Timeline of the name "Palestine"

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A people called the P-r-s-t (conventionally Peleset). From a graphic wall relief at Medinet Habu, c.1150 BCE, during the reign of Ramesses III.

This article presents a list of notable historical references to the name Palestine, and cognates such as "Filastin" and "Palaestina", throughout the history of the region.

The term "Peleset" (transliterated from hieroglyphs as P-r-s-t) is found in five inscriptions referring to a neighboring people or land starting from c.1150 BCE during the Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt. The first known mention is at the temple at Medinet Habu which refers to the Peleset among those who fought with Egypt in Ramesses III's reign,[1][2] and the last known is 300 years later on Padiiset's Statue. Since 1822, scholars have connected the Egyptian "Peleset" inscriptions with the Biblical Philistines.[3] The Assyrians called the same region "Palashtu" or "Pilistu", beginning with Adad-nirari III in the Nimrud Slab in c.800 BCE through to an Esarhaddon treaty more than a century later.[4][5] The Ancient Israelites referred to the Philistines as "pelistim". Neither the Egyptian nor the Assyrian sources provided clear regional boundaries for the term.[6] The Hebrew Bible identifies the land of the Philistines as a Pentapolis comprising five city-states—Gaza, Ashkelon, Ashdod, Ekron, and Gath, from Wadi Gaza in the south to the Yarqon River in the north, but with no fixed border to the east.[7]

The name "Palaestina" is believed to be a Greek cognate of Philistia, referring to the Philistines, though it could also be derived from the Pelasgians, an Aegean people identified with the Philistines. The first clear use of the term Palestine to refer to the entire area between Phoenicia and Egypt was in 5th century BC Ancient Greece,[8][9] when Herodotus wrote of a "district of Syria, called Palaistinê" in The Histories, which included the Judean mountains and the Jordan Rift Valley.[8][10][11][12][13][14] In the treatise Meteorology c.340 BCE, Aristotle wrote, "there is a lake in Palestine". [15][16] [17][18] This is understood by scholars to be a reference to the Dead Sea.[19] Later Greek writers such as Polemon and Pausanias also used the word, which was followed by Roman writers such as Ovid, Tibullus, Pomponius Mela, Pliny the Elder, Dio Chrysostom, Statius, Plutarch as well as Roman Judean writers Philo of Alexandria and Josephus.[20] Other writers, such as Strabo, referred to the region as Coele-Syria[a] ("all Syria") around 10-20 CE.[21][22]

In 135 CE, the Greek "Syria Palaestina" [b] was used in naming a new Roman province from the merger of Roman Syria and Roman Judaea after the Roman authorities crushed the Bar Kokhba Revolt.

During the Byzantine period c.390, the imperial province of Syria Palaestina was reorganized into: Palaestina Prima, Palaestina Secunda,[23] and Palaestina Salutaris.[23] Following the Muslim conquest, place names that were in use by the Byzantine administration generally continued to be used in Arabic.[4][24] The use of the name "Palestine" became common in Early Modern English,[25] was used in English and Arabic during the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem. In the 20th century the name was used by the British to refer to "Mandatory Palestine", a mandate from the former Ottoman Empire which had been divided in the Sykes–Picot Agreement.[26] The term was later used in the eponymous "State of Palestine".[27] Both incorporated geographic regions from the land commonly known as Palestine, into a new state whose territory was named Palestine.

Historical references[edit]

Ancient period[edit]

Egyptian period[edit]

Padiiset's Statue "the impartial envoy/commissioner/messenger of/for Canaan of/for Peleset"

Assyrian period[edit]

  • c.800 BCE: Adad-nirari III, Nimrud Slab[34]
  • c.800 BCE: Adad-nirari III, Saba'a Stele: "In the fifth year (of my official rule) I sat down solemnly on my royal throne and called up the country (for war). I ordered the numerous army of Assyria to march against Palestine (Pa-la-áš-tu)... I received all the tributes […] which they brought to Assyria. I (then) ordered [to march] against the country Damascus (Ša-imērišu)."[35]
  • c.735 BCE: Qurdi-Ashur-lamur to Tiglath-Pileser III, Nimrud Letter ND 2715: "Bring down lumber, do your work on it, (but) do not deliver it to the Egyptians (mu-sur-a-a) or Palestinians (pa-la-as-ta-a-a), or I shall not let you go up to the mountains."[36][37]
  • c.717 BCE: Sargon II's Prism A: records the region as Palashtu or Pilistu[38]
  • c.700 BCE: Azekah Inscription[39]
  • c.694 BCE: Sennacherib "Palace Without a Rival: A Very Full Record of Improvements in and about the Capital (E1)": (the people of) Kue and Hilakku, Pilisti and Surri ("Ku-e u Hi-lak-ku Pi-lis-tu u Sur-ri")[40]
  • c.675 BCE: Esarhaddon's Treaty with Ba'al of Tyre: Refers to the entire district of Pilistu (KUR.pi-lis-te)[41]

Classical antiquity[edit]

Persian (Achaemenid) Empire period[edit]

  • c.450 BCE: Herodotus, The Histories[42], First historical reference clearly denoting a wider region than biblical Philistia, referring to a "district of Syria, called Palaistinê"[43][10][44] (Book 3[45]): "The country reaching from the city of Posideium to the borders of Egypt... paid a tribute of three hundred and fifty talents. All Phoenicia, Palestine Syria, and Cyprus, were herein contained. This was the fifth satrapy.";[c] (Book 4): "the region I am describing skirts our sea, stretching from Phoenicia along the coast of Palestine-Syria till it comes to Egypt, where it terminates"; (Book 7[46]): "[The Phoenicians and the Syrians of Palestine], according to their own account, dwelt anciently upon the Erythraean Sea, but crossing thence, fixed themselves on the seacoast of Syria, where they still inhabit. This part of Syria, and all the region extending from hence to Egypt, is known by the name of Palestine." One important reference refers to the practice of male circumcision associated with the Hebrew people: "the Colchians, the Egyptians, and the Ethiopians, are the only nations who have practised circumcision from the earliest times. The Phoenicians and the Syrians of Palestine themselves confess that they learnt the custom of the Egyptians.... Now these are the only nations who use circumcision"[47]
  • c.340 BCE: Aristotle, Meteorology, "Again if, as is fabled, there is a lake in Palestine, such that if you bind a man or beast and throw it in it floats and does not sink, this would bear out what we have said. They say that this lake is so bitter and salt that no fish live in it and that if you soak clothes in it and shake them it cleans them." This is understood by scholars to be a reference to the Dead Sea[16][19][17][18]

Hellenic kingdoms (Ptolemaic/Seleucid/Hasmonean) period[edit]

Roman Jerusalem period[edit]

