Timeline of the discovery and classification of minerals

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Georgius Agricola is considered the 'father of mineralogy'. Nicolas Steno founded the stratigraphy (the study of rock layers (strata) and layering (stratification)), the geology characterizes the rocks in each layer and the mineralogy characterizes the minerals in each rock. The chemical elements were discovered in identified minerals and with the help of the identified elements the mineral crystal structure could be described. One milestone was the discovery of the geometrical law of crystallization by René Just Haüy, a further development of the work by Nicolas Steno and Jean-Baptiste L. Romé de l'Isle (the characterisation of a crystalline mineral needs knowledge on crystallography). Important contributions came from some Saxon "Bergraths"/ Freiberg Mining Academy: Johann F. Henckel, Abraham Gottlob Werner and his students (August Breithaupt, Robert Jameson, José Bonifácio de Andrada and others). Other milestones were the notion that metals are elements too (Antoine Lavoisier) and the periodic table of the elements by Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev. The overview of the organic bonds by Kekulé was necessary to understand the silicates, first refinements described by Bragg and Machatschki; and it was only possibly to understand a crystal structure with Dalton's atomic theory, the notion of atomic orbital and Goldschmidt's explanations. Specific gravity, streak (streak color and mineral hardness) and X-ray powder diffraction are quite specific for a Nickel-Strunz identifier (updated 9th ed.). Nowadays, non-destructive electron microprobe analysis is used to get the empirical formula of a mineral. Finally, the International Zeolite Association (IZA) took care of the zeolite frameworks (part of molecular sieves and/or molecular cages).

There are only a few thousand mineral species and 83 geochemically stable chemical elements combine to form them (84 elements, if plutonium and the Atomic Age are included).[1] The mineral evolution in the geologic time context were discussed and summarised by Arkadii G. Zhabin (and subsequent Russian workers), Robert M. Hazen, William A. Deer, Robert A. Howie and Jack Zussman.

Milestones[edit]

Neolithic Age, and after it[edit]

Pallasite (olivine crystals of peridot quality in an iron-nickel matrix), Brahin (meteorite)
Olive green peridot (syn. chrysolite)
Nephrite dish - House of Fabergé (1890s)
  • Neolithic Age (new stone era) beginning about 10,200 years ago: flint tools (diagenesis of marine microfossils, microcristalline opal and chalcedony), jade tools (usually nephrite, jadeitite or jadeite-jade is less common), kaolin earth (adobe bricks made by drying of clay), copper, gold, silver and rocksalt. Locally, beads of turquoise and lazurite are found.
    • Göbekli Tepe, Anatolia, dating back to the 10th–8th millennium BC.
    • Note: nephrite is a microcristalline variety of tremolite (ferro-actinolite–tremolite solid solution series); white nephrite is almost pure tremolite and iron gives nephrite its green colour.
  • Bronze Age, Near East (3600-1200 BC), Europe (3600-600 BC), Indian Subcontinent (3300-1200 BC).
  • Iron Age, Ancient Near East (1300-600 BC), India (1200-200 BC), Europe (1200 BC – 400 AD).
  • Illustration, Torah (in Hebrew), Septuagint (translation in Ancient Greek), Vulgate (translation in Latin), Douay–Rheims Bible (translation in English), Book of Numbers 31:22: Gold, and silver, and brass, and iron, and lead, and tin (Latin: "aurum et argentum et aes et ferrum et stagnum et plumbum"). Book of Exodus 28:16-20 cites following decorative stones (list of precious stones in the Bible): (the "breastplate" or "rational" of the Jewish High Priest) It shall be foursquare and doubled: it shall be the measure of a span both in length and in breadth. And thou shalt set in it four rows of stones: in the first row shall be a sardius stone, and a topaz, and an emerald (Latin: "primo versu erit lapis sardius et topazius et zmaragdus"): In the second a carbuncle, a sapphire and a jasper (Latin: "in secundo carbunculus sapphyrus et iaspis"). In the third a ligurius, an agate, and an amethyst (Latin: "in tertio ligyrius achates et amethistus"): In the fourth a chrysolite, an onyx, and a beryl (Latin: "in quarto chrysolitus onychinus et berillus"). They shall be set in gold by their rows. Book of Revelation 21:19-20: And the foundations of the wall of the city were adorned with all manner of precious stones. The first foundation was jasper: the second, sapphire: the third, a chalcedony: the fourth, an emerald: The fifth, sardonyx: the sixth, sardius: the seventh, chrysolite: the eighth, beryl: the ninth, a topaz: the tenth, a chrysoprasus: the eleventh, a jacinth: the twelfth, an amethyst (Latin: "primum iaspis secundus sapphyrus tertius carcedonius quartus zmaragdus quintus sardonix sextus sardinus septimus chrysolitus octavus berillus nonus topazius decimus chrysoprassus undecimus hyacinthus duodecimus amethistus").
  • Illustration, Ancient Egypt. Ancient Egyptian funerary practices: a natural material found in Wadi Natrun is used (a mixture of natron and rocksalt (?)). The iconic gold burial mask of Tutankhamun, has inlays of turquoise, lapis lazuli, carnelian and coloured glass. Eye shadow (kohl) using black galena, green malachite, stibnite, lead or coal, for instance.[4]
  • Illustration, Persian Empire (728–330 BC period) and Babylonian Empire: blue (lapis lazuli) glazed bricks, for instance (Ishtar Gate, Pergamon Museum).

