Timeline of the history of the Falkland Islands

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Map of the modern Falkland Islands with British nomenclature.

The Falkland Islands (Spanish: Islas Malvinas) have a complex history stretching over five hundred years. Active exploration and colonisation began in the 18th century but a self-supporting colony was not established till the latter part of the 19th century. Nonetheless, the islands have been a matter of controversy, as due to their strategic position in the 18th century their sovereignty was claimed by the French, Spaniards, British and Argentines at various points.

The strategic importance of the Falkland Islands was negated by the opening of the Panama Canal in 1914. Nevertheless, the continued sovereignty dispute between the United Kingdom and Argentina led to the Falklands War in 1982.

15th century[edit]

16th Century[edit]

Ferdinand Magellan. It is often claimed by Spanish speakers that one of the ships involved in his first global circumnavigation discovered the Falkland Islands
  • 1504: Binot Paulmier de Gonneville (France) sights islands that may have been the Falklands.
  • 1522: Pedro Reinel (Portugal) Unrecorded Portuguese expedition sights Falkland Islands. Evidence is found in two early maps, one made by the Portuguese cartographer Pedro Reinel in about 1522, the very first map to show the Falklands. Islands are shown in the cartography of the epoch; possibly the most remarkable of these are those of Turkish Admiral Piri Reis which show a coastline that could be interpreted as Antarctica (some 300 years before the official discovery).
  • 1525: Pedro Vega (Spain) Captain of the Anunciada, part of Frey Garcia Jofre de Loaysa's expedition, possible sighting.
  • 1529: Diogo Ribeiro (Portugal) produces a map indicating islands in the position of the Falklands.
  • 1535: Simon de Alcazaba (Spain) sights islands that may have been the Falklands.
  • 1540: Ferdinand Camargo (Spain) shelters in islands that may have been the Falklands.[1] In the 20th Century, the noted maritime historian Felix Riesenberg reconstructed the voyage and concluded it was most likely Islas de los Estados.[2]
  • 1541: The "Sanson" islands are indicated on the Map XV del Islario (atlas) de Alonso de Santa Cruz in a position corresponding to the Falklands.
  • 1543: Juan Bautista Agnese produces a nautical chart indicating the "Sanson" Islands in a position corresponding to the Falklands.
  • 1562: A map showing the "Sanson" islands is produced. Original author may be either Diego Gutiérrez or Bartholome Olives.
  • 1571: A map produced by Fernão Vaz Dourado (Portugal) shows islands in the correct position of the Falklands.
  • 1577: The "Sanson" Islands are indicated on the Martinez nautical chart.
  • 1580: The "Sanson" Islands are indicated on the Olives nautical chart. Possible circumnavigation by Sir Francis Drake.
  • 1583: Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa (Spain) sights islands that may have been the Falklands.
  • 1590: Islands are shown on contemporary Spanish and Italian charts.
  • 1592: John Davis (England), member of the second English expedition of Cavendish, shelters among islands that may have been the Falklands. The Falklands motto Desire the right is in part based on Davis' ship Desire.
  • 1593: Richard Hawkins (England) maps the northern coastline, naming the islands Hawkins Maydenlande after himself and Queen Elizabeth. Whether the islands were in fact the Falklands is disputed.
  • 1600: Sebald de Weert (Netherlands) sights the islands. This is widely accredited as the first sighting of the islands.

17th century[edit]

18th century[edit]

Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, by Jean-Pierre Franquel
  • 1701: Gouin de Beauchesne (France)[11]
  • 1708: Woodes Rogers (Great Britain)
  • 1713: Treaty of Utrecht between Spain, France, and Great Britain. Spain later claims this granted Spain sovereignty over the islands based on the Treaty of Tordesillas, a claim rejected by Great Britain.[13]
  • 1740: George Anson (Great Britain)
  • 1749: Anson proposes an expedition to find Pepys Island and establish a base on the Falkland Islands. Expedition is abandoned following pressure from the Spanish but with Great Britain formally rejecting the Spanish claim.[13]
  • 1764: Louis de Bougainville (France) founded a naval base at Port Louis, East Falkland. The French named them the Îles Malouines, so-called from when the islands were briefly occupied by fishermen from St Malo. Many of the settlers were Acadians left homeless by the Great Expulsion in Nova Scotia.
  • 1765: Ignorant of de Bougainville's presence, John Byron (Great Britain) claims Saunders Island and other islands for Britain. Britain builds a settlement on Saunders Island the following year.
  • 1766: France and Spain reach agreement: French forces are to leave, and Spain agrees to pay for the installations built by de Bougainville.
  • 1767: Fort St Louis is formally transferred to the Spanish Crown and renamed Puerto Soledad. Bougainville receives compensation for his efforts in establishing the colony. The first Spanish Governor, Don Felipe Ruiz Puente, is appointed.
  • 1769: British and Spanish ships encounter one another whilst surveying the island. Each accuse the other of having no lawful reason for being in the islands.
  • 1770: Falkland Crisis: Five Spanish ships arrive at Port Egmont with over 1400 troops under the command of General Madariaga. The British are forced to abandon Port Egmont and threaten war.
    John Byron, by Joshua Reynolds, 1759
  • 1771: That dispute was settled, with Spain retaining Puerto Soledad and Great Britain Port Egmont. Spain returns all goods and chattels seized and makes restitution. The Spanish later claim a secret agreement was reached whereby the British would leave the island, this is denied by the British and no documentary proof of the agreement has ever been produced.
  • 1774: The British decide to evacuate many overseas settlements due to the economic pressures of the American War of Independence. The British garrison departs the islands but leaves behind a plaque asserting British dominion.
  • 1775: Captain James Cook rediscovers South Georgia and takes formal possession on behalf of King George III.
  • 1776: The Spanish garrison becomes part of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata.
  • 1780: Sealers occupying Port Egmont are evicted when it is destroyed by the Spanish to prevent the British from returning.
  • 1790: Nootka Convention. Britain conceded Spanish sovereignty over all Spain's traditional territories in the Americas. Whether or not the islands were included is disputed.

19th century[edit]