Palestine in c.43 CE according to Pomponius Mela (map by K. Miller, 1898)
  • c.30 BCE: Tibullus, Tibullus and Sulpicia: The Poems: "Why tell how the white dove sacred to the Syrians flies unharmed through the crowded cities of Palestine?"[57][58]
  • c.2 CE: Ovid, Ars Amatoria: "the seventh-day feast that the Syrian of Palestine observes"[59][60]
  • c.8 CE: Ovid, Metamorphoses: (1) "...Dercetis of Babylon, who, as the Palestinians believe, changed to a fish, all covered with scales, and swims in a pool"[61] and (2) "There fell also Mendesian Celadon; Astreus, too, whose mother was a Palestinian, and his father unknown"[62][60]
  • c.17 CE: Ovid, Fasti (poem): "When Jupiter took up arms to defend the heavens, came to Euphrates with the little Cupid, and sat by the brink of the waters of Palestine."[63][60]
  • c.40: Philo of Alexandria, (1) Every Good Man is Free: "Moreover Palestine and Syria too are not barren of exemplary wisdom and virtue, which countries no slight portion of that most populous nation of the Jews inhabits. There is a portion of those people called Essenes.";[64] (2) On the Life of Moses: "[Moses] conducted his people as a colony into Phoenicia, and into the Coele-Syria, and Palestine, which was at that time called the land of the Canaanites, the borders of which country were three days' journey distant from Egypt.";[65][66] (3) On Abraham: "The country of the Sodomites was a district of the land of Canaan, which the Syrians afterwards called Palestine"[67][19]
  • c.43: Pomponius Mela, De situ orbis (Description of the World): Syria holds a broad expanse of the littoral, as well as lands that extend rather broadly into the interior, and it is designated by different names in different places. For example, it is called Coele, Mesopotamia, Judaea, Commagene, and Sophene. It is Palestine at the point where Syria abuts the Arabs, then Phoenicia, and then—where it reaches Cilicia—Antiochia. [...] In Palestine, however, is Gaza, a mighty and well fortified city.[68][69][19]
  • c.78: Pliny the Elder, Natural History, Volume 1, Book V: Chapter 13: "Next to these countries Syria occupies the coast, once the greatest of lands, and distinguished by many names; for the part which joins up to Arabia was formerly called Palaestina, Judaea, Coele,[a] and Phoenice. The country in the interior was called Damascena, and that further on and more to the south, Babylonia."; Chapter 14: "After this, at the point where the Serbonian Bog becomes visible, Idumea and Palaestina begin. This lake, which some writers have made to be 150 miles in circumference, Herodotus has placed at the foot of Mount Casius; it is now an inconsiderable fen. The towns are Rhinocorura and, in the interior, Rafah, Gaza, and, still more inland, Anthedon: there is also Mount Argaris";[70] Book XII, Chapter 40: "For these branches of commerce, they have opened the city of Carræ, which serves as an entrepot, and from which place they were formerly in the habit of proceeding to Gabba, at a distance of twenty days' journey, and thence to Palæstina, in Syria"[71][19]
  • c.80: Marcus Valerius Probus, Commentary on Georgics: "Edomite palms from Idumea, that is Judea, which is in the region of Syria Palestine".[72]
  • c. 85: Silius Italicus, Punica: "While yet a youth, he [Titus] shall put an end to war with the fierce people of Palestine."[73][74]
  • c. 90: Dio Chrysostom, quoted by Synesius, refers to the Dead Sea as being in the interior of Palestine, in the very vicinity of "Sodoma"[75]
  • c.97: Josephus, Against Apion: "Nor, indeed, was Herodotus of Halicarnassus unaquainted with our nation, but mentions it after a way of his own... This, therefore, is what Herodotus says, that "the Syrians that are in Palestine are circumcised". But there are no inhabitants of Palestine that are circumcised excepting the Jews; and, therefore, it must be his knowledge of them that enabled him to speak so much concerning them."[76][19]
  • c.94: Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews: "...these Antiquities contain what hath been delivered down to us from the original creation of man, until the twelfth year of the reign of Nero, as to what hath befallen us Jews, as well is Egypt as in Syria, and in Palestine"[77][19]
  • c.100: Statius, Silvae, refers to "liquores Palestini"[21][60] and "Isis, ...gently with thine own hand lead the peerless youth, on whom the Latian prince hath bestowed the standards of the East and the bridling of the cohorts of Palestine, (i.e., a command on the Syrian front) through festal gate and sacred haven and the cities of thy land."[78][79]
  • c.100: Plutarch, Parallel Lives:"Armenia, where Tigranes reigns, king of kings, and holds in his hands a power that has enabled him to keep the Parthians in narrow bounds, to remove Greek cities bodily into Media, to conquer Syria and Palestine, to put to death the kings of the royal line of Seleucus, and carry away their wives and daughters by violence."[80]
  • c.130: Pausanias (geographer), Description of Greece: (1) "Hard by is a sanctuary of the Heavenly Aphrodite; the first men to establish her cult were the Assyrians, after the Assyrians the Paphians of Cyprus and the Phoenicians who live at Ascalon in Palestine; the Phoenicians taught her worship to the people of Cythera.";[81] (2) "In front of the sanctuary grow palm-trees, the fruit of which, though not wholly edible like the dates of Palestine, yet are riper than those of Ionia.";[82] and (3) "[a Hebrew Sibyl] brought up in Palestine named Sabbe, whose father was Berosus and her mother Erymanthe. Some say she was a Babylonian, while others call her an Egyptian Sibyl."[83][84]

Roman Aelia Capitolina period[edit]

Palestine in c.150 CE according to Ptolemy (map by Claude Reignier Conder of the Palestine Exploration Fund)
  • c.135: Syria Palæstina[b] was a Roman province between 135 and about 390.[85] It was established by the merge of Roman Syria and Roman Judaea, following the defeat of the Bar Kokhba Revolt.
  • c.150: Appian, Roman History: "Intending to write the history of the Romans, I have deemed it necessary to begin with the boundaries of the nations under their sway.... Here turning our course and passing round, we take in Palestine-Syria, and beyond it a part of Arabia. The Phoenicians hold the country next to Palestine on the sea, and beyond the Phoenician territory are Coele-Syria, and the parts stretching from the sea as far inland as the river Euphrates, namely Palmyra and the sandy country round about, extending even to the Euphrates itself"[86]
  • c.150: Lucian of Samosata, Passing of Peregrinus: 11. "It was then that he learned the wondrous lore of the Christians, by associating with their priests and scribes in Palestine. And—how else could it be?—in a trice he made them all look like children, for he was prophet, cult-leader, head of the synagogue, and everything, all by himself. He interpreted and explained some of their books and even composed many, and they revered him as a god, made use of him as a lawgiver, and set him down as a protector, next after that other, to be sure, whom they still worship, the man who was crucified in Palestine because he introduced this new cult into the world.[87][88]
  • c.150: Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri:[c] "Tyre then was captured, in the archonship at Athens of Anicetus in the month I lecatombacun...Alexander now determined to make his expedition to Egypt. The rest of Syrian Palestine (as it is called) had already come over to him, but a certain eunuch, Batis, who was master of Gaza, did not join Alexander"[89]
  • c.150: Ptolemy, Geography (Ptolemy), including map[90]
  • 155: First Apology of Justin Martyr, refers to "Flavia Neapolis in Palestine" in the introductory paragraph
  • c.225: Cassius Dio, Historia Romana, The Destruction of Jerusalem by Titus in 70CE: "Such was the course of these events; and following them Vespasian was declared emperor by the senate also, and Titus and Domitian were given the title of Caesars. The consular office was assumed by Vespasian and Titus while the former was in Egypt and the latter in Palestine"[91]
  • c.300: Antonine Itinerary[92][93]
  • 311: Bishop Eusebius of Caesarea, History of the Martyrs in Palestine. As the "Father of Church History", Eusebius' use of the name Palestine influenced later generations of Christian writers[94][95]

Late Antiquity period[edit]

Late Roman Empire (Byzantine) period[edit]