Greco-Roman and Byzantine period, mainly[edit]

  • Greco-Roman period:
    • De Anima Libri III of Aristotle (4th century BC). Description of mercury (metal).
    • Theophrastus (c. 371 – c. 287 BC)
      • Theophrastus (1956). Theophrastus On Stones: Introduction, Greek text, English translation, and Commentary (315 BC) (PDF). Translated by John F. Richards, Earle Radcliffe Caley. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University. p. 238.[5]
      • Illustration: amber (lyncurion of Theophrastus), chrysocolla, agate, cinnabar, orpiment, realgar. First brass (calamine plus copper process) appears in the middle of first century BC in the Roman Imperium, zircon and tourmalines are not found on ancient art works.
    • The oldest known pills were made of the zinc carbonates hydrozincite (described 1853) and smithsonite (described 1832). Calamine is a historic name for an ore of zinc (hemimorphite (IMA1962 s.p.) and smithsonite).[6]
    • De architectura (about 15 BC) of Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, Libri X, vol. VII, Caput 8. Note: description of natural mercury from the Cilbian fields near the former Greek city of Ephesus.
    • Dioscorides, Pedanius (1557). "Liber v". De materia medica (PDF) (in Latin). Translated by Cornarius J. Basileae: Froben. pp. 454–455. Book V: Minerals, description of melanterite (50 AD) and chalcanthite (70 AD).
    • Naturalis Historia [The Natural History]: (77 AD) of Gaius Plinius Secundus (Pliny the Elder, 23 AD – 25 August 79 AD).
    • Pliny the Younger (61 – c. 113 AD), Epistulae (Letters): description of calcite and beryl.[7][8]
  • Damigeron de Lapidibus, "Orphei Lithica" (c. IV AD) [translated to Latin by Eugenius Abel, 1881]. Note: describes curing of ailments by 30 stones.[9]
  • Isidore of Seville (c. 600 AD) Etymologiae.
  • Turkish traveller Muḥammad Abū’l-Qāsim Ibn Ḥawqal: Ibn Hawqal (977 AD) "The Face of the Earth".[10]
  • Abū al-Rayhān Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Bīrūnī (973–1048): Al-Biruni (1000) The Book Most Comprehensive in Knowledge On Precious Stones. He considers "zarnarrud" (emerald) and "zabarjad" (peridot) the same mineral.[10]
  • Uzbek (Persian) scholar and physician, Avicenna (about 980 – June 1037). He wrote almost 450 treatises on a wide range of subjects, of which around 240 have survived.
  • Illustration, elements known to the ancients (about 1000 AD, timeline of chemical elements discoveries): carbon, sulfur, iron, arsenic, antimony, zinc, copper, lead, silver, tin, gold, mercury.
  • Marbode (1100).[10]
  • Anglicus, Bartholomeus (1240). "Liber xvi - De lapidibus et metallis" [Book XVI - On rocks, gems and minerals]. De proprietatibus rerum [On the Properties of Things].
  • Albertus Magnus (Albert the Great, 1193/1206 – November 15, 1280). Isolation of arsenic.
  • Prior to the Spanish conquest (1492):
  • Illustration:

After the fall of Constantinople (after 1453)[edit]