  • 1806: Spain recalls Governor Juan Crisostomo Martinez from the islands but leaves behind a plaque re-asserting Spanish dominion.
  • 1807: Settlers on the Island face near-starvation after the British occupy Montevideo and enforce a blockade.
  • 1811: The Spanish evacuate Puerto Soledad, the islands become the domain of sealers and whalers.
  • 1813: Isabella under Captain Higton is wrecked on Eagle Island (now known as Speedwell Island). Six sailors undertake the hazardous voyage to the River Plate in an open longboat. The remaining crew are rescued by the American sealer Nanina under Captain Barnard. Whilst Barnard seeks additional supplies, the British crew seize Nanina and maroon the Americans.
  • 1814: After being marooned for 18 months Barnard is rescued by the British whalers Asp and Indispensable.
  • 1816: The United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, later called Argentina, claimed independence from Spain.
  • 1819: The South Shetland Islands are discovered by Captain William Smith who claims possession for King George III.
  • 1820: After an 8-month voyage, and with the ship in a poor state, the Argentine frigate, Heroína, puts into the islands in October. On 6 November Captain Jewett raises the flag and claims the islands for the United Provinces of the River Plate.
  • 1821: South Orkney Islands are discovered by Captain George Powell who claims possession for King George IV.
  • 1823: The United Provinces of the River Plate appoints Don Pablo Areguati as Commandant of Puerto Soledad. An appointment in name only as he never sets foot on the islands.
  • 1824: Luis Vernet and his partner Pacheco attempt an expedition to the islands. The venture is a failure.
  • 1825: The United Kingdom recognised Argentina's independence from Spain.
  • 1826: Vernet's first attempt to establish a settlement. Expeditions fail due to Brazilian blockade and conditions encountered on the islands.
  • 1828: Vernet's settlement established.
  • 1829: Buenos Aires issues decree setting up "Political and Military command of the Malvinas". Britain protests.
  • 1831: Vernet seizes three US vessels and imprisons their crews. The US sends the USS Lexington and arrests seven of Vernet's men. The Captain of the Lexington offers to take the settlers off the island. Most accept, however, 24 remain and continue working for Vernet. The US declares the islands free from Government.
  • 1832: Argentina sends a garrison commanded by Major Esteban Mestivier. Mestivier is murdered following a mutiny.
  • 1833: Britain re-establishes control of the islands. (See Re-establishment of British rule on the Falklands (1833).) William Dixon is named as the British representative and Matthew Brisbane returns to take over Vernet's settlement at Port Louis. Charles Darwin's first visit to the islands. In August, Antonio Rivero leads a gang of creoles and Gauchos who murder key members of the settlement.
  • 1834: Installation of the first British resident, Lt Henry Smith. Smith arrests Rivero's gang, restores the settlement and renames it Ansons Harbour. Charles Darwin's second visit.
  • 1838: Lt Lowcay replaces Lt Smith.
  • 1839: Lt Lowcay is replaced by Lt Robinson, in December Robinson is relieved by Lt Tyssen. Vernet is refused permission to return to the islands. G.T. Whittington forms a company to exploit fishery and agriculture, petitions the British Government to colonise the islands.
  • 1840: The British approve the formation of a colony on the islands.
  • 1841: General Rosas offers to relinquish any claim to sovereignty over the Falkland Islands in return for the relief of the Argentine debt to City of London interests. The British decline the offer. Lt. Governor Moody is appointed as the first British Governor of the Islands, a Letters Patent establishes the legal framework for the colony.
  • 1843: Work begins on the new town of Port Stanley, at Jackson's Harbour. South Georgia is placed under the administration of the Falkland Islands by the Letters Patent of 1843.
  • 1845: In July, Stanley becomes new capital of the Falkland Islands.
  • 1846: Samuel Lafone is awarded a contract to exploit feral cattle on East Falkland. He names the peninsular south of East Falkland Lafonia.
  • 1847: Land is made available for sale or lease in the Falkland Islands. Ship repair trade in the islands is boosted by large number of ships rounding Cape Horn en route to the California Gold Rush.
  • 1849: 30 married Chelsea Pensioners and their families arrive in the islands. Population in the islands reaches 200.
  • 1850: Britain and Argentina sign the “Convention between Great Britain and the Argentine Confederation, for the Settlement of existing Differences and the re-establishment of Friendship”. Several historians (Argentine, British and Latin American) consider this has a negative impact upon Argentina's modern sovereignty claim.
  • 1851: Falkland Islands Company is established by Royal Charter.
  • 1852: Cheviot sheep are first introduced to the islands. Sheep farming later becomes the dominant agriculture on the islands.
  • 1854: A defence force is formed on the islands in response to the Crimean War.
  • 1859: Establishment of Darwin.[14]
  • 1861: San Carlos Farm established.
  • 1866: Establishment of Port Howard.
  • 1875: Establishment of Goose Green.
  • 1876: The last warrah is killed at Shallow Bay.
  • 1878: The first peat slide destroys several houses in Port Stanley.
  • 1880s: The "forest" at Hill Cove is planted.[15]
  • 1881: The Falkland Islands become financially independent.
  • 1884: Argentina requests that the sovereignty dispute be submitted to independent arbitration, Britain refuses. The first mention of the Falkland Islands by Argentina for 34 years.
  • 1886: Second peat slide destroys the exchange building and two women are killed.
  • 1888: Argentina lodges a diplomatic protest with the UK, the matter is not raised again with the UK until 1941.
  • 1892: Consecration of Christ Church Cathedral.
  • 1899: St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church is consecrated.

20th century[edit]