Tabula Peutingeriana of c.400 CE showing a section of Palestine (Copy by Conradi Milleri 1888)
Notitia Dignitatum of c.410 CE showing Dux Palestinae[96]
Madaba map extract showing "οροι Αιγυπτου και Παλαιστινης" (the "border of Egypt and Palestine)
Undated Classical inscription from Constantinople, published by George Dousa in 1599, mentioning "Syriae Palaisteinae"[97]
  • c.362: Julian, Against the Galilaeans: "Why were you so ungrateful to our gods as to desert them for the Jews?" Was it because the gods granted the sovereign power to Rome, permitting the Jews to be free for a short time only, and then forever to be enslaved and aliens? Look at Abraham: was he not an alien in a strange land? And Jacob: was he not a slave, first in Syria, then after that in Palestine, and in his old age in Egypt? Does not Moses say that he led them forth from the house of bondage out of Egypt "with a stretched out arm"?[98] And after their sojourn in Palestine did they not change their fortunes more frequently than observers say the chameleon changes its colour, now subject to the judges,[99] now enslaved to foreign races?[100]
  • c.380: Ammianus Marcellinus, "Book XIV", The Roman History of Ammianus Marcellinus: Book XIV, 8, 11. "The last province of the Syrias is Palestine, a district of great extent, abounding in well-cultivated and beautiful land, and having several magnificent cities, all of equal importance, and rivalling one another as it were, in parallel lines. For instance, Caesarea, which Herod built in honour of the Prince Octavianus, and Eleutheropolis, and Neapolis, and also Ascalon, and Gaza, cities built in bygone ages."[101][97][102]
  • c.384: Saint Jerome, Epistle 33: "He (Origen) stands condemned by his bishop, Demetrius, only the bishops of Palestine, Arabia, Phenicia, and Achaia dissenting"[21][103][60]
  • c.390: Palaestina was organised into three administrative units: Palaestina Prima, Secunda, and Tertia (First, Second, and Third Palestine), part of the Diocese of the East.[104][105] Palaestina Prima consisted of Judea, Samaria, the Paralia, and Peraea with the governor residing in Caesarea. Palaestina Secunda consisted of the Galilee, the lower Jezreel Valley, the regions east of Galilee, and the western part of the former Decapolis with the seat of government at Scythopolis. Palaestina Tertia included the Negev, southern Jordan—once part of Arabia—and most of Sinai with Petra as the usual residence of the governor. Palestina Tertia was also known as Palaestina Salutaris.[106] Recorded in the:
  • c. 400: Genesis Rabba, Jewish midrash, explains that the word "land" in Genesis 41:54 refers to three lands in the region - Phoenicia, Arabia and Palestine.(ויהי רעב בכל הארצות: בשלש ארצות בפנקיא ובערביא ובפלסטיני)[109][60]
  • c. 400: Lamentations Rabbah, Jewish midrash, mentions the dukes of Arabia, Phoenicia, Palestine and Alexandria as joining forces with Roman Emperor Vespasian. (שלש שנים ומחצה הקיף אספסיאנוס את ירושלם והיו עמו ארבעה דוכסין, דוכס דערביא, דוכס דאפריקא, דוכוס דאלכסנדריא, דוכוס דפלסטיני)[60]
  • c. 400: Cursus publicus, Tabula Peutingeriana: map: Roman road network, map index.
  • c.411: Jerome, Hieronymus on Ezekiel:[110] iuda et terra israel ipsi institores tui in frumento primo; balsamum et mel et oleum et resinam proposuerunt in nundinis tuis. (lxx: iudas et filii israel isti negotiatores tui in frumenti commercio et unguentis; primum mel et oleum et resinam dederunt in nundinis tuis). uerbum hebraicum 'phanag' aquila, symmachus et theodotio ita ut apud hebraeos positum est transtulerunt, pro quo septuaginta 'unguenta', nos 'balsamum' uertimus. dicitur autem quibus terra iudaea, quae nunc appellatur palaestina, abundet copiis frumento, balsamo, melle et oleo et resina, quae a iuda et israel ad tyri nundinas deferuntur.[111]
  • c.414: Jerome, Letter 129: Ad Dardanum de Terra promissionis: You may delineate the Promised Land of Moses from the Book of Numbers (ch. 34): as bounded on the south by the desert tract called Sina, between the Dead Sea and the city of Kadesh-barnea, [which is located with the Arabah to the east] and continues to the west, as far as the river of Egypt, that discharges into the open sea near the city of Rhinocolara; as bounded on the west by the sea along the coasts of Palestine, Phoenicia, Coele‑Syria, and Cilicia; as bounded on the north by the circle formed by the Taurus Mountains and Zephyrium and extending to Hamath, called Epiphany‑Syria; as bounded on the east by the city of Antioch Hippos and Lake Kinneret, now called Tiberias, and then the Jordan River which discharges into the salt sea, now called the Dead Sea.[112][113]
  • c.430: Theodoret, Interpretatio in Psalmos (Theodoretus in notāre ad Psalmos):[114] PSALMS. CXXXIII. A Song of the Ascents, by David. Lo, how good and how pleasant The dwelling of brethren —even together! As the good oil on the head, Coming down on the beard, the beard of Aaron, That cometh down on the skirt of his robes, As dew of Hermon —That cometh down on hills of Zion, For there Jehovah commanded the blessing —Life unto the age![115] [Per Psalm 133 (132), Theodoretus Cyrrhi Episcopus wrote the following commentary;] Like dew of Hermon falling on Mount Sion (v. 3). Again he changed to another image, teaching the advantage of harmony; he said it is like the dew carried down from Hermon to Sion. There is so much of it that the jars release drops. Hermon is a mountain —in Palestine, in fact— and some distance from the land of Israel.[116]
  • c.450: Theodoret, Ecclesiastical History: "The see of Caesarea, the capital of Palestine, was now held by Acacius, who had succeeded Eusebius."[117]
  • c.450: Proclus of Constantinople: "Iosuae Palaestinae exploratori cohibendi solis lunaeque cursum potestatem adtribuit"[118]
  • c.500: Tabula Peutingeriana (map)
  • c.500: Zosimus, New History: "Finding the Palmyrene army drawn up before Emisa, amounting to seventy thousand men, consisting of Palmyrenes and their allies, [Emperor Aurelian] opposed to them the Dalmatian cavalry, the Moesians and Pannonians, and the Celtic legions of Noricum and Rhaetia, and besides these the choicest of the imperial regiment selected man by man, the Mauritanian horse, the Tyaneans, the Mesopotamians, the Syrians, the Phoenicians, and the Palestinians, all men of acknowledged valour; the Palestinians besides other arms wielding clubs and staves."[119]
  • c.550: Madaba map, "οροι Αιγυπτου και Παλαιστινης" (the "border of Egypt and Palestine)
  • c.550: Christian Topography
  • 555: Cyril of Scythopolis, The Life of St. Saba[120]
  • c.560: Procopius, The Wars of Justinian: "The boundaries of Palestine extend toward the east to the sea which is called the Red Sea."[121] Procopius also wrote that "Chosroes, king of Persia, had a great desire to make himself master of Palestine, on account of its extraordinary fertility, its opulence, and the great number of its inhabitants"[122][123]

Middle Ages[edit]

Rashidun, Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates period[edit]

Reconstruction of the c.700 CE Ravenna Cosmography showing "Palaestina"
  • 629: Heraclius, In 629 Heraclius restored the True Cross to Jerusalem in a majestic ceremony:[124][125] I.e. the so-called Fast of Heraclius, which immediately preceding Lent, forms the first week of the Great Fast. The origin of this fast is said to be as follows: that the emperor Heraclius, on his way to Jerusalem, promised his protection to the Jews of Palestine, but that on his arrival in the holy city, the schismatical patriarch and the Christians generally prayed him to put all the Jews to the sword, because they had joined the Persians shortly before in their sack of the city and cruelties towards the Christians. (Abu Salih the Armenian, Abu al-Makarim, ed. Evetts 1895, p. 39, Part 7 of Anecdota Oxoniensia: Semitic series Anecdota oxoniensia. Semitic series—pt. VII], at Google Books)
  • c.670: Adomnán, De Locis Sanctis, or the Travels of Arculf: "Que utique Hebron, ut fertur, ante omnes, non solum Palestíne, civitates condita fuerat, sed etiam universas Egyptiacas urbes in sua precessit conditione, que nunc misere monstratur destructa."[126] translated: "This Hebron, it is said, was founded before all the cities, not only of Palestine, but also preceded in its foundation all the cities of Egypt, although it has now been so miserably destroyed."[127][128]
  • c.700: Ravenna Cosmography
  • c.770: Thawr ibn Yazid, hadith, as quoted in Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Wasiti's Fada'il Bayt al-Muqaddas (c.1019): "The most holy spot [al-quds] on earth is Syria; the most holy spot in Syria is Palestine; the most holy spot in Palestine is Jerusalem [Bayt al-maqdis]; the most holy spot in Jerusalem is the Mountain; the most holy spot in Jerusalem is the place of worship [al-masjid], and the most holy spot in the place of worship is the Dome."[129][130]
  • c.770: Hygeburg, The Life of Willibald: "Then, having visited the church of St. George at Diospolis [he passed] through Joppe, a coast town of Palestine, where Peter raised to life the widow Dorcas, and went along the shore of the Adriatic Sea, and adored the footsteps of our Lord at Tyre and Sidon. And then, crossing Mount Libanus, and passing through the coast town of Tripoli, he visited Damascus again, and came to Emmaus, a village of Palestine, which the Romans after the destruction of Jerusalem called, after the event of the victory, Nicopolis."[131][132]
  • 810-815: Theophanes the Confessor, Chronicles:[133][134] Since Muhammad was a helpless orphan, he thought it good to go to a rich woman named Khadija ...to manage her camels and conduct her business in Egypt and Palestine... When he [Muhammad] went to Palestine he lived with both Jews and Christians, and hunted for certain writings among them. (Theophanes 1982, p. 35, The Chronicle of Theophanes)
  • c.870: Ibn Khordadbeh, Book of Roads and Kingdoms: "Filastin Province 500,000 dinars of taxes" (c.864 AD)[135][136]
  • c.870: al-Baladhuri, Conquests of the Lands Wrote that the main towns of the district, following its conquest by the Rashidun Caliphate, were Gaza, Sebastia (Sebastiya), Nablus, Caesarea, Ludd, Yibna, Imwas, Jaffa, Rafah, and Bayt Jibrin.[135]
  • c.880: Qudamah ibn Ja'far, Kitab Al Kharaj (The Book of the Land Tax): Filastin Province, 195,000 dinars (c.820 AD)
  • 891: Ya'qubi, Book of Lands: "Of the Jund Filastin, the ancient capital was Lydda. The Caliph Sulayman subsequently founded the city of Ramla, which he made the capital.... The population of Palestine consists of Arabs of the tribes of Lakhm, Judham, Amilah, Kindah, Kais and Kinanah"[135][136]
  • c.900: Limits of the Five Patriarchates: "The first See and the first patriarchate is of Jerusalem, James, the brother of God and apostle and eyewitness, and minister of the word and secrets of secrets and hidden mysteries, contains the whole Palestine a country until Arabia." (Πρῶτος θρόνος καὶ πρώτη πατριαρχία Ἱεροσολύμων, Ἱακώβου τοῦ ἀδελφοθέου καὶ ἀποστόλου, αὐτόπτου καί ὑπηρέτου τοῦ λόγου γενομένου καὶ μύστου τῶν ἀπορρήτων καὶ ἀθεάτων αὐτοῦ μυστηρίων θεαμάτων, περιέχων πᾶσαν τὴν Παλαιστίνων χώραν ἄχρι Ἀραβίας)
  • 903: Ibn al-Faqih, Concise Book of Lands[135][137]
  • c.913: Ibn Abd Rabbih[135][137]
  • c.930: Patriarch Eutychius of Alexandria, Eutychii Annales:[138][139][140] CHAPTER II: ADVERSITIES OF THE CHURCH.: 1 Persecutions of the Christians.: ...The Christians suffered less in this than in the preceding centuries. ...In the East especially in Syria and Palestine the Jews sometimes rose upon the Christians with great violence (Eutyrhius, Annales tom ii., p. 236, &c. Jo. Henr. Hottinger, Historia Orientalis, lib. i., c. id., p. 129, &c.) yet so unsuccessfully as to suffer severely for their temerity. (Mosheim 1847, p. 426, at Google Books)
  • 943: Al-Masudi, The Meadows of Gold[135][141]