Paracelsus (birth place: near Devil's bridge), commemorative plaque.
Front page of De re metallica, liber XII.
  • Leonardi (1502) "Speculum lapidum".
  • Theophrast von Hohenheim (Paracelsus, 1493–1541), Swiss-born physician: description of bismuth and naming of zinc (1526).
  • Calbus Freibergius (Latin for Ulrich Rülein von Calw, 1527) Ein nützlich Bergbüchlin, Erffurd: Johan Loersfelt. Note: description of bismuth.
  • Georgius Agricola (Latin for Georg Bauer, 24 March 1494 - 21 November 1555), he is "father of mineralogy".
    • Bermannus sive de re metallica (1530) [Bermannus; or a dialogue about the nature of metals]. Notes: based on "Ein nützlich Bergbüchlin", mention of fluorite.
    • De Ortu & Causis Subterraneorum (1546), liber v. Note: description of talc.
    • De natura fossilium (1546) [On the Nature of Rocks], liber x. Note: mention of alabandite (alabandicus lapis).
    • De re metallica (1556) [On Metals], liber xii. Note: description of salammoniac.
    • Illustration: borax (chrysocolla of Agricola), marcasite (lebererz of Agricola), lazurite (sapphis of Agricola), wolframite (hübnerite–ferberite series), orpiment.
  • Alchemist Alexander von Suchten (about 1520 – 1575)[11]
    • De Secretis Antimonij liber vnus, Straßburg (1570); Zween Tractat, Vom Antimonio, Mömpelgard (1604); Antimonii Mysteria Gemina, Leipzig (1604)
  • Alchemist Johann Thölde (about 1565 – about 1614). He is probably one of the authors behind the pseudonym Basilius Valentinus and so he published about antimony. He published works by Alexander von Suchten and he published under his own name too, so his literature isn't clear.[12][13]
  • Alchemist Biringuccio, Vannoccio (1959). De la pirotechnia (1540). Dover books on earth sciences: Dover Classics of Science and Mathematics. Translated by Cyril Stanley Smith and Martha Teach Gnudi. Courier Dover Publications. p. 477. ISBN 9780486261348.
    • The book has a chapter about antimony ('antimony' means here its sulfide, antimonite or stibnite). The isolation of antimony was accomplished in the German territory at this time.
  • De omni rerum fossilium genere, gemmis, lapidibus, metallis, et huiusmodi, libri aliquot, plerique nunc primum editi (1565) of Conrad Gesner, description of cerussite (synthetic lead carbonate was known as "ceruse") and alunite (as "alumen de Tolpha" from Monti della Tolfa).[14]
  • 1603, Italian shoemaker and alchemist Vincenzo Cascariolo discovers that calcinated baryte (barium sulfate to barium sulfide, Bologna stone) from Mount Paderno (an extinct volcano in Bologna) has a luminescence.[15]
  • Théodore de Mayerne (1573 – 1654 or 1655), Swiss-born physician who treated kings of France and England: calomel's description (treatment with mercury(I) chloride, specially against syphilis).[16][17]
  • Song Yingxing (1637) "Tiangong Kaiwu" ["The Exploitation of the Works of Nature"]: description of kaolin earth from Gaoling or Kauling, Fuliang County.
    • Note: common kaolin earth bearing iron oxide and organic impurities can be used in the earthenware production, but not in the porcelain production.
  • de Boodt, Anselmus; Tollius, Adrianus (1647). Gemmarum et Lapidum Historia (3 ed.). Maire. p. 576. Note: first definitive work of modern mineralogy.
  • Nicols, Thomas (1652). A Lapidary or, The History of Precious Stones: With Cautions for the Undeceiving of all those that deal with Precious Stones (1 ed.). Cambridge: printed by Thomas Buck. p. 239. Note: it was written with the help of 'de Boodt's' book.
  • Johann Martin Michaelis (1693). Museum Spenerianum sive Catalogus Rerum: Das Naturalienkabinett von Johann Jacob Sener [Catalogue of the mineral collection of Johann Jacob Sener]. Leipzig: Christoph Fleischer. Note: Johann Jacob Sener, professor of physics and mathematics, Akademie zu Halle; he named "minera plumbi viridis" (pyromorphite).[18]
  • Hennig Brand (c. 1630 – c. 1710), discovery of phosphorus (around 1669).
  • John Woodward (1665–1728), founder by bequest of the Woodwardian Professorship of Geology at Cambridge University. He collected and catalogued over 35 years nearly 10,000 specimens; they are in five walnut cabinets now in the Sedgwick Museum of Earth Sciences. He named a mineral of his collection "corinvindum" (from Sanskrit "Kuruvinda", meaning ruby, a variety of "corundum"); and he had a specimen of "minera plumbi viridis" (pyromorphite).[19]
    • Woodward, John (1714). Naturalis historia telluris illustrata & aucta (in Latin).
    • Woodward, John (1725). An Addition to the Catalogue of the Foreign Native Fossils in the Collection of J. Woodward M.D. London.
  • Steno, Nicolas (1669). De solido intra solidum naturaliter contento. He is one of the founders of modern stratigraphy and modern geology.

Lavoisier, Werner, Haüy, Klaproth, Berzelius and Dalton (after 1715)[edit]