Launch of the SS Great Britain, the revolutionary ship of Isambard Kingdom Brunel, at Bristol in 1843
  • 1970: SS Great Britain is returned to Bristol for restoration.
  • 1971: Communications agreement signed between Britain and Argentina. Air links to the islands are established by LADE, Argentina's military airline, Britain promises a supply ship from Montevideo but later reneges. Islanders travelling through Argentina are forced to carry Argentine Identity Cards rather than a British passport. Argentine Government agrees to suspend sovereignty claims whilst attempting to win the islanders over.
  • 1972: Work starts on a temporary airfield at Port Stanley.
  • 1973: Newly elected President Juan Perón renews sovereignty claim in the UN, resolution 3160 urges negotiations but Britain refuses.
  • 1974: YPF becomes the exclusive supplier of oil and gas company to the islands. Britain proposes a condominium solution to the sovereignty dispute but this is rejected by the islanders.
  • 1975: Construction of a paved runway at Port Stanley commences. Lord Shackleton is asked to undertake an economic survey of the islands. Diplomatic relations between the UK and Argentina are broken.
  • 1976: RRS Shackleton is fired upon by the Argentine destroyer ARA Almirante Storni during Lord Shackleton's mission. Argentina establishes a military base on Southern Thule. Britain protests but seeks a diplomatic solution.
  • 1977: Operation Journeyman: in response to increasing tension with Argentina, the Callaghan Government sends a Royal Navy task force to the South Atlantic. Negotiations are re-opened with Argentina over the islands. Stanley airport opens.
  • 1978: Falkland Islands Association opens a London office to lobby Parliament on the islanders' behalf.
  • 1979: Nicholas Ridley visits the Falkland Islands to canvass islanders views.
  • 1980: Nicholas Ridley proposes leaseback solution, it is rejected by the islanders.
  • 1981: British Nationality Act strips many islanders of British citizenship. It is announced that HMS Endurance is to be withdrawn and the British Antarctic Survey base in Grytviken is to close. Argentine scrap dealer Constantino Davidoff visits South Georgia without permission, setting off a chain of events resulting in the Falklands War.
  • 1982: Various tensions, including the desire of the Argentine military junta to distract attention from domestic economic and political ills, led to an Argentine invasion. The islands were later retaken by the UK. (See Falklands War.) In November, the United Nations General Assembly called on the UK and Argentina to resume sovereignty negotiations, but the UK refuses to discuss sovereignty unless it has the consent of the Islanders. An updated Shackleton report on the economic prospects for the islands is published following the conflict.
  • 1983: Franks Report [28] into the causes of the Falklands War is published. British citizenship is restored to the islanders.
  • 1984: Britain and Argentina enter into talks in Berne, Britain refuses to discuss sovereignty without the consent of the islanders. The Falklands war memorial is dedicated on Liberation Day (June 14).
  • 1985: New Falkland Islands constitution is adopted. The Falkland Islands become a parliamentary representative democratic dependency. Falkland Islands Government assumes responsibility for all domestic matters. Mount Pleasant Airfield opens.
    RAF Mount Pleasant
  • 1986: UN adopts an Argentine resolution calling for Britain to resume negotiations including sovereignty.
  • 1987: Establishment of the Falkland Islands Fishery regime, this becomes the major source of income for the islands.
  • 1989: Newly elected Argentine president Carlos Menem embarks on talks with Britain under the sovereignty umbrella.
  • 1990: Britain and Argentina resume diplomatic relations. A Chilean airline begins charter flights to Mount Pleasant Airfield.
  • 1991: Argentine next of kin visit the Argentine cemetery in Darwin.
  • 1994: Argentina enshrines its claim to the Falkland Islands in its constitution.
  • 1995: British and Argentine Governments sign an agreement concerning exploitation of oil deposits surrounding the islands. The Argentine warship ARA Granville harasses fishing vessels in Falkland Waters and threatens RFA Diligence. Regular visits by Argentine next of kin commences.
  • 1997: Constitutional amendment balances the number of elected officials between Stanley and Camp.
  • 1998: UK arms embargo on sales to Argentina is relaxed.[29]
  • 1999: The Chilean government requests that its airlines stop flying to the Falklands in response to the arrest of Augusto Pinochet in London,[30][31] prompting the Falkland Islanders to allow the British Government to enter negotiations with Argentina. An agreement between the British and Argentine Governments ends the ban on visits by Argentine nationals. Passenger flights over Argentine airspace are permitted in return.[32]
ARA Almirante Irízar (Q5) Antarctic icebreaker

21st century[edit]