Fatimid Caliphate period[edit]

World map c.1050 CE by Beatus of Liébana
  • 951-978: Estakhri, Traditions of Countries and Ibn Hawqal, The Face of the Earth: "The provinces of Syria are Jund Filstin, and Jund al Urdunn, Jund Dimaskh, Jund Hims, and Jund Kinnasrin.... Filastin is the westernmost of the provinces of Syria... its greatest length from Rafah to the boundary of Lajjun... its breadth from Jaffa to Jericho.... Filastin is the most fertile of the Syrian provinces.... Its trees and its ploughed lands do not need artificial irrigation... In the province of Filastin, despite its small extent, there are about 20 mosques.... Its capital and largest town in Ramla, but the Holy City (of Jerusalem) comes very near this last in size"[135][137]
  • 985: Al-Muqaddasi, Description of Syria, Including Palestine: "And further, know that within the province of Palestine may be found gathered together 36 products that are not found thus united in any other land.... From Palestine comes olives, dried figs, raisins, the carob-fruit, stuffs of mixed silk and cotton, soap and kercheifs"[142]
  • c.1000: Suda encyclopedic lexicon: "Παλαιστίνη: ὄνομα χώρας. καὶ Παλαιστι̂νος, ὁ ἀπὸ Παλαιστίνης." / "Palestine: Name of a territory. Also [sc. attested is] Palestinian, a man from Palestine.[143]
  • 1029: Rabbi Solomon ben Judah of Jerusalem, a letter in the Cairo Geniza, refers to the province of Filastin[144]
  • 1047: Nasir Khusraw, Safarnama[135] / Diary of a Journey through Syria and Palestine: "This city of Ramlah, throughout Syria and the West, is known under the name of Filastin."[145][146]
  • c.1050: Beatus of Liébana, Beatus map, Illustrates the primitive Diaspora of the Apostles and is one of the most significant cartographic works of the European High Middle Ages.
  • 1051: Ibn Butlan[135]

Crusaders period[edit]

Tabula Rogeriana, showing "Filistin" in Arabic in the middle of the right hand page
  • 1101 Nathan ben Jehiel, Arukh: The Lexico Aruch is a talmudical lexicon authored by Rabbi Nathan ben Jehiel, of Rome. The occurrence of  פלסטיני Παλαιστίνη [Palestine] in the Genesis Rabbah is noted.[147]
  • 1100-27: Fulcher of Chartres, Historia Hierosolymitana (1095-1127): "For we who were Occidentals have now become Orientals. He who was a Roman or a Frank has in this land been made into a Galilean or a Palestinian."[148]
  • c.1130, Fetellus, "The city of Jerusalem is situated in the hill-country of Judea, in the province of Palestine" [149]
  • 1154: Muhammad al-Idrisi, Tabula Rogeriana or The Book of Pleasant Journeys into Faraway Lands[135][150]
  • 1173: Ali of Herat, Book of Indications to Make Known the Places of Visitations[135]
  • 1177: A Brief Description, by Joannes Phocas, of the Castles and Cities, from the City of Antioch even unto Jerusalem; also of Syria and Phoenicia, and of the Holy Places in Palestine[151][152]
  • c.1180: William of Tyre, Historia Hierosolymitana[153]
  • 1185: Ibn Jubayr, The Travels of Ibn Jubayr[135]

Ayyubid and Mamluk periods[edit]

Palestina on the Fra Mauro map, 1459
Map of Palestine published in 1482 version of Claudius Ptolemy's Cosmographia by Nicolaus Germanus.
Map of Palestine published in Florence 1482 and included in the Francesco Berlinghieri expanded edition of Ptolemy’s Geographia (Geography)
  • 1220: Jacques de Vitry, History of Jerusalem: "And there are three Palestines, which are parts of Greater Syria. The first is that whose capital is Jerusalem, and this part is specially named Judaea. The second is that whose capital is Caesarea Philippi, which includes all the country of the Philistines. The third is that whose capital is Scythopolis, which at this day is called Bethshan. Moreover, both the Arabias are parts of Syria: the first is that whose capital is Bostrum; the second is that whose capital is Petra in the Wilderness."[154]
  • 1225: Yaqut al-Hamawi, Dictionary of Geographies "Filastin is the last of the provinces of Syria towards Egypt. Its capital is Jerusalem. Of the principal towns are Ashkelon, Ramle, Gaza, Arsuf, Caesarea, Nablus, Jericho, Amman, Jaffa and Beit Jibrin"[135]
  • c. 1266 Abu al-Makarim, "The Churches and Monasteries of Egypt", Part 7 of Anecdota Oxoniensia: Semitic series Anecdota oxoniensia:[155] At the beginning of the caliphate [of Umar] George was appointed patriarch of Alexandria. He remained four years in possession of the see. Then when he heard that the Muslims had conquered the Romans, and had vanquished Palestine, and were advancing upon Egypt, he took ship and fled from Alexandria to Constantinople; and after his time the see of Alexandria remained without a Melkite patriarch for-ninety seven years. (Abu al-Makarim c. 1895, p. 73, at Google Books)
  • 1321: Abu'l-Fida, A Sketch of the Countries: "The Nahr Abi Futrus is the river that runs near Ramla in Filastin"[135]
  • 1322: Ishtori Haparchi, Sefer Kaftor Vaferach, mentions twice that Ramla is also known as Filastin
  • 1327: Al-Dimashqi[135][156]
  • 1338 Robert Mannyng The Chronicle
  • c.1350: Guidebook to Palestine (a manuscript primarily based on the 1285-1291 account of Christian pilgrim Philippus Brusserius Savonensis): "It [Jerusalem] is built on a high mountain, with hills on every side, in that part of Syria which is called Judaea and Palestine, flowing with milk and honey, abounding in corn, wine, and oil, and all temporal goods"[157]
  • 1351: Jamal ad Din Ahmad, Muthir al Ghiram (The Exciter of Desire) for Visitation of the Holy City and Syria: "Syria is divided into five districts, namely: i. Filastin, whose capital is Aelia (Jerusalem), eighteen miles from Ramla, which is the Holy City, the metropolis of David and Solomon. Of its towns are Ashkelon, Hebron, Sebastia, and Nablus."[135]
  • 1355: Ibn Battuta, Rihla[135] Ibn Battuta wrote that Ramla was also known as Filastin[158]
  • 1355: Jacopo da Verona: Liber Peregrinationis: "Primo igitur sciendum est. quod in tota Asyria et Palestina et Egipto et Terra Sancta sunt multi cristiani sub potentia soldani subjugati solventes annuale tributum soldano multa et multa milia."[159][160]
  • 1377: Ibn Khaldun, Muqaddimah: "Filastin Province taxes - 310,000 dinars plus 300,000 ratls of olive oil"[135]
  • c.1421: John Poloner "The land which we call the Holy Land came to be divided by lot among the twelve tribes of Israel, and with regard to one part was called the kingdom of Judaea ... with regard to the other part it was called the kingdom of Samaria... Both these kingdoms, together with the land of Philistim, were called Palestine, which was but a part thereof, even as Saxony and Lorraine are parts of Germany, and Lombardy and Tuscany are parts of Italy. And note that there are three Palestines. In the first, the capital city is Jerusalem, with all its hill country even to the Dead Sea and the wilderness of Kadesh Barnea. The second, whose capital city is Caesarea by the sea, with all the land of Philistim' beginning at Petra Incisa, and reaching as far as Gaza, was the Holy Land toward the south. The third is the capital city of Bethsan, at the foot of Mount Gilboa. This was once called Scythopolis, and is the place where the corpses of Saul's soldiers were hung up. This Palestine is properly called Galilee"[161]
  • 1430: Abu-l Fida Ishak, Muthir al Ghiram (The Exciter of Desire)[135]
  • 1459: Fra Mauro map
  • 1470: Al-Suyuti[135]
  • 1480: Felix Fabri "Joppa is the oldest port, and the most ancient city of the province of Palestine"[162]
  • 1482: Francesco di Niccolò Berlinghieri, Geographia, a treatise based upon Ptolemy's Geographica: map: Present-Day Palestine and the Holy Land
  • 1492: Martin Behaim's "Erdapfel" globe
  • 1496: Mujir al-Din al-'Ulaymi, The Glorious History of Jerusalem and Hebron:[135] According to Haim Gerber: "Among other things Mujir al-Din’s book is notable for its extensive use of the term "Palestine." The simple fact is that Mujir al-Din calls the country he lives in Palestine (Filastin), a term he repeats 22 times. One other name he uses for the country is the Holy Land, used as frequently as Palestine. No other names, such as Southern Syria, are ever mentioned... What area did he have in mind when speaking about Palestine? It stretched from Anaj, a point near al-Arish, to Lajjun, south of the Esdraelon valley. It was thus clearly equivalent to the Jund Filastin of classical Islam."[163]

