ^ Marozzi, Justin, The Art of War: Great Commanders of the Ancient and Medieval World, Roberts, Andrew (ed.). Quercus Military History, 2008. p. 337. ISBN 978-1-84724-259-4
  4. ^ Armstrong, Karen (2001). Islam: A Short History. London: Phoenix. pp. xxvi. ISBN 1 84212 583 4.