René Just Haüy: Traité de Minéralogie - Tome cinquième (1801)
  • Georg Brandt (26 June 1694 – 29 April 1768), discovery of cobalt (c. 1735).
  • Johan Gottschalk Wallerius (1709–1785). Note: he renamed Agricola's Lupi spuma (1546, tungsten, element symbol -W-), in Wolfrahm (German, 1747).
    • Wallerius J G (1747). Mineralogia, eller mineralriket indelt och beskrifvet. Stockholm.
    • Wallerius J G, Denso J D (1750). Mineralogie, oder Mineralreich. Berlin: Berlegts Christoph Gottlieb Nicolai.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  • Johann F. Henckel (1678–1744), his library was the origin of the Freiberg Mining Academy.
    • Johann F. Henckel (1756). Kleine Minerologische und Chymische Schriften. Dresden/Leipzig.
  • Saxony had to pay reparations after the Seven Years' War: the mining industry got stronger and the Freiberg Mining Academy was founded (1765).
  • Carolus Linnaeus (1768) "Liber iii - Regnum Lapideum". Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, species cum characteribus & differentiis (12 ed.). Stockholm: Laurentii Salvii, Homiae, 236 p. It develops the binomial nomenclature for the species of the Tree of Life.
    • Note: first description of dolomite. The binomial nomenclature could not be used for minerals; it is easier to administrate c. 5,000 valid minerals (the species of the Tree of Life are relatives of each other. A mineral classification needs the contributions of: Nicolas Steno, Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier, Jean-Baptiste L. Romé de l'Isle, René Just Haüy, John Dalton, Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev, August Kekulé, Victor Goldschmidt, chemical formula and unit cell structure, etc.
  • T. Olof Bergman (1784). Manuel du minéralogiste, ou sciagraphie du règne minéral. Note: founder of analytical chemistry.
  • Daniel Rutherford (1749–1819), isolation of nitrogen (1772).
  • Ignaz von Born (1790). Catalogue Methodique et Raisonné de la Collection des Fossiles de Mlle. Éléonore De Raab.
  • Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (26 August 1743 – 8 May 1794), naming of oxygen (1778) and hydrogen (1783), prediction of silicon (1778) and establishment of sulfur as an element (1777).
  • Johann F. Gmelin (1793). "Liber iii - Regnum Lapideum". Caroli a Linné systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (13th ed.). Leipzig: Georg Emanuel Beer. Note: first description of mellite.
  • Vauquelin, Louis (1798). "Sur une nouvell terre tirée de l´aigue marine, ou beril". Observations sur la Physique, sur l’Histoire Naturelle et sur les Arts. 46: 158–158. Note: René Haüy discovered that emeralds and beryls crystals are geometrically identical. He asked Vauquelin for a chemical analysis, and so Vauquelin found a new "earth" (beryllium oxide).
  • Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742 –1786), discovery of oxygen with Priestley; identification of molybdenum, tungsten, barium, hydrogen, and chlorine.
  • Jean-Baptiste L. Romé de l'Isle (1783). Cristallographie (2nd ed.). Note: 3 volumes and atlas.
  • Carl Abraham Gerhard (1786). Grundriß des Mineralsystems. Himburg. p. 310. Note: based on the Abraham Gottlob Werner's lectures.
  • Axel Fredrik Cronstedt (1788). An Essay Towards a System of Mineralogy. London. Note: 2 volumes.
  • Christian F. Ludwig (1803). Handbuch der Mineralogie nach A. G. Werner. Leipzig: Siegfried Lebrécht Crusius.
  • Jean-Claude de la Métherie (1743–1817):
    • Jean-Claude de la Métherie (1797). Théorie de la Terre (2nd ed.). Paris: Maradan. Note: 5 volumes, it cites René Just Haüy.
    • Jean-Claude de la Métherie (1812). Leçons de minéralogie: données au Collège de France. Paris: Mme. Ve. Courcier. Note: 2 volumes.
  • Christian August Siegfried Hoffmann (1760–1813):
    • C. A. S. Hoffmann (1789). "Mineralsystem des Herrn Inspektor Werners mit dessen Erlaubnis herausgegeben von C A S Hoffmann". Bergmännisches Journal. 1. Note: based on the Abraham Gottlob Werner's lectures, as well.
    • C. A. S. Hoffmann (1811). Handbuch der Mineralogie. Freiberg: Craz und Gerlach. Note: years later Breithaupt expanded it (1841).
  • Johann Gottfried Schmeisser (1795). A System of Mineralogy: formed chiefly on the plan of Cronstedt.
  • Johan Gadolin (5 June 1760 – 15 August 1852), discovery of yttrium (1789).
  • Kirwan, Richard (1794–96). Elements of Mineralogy (2nd ed.). London.
  • Dietrich Ludwig Gustav Karsten (1768–1810):
    • Karsten D L G (1789). Des Herrn Nathanael Gottfried Leske hinterlassenes Mineralienkabinett, systematisch geordnet und beschrieben, auch mit vielen wissenschaftlichen Anmerkungen und mehreren äussern Beschreibungen der Fossilien begleitet. Leipzig. Note: mineral collection organized by Nathanael Gottfried Leske and Abraham Gottlob Werner.
    • Estner F J A, Werner A G, Karsten D L G, Leske N G (1790). Frenmüthige Gedanken über Herrn Inspector Werners Berbesserungen in der Mineralogie: nebst einigen Bemerkungen über Herrn Assessor Karstens Beschreibung des vom sel. Leske hinterlassenen Mineralien-Cabinetts. Vienna: Wappler.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
    • Karsten D L G (1800). Mineralogische Tabellen. Berlin: Heinrich August Rottmann.
  • René Just Haüy (1743–1822): He is "father of modern crystallography".
    • René Just Haüy (1801). Traité de Minéralogie. Note: 5 volumes.
    • René Just Haüy (1822). Traité de Cristallographie. Note: 2 volumes.
  • William Gregor (25 December 1761 – 11 June 1817), discovery of titanium (1791).
  • Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1 December 1743 – 1 January 1817), discovery of uranium (1789), zirconium (1789); establishment of tellurium, strontium, cerium and chromium.
  • Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), discovery of silicon (1824), selenium (1817), thorium (1858), and cerium (1803, with Klaproth).
  • John Dalton (1766–1844), British physicist and chemist (Dalton's atomic theory, 1800 and later).
  • French physicist André-Marie Ampère (1775–1836) suggests the element fluorine (1810).
  • Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 1778 – 29 May 1829), discovery of sodium (1807), potassium (1807), calcium (1808), magnesium (1808), boron (1808); isolation of chlorine (1810), barium (1808); identification of aluminium.
  • Amedeo Avogadro proposes the Avogadro's law (1811).[21]
  • Johann Friedrich Ludwig Hausmann (1813). Handbuch der Mineralogie. Göttingen. Note: 3 volumes.
  • Johann Christoph Ullmann (1814). Eine systematisch-tabellarische Uebersicht der mineralogisch-einfachen Fossilien. Kassel and Marburg: Kriedgerschen Buchhandlung.

Maxwell, periodic table, electron and mole (after 1815)[edit]

100 years 'American Mineralogist' (after 1915)[edit]