  • 2000: British Antarctic Survey base at Grytviken, South Georgia reopened.[33]
  • 2001: British military garrison is withdrawn from South Georgia.[34]
  • 2002: First SAMA 82 pilgrimage to the islands. 200 British veterans of the conflict return to the islands.[35]
  • 2003: Several yachts competing in a solo round the world race are forced into Stanley for repairs.[36]
  • 2004: A permanent memorial to Argentine war dead is dedicated in the Argentine Military Cemetery.[37] Argentine icebreaker Almirante Irízar harasses shipping in Falkland waters.[38]
  • 2005: Falklands Gold and Minerals prospect for Gold in Lafonia.[39]
  • 2007: 25th Anniversary of the Falklands War is commemorated in services in Stanley and London.[40] Argentine president Néstor Kirchner renews sovereignty claim and renounces agreements over oil exploration.[41] UK renews claims to Antarctic territory before the expiry of the deadline for territorial claims following Britains ratification of the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention.[42] Major General Sir John Jeremy Moore, commander of the British land forces during the Falklands War, dies.[43]
  • 2008: The British Government announces that it is considering action on clearing the 20,000 mines left in the islands by Argentine forces during the Falklands War in 1982. Remains of an Argentine airman killed during the Falklands War were identified using DNA testing, the remains had been unidentified since discovery in 1986.[44]
  • 2009: Preliminary clearance of some of the mine fields left over from the Falklands War begins. Argentina creates a diplomatic incident over the presence of Falkland Islands Government representatives at a conference on sustainable fishing in Spain.[45] After years of delay, the Argentine memorial at the Darwin cemetery was finally inaugurated.[46] Argentina submitted a claim for large areas of the South Atlantic, including the Falkland Islands, under the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention.[47] In the general election, the entire legislative assembly was replaced by new members.[48]
  • 2010: Oil exploration around the Falkland Islands begins.[49]
  • 2011: A referendum on changing the electoral system in the Falkland Islands was held. A proposal for a single constituency was rejected.[50]
  • 2012: In freezing temperatures and a snowstorm, Falkland islanders turned out to give thanks for their liberation from Argentine occupation in 1982.[51] The Argentine president Cristina Kirchner ratcheted up tension with the UK.
  • 2013: A referendum is organised by the Falkland Islands Government on the political status of the Falkland Islands. The result was overwhelming support for retentoon of the link with the UK.[52][53][54]
  • 2014: The Falkland Islands fields a squad of 25 athletes at the Commonwealth Games, its largest ever attendance at the event.[55] On the centenary anniversary of the Battle of the Falkland Islands, a search begins for the wrecks of the German ships sunk in the Battle of the Falkland Islands.[56] In an act of reconciliation, descendants of Vice Admiral Graf Max von Spee, Vice-Admiral Doveton Sturdee and Rear-Admiral Sir Christopher Cradock attend a remembrance service in Stanley.[57]
  • 2015: The 250th anniversary of the first British settlement is celebrated in the islands.[58]
  • 2016: An agreement is reached between the UK, Argentina and the Falkland Islands Government with the support of the International Red Cross for a project to identify the remains of Argentine soldiers buried in the Argentine Cemetery in the Falkland Islands.[59]
  • 2017: The ICRC anthropology team begins the project to identify fallen Argentine soldiers buried in the Argentine Military Cemetery. As of 2020 the remains of some 115 soldiers have been identified leaving only 10 still to be named.[60]
  • 2018: The Falkland Islands Government publishes its plan for improving the health and wealth of Falkland Islanders.[61] Following on from the identification of 90 fallen Argentine soldiers by the ICRC team some 200 relatives are able to visit the graves of their loved ones for the first time.[62]
  • 2019: An expedition led by Falkland Islander Mensun Bound, discovers the wreck of the SMS Scharnhorst to the North of the Falkland Islands.[56]
  • 2020: Land mine clearance of mines laid in the Falklands War was completed.[63]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mary Cawkell; D. H. Maling; E. M. Cawkell (1960). The Falkland Islands. Macmillan. p. 5.
  2. ^ Felix Riesenberg (1950). Cape Horn. Readers Union. p. 45.
