Timeline of the Yuan dynasty

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This is a timeline of the Yuan dynasty.

13th century[edit]

1210s[edit]

Year Date Event
1215 23 September Kublai Khan is born to Tolui and Sorghaghtani Beki[1]

1220s[edit]

Year Date Event
1227 18 August Genghis Khan dies near the Jing River and Tolui becomes regent[2]
1229 13 September Ögedei Khan is elected ruler of the Mongol Empire at a kurultai near the Kherlen River[3]

1230s[edit]

Year Date Event
1231 "Thunder crash bombs" are employed by Jin troops in destroying a Mongol warship.[4]
1232 Tolui is struck by sickness and dies[5]
Reusable fire lance barrels made of durable paper are employed by Jin troops during the Mongol siege of Kaifeng.[4]
1237 Large bombs requiring several hundred men to hurl using trebuchets are employed by Mongols in the siege of Anfeng (modern Shouxian, Anhui Province).[6]

1240s[edit]

Year Date Event
1241 11 December Ögedei Khan dies on a hunting trip after lengthy drinking and his wife Töregene Khatun becomes regent[7]
1246 24 August Güyük Khan is elected ruler of the Mongol Empire at a kurultai on the Kherlen River[8]
1248 20 April Güyük Khan dies on his way to confront Batu Khan and his wife Oghul Qaimish becomes regent[9]

1250s[edit]

Year Date Event
1251 1 July Möngke Khan is elected ruler of the Mongol Empire at a kurultai in the Khentii Mountains[10]
fall Möngke Khan places his brothers Hulagu Khan and Kublai Khan in charge of West Asia and China, respectively[11]
1252 summer Möngke Khan places Kublai Khan in charge of the invasion of the Dali Kingdom[12]
fall Mongol forces depart from Shanxi and reach the Tao River[12]
Mongol forces under the Chinese general Wang Dechen advance into Sichuan and occupy Li Prefecture[12]
Kublai Khan advances with the main force towards the Dali Kingdom[12]
Niccolò and Maffeo Polo set off from Venice for China[13]
1253 September Kublai Khan's forces set up headquarters on the Jinsha River in western Yunnan and march on Dali in three columns[12]
Mongol forces occupy Li Prefecture[14]
Kublai Khan is consecrated in the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism[15]
1254 January The Dali Kingdom is conquered, although its dynasty remains in power, and the king, Duan Xingzhi, is later invested with the title of Maharajah by Möngke Khan; so ends the Dali Kingdom[16]
winter Kublai Khan returns to Mongolia and leaves Subutai's son Uryankhadai in charge of campaigns against local Yi tribes[16]
Kublai Khan starts building an independent power base in Henan and Jingzhao where Chinese-style government is implemented[17]
Mongol raids on the northern Song border intensify[18]
1256 summer Möngke Khan declares war on the Song dynasty, citing imprisonment of Mongol envoys as casus belli[18]
Kublai Khan constructs a capital north of the Luan River[19]
1257 Uriyangkhadai, son of Subutai, pacifies Yunnan and returns to Gansu[16]
winter Mongol invasions of Vietnam: Uriyangkhadai returns to Yunnan and invades the Trần dynasty of Đại Việt[16]
Möngke Khan launches an investigation into Kublai Khan's activities and subjects officials in Henan and Shanxi to interrogation, executes Kublai's chief pacification officer in Shanxi, and imposes large levies on Shanxi[18]
1258 Kublai Khan returns to Mongolia to placate his brother[18]
Möngke Khan dispatches an expedition to Korea, which subjugates Goryeo and brings back the future Wonjong of Goryeo as hostage[20]
spring Möngke Khan's forces reach Gansu[14]
Đại Việt recognizes Mongol suzerainty and Trần Thái Tông sends his son as hostage to the imperial court[16]
March Mongols capture Chengdu[21]
fall Möngke Khan's forces reach Li Prefecture[14]
1259 The Korean hostage is sent back to Goryeo with Mongol escorts and becomes Wonjong of Goryeo[20]
January Möngke Khan's forces take Ya Prefecture[14]
February Siege of Diaoyu Castle: Möngke Khan's forces lay siege to Diaoyu Fortress[22]
July Siege of Diaoyu Castle: Möngke Khan calls off the siege of Diaoyu Fortress[23]
August Taghachar attacks Huainan[14]
12 August Möngke Khan dies from dysentry or a wound inflicted by a Song trebuchet, forcing Mongol campaigns throughout Eurasia and China to come to a halt[24]
September Kublai Khan's forces cross the Yangtze and lays siege to Ezhou, however he receives news of Möngke Khan's death and Ariq Böke's mobilization, forcing hm to withdraw and deal with his brother[25]

