timeline of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum (1077–1307) is summarized below. [1 ] [2 ]
Background [ edit ]
After the battles of
Pasinler and Malazgirt in the 11th century Turks founded a number of states in Anatolia. These were the vassals of Great Seljuk Empire. In fact one of the most powerful of these vassal states had been founded by a member of Seljuk house and the name of this state was the Sultanate of Rum.
The founder of the state was
Süleyman I. Paternal grandfathers of the sultan Melik Shah of Great Seljuk Empire and Suleyman I were brothers. But soon, the Seljuks of Rûm began to act independently of the Great Seljuk Empire and annexed the territories of other Turkish states in Anatolia. Their history is notable for:
They were adversaries of the first three
Crusades. Ottoman principality, the future
Ottoman Empire emerged within their realm.
11th century [ edit ]
Alp Arslan of the Great Seljuk Empire defeats Romanos IV Diogenis of the Byzantine Empire at Malazgirt, near Muş, Eastern Anatolia.
Suleyman I is appointed as a governor in Seljuk possessions in Anatolia. But he acts independently and founds a state. Capital İznik (Nicea), Bursa Province, Northwest Anatolia.
Tzachas an independent Turkish seaman, (not a member of Seljuk house, but the father in law of the future sultan) founds a principality in İzmir, giving the Seljuks access to Aegean Sea.
Antakya (Antioch), South Anatolia.
Süleyman I tries to add
Syria to his realm. But he commits suicide after being defeated by his cousin Tutush I in the battle of Aynu Seylem, Syria.
Kılıç Arslan I (1092–1207)
Kılıç Arslan I defeats
Walter Sans Avoir and Peter the Hermit of People's Crusade at the battles of Xerigordon and Battle of Civetot both in Northwest Anatolia.
Bohemund of Taranto, Godfrey of Bouillon and Adhemar of Le Puy of First Crusade defeat Kılıç Arslan I in the battle of Dorylaeum (near modern Eskişehir, Central Anatolia). The capital İznik is lost to Crusades. A few years later Konya, becomes the new capital.
Danishmend Gazi, an independent bey, defeats Bohemond I of Antioch in the battle of Melitene (Malatya)
12th century [ edit ]
Kılıç Arslan I defeats
Stephen of Blois and Hugh of Vermandois of the second wave of First Crusades at the Battle of Mersivan (near modern Merzifon, Amasya Province, Central Anatolia.)
Kılıç Arslan conquers
Musul, Iraq, but is defeated in the battle.
Şahinşah (1107–1116) (also called Melikşah, not to be confused with the sultan of Great Seljuk Empire with the same name) Continuous struggle with the Crusades weakens the state.
Mesut I (1116–1156) During the early years of his reign he has to accept the dominance of Danishmends a rival Turkish state in Anatolia.
Mehmed of Danishmends dies and the Sultanate of Rum becomes the leading power of Anatolia for the second time.
Mesut I defeats
Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III of Second Crusade in the Second battle of Dorylaeum (near modern Eskişehir)
Mesud I defeats
French king Louis VII of Second Crusade at Laodicea (near modern Denizli, West Anatolia).
Kılıç Arslan II (1156–1192)
Kılıç Arslan defeats
Manuel I Komnenos of Byzantine Empire in the battle of Myriokephalon (probably near Çivril, Denizli Province, West Anatolia).
Kılıç Arslan II annexes Danishmend realm. (
Sivas, and the surrounding territory, Central Anatolia.)
Kılıç Arslan II partitions the country into 11 provinces, each governed by one of his sons
Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa of Third Crusade crosses West Anatolia. While main Turkish army avoids conflict, several irregular troops try to fight, but are repelled. Temporary German occupation of capital Konya.
Frederick Barbarossa of Third Crusade dies near
Silifke, Mersin province in South Anatolia.
Keyhüsrev I (1192–1196)
After the collapse of Great Seljuk Empire, the Sultanate of Rum become the sole surviving branch of Seljuks.
Süleyman II (1196–1204)
13th century [ edit ]
Süleyman II annexes
Saltukid realm ( Erzurum, and the surrounding territory, Eastern Anatolia.)
Kingdom of Georgia defeats Süleyman II at the Battle of Micingerd
Kılıç Arslan III (1204–1205)
Keyhüsrev I (1205–1211) (second time)
Antalya, access to Mediterranean Sea
Keykavus I (1211–1220)
Sinop, Black sea coast
Alaaddin Keykubat I (1220–1237)
Alanya, Antalya province, Mediterranean coast
Construction of an arsenal in Alanya, a sign of Alaaddin Keykubat's interest in maritime trade
Alladdin Keykubat annexes a part of
Artuqid realm ( Harput and surrounding territory, .)
Sudak in Crimea is annexed. This is the most notable overseas campaign of Seljuks. [3 ]
Mongol conquests in Iran result in a flux of refuges to Anatolia, one of the refuges is Mevlana
Alaaddin Keykubat I annexes
Mengucek realm ( Erzincan and the surrounding territory), Eastern Anatolia .
Alaaddin Keykubat defeats
Celaleddin Harzemşah of Harzemşah Empire in the Battle of Yassıçemen, near Erzincan
Keyhüsrev II (1237–1246)
Sadettin Köpek the vizier of the inexperienced sultan who has executed some members of Seljuk house and becomes the de facto ruler of the sultanate is killed.
Baba Ishak. A revolt of Turkmen (Oguz) and Harzem refuges who have recently arrived in Anatolia. The revolt is suppressed. But the sultanate loses power.
Diyarbakır in Southeast Anatolia.
Bayju of Mongols defeats Keyhüsrev II in the battle of Kösedağ, Eastern Anatolia. From now on, the sultanate is a vassal of Ilkhanids.
Keykavus II (1246–1262) Governs together with his two brothers. But the real ruler is vizier Pervâne who has married to late sultan's widow Gürcü Hatun.
Mongols defeat Seljuk Turks at the
Battle of Sultanhan, Aksaray Province, Central Anatolia.
Mongols partition the country . Double sultanate
Kılıç Arslan IV 1260–1266
Keyhüsrev III 1266–1284
Karamanoğlu Mehmet Bey, a semi independent bey, allies himself with the Mameluk sultan Baybars who invades a part of Anatolia.
Karamanoğlu Mehmed Bey conquers Konya and enthrones his puppet
Jimri. But Ilkhanids intervene and reestablish Keyhüsrev's reign. (During his short stay in Konya Mehmed Bey declares Turkish as the official language in his realm).
Mesut II 1284–1297
Seljuk-Ilkhanid coalition defeats the tribes of
Alaaddin Kekubat III 1297–1302
Mesut II 1302–1307 (second time)
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ Prof Dr. Ali Sevim - Prof Dr. Yaşar Yücel: Türkiye tarihi I, AKDTKTTK Yayınları, İstanbul,
^ Melik Tekin: Türk Tarih Ansiklopedisi, Milliyet yayınları, 1991
^ A. C. S. Peacock, "The Saliūq Campaign against the Crimea and the Expansionist Policy of the Early Reign of'Alā' al-Dīn Kayqubād", Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Third Series, 16 (2006), pp. 133-149