  3. ^ see Old Style and New Style dates: the date in brackets the Gregorian Calendar used in Spain but not in England or Scotland at that time
  4. ^ Ratified by the King of Spain on and ratified on 5/15 June 1605 and by King James I on 19/29 August 1604
  5. ^ Davenport, pp. 246257
  6. ^ "Treaty between Great Britain and Spain for the settlement of all disputes in America". The National Archives. gov.uk.
  7. ^ Fisher, Margaret Anne; Savelle, Max (1967). The origins of American diplomacy: the international history of Angloamerica, 1492-1763 American diplomatic history series Authors. Macmillan. pp. 66–70.
  8. ^ Capt. Francisco de Seixas y Lovera, Descripcion geographica, y derrotero de la region austral Magallanica. Que se dirige al Rey nuestro señor, gran monarca de España, y sus dominios en Europa, Emperador del Nuevo Mundo Americano, y Rey de los reynos de la Filipinas y Malucas, Madrid, Antonio de Zafra, 1690. (Narrates the discovery of South Georgia by the Englishman Anthony de la Roché in April 1675 (Capítulo IIII Título XIX page 27 or page 99 of pdf); Relevant fragment.)
  9. ^ Antonio de Viedma, Diarios de navegación – expediciones por las costas y ríos patagónicos (1780–1783), Ediciones Continente reprint, Buenos Aires 2006, ISBN 950-754-204-3, with an introduction by Professor Pedro Pesatti, Universidad Nacional de Conahue, Argentina: and two prefaces of importance – Discurso preliminar al diario de Viedma, pp. 19–28, and Apuntes históricos de la Isla Pepys, pp. 33–36 with facsimile map, both authored by Pedro de Angelis, on 20 June 1839. De Angelis (b. Naples 1784, d. Buenos Aires 1859) was the historian who created the State Printing Service. He edited the collection of works and documents relative to the ancient and modern history of the provinces of the River Plate in six volumes (1835–1838).
  10. ^ William Ambrosia Cowley. Cowley's Voyage Round the Globe, in Collection of Original Voyages, ed. William Hacke. London: James Knapton, 1699. https://web.archive.org/web/20180120160933/http://www.galapagos.to/TEXTS/COWLEY.HTM
  11. ^ a b Headland, Robert K. (2009). A Chronology of Antarctic exploration. London: Quaritch. ISBN 978-0-9550852-8-4.
  12. ^ William Wagstaff (2001). Falkland Islands. Bradt Travel Guides. pp. 7–. ISBN 978-1-84162-037-4.
  13. ^ a b Gustafson, Lowell (1988). The Sovereignty Dispute over the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 7. ISBN 0-19-504184-4.
  14. ^ Wigglesworth, Angela. (1992) Falkland People. Pub. Peter Owen. ISBN 0-7206-0850-3
  15. ^ a b Will Wagstaff (14 December 2018). Falkland Islands. Bradt Travel Guides. pp. 142–. ISBN 978-1-78477-618-3.
  16. ^ Will Wagstaff (14 December 2018). Falkland Islands. Bradt Travel Guides. pp. 70–. ISBN 978-1-78477-618-3.
  17. ^ "December 08: The Battle of the Falkland Islands". History.com This Day in History. Retrieved 5 December 2019.
  18. ^ Falkland Islands Government. "The Falkland Islands Defence Force – a brief history". Retrieved 7 February 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  19. ^ Will Wagstaff (14 December 2018). Falkland Islands. Bradt Travel Guides. pp. 10–. ISBN 978-1-78477-618-3.
  20. ^ William Wagstaff (2001). Falkland Islands. Bradt Travel Guides. pp. 80–. ISBN 978-1-84162-037-4.
  21. ^ Whitley, M. J. (1995). Cruisers of World War Two: An International Encyclopedia. London: Cassell. pp. 95-. ISBN 1-86019-874-0.
  22. ^ "Falkland Islands fly the flag for self-determination". Retrieved 2020-11-06.
  23. ^ "UN Milestones 1941–1950". www.un.org. 4 August 2015. Archived from the original on 27 October 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  24. ^ Laucirica, Jorge O. (Summer–Fall 2000). "Lessons from Failure: The Falklands/Malvinas Conflict" (PDF). Seton Hall Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 21, 2007. Retrieved 2008-11-06. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  25. ^ a b c d Symmons, C. R. "Who Owns the Falkland Island Dependencies in International Law? An Analysis of Certain Recent British and Argentinian Official Statements." The International and Comparative Law Quarterly 33, no. 3 (1984): 726-36. Accessed October 25, 2020. http://www.jstor.org/stable/759166.
  26. ^ "The Issue is the Law". The Times (London). 27 April 1982. p. 13.
  27. ^ a b "Falklands and the "unwelcome visits from (Argentine) aircraft" — MercoPress". En.mercopress.com. Retrieved July 10, 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  28. ^ Franks Report: [1], HMSO published Dec 12 1998, retrieved 14 July 2012
  29. ^ Reuters (1998-12-18). "Britain Eases Post-Falklands Arms Embargo Against Argentina (Published 1998)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-10-25.