1260s[edit]

Year Date Event
1260 5 May Kublai Khan convenes a kurultai at Kaiping, which elects him as ruler of the Mongol Empire; so ends the centralized Mongol Empire[26]
May Toluid Civil War: Ariq Böke proclaims himself great khan of the Mongol Empire at Karakorum[26]
Toluid Civil War: Berke of the Golden Horde allies with Ariq Böke and declares war on Hulagu Khan[27]
Alghu, a grandson of Chagatai Khan, deposes Mubarak Shah, an appointee to the Chagatai Khanate of the Mongol Empire[24]
Kublai Khan's envoy Hao Jing proposes that the Song dynasty acknowledge Kublai as Son of Heaven in return for autonomy and gets jailed[28]
Kublai Khan appoints Drogön Chögyal Phagpa as Imperial Preceptor[15]
Ajall Shams al-Din Omar, from Bukhara, is appointed a commissioner of a district in north China[29]
Kublai Khan issues three currencies but the paper chao, backed by silver, prevails; total value of paper money amounts to 73,352 silver ingots[30]
1261 Kublai Khan sends funds to Li Tan of Shandong to make war on the Song dynasty[31]
Franks with blonde hair visit Kublai Khan's court at Shangdu[32]
1262 22 February Mongol-allied warlord of Shandong, Li Tan, defects to the Song dynasty[33]
August Kublai Khan's Chinese generals Shi Tianze and Shi Chu crush Li Tan's forces and capture him; Li Tan is trampled to death by horses[31]
Berke–Hulagu war: Berke of the Golden Horde allies with the Mamluks and invades the Ilkhanate[27]
Kublai Khan prohibits nomads' animals from roaming on farmlands[34]
Ahmad Fanakati is appointed to the Central Secretariat to direct state finances[35]
1263 Kublai Khan reestablishes the Privy Council to oversee the Imperial Bodyguards and Kheshig[36]
1264 Toluid Civil War: Kublai Khan defeats Ariq Böke[27]
Kublai Khan founds the Supreme Control Commission to administer Tibet and Buddhists[37]
1265 Song dynasty and Mongol forces clash in Sichuan[28]
Niccolò and Maffeo Polo arrive at Kublai Khan's court[13]
Value of chao rises to 116,208 silver ingots[30]
1266 9 July Kublai Khan appoints his son Nomukhan Beiping Wang (prince of the pacification of the north)[38]
Kublai Khan orders the construction of Daidu, known to the Chinese as Dadu, or Khanbalikh to the Turks[39]
1267 Drikung Kagyu rebels against the Supreme Control Commission and Kublai Khan dispatches forces to crush them[15]
Kublai Khan orders the construction of an Imperial Ancestral Temple[40]
Kublai Khan designates Xu Heng as chancellor of the Guozijian[41]
Jamal ad-Din arrives in China and brings with him sundials, an astrolobe, a terrestrial globe, a celestial globe, and a more accurate calendar[36]
1268 Battle of Xiangyang: Mongol forces under Aju lay siege to Xiangyang[42]
The rebellion in Tibet is suppressed and Drogön Chögyal Phagpa is reinstated along with a Mongol pacification commissioner[15]
Kublai Khan creates the "General Administration for the Supervision of Ortogh" (Muslim merchant association) to lend money at low interest to the ortogh[30]
1269 Kaidu–Kublai war: Kaidu, a grandson of Ögedei Khan, rebels against Kublai Khan[27]
Sambyeolcho Rebellion: Im Yeon engineers a coup against Wonjong of Goryeo and Kublai Khan sends 3,000 troops to vanquish the rebels and reinstate Wonjong[43]
Drogön Chögyal Phagpa invents the 41 letter 'Phags-pa script, which Kublai Khan designates as the state script[44]
Niccolò and Maffeo Polo return to Europe[13]