Prototype of the electron microprobe of Castaing, built by ONERA and duplicated by 'Cameca Science & Metrology Solutions' as MS85
  • January 1916, scientific journal: American Mineralogist, first issue.
  • 1916, X-ray powder diffraction: "Peter Debye (1884–1966) – Paul Scherrer (1890–1969) powder method".
  • 1919, founding of the Mineralogical Society of America (MSA).
  • Georg Menzer (1897–1989) solves the first crystal structure of garnet (1925).[22]
  • 1926, around 1,500 mineral species were firmly established at that time, the Roebling mineral collection (nowadays at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC) lacked less than 15 of those (Colonel Washington A. Roebling (1837–1926), founding member of the Mineralogical Society of America).[23][24]
  • Carl Hintze (1851–1916): "Handbuch der Mineralogie" (1916) Leipzig: Veit.
  • The structure of silicates:
    • Machatschki, Felix (1928). "Zur Frage der Struktur und Konstitution der Feldspate". Centralblatt f. Mineralogie, Geol. u. Paläontol. (in German). A: 96–104. Note: Felix Machatschki worked with Victor Goldschmidt as well as with William L. Bragg for a period of time.
    • William L. Bragg (1930). "The Structure of Silicates". Nature. 125 (3152): 510–511. doi:10.1038/125510a0.
    • William L. Bragg (1932). The Structure of Silicates (2nd ed.). Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft M.B.H.
    • Gossner, B. and Strunz, H. (1932). "Über strukturelle Beziehungen zwischen Phosphaten (Triphylin) und Silikaten (Olivin) und über die chemische Zusammensetzung von Ardennit". Zeitschrift für Kristallographie - Crystalline Materials (in German). 83 (1–6): 415–421. doi:10.1524/zkri.1932.83.1.415.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
    • Strunz, Hugo (1936). Über die Verwandtschaft der Silikate mit den Phosphaten und Arsenaten (PhD Thesis) (in German). Akad. Verlagsges.
    • Berman, Harry (1936). Constitution and classification of the natural silicates (PhD Thesis). Harvard University.
  • Victor Moritz Goldschmidt (1888–1947) founder of crystal chemistry: Goldschmidt classification (1937), Goldschmidt tolerance factor and Goldschmidt's law (1926). He is considered together with Vladimir Vernadsky (1863–1945) to be the founder of modern geochemistry.
  • 1941, foundation of the Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS).
  • Ramdohr, Paul; Strunz, Hugo (1978). Klockmanns Lehrbuch der Mineralogie (in German) (16th ed.). Ferdinand Enke.
  • Strunz, Hugo (1941). Mineralogische Tabellen (in German) (1st ed.). Leipzig: Akad. Verlagsges. p. 287.
  • Palache, Charles; Berman, Harry; Frondel, Clifford (1944). The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana. Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides (7th ed.). Wiley & Sons. p. 834.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  • 7 April 1947, International Union of Crystallography (IUCr) was formally admitted to International Council for Science (ICSU) (former International Council of Scientific Unions, ICSU).[25]
  • In 1948–1950, PhD candidate Raymond Castaing (1921–1999), supervised by André Guinier, built the first “microsonde électronique” (electron microprobe) at ONERA.[26][27]
    • Castaing, Raimond (1952) [Submitted 1951]. Application des sondes électroniques à une méthode d'analyse ponctuelle chimique et cristallographique [Application of electron probes to local chemical and crystallographic analysis] (PhD Thesis) (in French). University of Paris. Publication Office national d'études et de recherches aéronautiques (ONERA) [Institute for Aeronautical Research] Nr. 55
  • 1955, Mark C. Bandy (1900–1963) and his wife Jean A. Bandy (1900–1991) translate George Agricola's De Natura Fossilium to English.[28]
  • Max Hutchinson Hey (1904–1984); British Museum, London.

International Mineralogical Association period (after 1957)[edit]

Iowaite (IMA1967-002). Size: 1.4 cm x 0.9 cm x 0.2 cm. Locality: Palabora mine, Loolekop, Phalaborwa, Limpopo Province, South Africa.
  • 1958, foundation of the International Mineralogical Association (IMA), Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names (CNMMN). It is affiliated to the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS).[29]
  • Frondel, Clifford (1962). The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana. Volume III: Silica Minerals (7th ed.). John Wiley and Sons Incorporated. p. 334. Note: this publication got delayed, as silicate minerals were being better understood.
  • Deer, William Alexander; Howie, Robert Andrew; Zussman, Jack (1962). An Introduction to the Rock-Forming Minerals (1st ed.). Longmans. p. 528. Note: main work is a series with 11 volumes (as of 2013).
  • Michael Fleischer's "Alphabetical Index of New Mineral Names, Discredited Minerals, and Changes of Mineralogical Nomenclature, Volumes 1-50 (1916-1965), The American Mineralogist" (1966). Note: "Glossary of Mineral Species" (1971) 1 ed. is based on it.
  • 3rd International Molecular Sieve Conference (1973): organisation of the International Zeolite Association (IZA).[30]
  • Povarennykh, A.S. (1972). Crystal Chemical Classification of Minerals. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
  • 1978, Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS) is renamed International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD). A lot of compounds have an 'ICDD Card'.
  • Klein, Cornelis; Hurlbut, Cornelius S., Jr. (1985). Manual of Mineralogy (20th ed.). John Wiley. pp. 352–353. ISBN 0-471-80580-7.
  • Anthony, John W.; Bideaux; Bladh; Nichols, eds. (1990–2013). Handbook of Mineralogy. Chantilly, VA: Mineralogical Society of America.
  • Criddle, Alan J.; Stanley, Chris J. (1993). Quantitative Data File for Ore Minerals (3 ed.). London: Chapman and Hall. ISBN 978-94-011-1486-8.
  • 25 December 1993, beginning of the MinDat database; it goes online in October 2000.[31]
  • International Mineralogical Association's (IMA) zeolite group and International Zeolite Association's (IZA) zeolite frameworks have similarities (1997).[32]
  • Jeffrey G. Weissman and Anthony J. Nikischer (1999). Photographic Guide to Mineral Species. Excalibur Mineral Company. Note: webmineral.com's database.
  • Jeffrey de Fourestier (1999). Glossary of Mineral Synonyms. Special Publication 2. The Canadian Mineralogist.