Early modern period[edit]

Early Ottoman period[edit]

1570 map in Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, captioned "Palaestinae Sive Totius Terrae Promissionis Nova Descriptio" ("Palestine, the whole of the Promised Land, a new description")

1650

Map of Syrie Moderne (1683) from Description De l'Universe by Alain Manesson Mallet
  • c.1670: Khayr al-Din al-Ramli, al-Fatawa al-Khayriyah: According to Haim Gerber "on several occasions Khayr al-Din al-Ramli calls the country he was living in Palestine, and unquestionably assumes that his readers do likewise. What is even more remarkable is his use of the term "the country" and even "our country" (biladuna), possibly meaning that he had in mind some sort of a loose community focused around that term."[193] Gerber describes this as "embryonic territorial awareness, though the reference is to social awareness rather than to a political one."[165]
  • c.1670: Salih b. Ahmad al-Timurtashi, The Complete Knowledge of the Limits of the Holy Land and Palestine and Syria (Sham).[194]
  • 1677: Olfert Dapper, Precise Description of whole Syria, and Palestine or Holy Land, 'Naukeurige Beschrijving van Gantsch Syrie en Palestijn of Heilige Lant'[195]
  • 1681: Olfert Dapper, Asia, oder genaue und gründliche Beschreibung des ganzen Syrien und Palestins, oder Gelobten Landes (Asia, or accurate and thorough description of all Syria and Palestine, or the promised land. (German text; Amsterdam 1681 & Nürnberg 1688)): Gewisse und Gründliche Beschreibung des Gelobten Landes / sonsten Palestina geheissen (Certain and thorough description of the Promised Land / otherwise called Palestine)[196]
  • c.1682: Zucker Holy Land Travel Manuscript: Antiochia die vornehmste und hauptstadt des ganzen Syrien (und auch Palestinia) [Antioch the capital and chief of the whole Syria (and Palestine)]. (p. 67 Calesyria[197])
  • 1683: Alain Manesson Mallet, Description De l'Univers:[198] map: Syrie Moderne at Archive.org.
  • 1688: John Milner, A Collection of the Church-history of Palestine:[199] Hitherto of Places, now follows an account of the Persons concerned in the Church-History of Palestine. (Milner 1688, p. 19, at Google Books)
  • 1688: Edmund Bohun, A Geographical Dictionary, Representing the Present and Ancient Names of All the Countries:[200] Jerusalem, Hierosolyma, the Capital City of Palestine, and for a long time of the whole Earth; taken notice of by Pliny, Strabo, and many of the Ancients. (Bohun 1688, p. 353, at Google Books)
  • 1693: Patrick Gordon (Ma FRS), Geography Anatomiz'd:[201][202] Palestine, or Judea, Name.] This Country ...is term'd by the Italians and Spaniards, Palestina; by the French, Palestine; by the Germans Palestinen, or das Gelobte Land; by the English, Palestine, or the Holy Land. (Gordon 1704, p. 290, at Google Books)
  • 1704: Martin Baumgarten, Travels through Egypt, Arabia, Palestine, and Syria, 'A Collection of Voyages and Travels: Some Now First Printed from Original Manuscripts': Gaza, or Gazera, was once a great and strong City, and one of the five principal ones in Palestine, and was call'd so by the Persians.[203]
  • 1709: Matthäus Seutter, map: Deserta Aegypti, Thebaidis, Arabiae, Syriae etc. ubi accurata notata sunt loca inhabitata per Sanctos Patres Anachoretas at The Library of Congress
  • 1714: Adriaan Reland, Hadriani Relandi Palaestina ex monumentis veteribus illustrata: CAPUT VII. DE NOMINE PALAESTINAE. [i.]Regio omnis quam Judaei incoluerunt nomen Palaestinae habuit. [ii.]Hebraeorum scriptores, Philo, Josephus, & alii hoc nomine usi. [iii.] פלסטיני in antiquissimis Judaeorum scriptis. (Chapter 7. Palestine. [i.]The country that the Jews inhabited was called Palestine. [ii.]The Hebrew Scriptures, Philo, Josephus, et al. who have used this name. [iii.] פלסטיני [Palestinian] in ancient Jewish writings.) [...] Chapter 8. Syria-Palaestina, Syria, and Coelesyria. Herodotus described Syria-Palaestina. The Palestinian southern boundary is lake Serbonian. Jenysus & Jerusalem are cities of Palestine, as is Ashdod and Ashkelon. Palestine is different from Phoenice.[204] map: Palaestina prima, on Google Books
  • 1717: Laurent d'Arvieux, Voyage dans la Palestine
  • 1718: Isaac de Beausobre, David Lenfant, Le Nouveau Testament de notre seigneur Jesus-Christ: On a déja eu occasion de parler des divers noms, que portoit autrefois la Terre d Israël, Ici nous désignerons sous le nom de Palestine qui est le plus commun. (We previously spoke of the various names for the Land of Israel, ...Now we will refer to the Land of Israel by the name of Palestine which is the most common)[205][206]
  • 1718: John Toland, Nazarenus: or Jewish, Gentile and Mahometan Christianity:[207] NOW if you'll suppose with me (till my proofs appear) this pre-eminence and immortality of the Mosaic Republic in its original purity, it will follow; that, as the Jews known at this day, and who are dispers'd over Europe, Asia, and Africa, with some few in America, are found by good calculation to be more numerous than either the Spaniards (for example) or the French: so if they ever happen to be resettl'd in Palestine upon their original foundation, which is not at all impossible; they will then, by reason of their excellent constitution, be much more populous, rich, and powerful than any other nation now in the world. I Wou'd have you consider, whether it be not both the interest and duty of Christians to assist them in regaining their country. But more of this when we meet. I am with as much respect as friendship (dear Sir) ever yours, [signed] J.T. [at] Hague 1719 (Toland 1718, p. 8 at Google Books).
  • 1720: Richard Cumberland, Sanchoniatho's Phoenician History: That the Philistines who were of Mizraim's family, were the first planters of Crete. ...I observe that in the Scripture language the Philistines are call'd Cerethites, Sam. xxx. 14, 16. Ezek. xxv. 16. Zeph. ii. 5. And in the two last of these places the Septuagint translates that word Cretes. The name signifies archers, men that in war were noted for skill in using bows and arrows. ...[I] believe that both the people and the religion, (which commonly go together) settled in Crete, came from these Philistines who are originally of Ægyptian race.[208]
  • 1730: Joshua Ottens, map: Persia (Iran, Iraq, Turkey)[209]
  • 1736: Herman Moll, map: Turkey in Asia[210]
  • 1738: D. Midwinter, A New Geographical Dictionary ... to which is now added the latitude and longitude of the most considerable cities and towns,&c., of the world: Jerusalem, Palestine, Asia - [Latitude 32 44 N] - [Longitude 35 15 E][211]
  • 1741: Jonas Korten, Jonas Kortens Reise nach dem weiland Gelobten nun aber seit 1700 Jahren unter dem Fluche ligenden Lande, wie auch nach Egypten, dem Berg Libanon, Syrien und Mesopotamien.[212]
  • 1743: Richard Pococke: Description of the East
  • 1744: Charles Thompson (fict. name.), The travels of the late Charles Thompson esq.: I shall henceforwards, without Regard to geographical Niceties and Criticisms, consider myself as in the Holy Land, Palestine or Judea; which Names I find used indifferently, though perhaps with some Impropriety, to signify the same Country.[213]
  • 1744: Johann Christoph Harenberg, La Palestine ou la Terre Sainte:[214] Map: Palaestina seu Terra olim tum duodecim tribubus distributa, tum a Davide et Salomone, et Terra Gosen at the National Library of Israel.
  • 1746: Modern History Or the Present State of All Nations: "Jerusalem is still reckoned the capital city of Palestine"[215]
  • 1747: The modern Gazetteer: "Palestine, a part of Asiatic Turkey, is situated between 36 and 38 degrees of E longitude and between 31 and 34 degress of N latitude, bounded by the Mount Libanus, which divides it from Syria, on the North, by Mount Hermon, which separates it from Arabia Deserta, on the East, by the mountains of Seir, and the deserts of Arabia Petraea, on the South, and by the Mediterranean Sea on the West, so that it seems to have been extremely well secured against foreign invasions."[216]