1270s[edit]

Year Date Event
1270 Kublai Khan founds the Institute of Muslim Astronomy[45]
1271 Kublai Khan declares himself emperor of the Yuan dynasty and for the first time, annual sacrifices at the altars of Soil and Grain are done in the Chinese style[40][46]
Kublai Khan sends his son Nomukhan to garrison Almaliq[47]
Niccolò and Maffeo Polo as well as Marco Polo set off for China[48]
Chinese people start visiting Taiwan[49]
1272 Battle of Xiangyang: Riverine relief forces use fire lances to repel boarders and break the Yuan blockade of Xiangyang[50]
1273 March Battle of Xiangyang: Lü Wenhuan surrenders Xiangyang to Yuan[51]
summer Kublai Khan appoints Bayan of the Baarin as commander of the expeditionary forces[52]
Sambyeolcho Rebellion: The rebellion is defeated and Wonjong of Goryeo is reinstated, henceforth bringint Goryeo under Yuan as a tributary state; Yuan princesses are married into the Goryeo dynasty[43]
Kublai Khan breaks the Mongol custom of kurultai and designates his son Zhenjin as his successor[41]
Kublai Khan names Araniko Directorate General for the Management of Artisans[53]
1274 Kublai Khan holds court at Daidu for the first time[40]
Mongol invasions of Japan: Kublai Khan sends an expedition of 15,000 Mongols, Chinese, and Jurchens along with 6,000 Koreans, as well as 7,000 Korean sailors to invade Japan. They take the islands of Tsushima and Iki before landing at Hakata Bay on the eastern coast of Kyushu.[54]
19 November Battle of Bun'ei: The Japanese are losing at Hakata Bay until a large storm strikes. The Koreans recommend the Mongols to take shelter in their ships and head out to open sea until the storm subsides, which they do, and die. Several hundred ships are shattered and the expedition loses 13,000 lives. The remaining forces sail home.[54]
1275 January Bayan's forces cross the Yangtze at Hankou[47]
March Bayan's forces meet Jia Sidao in battle at Dingjiao Prefecture and annihilate his force using artillery equipment[47]
Mongols conquer the Hanshui region[55]
Kublai Khan sends his wife's nephew Antong to assist his son Nomukhan[56]
Marco Polo arrives in China[13]
Rabban Bar Sauma and Rabban Markos set off from China for Jerusalem, eventually visiting the pope, Philip IV of France, and King Edward I in England[57]
1276 Yuan army annihilates a Song army near modern Guichi District[58]
22 March Lin'an surrenders to Yuan and Emperor Gong of Song is eventually moved to Dunhuang where he raises a family and becomes a monk[59]
Yuan general of Uyghur descent, Arigh Kaya, conquers Hunan and Guangxi[60]
Yuan commander Sodu occupies Fuzhou[60]
winter Kaidu–Kublai war: Mongol princes capture Nomukhan and Antong; Nomukhan is sent to the Golden Horde and Antong to Kaidu[56]
Fire lances are used by Song cavalry in combating Mongols.[50]
Value of chao rises to 1,419,665 silver ingots[30]
1277 April Battle of Ngasaunggyan: A Yuan expedition led by Nasr al-Din to invade the Pagan Kingdom scores a victory but fail to capture their king, Narathihapate[61]
Muslim superintendent of Quanzhou Pu Shougeng defects to Yuan [60]
A suicide bombing occurs in China when Song garrisons set off a large bomb, killing themselves.[62][63]
1278 February Yuan commander Sodu occupies Guangzhou[60]
1279 19 March Battle of Yamen: Yuan fleet annihilates the Song fleet and Zhao Bing dies at sea; so ends the Song dynasty[64]
Kublai Khan defeats rebel princes in Mongolia[65]