IMA Master List of Valid Minerals period (after 1999)[edit]

After 100 years 'American Mineralogist' (after 2015)[edit]

Beginnings of the 'IMA Master List of Minerals'[edit]

  • Strunz, Hugo (1982). Mineralogische Tabellen (in German) (8th ed.). Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Geest. u. Portig. p. 621.
  • James A. Ferraiolo (1982) "Systematic Classification of Nonsilicate Minerals", Bulletin 172, American Museum of Natural History (AMNH). Note: the Bulletin 172 was used to update the Dana (7 ed) IDs. The Nickel-Strunz (10 ed) IDs on webmineral.com are partially from his collaboration.
  • John W. Anthony, Richard A. Bideaux, Kenneth W. Bladh, and Monte C. Nichols, Eds., Handbook of Mineralogy (HOM), Mineralogical Society of America (MSA), Chantilly, VA 20151-1110, US.
  • Nickel, E. H.; Nichols, M. C. (1991). Mineral Reference Manual. New York: Van Nostrand, Reinhold. p. 250.
  • James Dwight Dana, Edward Salisbury Dana, Richard V. Gaines, H. Catherine W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig (1997). Dana's new mineralogy: the system of mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana (8th ed.). Wiley. p. 1872. ISBN 978-0471193104.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  • Strunz, Hugo; Nickel, Ernest H. (2001). Strunz Mineralogical Tables (9th ed.). Stuttgart: Schweizerbart. p. 870. ISBN 978-3-510-65188-7.
  • Ernest Nickel & Monte Nichols. Mineral Names, Redefinitions & Discreditations Passed by the CNMMN of the IMA (ARD List of Minerals, 2002), updated 2004 (Burke, 2006). Abbreviation (ARD): approved (A), revalidated (R) and discredited minerals (D).[50]
  • 19th General Meeting of IMA, Kobe, Japan (July 2006): it was decided to create a website presenting the "official" IMA list of minerals.
  • Burke E A J (2006). "A mass discreditation of GQN minerals" (PDF). The Canadian Mineralogist. 44: 1557–1560. doi:10.2113/gscanmin.44.6.1557. Abbreviation (GQN): grandfathered (G), questionable (Q) and published without approval minerals. Note: questionable minerals that could not be discredited got grandfathered as well.
  • Rruff.info/IMA database is built up based on 'IMA/CNMNC List of Mineral Names' compiled by Ernest H. Nickel & Monte C. Nichols (March 2007), courtesy of Minerals Data, Inc. This list is the result of the GQN list and the ARD list.
    • Buserite's status is 'approved' (IMA1970-024): Burns, R G; Burns, V E; Stockman, H W (1983). "A review of the todorokite-buserite problem: implications to the mineralogy of marine manganese nodules". American Mineralogist. 68: 972–980.
  • Ernest H. Nickel & Monte C. Nichols (March 2009). IMA/CNMNC List of Mineral Names (PDF).CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Courtesy of Minerals Data, Inc.; is released.
    • Orthochamosite is discredited: Bayliss, P (1975). "Nomenclature of the trioctahedral chlorites". The Canadian Mineralogist. 13: 178–180.
  • 'The New IMA List of Minerals' is released (2011/ September 2012). Note: the CNMNC revised the 'ARD List of minerals', reducing the number of grandfathered minerals.[51][52]
    • 'Metauranocircite II' gets dumped: Locock A J, Burns P C, Flynn T M (2005). "Structures of strontium- and barium-dominant compounds that contain the autunite-type sheet". The Canadian Mineralogist. 43: 721–733. doi:10.2113/gscanmin.43.2.721.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link), Locock A J, Burns P C, Flynn T M (2005). "Divalent transition metals and magnesium in structures that contain the autunite-type sheet: errata". The Canadian Mineralogist. 43: 847–849.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Note: nowadays, there are more or less hundred new minerals every year (it was made possible by the 'IMA Master List of Minerals' as reference).

Handbooks on mineralogy/ petrology[edit]

The System of Mineralogy of James D. Dana[edit]

  • Dana, James Dwight (1837). A System of Mineralogy (1 ed.). New Haven. 580 pages.
  • Dana, James Dwight (1844). A System of Mineralogy (2 ed.). New York and London. 640 pages.
  • Dana, James Dwight (1850). A System of Mineralogy (3 ed.). New York and London. 711 pages.
  • Dana, James Dwight (1854). A System of Mineralogy (4 ed.). New York and London.
    • Note: 2 volumes; Vol. I, 320 pages and Vol. II, 534 pages. It uses for the first time a chemical classification system (elements, sulfides, oxides, silicates, and so on).[53]
  • Dana, James Dwight; Brush, George Jarvis (1868). A System of Mineralogy: Descriptive mineralogy, comprising the most recent discoveries (5 ed.). New York: J. Wiley & Sons, Inc. 827 pages.
  • Dana, James Dwight; Dana, Edward Salisbury (1892). The System of Mineralogy of James D. Dana: Descriptive Mineralogy (6 ed.). New York: J. Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1134 pages.
    • James Dwight Dana; Edward Salisbury Dana (1899) First appendix to the sixth edition of Dana's System of mineralogy : Completing the work to 1899, 75 pages.
    • James Dwight Dana; Edward Salisbury Dana; William E Ford (1914) Second appendix to the sixth edition of Dana's System of mineralogy : Completing the work to 1909, 114 pages.
    • William Ebenezer Ford; James Dwight Dana (1915) Third appendix to the sixth edition of Dana's System of mineralogy : Completing the work to 1915, 87 pages.
  • Palache, Charles; Berman, Harry; Frondel, Clifford (1951). The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana (7 ed.). Wiley & Sons. Note: 3 volumes; Vol. I (1944), 834 pages, Vol. II (1951), 1124 pages, Vol. III (Silica Minerals, Clifford Frondel, 1962), 334 pages.
  • James Dwight Dana, Edward Salisbury Dana, Richard V. Gaines, H. Catherine W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig (1997). Dana's new mineralogy: the system of mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana (8 ed.). Wiley. ISBN 978-0471193104.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) 1872 pages. Note: a more compact edition.