1750

Published 1720
Published 1736
Published 1794
18th century maps of Ottoman Syria identifying the region of Palestine
1801 map of Turkey in Asia by English Cartographer John Cary. With Syria and Palestine
Ottoman Syria in the 1803 Cedid Atlas, showing the term "ارض فلاستان" ("Land of Palestine") in large script on the bottom left
  • 1751: The London Magazine[217]
  • 1759: Johannes Aegidius van Egmont, John Heyman (of Leydon), Travels Through Part of Europe, Asia Minor, the Islands of the Archipelago, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Mount Sinai, &c. &c.:[218] The Jews of Jerusalem are divided into three sects, the Karaites, who adhere to the letter of the Scripture, without admitting any comments, or glosses; the Rabbinists, who receive for indubitable truths, all the comments and traditions so well known in the world, and are hence much more superstitious than the former; the third are the Askenites, who come from Germany, and are known among their brethren by the name of new converts; not being descended from the twelve tribes. [...] Besides these three sects, there is in the country of Palestine a fourth sort of Jews, but sworn enemies to the others, I mean the Samaritans; these have frequently endeavoured by the arts of bribery to obtain the privilege of living in Jerusalem, and in order to accomplish this design, have lavished away above five hundred purses. (Aegidius and Heyman 1759, p. 389 & p. 390 at Google Books)
  • 1763: Voltaire, The Works of M. de Voltaire: Additions to the essay on general history:[219] The same may be said of the prohibition of eating pork, blood, or the flesh of beasts dying of any disease; these are precepts of health. The flesh of swine in particular is a very unwholesome food in those hot countries, as well as in the Palestine, that lies in their neighbourhood. When the Mahometan religion spread itself into colder climates, this abstinence ceased to be reasonable; but nevertheless did not cease to be in force. (Voltaire, ed. Smollett and Francklin 1763, p. 42 at Google Books)
  • 1765: Christoph Schrader, Gebhardt Theodor Meier, Tabulae chronologicae a prima rerum origine et inde ad nostra tempora: 225 CE. Jews were allowed to live in Palestine.[220]
  • 1778: Denis Diderot, Encyclopédie, "Palestine".[221]
  • 1779: George Sale, Ancient Part of Universal History: "How Judæa came to be called also Phœnice, or Phœnicia, we have already shewn in the history of that nation. At present, the name of Palestine is that which has most prevailed among the Christian doctors, Mahommedan and other writers. (See Reland Palestin. illustrat.)"[222]
  • 1782: Johann Georg Meusel, Bibliotheca historica:[223]
Sectio I. Scriptores de Palaestina
I. Scriptores universales
A. Itineraria et Topographiae a testibus oculatis conditae. 70
B. Geographi Palaestinae recentiores, qui non ipsi terram istam perlustrarunt, sed ex itinerariis modo recensitis aliisque fontibus sua depromserunt. 94
II. Scriptores de Palaestina Speciales
A. Scriptores de aere folo et fetilitate Palaestinae. 110
[...]
E. Scriptores de variis argumentis aliis hue pertinentibus. 117
  • 1788: Constantine de Volney, Travels through Syria and Egypt, in the years 1783, 1784, and 1785:[224][225] Palestine abounds in sesamum from which oil is procured and doura as good as that of Egypt. ...Indigo grows without cultivating on the banks of the Jordan, in the country of Bisan. ...As for trees, the olive-tree of Provence grows at Antioch and Ramla, to the height of the beech. ...there were in the gardens of Yaffa, two plants of the Indian cotton-tree which grow rapidly, nor has this town lost its lemons, its enormous citrons, or its water melons. ...Gaza produces dates like Mecca, and pomegranates like Algiers.[226]
  • 1791: Giovanni Mariti, Travels Through Cyprus, Syria, and Palestine; with a General History of the Levant. Translated from the Italian:[227] OF THE HEBREWS. TWO kinds of Jews are found in Syria and Palestine; one of which are originally from these countries, and the other foreigners. A diversity of religious systems divides them, as well as all the other nations on the earth, who give too much importance to the spirit of theological dispute. They are distinguished into Talmudists, and Caraites, or enemies of the Talmud: and such is the inveterate hatred of the latter against the rest of their brethren, that they will not suffer them to be interred in the same burying-grounds, where all mankind in the like manner must moulder in-to dust.[228]
  • 1794: Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville, map: A New Map of Turkey in Asia[229]
  • 1799: Pierre Jacotin, Napoleon's director of surveyancing, begins work on the "Jacotin Map": The region is labelled "Palestine" in French and فلسطين أو أرض قدس ("Palestine or Holy Land") in Arabic[230]
  • 1801: Thomas Roberts (Toxophilite), The English Bowman, Or Tracts on Archery: "The Philistines, indeed, are frequently noticed in sacred history, as men very skilful in the use of the bow. And to this ancient people, who appear to have been a very warlike nation, the invention of the bow and arrow has been ascribed. Universal Hist. (anc. part) vol. 2. p. 220."[231]
  • 1803: Cedid Atlas, showing the term ارض فلاستان ("Land of Palestine")

Modern period[edit]

Late Ottoman period[edit]