1280s[edit]

Year Date Event
1280 Drogön Chögyal Phagpa dies and Sangha enters Tibet to restore order[66]
"Eruptors," cannons firing co-viative projectiles, are employed in the Yuan dynasty.[67]
A major accidental explosion occurs in China when a Yuan gunpowder storehouse at Weiyang, Yangzhou catches fire and explodes, killing 100 guards and hurling building materials over 5 km away.[68]
1281 Mongol invasions of Japan: A combined force of 100,000 troops, 15,000 Korean sailors, and 900 boats are prepared to invade Japan[69]
spring 40,000 troops from north China set off for Japan[69]
June Northern forces occupy Iki Island[70]
Southern forces from Fujian depart for Kyushu[70]
15 August Battle of Kōan: A typhoon strikes Kyushu and half of the Mongol forces die in the process[70]
Bombs are employed by Mongols in the Mongol invasions of Japan.[71]
Kublai Khan dispatches Sodu to lead a naval invasion of Champa due to their king Indravarman V's refusal to accompany a tribute mission to the Yuan court[61]
Chen Guilong rebels against Mongol rule and rebellion breaks out in Fujian; both are defeated[72]
Kublai Khan's wife Chabi dies[73]
1282 10 April Ahmad Fanakati is killed by Chinese conspirators and replaced by Lu Shirong[35]
1284 Nomukhan and Antong are released once their captives realize they're not getting a ransom[56]
1285 Mongol invasions of Vietnam: Sodu and Kublai Khan's grandson Toghan invade Đại Việt due to its refusal to allow passage for Yuan soldiers to invade Champa; the campaign ends unsuccessfully and Sodu is killed[61]
Drikung Kagyu rebels in Tibet[74]
Kublai Khan's son Zhenjin dies[73]
Lu Shirong is arrested for cronyism[75]
1286 Mongol invasions of Vietnam: Nasr al-Din and Kublai Khan's grandson Esen-Temür invade Đại Việt and reach Thăng Long before retreating; Đại Việt becomes a Yuan tributary[74]
1287 Battle of Bạch Đằng (1288): Toghan, son of Kublai Khan, invades Đại Việt but is defeated; Đại Việt becomes a Yuan tributary anyways for the duration of the Yuan dynasty[76]
Battle of Pagan: Esen-Temür defeats the Pagan Kingdom and overthrows Narathihapate; Pagan becomes a Yuan tributary[74]
Nayan, a descendant of Temüge, rebels against Kublai Khan, who personally sets out with commanders Öz-Temür and Li Ting to end it[77]
Hand cannons are employed by the troops of Jurchen Yuan commander Li Ting in bombarding Nayan's troops.[78]
24 July Shigtür invades Liaoning but is defeated[77]
1288 March Mongol invasions of Vietnam: Toghan withdraws from Đại Việt[79]
winter Nayan's rebellion is defeated[77]
The Heilongjiang hand cannon is dated to this year based on contextual evidence and its proximity to the rebellion by Mongol prince Nayan, although it contains no inscription.[80][81]
1289 February Expansion of the Grand Canal is completed, connecting the Qinging River and Linqing River in Shandong[82]

1290s[edit]