Glossary of Mineral Species[edit]

  • Fleischer, Michael (1966). "Index of New Mineral Names, Discredited Minerals, and Changes of Mineralogical Nomenclature in Volumes 1-50 of The American Mineralogist in Table 1. Alphabetical Index of New Mineral Names, Discredited Minerals, and Changes of Mineralogical Nomenclature, Volumes 1-50 (1916-1965), The American Mineralogist". American Mineralogist. 51 (8): 1251–1326.[54]
  • Fleischer, Michael (1971). Glossary of Mineral Species (1 ed.). Tucson AZ: Mineralogical Record.
  • Fleischer, Michael (1975). Glossary of Mineral Species (2 ed.). Tucson AZ: Mineralogical Record.
  • Fleischer, Michael (1980). Glossary of Mineral Species (3 ed.). Tucson AZ: Mineralogical Record.
  • Fleischer, Michael (1983). Glossary of Mineral Species (4 ed.). Tucson AZ: Mineralogical Record.
  • Fleischer, Michael (1987). Glossary of Mineral Species (5 ed.). Tucson AZ: Mineralogical Record.
  • Michael, Fleischer; Mandarino, Joseph A. (1991). Glossary of Mineral Species (6 ed.). Tucson AZ: Mineralogical Record Inc.
  • Michael, Fleischer; Mandarino, Joseph A. (1995). Glossary of Mineral Species (7 ed.). Tucson AZ: Mineralogical Record Inc.
  • Mandarino, Joseph A. (1999). Fleischer’s Glossary of Mineral Species (8 ed.). Tucson AZ: Mineralogical Record Inc.
  • Back, Malcolm E.; Mandarino, Joseph A. (2004). Fleischer’s Glossary of Mineral Species (9 ed.). Tucson AZ: Mineralogical Record Inc. Note: no mineral groups section in this edition.
  • Back, Malcolm E.; Mandarino, Joseph A. (2008). Fleischer’s Glossary of Mineral Species (10 ed.). Tucson AZ: Mineralogical Record Inc.
  • Back, Malcolm E. (2014). Fleischer’s Glossary of Mineral Species (11 ed.). Tucson AZ: Mineralogical Record Inc.
  • Back, Malcolm E. (2018). Fleischer’s Glossary of Mineral Species (12 ed.). Tucson AZ: Mineralogical Record Inc.

Strunz Mineralogical Tables[edit]

  • Strunz, Hugo (1941). Mineralogische Tabellen (in German) (1 ed.). Leipzig: Akad. Verlagsges.
  • Strunz, Hugo (1949). Mineralogische Tabellen (in German) (2 ed.). Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Geest. u. Portig.
  • Strunz, Hugo (1957). Mineralogische Tabellen (in German) (3 ed.). Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Geest. u. Portig.
  • Strunz, Hugo (1966). Mineralogische Tabellen (in German) (4 ed.). Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Geest. u. Portig.
  • Strunz, Hugo; Tennyson, Christel (1970). Mineralogische Tabellen (in German) (5 ed.). Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Geest. u. Portig Akad. Verlagsges.
    • Strunz, Hugo; Tennyson, Christel (1977). Mineralogische Tabellen (in German) (6 ed.). Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Geest. u. Portig Akad. Verlagsges. Note: corrected edition.
    • Strunz, Hugo; Tennyson, Christel (1978). Mineralogische Tabellen (in German) (7 ed.). Leipzig: Akad. Verlagsges. Note: reprint.
  • Strunz, Hugo (1982). Mineralogische Tabellen (in German) (8 ed.). Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Geest. u. Portig.
  • Strunz, Hugo; Nickel, Ernest H. (2001). Strunz Mineralogical Tables (9 ed.). Stuttgart: Schweizerbart. ISBN 978-3-510-65188-7.

Rock-Forming Minerals series[edit]

  • W.A. Deer, R.A. Howie and J. Zussman (2013). An Introduction to the Rock-Forming Minerals (3 ed.). London: Mineralogical Society. ISBN 978-0903056274.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  • W.A. Deer, R.A. Howie and J. Zussman (3 December 2001). Orthosilicates. Rock-Forming Minerals. 1A. Geological Society of London. ISBN 978-1-897799-88-8.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  • W.A. Deer, R.A. Howie and J. Zussman (3 December 2001). Disilicates and Ring Silicates. Rock-Forming Minerals. 1B. Geological Society of London. ISBN 978-1-897799-89-5.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  • W.A. Deer, R.A. Howie and J. Zussman (3 December 2001). Single-Chain Silicates. Rock-Forming Minerals. 2A. Geological Society of London. ISBN 978-1-897799-85-7.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  • W.A. Deer, R.A. Howie and J. Zussman (28 August 1997). Double Chain Silicates. Rock-Forming Minerals. 2B. Geological Society of London. ISBN 978-1-897799-77-2.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  • M.E. Fleet (23 February 2004). Micas. Rock-Forming Minerals. 3A. Geological Society of London. ISBN 978-1-86239-142-0.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  • W.A. Deer, R.A. Howie and J. Zussman (6 March 2009). Layered Silicates Excluding Micas and Clay Minerals. Rock Forming Minerals. 3B. Geological Society of London. ISBN 978-1-86239-259-5.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  • M.J. Wilson (31 May 2013). Clay Minerals. Rock Forming Minerals. 3C. Geological Society of London. ISBN 978-1-86239-359-2.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  • W.A. Deer, R.A. Howie and J. Zussman (6 June 2001). Framework Silicates - Feldspars. Rock-Forming Minerals. 4A. Geological Society of London. ISBN 978-1-86239-081-2.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  • W.A. Deer, R.A. Howie, J. Zussman and W.S. Wise (18 May 2004). Framework Silicates - Silica Minerals, Feldspathoids and Zeolites. Rock-Forming Minerals. 4B. Geological Society of London. ISBN 978-1-86239-144-4.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  • W.A. Deer, R.A. Howie, J. Zussman, J.F.W. Bowles and D.J. Vaughan (16 June 2011). Non-Silicates: Oxides, Hydroxides and Sulphides. Rock-Forming Minerals. 5A. Geological Society of London. ISBN 978-1-86239-315-8.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  • W.A. Deer, R.A. Howie, J. Zussman and L.L.Y. Chang (1 January 1996). Non-Silicates: Sulphates, Carbonates, Phosphates, Halides. Rock-Forming Minerals. 5B. Geological Society of London. ISBN 978-1-897799-90-1.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)

