Timeline of the history of the region of Palestine

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Satellite image of the Israel region from 2003

This timeline represents major events in the region of Palestine, which at different times during human habitation included a diverse number of people, cultures, religions and nations while being a part of several major empires and an important trade link between Europe and North African coast in the west and Asia and India in the East.

For a more detailed article about the history of region see History of Palestine (region).

Prior to the 2nd millennium BC[edit]

2nd millennium BC[edit]

1st millennium BC[edit]

10th century BC[edit]

Entrance to the First Temple (20th-century painting)

9th century BC[edit]

8th century BC[edit]

7th century BC[edit]

6th century BC[edit]

The Babylonian captivity (painting by James Tissot from c. 1896 to 1902)

5th century BC[edit]

4th century BC[edit]

3rd century BC[edit]

2nd century BC[edit]

1st century BC[edit]

Model of the Second Temple at the Israel Museum
Birth of Jesus (painting by Gerard van Honthorst from 1622)

1st Millennium[edit]

1st century[edit]

2nd century[edit]

  • 130 AD – Roman emperor Hadrian builds a Roman city he called "Colonia Aelia Capitolina" on the ruins of Jerusalem.
  • 132–135 AD – The Bar Kokhba revolt takes place, the third major rebellion by the Jews of Iudaea Province against the rule of the Roman Empire. After the rebellion failed emperor Hadrian changed the name of the province from Iudaea to "Syria Palaestina" in order to complete the dissociation between the Jewish rebels to the region.

3rd century[edit]

  • 270Zenobia ruler of the Palmyrene Empire conquers most of the Roman east including Palestine.
  • 272 – Palestine is recaptured by Rome.

4th century[edit]

5th century[edit]

The Madaba Map depiction of 6th-century Jerusalem

7th century[edit]

The Dome of the Rock (photograph from 1856)

8th century[edit]

Scythopolis (Beit She'an) was one of the cities destroyed during 749 Galilee earthquake
  • 749The Seventh earthquake: Another powerful earthquake is recorded in the Jordan Rift Valley. The cities of Tiberias, Beit She'an, Hippos and Pella were largely destroyed while many other cities throughout the Jordan Rift Valley region were heavily damaged. In addition, the earthquake reportedly claimed tens of thousands of victims.[21][22]
  • 750 – The Abbasids overthrew the Umayyad Caliphate.

9th century[edit]

10th century[edit]

  • 905 – The Abbasids reconquered the region.
  • 970 – The Fatimids, a self-proclaimed Shia caliphate, took control and appointed a Jewish governor.

2nd millennium[edit]

11th century[edit]

Conquest of Jerusalem in 1099 during the First Crusade (painting from the middle ages)

12th century[edit]

Battle of Cresson (painting from the middle ages)

13th century[edit]

Siege of Acre (painting by Dominique Papety from 1840)

16th century[edit]

Walls of Jerusalem (photo taken in 2005)

17th century[edit]

18th century[edit]

Battle of Nazareth (painting by Antoine-Jean Gros from 1801)

19th century[edit]

20th century[edit]

Ottoman machine gunners during the Second Battle of Gaza, 1917
Emir Feisal and Chaim Weizmann during their meeting in 1918.
Palestinian Arab refugees in 1948
1948: declaration of the establishment of the State of Israel
1993: Bill Clinton , Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat after signing the Oslo Accords

3rd millennium[edit]

21st century[edit]