Year Date Event
1290 Kublai Khan sends his grandson Buqa-Temür to Tibet to restore Mongol authority[74]
1292 Mongol invasion of Java: Yuan forces invade Java and experience initial success but are betrayed and ambushed by Raden Wijaya, forcing them to flee before the monsoon winds end[74]
Marco Polo leaves China[83]
The Yuan dynasty sends an expedition to Liuqiu, which may or may not be Taiwan[84]
1294 18 February Kublai Khan dies in his palace[73]
14 April Temür Khan, grandson of Kublai Khan, becomes emperor of the Yuan dynasty at a kurultai held in Shangdu[85]
10 May Temür Khan announces his will to preserve the pattern of his grandfather's reign at his enthronement ceremony[85]
1297 The Yuan dynasty sends an expedition to Liuqiu, which may or may not be Taiwan[84]
1298 winter Duwa of the Chagatai Khanate defeats Yuan forces in Mongolia and captures Temür Khan's son in law, Körgüz[86]
The Xanadu Gun, the oldest confirmed extant hand cannon, is dated to this year based on its inscription and contextual evidence.[87]
1299 Külüg Khan is appointed commander[86]
Yuan government's finances deteriorate substantially and is forced to fund its expenditures through monetary reserves[88]

14th century[edit]

1300s[edit]

Year Date Event
1300 Second Mongol invasion of Burma: Yuan attacks the Myinsaing Kingdom[88]
fall Kaidu–Kublai war: Yuan forces defeat Kaidu south of the Altai Mountains[86]
1301 September Kaidu–Kublai war: Duwa and Kaidu suffer injuries in battle with Yuan forces east of the Altai Mountains and Kaidu dies soon after[89]
Second Mongol invasion of Burma: Yuan forces fail to defeat the Myinsaing Kingdom[88]
Yuan forces invade the Shan state of Babai-Xifu for dethroning a king who recognized Yuan suzerainty[88]
1303 Yuan campaign against Babai-Xifu ends in failure[88]
1304 Temür Khan, Chapar Khan of the House of Ögedei, and Duwa of the Chagatai Khanate send envoys to the Ilkhanate to establish peace and restore unity among Mongols; Chagatai Khanate becomes a Yuan tributary[89]
1306 Temür Khan sends Külüg Khan to aid Duwa in his war against Chapar Khan[90]
1307 10 February Temür Khan dies[91]
4 April Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan, brother of Külüg Khan, takes Daidu[91]
21 June Külüg Khan, nephew of Temür Khan, becomes emperor of the Yuan dynasty at Shangdu; Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan becomes heir apparent[92]
Chapar Khan is defeated and Duwa installs his brother Yangichar as puppet[90]

1310s[edit]

Year Date Event
1310 Chapar Khan surrenders to Yuan[90]
1311 27 January Külüg Khan dies[93]
30 January Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan purges Külüg Khan's administration and establishes Confucian rule[94]
7 April Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan, brother of Külüg Khan, becomes emperor of the Yuan dynasty[93]
winter Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan attempts to curtail aristocratic privileges and centralize government power[95]
1313 A new examination system based on Neo-Confucianism is promulgated; racial and elite quota system is implemented to limit successful examination candidates to 100 per metropolitan exam, and as a result ranked officials recruited through the examinations only amount to 4% of the Yuan bureaucracy[96]
1315 fall Cai Wuqiu rebels in Jiangxi and is suppressed[97]
The triennial imperial examinations are reestablished[98]
1316 Esen Buqa–Ayurbarwada war: Conflict breaks out between the Chagatai Khanate and the Yuan dynasty and Ilkhanate[90]
1317 Centralization policies fail and princes regain autonomy[99]
1318 Esen Buqa–Ayurbarwada war: Esen Buqa I dies[90]

1320s[edit]