Turkey in Asia. (By Frances Bowen. 1810)
Published 1839
Published 1862
Published 1895
19th century maps of Ottoman Syria identifying the region of Palestine
Lord Shaftesbury's "Memorandum to Protestant Monarchs of Europe for the restoration of the Jews to Palestine", published in the Colonial Times, in 1841
Palestine, by Salomon Munk, 1913 (First published 1845 in French)
Females of distinction in Palestine, and even in Mesopotamia, are not only beautiful and well-shaped, but, in consequence of being always kept from the rays of the sun, are very fair.[240]
  • 1819: Abraham Rees, Palestine & Syria, The Cyclopædia: Or, Universal Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Literature: Palestine, says Volney, is a district independent of every Pachalic. Sometimes it has governors of its own, who reside at Gaza under the title of Pachas; but it is usually, as at present, divided into three appanages, or Melkana, viz. Yafa, Loudd, and Gaza. The former belongs to the Walda or sultana mother. The captain Pacha has received the two others as a recompence for his services, and a reward for the head of Daher. He farms them to an aga, who resides at Ramla, and pays him two hundred and fifteen purses for them, viz. one hundred and eighty for Gaza and Ramla, and thirty-five for Loudd.[241] [...] The ground is tilled by asses or cows, rarely by oxen. In districts like Palestine, exposed to the Arabs, the countryman must sow with a musket in his hand. The corn before it changes colour, is reaped, but concealed in subterraneous caverns. The whole industry of the peasant is limited to a supply of his immediate wants; and to procure a little bread, a few onions, a wretched blue shirt, and a bit of woollen, much labour is not necessary.[242]
  • 1822: Conrad Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, Or, a Description of All the Parts of the World, on a New Plan: BOOK XXVII. TURKEY IN ASIA. PART II. Including Armenia Mesopotamia and Irac Arabi. The eastern provinces of the Turkish empire in Asia form three natural divisions: the region of Orontes and Libanus, or Syria and Palestine; that of the sources of the Euphrates and of the Tigris, or Armenia with Koordistan; finally, the region of Lower Euphrates, or Al-Djesira with Irac-Arabi, otherwise Mesopotamia, and Babylonia. We shall here connect the two divisions on the Euphrates, without confounding them. Syria will be described in a separate book.[243] [...] Population. It would be vain to expect a near approximation to the truth in any conjectures which we might indulge respecting the population of a state in which registers and a regular census are unknown. Some writers estimate that of European Turkey at twenty-two, while others have reduced it to eight millions (Bruns. Magas. Géograph. I. cah. 1. p. 68–74. compared with Ludeck's Authentic Account of the Ottoman Empire. Etton's View and de Tott's Memoirs.), and both assign equally plausible grounds for their opinions. Respecting Asiatic Turkey, the uncertainty, if not still greater, is at least more generally acknowledged. Supposing the houses to be as thinly scattered as in the less populous parts of Spain, the population of all Turkey, in Europe, Asia, and Africa, may amount to 25 or 30 millions, of which one half belongs to Asia. Under the want of any thing like positive evidence, we shall not deviate far from probability in allowing to Anatolia, five millions; to Armenia, two; to Koordistan, one; to the pashâlics of Bagdat, Mosul, and Diarbekir, one and a half; and to Syria 1,800,000, or at most two millions.[244]
  • 1822: James Silk Buckingham, Travels in Palestine, through the countries of Bashan and Gilead, east of the river Jordan: incl. a visit to the cities of Geraza and Gamala, in the Decapolis:[245] St. Jerome conceived it [Ramla] to be the Arimathea of the Scriptures; and Adrichomius, who entertained a similar opinion, traces its various names through all their changes, from Ramathaim and Ramah, as it is called in the Old Testament, to Ramatha or Armatha the seat of Samuel, as Josephus has it, and to the Arimathea of the New Testament, and the Ramla of the present day. The oriental geographers speak of this as the metropolis of Palestine, and every appearance of its ruins even now confirm the opinion of its having been once a considerable city. Its situation, as lying immediately in the high road from Jaffa to Jerusalem, made it necessarily a place of great resort; and from the fruitfulness of the country around it, it must have been equally important as a military station or a depôt for supplies, and as a magazine for the collection of such articles of commerce as were exported from the coast. (Buckingham 1822, p. 261 at Google Books)
  • 1822: Robert Richardson, Travels Along the Mediterranean and Parts Adjacent: In Company with the Earl of Belmore, During the Years 1816-17-18: The white Veil covering the head and face, and falling over the shoulders, is worn by all the females in Syria and Palestine, except the Jewesses. [...] I never saw any of them with veils; and was informed that it is the general practice of the Jewesses in Jerusalem to go with their faces uncovered; they are the only females there who do so. Generally speaking, I think they are disposed to be rather of a plethoric habit; and the admirers of size and softness in the fair sex, will find as regularly well-built fatties, with double mouldings in the neck and chin, among the fair daughters of Jerusalem, as among the fairer daughters of England.[246]
  • 1823: Charles Leonard Irby, James Mangles, Travels in Egypt and Nubia, Syria, and Asia Minor; During the Years 1817 and 1818: Our attention was the more attracted by this [Necropolis of Petra] monument, as it presents, perhaps, the only existing example of pyramids so applied, though we read of them as placed in a similar manner on the summit of the tomb of the Maccabees, and of the Queen of Adiabaene, both in the neighbouring province of Palestine.[247]
  • 1823: Ernst Friedrich Karl Rosenmüller, "Geographie von Palästina". Handbuch der biblischen Altertumskunde: Biblische Geographie[248][249]
  • 1824: Robert Watt, Syria, Bibliotheca Britannica; Or, A General Index to British and Foreign Literature:[250] SYRIA (S.), a province of Turkey, in Asia. ——HISTORY.
--DESCRIPTIONS. —1677. S. and Palestine. 284 z. —1783. The History of the Revolt of Ali Bey against the Ottoman Porte, including an Account of the Form of Government of Egypt; together with a Description of Grand Cairo, and of several celebrated places in Egypt, Palestine, and S. 623 v.
--GEOGRAPHY. —1532. S.æ, Palestinæ, Arabiæ, Ægypti, Schondiæ, Tabulæ Geographicæ. 992 x.
--TRAVELS. —1594. Peregrinatio in Egyptum, Arabiam, Palestinam, et S.m. 312 i. —1653. De Locis Antiochiam inter et Hierosolymam, necnon S.æ., et Phœniciæ, et Palestinæ, Gr. Lat. inter Leouis Allatii ???. 755 j. —1693. Journey through S., Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt; in German. 792 e. —1704. Travels through Egypt, Arabia, Palestine, and S. 815 l. —1791. Travels through Cyprus, S., and Palestine. 644 g.[251]
  • 1827: Brockhaus Enzyklopädie, Allgemeine deutsche Real-Encyklopädie für die gebildeten Stände: Palästina (Falesthin), wegen der, den Nachkommen Abraham's gegebenen Verheißung, das gelobte Land genannt, nimmt die syrische Küste am mittel länd, Meere vom Libanon südwärts bis an die Grenzen Ägyptens. (Palestine (DIN 31635: Falasṭīn), called the "Promised Land" from the promise given to the descendants of Abraham, extends from the midlands to the coast, from Syria and Lebanon southward to the borders of Egypt.)[252]
  • 1827: Philippe Vandermaelen, Atlas universel de geographie physique: map: Syrie et Palestine {Asie 63}, at Princeton gisserver
  • 1830: Josiah Conder, "Palestine". The Modern Traveller[253]
  • 1833: Heinrich Friedrich Pfannkuche: "In the writings of the Greeks and Romans, we need not look for indications of a very familiar acquaintance with the history and language of the Palestinian Jews, since they did not even vouchsafe their attention to the language and national writings of the more civilized nations of antiquity, such as the Carthaginians, Phoenicians, and Strabo, from whom we have quoted above the passages bearing upon our subject, is perhaps the only one who imparts this general information of the Syrians, (to whom the Palestinians also belonged,) that they and their neighbours spoke a cognate language, but he enters on no farther explanation as to the difference between their dialects"[254]
  • c.1834: Neophytos, monk of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre: "The conquest of Ptolemais was celebrated in Jerusalem with illuminations, dancing and music, in every street and place in the city… The Moslems alone could not hide their sorrow and sullenness (although they danced with the rest), because they had a presentment that Egypt would use its power against them. They felt they could not continue to act as they wished, and that hereafter Jerusalem and all of Palestine would be reformed."[255]
  • 1835: Karl Georg von Raumer, Palästina[256][257]
  • 1835: Heinrich Berghaus, Asia, Sammlung von Denkschriften in Beziehung auf die Geo- und Hydrographie dieses Erdtheils; zur Erklärung und Erläuterung seines Karten-Atlas zusammengetragen:[258] Map of Syria (No. 5 of Berghaus' Atlas of Asia): Karte von Syrien, den Manen Jacotin's und Burckhardt's gewidmet at the National Library of Israel.
  • 1837: Lord Lindsay, Letters on Egypt, Edom and the Holy Land: "...we bade adieu to Jerusalem... It was our intention, after exploring Palestine (properly so called), to cross the Jordan, and visit Jerash"[259]
  • 1838: Charles G. Addison, Damascus and Palmyra: a journey to the East: In the commencement of 1834, insurrections broke out in the mountains of Nablous, on Djebel Khalil, and in various parts of Palestine. Some of them, it is admitted, were promoted by the lawless and the disaffected to all settled government; others were fostered by the Sheikhs, who were discontented at their exactions from Christian pilgrims being put an end to, and many by the Bedouin Arabs and the mountaineers of Lebanon, who were discontented that the contributions they had been in the habit of imposing upon villages had been stopped.[260]
  • 1840: Ferdinand de Géramb, A pilgrimage to Palestine, Egypt and Syria: And, once more, that which most contributes to render Palestine a desert is the despotic government under which it groans, and the motto of which is destruction. It cannot be too often repeated —the Porte daily puts up this wretched country to auction : the pacha who offers most becomes its tyrant. Master of the life of the Arab as well as of his camel, of his horse as well as of his tent, he marks his passage by exactions alone. At sight of his satellites coming to levy the tribute, the population of whole villages abandon their ruined dwellings; and the poor oppressed inhabitants choose rather to die of want, in caverns of the rocks, than to expire under the bastinado of the soldier, who on his part, enraged at seeing his prey escape, revenges himself by cutting down the olive-tree of the fugitive whom he could not overtake.[261]