Summer 2006: The Second Lebanon War (photograph taken on August 15, 2006)
  • June 2002 – As a result of the significant increase of suicide bombing attacks within Israeli population centers during the first years of the Second Intifada, Israel began the construction of the West Bank Fence along the Green Line border arguing that the barrier is necessary to protect Israeli civilians from Palestinian militants. The significantly reduced number of incidents of suicide bombings from 2002 to 2005 has been partly attributed to the barrier.[33] The barrier's construction, which has been highly controversial, became a major issue of contention between the two sides.
  • 23 August 2005Israel's unilateral disengagement plan: The evacuation of 25 Jewish settlements in the Gaza Strip and West Bank is completed.
  • 12 July – 14 August 2006 – The Second Lebanon War took place, which began as a military operation in response to the abduction of two Israeli reserve soldiers by the Hezbollah, and gradually grew to a wider conflict. 1,191 Lebanese were killed, 4,409 were injured.
  • 27 December 2008 – 18 January 2009Operation Cast Lead: IDF forces conducted a large-scale military operation in the Gaza Strip during which dozens of targets were attacked in the Gaza Strip in response to ongoing rocket fire on the western Negev. 1,291 Palestinians were killed.
  • 14 November 2012 – 21 November 2012Operation Pillar of Cloud: IDF forces launches a large-scale military operation in the Gaza Strip in response to Palestinian militants firing over a hundred rockets from the Gaza Strip into southern Israel beginning on 10 November, with the aims of restoring quiet to southern Israel and to strike at what it considers terror organizations.[34] The operation officially began with the assassination of Ahmed Jabari, chief of the Gaza military wing of Hamas.[35] 158 Palestinians were killed.
  • 29 November 2012 United Nations General Assembly resolution 67/19: Upgrading of Palestine to non-member observer state status in the United Nations.[36]
  • 23 December 2016 – United Nations Security Council resolution 2334: Condemning Israeli occupation of Palestinian lands.[37]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Qesem Cave Project – Introduction
  2. ^ Oxford University Press: 100 Decisive Battles: Paul K. Davis
  3. ^ Shiloh (ancient city, Palestine) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  4. ^ Slavik, Diane. 2001. Cities through Time: Daily Life in Ancient and Modern Jerusalem. Geneva, Illinois: Runestone Press, p. 60. ISBN 978-0-8225-3218-7
  5. ^ Edwin Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, (1st ed.; New York: Macmillan, 1951; 2d ed.; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1965; 3rd ed.; Grand Rapids: Zondervan/Kregel, 1983). ISBN 0-8254-3825-X, 9780825438257
  6. ^ *960 BCE http://www.bible- history.com/sketches/ancient/tomb-david.html *c.962 BCE http://www.britannica.com/biography/David *970 BCE http://judeochristianchurch.com/did-yeshua-die-exactly-1000-years-after-king-david-died/
  7. ^ Joseph P. Free, Howard F. Vos. 1992. Archaeology and Bible history. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-310-47961-1
  8. ^ Chronology of the Israelite Tribes from The History Files (historyfiles.co.uk)
  9. ^ Greetham, The Rev. Phil. "King Herod the Great." "The Nativity Pages". Archived from the original on 2012-07-23., 2001.
  10. ^ Menahem MANṠŪR (1964). The Dead Sea Scrolls: A College Textbook and a Study Guide. Brill Archive. p. 14. GGKEY:EP1DFQRSATU.
  11. ^ Sebaste, Holy Land Atlas Travel and Tourism Agency.
  12. ^ Votruba, G., 2007, Imported building materials of Sebastos Harbour, Israel, International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 36: 325–335.
  13. ^ "Entry for Herod." The Jewish Virtual Library, American-Jewish Cooperative Enterprise, 2007. Retrieved June 18, 2007.
  14. ^ Temple of Herod, Jewish Encyclopedia
  15. ^ Timothy David Barnes, “The Date of Herod’s Death,” Journal of Theological Studies ns 19 (1968), 204–19; P. M. Bernegger, “Affirmation of Herod’s Death in 4 B.C.,” Journal of Theological Studies ns 34 (1983), 526–31.
  16. ^ Rahner (page 731) states that the consensus among historians is c. 4 BC. Sanders supports c. 4 BC. Vermes supports c. 6/5 BC. Finegan supports c. 3/2 BC. Sanders refers to the general consensus, Vermes a common 'early' date, Finegan defends comprehensively the date according to early Christian traditions.
  17. ^ H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN 0-674-39731-2, page 246: "When Archelaus was deposed from the ethnarchy in 6 CE, Judea proper, Samaria and Idumea were converted into a Roman province under the name Iudaea."
  18. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae, 23.1.2–3.
  19. ^ Ostrogorsky, George. 1969. History of the Byzantine State. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, p. 104. ISBN 0-8135-0599-2