Year Date Event
1320 1 March Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan dies[100]
19 April Gegeen Khan, son of Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan , becomes emperor of the Yuan dynasty[101]
1323 4 September The Asud Guard murder Gegeen Khan and the conspirators seize Daidu[102]
4 October Yesün Temür, cousin of Gegeen Khan, becomes emperor of the Yuan dynasty[103]
The Comprehensive Institutions of the Great Yuan is promulgated, consisting of 2,400 legal documents divided into 4 categories[104]
1325 Bronze "thousand-ball thunder-cannons" on four wheeled carriages appear in the Yuan dynasty.[105]
1328 15 August Yesün Temür dies in Shangdu[106]
8 September El Temür seizes Daidu[107]
October Ragibagh Khan, son of Yesün Temür, becomes emperor of the Yuan dynasty in Shangdu[108]
16 October Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür, son of Külüg Khan, is enthroned in Daidu[107]
14 November War of the Two Capitals: Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür's forces take Shangdu and defeat Ragibagh Khan, who disappears[109]
December War of the Two Capitals: Loyalist rebels in Shanxi are defeated[109]
1329 27 February Khutughtu Khan Kusala, brother of Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür, enthrones himself as emperor of the Yuan dynasty north of Karakorum[110]
May War of the Two Capitals: Loyalist rebels in Sichuan are defeated[109]
26 August Khutughtu Khan Kusala meets with his brother Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür at Onggachatu[110]
30 August Khutughtu Khan Kusala is found dead[110]
8 September Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür assumes the throne at Shangdu for the second time[110]

1330s[edit]

Year Date Event
1330 Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür becomes the first Yuan emperor to perform suburban offerings to Heaven[111]
1331 June The Jingshi Dadian (Grand Canon for Governing the World) is completed[112]
1332 March War of the Two Capitals: Loyalist rebels in Yunnan are defeated[110]
2 September Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür dies
13 October Rinchinbal Khan, nephew of Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür, becomes emperor of the Yuan dynasty[113]
14 December Rinchinbal Khan dies[113]
1333 19 July Toghon Temür, brother of Rinchinbal Khan, becomes emperor of the Yuan dynasty in Shangdu[114]
1335 Bayan of the Merkid abolishes the imperial examinations[115]
1338 Zhou Ziwang proclaims himself emperor and gets apprehended[116]
1339 A frustrated Chinese clerk by the name of Fan Meng carries out a mass murder of officials and seizes Bianliang, the capital of Henan, but is soon defeated. This event triggers a general purge of Chinese from sensitive bureaucratic positions.[117]

1340s[edit]

Year Date Event
1340 Toqto'a of the Merkit comes to power as chancellor[118]
A "watermelon bomb" containing miniature rockets known as "ground rats" is employed by Liu Bowen against rebels and pirates in Zhejiang.[119]
1341 More than 300 uprising occur in Hunan, Hubei, Shandong, and southern Hebei[116]
1344 June A series of local rebellions break out in scattered areas of China[120]
Toqto'a resigns[121]
summer 1344 Yellow River flood: The Yellow River shifts course and eventually settles north of the Shandong peninsula, causing widespread droughts along the Huai River valley while flooding the north, making the Grand Canal impassable[120]
1345 Yuan government sends out 12 investigation teams to "create benefits and remove harm" for the people[120]
Ibn Battuta arrives at Quanzhou
1346 Ibn Battuta leaves China
1348 Tai Situ Changchub Gyaltsen rebels in Nêdong[66]
The pirate Fang Guozhen rebels in Zhejiang, blocking maritime grain shipments[122]
Yang Weizhen remarks upon the population imabalance between northern China and southern China, noting that the population of one northern county is equal to a single southern Chinese lineage[123]
1349 Wang Dayuan provides the first account of a visit to Taiwan and also notes substantial settlements of Chinese traders and fishermen on the Penghu Islands[124]

1350s[edit]