Carl Friedrich Rammelsberg series[edit]

Carl Hintze[edit]

  • Hintze, Carl (1897–1933). Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. Note: 6 volumes.
  • Carl Hintze (1958). Handbuch der Mineralogie / Ergänzungsbände I, II, Neue Mineralien und neue Mineralnamen. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  • Carl Hintze, Karl F Chudoba (1971). Handbuch der Mineralogie / Gesamtregister für die Bände I(1-4) und II sowie Ergänzungsbände I, II und III. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  • Carl Hintze, Karl F Chudoba (1974). Handbuch der Mineralogie: Neue Mineralien und neue Mineralnamen. Suppl. 4. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co. ISBN 9783110046366.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  • Carl Hintze, Karl F Chudoba (1975). Handbuch der Mineralogie. Erg.-Bd. 4 : Lfg. 2. Neue Mineralien und neue Mineralnamen : (mit Nachträgen, Richtigstellungen und Ergänzungen). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co. p. 373. ISBN 9783110058505.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  • Carl Hintze, Karl F Chudoba (1968 and 2011). Handbuch der Mineralogie : Ergänzungsband III: Neue Mineralien und neue Mineralnamen (mit Nachträgen, Richtigstellungen und Ergänzungen). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co. Note: digital file.

Handbook for chemists and physicists (D’Ans Lax)[edit]

  • Jean D’Ans and Ellen Lax (1943). Taschenbuch für Chemiker und Physiker (1 ed.).CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Note: 3 volumes.
  • M. D. Lechner, ed. (1992). Taschenbuch für Chemiker und Physiker: Physikalisch-chemische Daten. 1 (4 ed.). Berlin: Springer. ISBN 3-540-52895-4.
  • Claudia Synowietz, ed. (1983). Taschenbuch für Chemiker und Physiker: Organische Verbindungen. 2 (4 ed.). Berlin: Springer. ISBN 3-540-12263-X.
  • Roger Blachnik, ed. (1998). Taschenbuch für Chemiker und Physiker: Elemente, anorganische Verbindungen und Materialien, Minerale. 3 (4 ed.). Berlin: Springer. ISBN 3-540-60035-3.

Max H. Hey[edit]

  • Max H. Hey (1955). An Index of Mineral Species & Varieties Arranged Chemically (2 ed.). printed by order of the Trustees of the British Museum (London). ISBN 978-0565000974.
  • Max H. Hey, Peter G. Embrey (1974). An index of mineral species and varieties arranged chemically: with an alphabetical index of accepted names and synonyms. A second appendix to the second edition of 'An index of mineral species and varieties arranged chemically'. London: Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History).CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  • Clark, Andrew M. (1993). Hey's mineral index: mineral species, varieties, and synonyms (3 ed.). London; New York: Chapman & Hall. ISBN 9780412399503.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ A Sample Analysis of British Middle and Late Bronze Age Material, using Optical Spectrometry. pp. 193–197.
  3. ^ Albert Huntington Chester (1896) A Dictionary of the Names of Minerals: Including their History and Etymology; reprinted by Classic Reprint Series, Forgotten Books, 2015
  4. ^ Mineralienatlas - Stibnit
  5. ^ Googlebooks - Theophrastus On Stones
  6. ^ "Ingredients of a 2,000-y-old medicine revealed by chemical, mineralogical, and botanical investigations". PNAS. 110: 1193–1196. January 7, 2013. doi:10.1073/pnas.1216776110. PMC 3557061. Retrieved February 5, 2013.
  7. ^ Mineralienatlas - Calcite
  8. ^ Mineralienatlas - Beryl
  9. ^ Ruslan I. Kostov (2008). "Orphic Lithica as a Source of Late Antiquity Mineralogical Knowledge". Geology and Geophysics. 51.
  10. ^ a b c d Peridot from St. John's / Zabargad Island
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  12. ^ Mindat.org - Valentinite
  13. ^ Verzeichnis der im deutschen Sprachraum erschienenen Drucke des 17. Jahrhunderts
  14. ^ Gesner, Conrad (1565). De omni rerum fossilium genere, gemmis, lapidibus, metallis, et huiusmodi, libri aliquot, plerique nunc primum editi (PDF).
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  31. ^ Mindat's 15th Birthday and a present for everyone
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