  30. ^ The New York Times: Chile, in a Jab at Britain, Is Suspending Flights to Falklands, published Dec 12 1998, retrieved Aug 6 2010
  31. ^ Los Angeles Times: Halt Falklands Flights, Chile Urges Airlines, published Dec 12 1998, retrieved Aug 6 2010
  32. ^ Watts, Patrick (1999-08-09). "Anger as Argentines return to Falklands as tourists". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2020-10-25.
  33. ^ "Timeline". South Georgia Museum. Retrieved 2020-10-25.
  34. ^ "History of King Edward Point (Station M)". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 2020-10-25.
  35. ^ "Falklands War Veterans Pilgrimage Plans and Fund-Raising Go Ahead for 2002". Retrieved 2020-10-25.
  36. ^ "Around Alone...Stamm restarts after keel repairs". www.sail-world.com. Retrieved 2020-10-25.
  37. ^ "Argentine cemetery benefactor visits Falklands to say "thank you" for the joint humanitarian identification program". Retrieved 2020-10-25.
  38. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-10-06. Retrieved 2013-04-05.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Falkland Islands Timeline: A Chronology of events in the history of the Falkland Islands, Accessed 2007-10-02
  39. ^ "Falkland Gold and Minerals Ltd Announcement". Retrieved 2020-10-25.
  40. ^ "BBC NEWS | Special Reports | Falklands Anniversary". Retrieved 2020-10-25.
  41. ^ "Argentina vows Falklands return". 2007-06-14. Retrieved 2020-10-25.
  42. ^ "Britain to claim more than 1m sq km of Antarctica". 2007-10-17. Retrieved 2020-10-25.
  43. ^ "Major-General Sir Jeremy Moore". Retrieved 2020-10-25.
  44. ^ "Falkland Islands: Weekly Penguin News Update". 12 September 2008. Retrieved 12-09-2008. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  45. ^ "Argentina protests Falklands participation in fishing summit". 16 September 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-29.
  46. ^ "Malvinas Families grieve their beloved at Darwin Argentine cemetery". 4 October 2009. Retrieved 04-10-2009. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  47. ^ "Argentina claims vast ocean area". BBC News. 2009-04-22. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
  48. ^ Watson, Lisa. "Sweeping changes in Falkland Islands general election". Retrieved 2020-10-23.
  49. ^ "Drilling for oil begins off the Falkland Islands". BBC News. 22 February 2010. Retrieved 22 February 2010.
  50. ^ Falkland Islands voters overwhelmingly reject single constituency proposal MercoPress, 4 November 2011
  51. ^ Davies, Caroline (2012-04-02). "Falklands war: 30th anniversary 'a day for reflection'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2020-10-23.
  52. ^ "Falkland Islands to hold referendum on political future". Penguin News. 12 June 2012. Archived from the original on 18 June 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
  53. ^ "Electoral Commission to assist with Falklands referendum". Penguin News. 30 August 2012. Archived from the original on 31 January 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
  54. ^ "Falklands' March 10/11 referendum, a democratic exercise of self-determination". MercoPress, South Atlantic News Agency. 26 November 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
  55. ^ Falkland Islands names largest ever squad as 25 athletes set to compete at Glasgow 2014. insidethegames.biz, 2014
  56. ^ a b Daley, Jason. "German Ship Sunk During WWI Found Off Falkland Islands". Retrieved 2020-10-23. Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  57. ^ "Reconciliation and commemoration: 100 years after the Battle of the Falklands German flags fly over Stanley". Retrieved 2020-10-23.
  58. ^ "Falklands celebrates with several events 250 years of British claim over the Islands". Retrieved 2020-10-23.
  59. ^ "UK and Argentina agree to identify Falklands war dead". Retrieved 2020-10-23.
  60. ^ "Falklands: Argentina and UK agree to extend Humanitarian Plan to identify remains in multiple grave". 28 November 2019. 28 November 2019. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  61. ^ Falkland Islands Government Policy Department (October 2019). "Falkland Islands: An Economic Transformation" (PDF). Falkland Islands Association Newsletter. pp. 3–5. Retrieved 2020-10-24.
  62. ^ Relatives of Argentine soldiers killed during the Falklands War visit the Argentine cemetery at Darwin
  63. ^ "Falklands community invited to 'Reclaim the Beach' to celebrate completion of demining – Penguin News". Penguin News. 2020-10-23. Retrieved 2020-10-23.

External links[edit]