Year Date Event
1350 Cast iron technology becomes reliable enough to make one-piece iron cannons in China.[125]
Flintlock and wheellock mechanisms are employed in igniting land mines and naval mines in China.[126]
In China organ guns appear.[127]
Two wheeled gun carriages appear in China.[128]
1351 April Toqto'a mobilizes 20,000 troops and 150,000 commoners under the direction of Jia Lu to stabilize the Yellow River and dredge the Grand Canal where it had become filled with silt[129]
summer Red Turban Rebellion: Rebellion breaks out along the Huai River valley[129]
December Work on the Yellow River is completed[129]
Red Turban Rebellion: Xu Shouhui proclaims himself Emperor of Tianwan in Hubei[130]
1352 spring Red Turban Rebellion: Guo Zixing and Sun Deyai rebel in Haozhou[131]
15 April Red Turban Rebellion: Zhu Yuanzhang becomes a rebel under Guo Zixing's command in Haozhou[132]
Red Turban Rebellion: Liu Futong conquers southern Henan[133]
Red Turban Rebellion: Peng Da and Zhao Junyong take Xuzhou[133]
23 October Red Turban Rebellion: Toqto'a retakes Xuzhou;[134] Peng Da and Zhao Junyong flee to Haozhou[131]
Red Turban Rebellion: Chaghan Temür defeats rebels in Anhui and Henan; Li Siqi rises to power in southern Henan and moves to Shanxi[135]
Red Turban Rebellion: Tianwan rebels capture Wuchang and Hanyang[133]
1353 Red Turban Rebellion: Yuan forces retake Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Wuchang and Hanyang, forcing the Tianwan rebels to become fugitives in Hubei[133]
Red Turban Rebellion: Zhu Yuanzhang receives an independent command from Guo Zixing and captures Chuzhou[136]
Red Turban Rebellion: Zhang Shicheng rebels in Jiangsu[137]
1354 Tai Situ Changchub Gyaltsen defeats the Dpon-chen's forces and declares the Phagmodrupa dynasty[138]
Red Turban Rebellion: Zhang Shicheng proclaims himself King of Zhou in Gaoyou[130]
winter Red Turban Rebellion: Toqto'a lays siege to Gaoyou[131]
1355 January Red Turban Rebellion: Toqto'a is dismissed by Toghon Temür and the siege of Gaoyou dissolves[139]
16 March Red Turban Rebellion: Han Liner is declared emperor of the Red Turban Song at Bozhou[140]
11 July Red Turban Rebellion: Zhu Yuanzhang crosses the Yangtze[141]
Red Turban Rebellion: Guo Zixing dies and his eldest son succeeds him, but he also dies, making Zhu Yuanzhang leader of the rebels[142]
1356 March Red Turban Rebellion: Zhang Shicheng takes Suzhou[141]
10 April Red Turban Rebellion: Zhu Yuanzhang takes Nanjing[143]
summer Red Turban Rebellion: Zhang Shide, Zhang Shicheng's brother, captures Hangzhou but is forced to withdraw[143]
Red Turban Rebellion: Fang Guozhen amasses over a thousand ships and establishes control over Qingyuan, Taizhou, Wenzhou, Ningbo, and Shaoxing[144]
Red Turban Rebellion: Ni Wenjun leads Tianwan to capture Hanyang[137]
1357 summer Red Turban Rebellion: Zhang Shide is captured by Zhu Yuanzhang and starves to death[145]
Red Turban Rebellion: Zhang Shicheng surrenders to Yuan in return for autonomy[145]
Red Turban Rebellion: Tianwan rebels conquer Hunan and Hubei[146]
Red Turban Rebellion: Ni Wenjun is murdered and replaced by Chen Youliang, who sets up base in Jiujiang[147]
Red Turban Rebellion: Ming Yuzhen, originally a Tianwan rebel, conquers Sichuan and declares the Great Xia[140]
1358 11 July Red Turban Rebellion: Liu Futong of the Red Turban Song captures Kaifeng and Mao Gui makes an unsuccessful attempt to take Daidu[148]
10 September Red Turban Rebellion: Chaghan Temür takes Kaifeng;[135]
Red Turban Rebellion: Chen Youliang takes Anqing and Nanchang[146]
Red Turban Rebellion: Defending garrisons fire cannons en masse at the siege of Shaoxing and defeat Zhu Yuanzhang's forces[149]
1359 January Red Turban Rebellion: Shangdu is destroyed by Chinese rebels[150]

1360s[edit]