  20. ^ Sheila Blair, "What is the date of the Dome of the Rock?", Julian Raby & Jeremy Johns (editors), Bayt Al-Maqdis, Oxsford University Press, 1992
  21. ^ Barkat, Amiram (August 8, 2003). "The big one is coming". Haaretz. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
  22. ^ Siegel-Itzkovich, Judy (October 14, 2007). "749 CE Golan quake shows another is overdue". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
  23. ^ Abu-Husayn, Abdul-Rahim (2004). The view from Istanbul: Lebanon and the Druze Emirate in the Ottoman chancery documents, 1546–1711. I.B.Tauris. pp. 22–23. ISBN 978-1-86064-856-4.
  24. ^ Barnai, Jacob. The Jews in Palestine in the Eighteenth Century: under the patronage of the Istanbul Committee of Officials for Palestine (University of Alabama Press 1992) ISBN 978-0-8173-0572-7; p. 14
  25. ^ Joel Rappel. History of Eretz Israel from Prehistory up to 1882 (1980), Vol.2, p.531. "In 1662 Sabbathai Sevi arrived to Jerusalem. It was the time when the Jewish settlements of Galilee were destroyed by the Druze: Tiberias was completely desolate and only a few of former Safed residents had returned..."
  26. ^ Gershom Gerhard Scholem (1976-01-01). Sabbatai Sevi: the Mystical Messiah, 1626–1676. Princeton University Press. p. 368. ISBN 978-0-691-01809-6. In Safed, too, the [Sabbatai] movement gathered strength during the autumn of 1665. The reports about the utter destruction, in 1662 [sic], of the Jewish settlement there seem greatly exaggerated, and the conclusions based on them are false. ... Rosanes' account of the destruction of the Safed community is based on a misunderstanding of his sources; the community declined in numbers but continued to exist ... A very lively account of the Jewish community is given by French trader d'Arvieux who visited Safed in 1660.
  27. ^ Sbeinati, M.R., Darawcheh, R. & Mouty, M. 2005. The historical earthquakes of Syria: an analysis of large and moderate earthquakes from 1365 B.C. to 1900 A.D. Annals of Geophysics, 48, 347–435.
  28. ^ Mishkenot Sha'ananim
  29. ^ Friedman, Isaiah (1971). German Intervention on Behalf of the "Yishuv", 1917 , Jewish Social Studies, Vol. 33, pp. 23–43.
  30. ^ Provisional Government of Israel: Official Gazette: Number 1; Tel Aviv, 5 Iyar 5708, 14.5.1948 Page 1: The Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel
  31. ^ Baylis Thomas (1999) How Israel was won: a concise history of the Arab-Israeli conflict Lexington Books, ISBN 0-7391-0064-5 p xiv
  32. ^ General Progress Report and Supplementary Report of the United Nations Conciliation Commission for Palestine, Covering the Period from 11 December 1949 to 23 October 1950 Archived 20 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine, published by the United Nations Conciliation Commission, 23 October 1950. (U.N. General Assembly Official Records, 5th Session, Supplement No. 18, Document A/1367/Rev. 1: Retrieved 5 January 2015)]
  33. ^ Nissenbaum, Dion (January 10, 2007). "Death toll of Israeli civilians killed by Palestinians hit a low in 3015". Washington Bureau. McClatchy Newspapers. Archived from the original on November 20, 2008. Retrieved April 16, 2007. Fewer Israeli civilians died in Palestinian attacks in 2006 than in any year since the Palestinian uprising began in 2000. Palestinian militants killed 23 Israelis and foreign visitors in 2006, down from a high of 289 in 2002 during the height of the uprising. Most significant, successful suicide bombings in Israel nearly came to a halt. Last year, only two Palestinian suicide bombers managed to sneak into Israel for attacks that killed 11 people and wounded 30 others. Israel has gone nearly nine months without a suicide bombing inside its borders, the longest period without such an attack since 2000[...] An Israeli military spokeswoman said one major factor in that success had been Israel's controversial separation barrier, a still-growing 250-mile (400 km) network of concrete walls, high-tech fencing and other obstacles that cuts through parts of the West Bank. ‘The security fence was put up to stop terror, and that's what it's doing,’ said Capt. Noa Meir, a spokeswoman for the Israel Defense Forces. [...] Opponents of the wall grudgingly acknowledge that it's been effective in stopping bombers, though they complain that its route should have followed the border between Israel and the Palestinian territories known as the Green Line. [...] IDF spokeswoman Meir said Israeli military operations that disrupted militants planning attacks from the West Bank also deserved credit for the drop in Israeli fatalities.
  34. ^ "IAF strike kills Hamas military chief Jabari - Defense - Jerusalem Post".
  35. ^ "Massed Israeli troops poised for invasion of Gaza". 2012-11-15.
  36. ^ Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 29 November 2012: without reference to a Main Committee (A/67/L.28 and Add.1): 67/19. Status of Palestine in the United Nations
  37. ^ "Resolution 2334". unscr.com. Retrieved 2019-01-24.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]