Year Date Event
1360 Red Turban Rebellion: Chen Youliang murders Xu Shouhui and proclaims the Great Han at Wuchang before attacking Zhu Yuanzhang at Nanjing only to be repulsed[151]
Chen Youding takes control of Fujian[152]
Basalawarmi takes control of Yunnan[152]
Tao Zongyi notes that people are ashamed not to practice foot binding.[153]
1361 Red Turban Rebellion: Yuan forces in southwest Shandong surrender to rebel forces[154]
1362 Red Turban Rebellion: Chaghan Temür is murdered by rebels while on his way to Yidu[155]
Köke Temür, nephew of Chaghan Temür, captures Yidu and takes control of northern China from Shandong to Shanxi[155]
1363 30 August - 4 October Battle of Lake Poyang: Chen Youliang's fleet is demolished by Zhu Yuanzhang's forces and dies[151]
autumn Red Turban Rebellion:Zhang Shicheng rebels, proclaiming himself the Prince of Wu, destroys Song in Bozhou, and takes Hangzhou and northern Zhejiang[156]
Red Turban Rebellion: Zhu Yuanzhang saves Han Liner and moves the Song court west of Nanjing where it remains militarily insignificant[157]
He Zhen retakes Guangzhou from pirates[158]
Bolad Temür is defeated by Köke Temür and flees[155]
1364 Bolad Temür seizes control of Daidu and Biligtü Khan Ayushiridara flees to Köke Temür's court[155]
1365 August Bolad Temür is assassinated on the order of Toghon Temür[155]
autumn Red Turban Rebellion: Zhu Yuanzhang attacks Zhang Shicheng[156]
Shanxi warlords Li Siqi, Zhang Liangbi, Törebeg, and Kong Xing wage war on Köke Temür in Henan[159]
1366 He Zhen becomes provincial governor of Guangzhou[158]
Red Turban Rebellion: Ming Yuzhen dies and is succeeded by his son Ming Sheng[140]
1367 January Red Turban Rebellion: Han Liner drowns while crossing the Yangtze[157]
October Red Turban Rebellion: Zhu Yuanzhang's army under Zhu Liangzi takes Taizhou[160]
1 October Red Turban Rebellion: Zhu Yuanzhang takes Suzhou and Zhang Shicheng hangs himself;[161] 2,400 large and small cannons are deployed by the Ming army at the siege of Suzhou.[149]
November Red Turban Rebellion: Zhu Liangzi takes Wenzhou[160]
13 November Red Turban Rebellion: Zhu Yuanzhang issues orders for Xu Da and Chang Yuchun to head north with 250,000 soldiers and Hu Mei, Tang He, and Liao Yongzhong to attack Fujian and Guangdong[162]
December Red Turban Rebellion: Fang Guozhen surrenders to Zhu Yuanzhang[163]
28 December Red Turban Rebellion: Hu Mei's forces take Shaowu[162]
Red Turban Rebellion: Xu Da and Chang Yuchun conquer Ji'nan[162]
Zhu Yuanzhang reestablishes the imperial examinations[164]
1368 18 January Red Turban Rebellion: Hu Mei captures Fuzhou[162]
23 January Zhu Yuanzhang proclaims himself the Hongwu Emperor of the Ming dynasty (note that Ming and Qing use the era name rather than temple name)[164]
February Toghon Temür dismisses Köke Temür and orders the remaining Yuan generals to crush him, but they are defeated[160]
17 February Ming forces conquer Fujian and capture Chen Youding, who is executed[158]
1 March Ming forces conquer Shandong[162]
16 April Ming forces capture Kaifeng[162]
18 April Ming forces reach Guangzhou and receive He Zhen's surrender[162]
25 April Ming forces defeat Köke Temür and capture Luoyang[162]
26 May Ming forces capture Wuzhou[162]
July Ming forces conquer Guangxi[162]
20 September Ming forces capture Daidu and the Yuan court flees to Inner Mongolia; so ends the Yuan dynasty[160]
Crouching-tiger cannons are employed by the Ming army.[165]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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