  • 1840: George Long, Palestine & Syria, The Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge: The modern history of Palestine is more conveniently included under SYRIA. The only portions of it which demand a separate notice have been treated of under Crusades. At present the country forms a part of Syria being included under the pashaliks of Damascus Akka and Tripoli and forming part of the viceroyalty of the pasha of Egypt.[262] [...] In the most usual application of the word, Syria was the district bounded by the range of Amanus on the north, by the Mediterranean on the west, by the Euphrates and the Arabian Desert on the east and south, and by the 'river of Egypt' probably the river (El-Arish) on the south-west. In a still narrower sense it sometimes denoted the same district, with the exception of Phoenicia and Palestine, (Ptol., v. 16.) Herodotus, in speaking of Palestine, includes it in Syria, as a subordinate division: he calls it 'the Palestine Syria' (???, ii. 106).[263]
  • 1840: John Kitto, The Pictorial History of Palestine and The Holy Land including a Complete History Of The Jews,
Vol. I. Biblical History.[264]
Vol. II. Biblical History, Continued. Natural History And Geography.[265]
  • 1841: John Kitto, Palestine: the Physical Geography and Natural History of the Holy Land, Illustrated with Woodcuts.[266][267]
  • 1841: Edward Robinson, Biblical researches in Palestine, mount Sinai and Arabia Petrea: The great body of Christians in Palestine are of the Greek church ; but they are all native Arabs, and employ only the Arabic language in their worship.[268]
  • 1841: Charles Henry Churchill in correspondence with Sir Moses Montefiore: "Were the resources which you all possess steadily directed towards the regeneration of Syria and Palestine, there cannot be a doubt but that, under the blessing of the Most High, [the European Powers] would amply repay the undertaking, and that you would end by obtaining the sovereignty of at least Palestine."
  • 1842: Adriano Balbi, System of universal geography, founded on the works of Malte-Burn and Balbi: Cities, Towns, &c., in Syria and Palestine. Santa Saba, 8 or 9 miles S.E. of Jerusalem, a monastery remarkable for its situation on a height, which rises precipitously several hundred feet from the deep valley of the brook Kedron. Beside it are numerous grottoes, which are said to have been inhabited by more than 10,000 monks at the epoch when St. Saba introduced the monastic life into Palestine. In continual danger from the wild Arabs, the convent appears like a fortress, with immensely strong and lofty towers.[269]
  • 1843: Alexander Keith, The Land of Israel, According to the Covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob: Palestine abounding in cultivated and flourishing regions, has several great cities which rival each other in their excellence, viz. Caesarea, Eleutheropolis, Neapolis, Askelon, and Gaza. The region beyond the Jordan, donominated Arabia, is rich in the variety of the merchandise of which it is full; it has besides other large towns the cities of Bostra, Gerasa, and Philadelphia, which the solidity of their walls renders most secure (Ammianus Marcellinus, lib. xiv. cap. viii.).[270] [...] In Palestine, sesamum abounds, from which they procure oil, and dourra (a kind of pulse) as good as that of Egypt. Maize thrives in the light soil of Baalbec; and even rice is cultivated with success on the borders of the marshy countries of Havula. They have lately begun to cultivate sugar-canes in the gardens of Saide and of Beyrout, equal to those of the Delta. Indigo grows without cultivation on the banks of the Jordan, in the country of Bisan, and needs but care to improve the quality. Tobacco is now cultivated throughout all the mountains. As for trees, the olive of Provence grows at Antioch, and at Ramla, to the height of the beech. In the white mulberry-tree consists the wealth of the whole country of the Druses, by the beautiful silk which it produces; while the vine, supported by poles, or winding about the oaks, supplies grapes, which afford red and white wines equal to those of Bourdeaux. The water-melons of Jaffa are preferred before the very fine water melons of Broulas. Gaza produces dates like Mecca, and pomegranates like Algiers. Tripoli affords oranges like Malta. Beyrout, figs like Marseilles, and bananas like St Domingo. Aleppo has the (not) exclusive advantage of producing pistachios. And Damascus justly boasts of possessing all the fruits known in the provinces: its stony soil suits equally the apples of Normandy, the plums of Touraine, and the peaches of Paris. Twenty sorts of apricots aro enumerated there, the stone of one of which contains a kernel highly valued throughout Turkey. The cochineal plant, which grows on all that coast contains, perhaps, that precious insect in as high perfection as it is found in Mexico and St Domingo; and if we consider that the mountains of Yemen, which produce such excellent coffee are only a continuation of those of Syria, and that their soil and climate are almost the same, we shall be induced to believe that in Judea particularly, might be easily cultivated this valuable production of Arabia. "With these advantages of climate and soil, it is not surprising that Syria should always have been reckoned a most delicious country and that the Greeks and Romans esteemed it among the most beautiful of their provinces and equal even to Egypt" (Volney's Trav. vol. i. pp. 316–321. English translation).[271]
  • 1843: Stephen Olin, Travels in Egypt, Arabia Petræa, and the Holy land: European merchants could not live in the East, except under the protection of their own consuls. They never become subjects to the native rulers. If some civilized, Christian power would rescue Palestine, by treaty or force, from Mohammedan rule, and establish an enlightened, equitable, and stable government, then might it become a desirable residence for civilized men; but on no other condition could a residence there be endured by any but barbarians, content to be poor and tolerant from long habit of oppression and injustice. It fills me with surprise to see some of the best men of England labouring to promote the colonization of Jews in Palestine, and that under existing governments. The Jews are precisely the last people on earth fitted for such an enterprise, as they are a nation of traffickers, and know nothing of agriculture. Besides, the Jews of Europe and America are civilized and wealthy, and would not relish oppression and robbery, even in Palestine.[272]
  • 1843: Johann Friedrich Röhr, Röhr's Historico-geographical account of Palestine: Researches in Palestine: Napoleon Bonaparte, in 1799, gave new importance to Palestine. It was connected with his conquest of Egypt, and was undertaken nominally to repulse the Turkish army under Djezzar (Or the Butcher, so called by his subjects from his incredible cruelties. He died in 1808, apparently with a quiet conscience), the Pacha of St Jean d'Acre, by which he was threatened, and prevent it obstructing his intentions as to Egypt, but actually to get possession of the vast wealth of this Pacha, treasured up in Acre, and make this the foundation of other extensive projects as to the east.[273]
  • 1844: J. T. Bannister, A Survey of the Holy Land...: "Tacitus compares both the climate and the soil to those of Italy, and particularly specifies the palm and balsam-trees as productions which gave the country an advantage over his own. Justin confirms the account of Tacitus, respecting the exuberant produce of Palestine, its beautiful climate, its palm and fragrant balsam-trees."[274]
  • 1845: Encyclopædia Metropolitana, "Syria".[275]
  • 1845: Salomon Munk, Palestine, Description Géographique, Historique et Archéologique," in "L'Univers Pittoresque: Under the name Palestine, we comprehend the small country formerly inhabited by the Israelites, and which is today part of Acre and Damascus pachalics. It stretched between 31 and 33° N. latitude and between 32 and 35° degrees E. longitude, an area of about 1300 French: lieues carrées. Some zealous writers, to give the land of the Hebrews some political importance, have exaggerated the extent of Palestine; but we have an authority for us that one can not reject. St. Jerome, who had long traveled in this country, said in his letter to Dardanus (ep. 129) that the northern boundary to that of the southern, was a distance of 160 Roman miles, which is about 55 French: lieues. He paid homage to the truth despite his fears, as he said himself, of availing the Promised Land to pagan mockery, "Pudet dicere latitudinem terrae repromissionis, ne ethnicis occasionem blasphemandi dedisse uideamur".[276][277]
  • 1847: Walter McLeod, The geography of Palestine: MODERN DIVISIONS. 8. Palestine is now divided into pashalicks, the most important of which are Akka and Damascus. The country is under the dominion of the Turks, and is governed by Mehemet Pasha, who has been recently appointed the governor-general of Palestine.[278]
  • 1848: Thomas Wright (biographer), Early travels in Palestine: comprising the narratives of Arculf, Willibald, [and others]:[279] Arculf, Willibald, Bernard, Saewulf, Sigurd, Benjamin of Tudela, Sir John Mandeville, De la Brocquiere, and Maundrell.
  • 1848: Carl Ritter, The Comparative Geography of Palestine and the Sinaitic Peninsula: CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF THE AUTHORITIES ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF PALESTINE. ...the lists of authorities given by Reland, Pococke, Meusel, Bellermann, Rosenmüller, Berghaus, Hammer-Purgstall, and more especially by von Raumer and Robinson. ...Others which we have from the English and the French ...John Kitto, Munk.[280][281]
  • 1849: William F. Lynch, Narrative of the United States' Expedition to the River Jordan and the Dead Sea: To the east of Bethlehem is the hill where the shepherds heard the annunciation of the birth of the Messiah; and in the plain below, the field where Ruth gleaned after the reapers. The country around was luxuriant with vegetation, and the yellow grain, even as we looked, was falling beneath the sickle. Variegated flint, chalk and limestone, without fossils, cropped out occasionally on the hill sides; but along the lower slopes, and in the bottom of the valley, were continuous groves, with a verdant carpet beneath them. It was the most rural and the loveliest spot we had seen in Palestine. From among many flowers we gathered a beautiful white one, free from all earthly taint, fit emblem of the purity of the infant Godhead.[282]

1850

Map of Modern Palestine in 1851 with administrative subdivisions
Map showing the "Quds Al-Sharif Mutasarrifate", from an atlas dated 1907. The map shows the 1860 borders between Ottoman Syria and the Khedivate of Egypt, although the border was moved to the current Israel-Egypt border in 1906. The area north of the Negev Desert is labelled "Filastin" (Palestine).
  • 1850: Yehoseph Schwarz, A Descriptive Geography and Brief Historical Sketch of Palestine: In the year 5592 (1832), Mahmud Ali, pacha of Alexandria in Egypt, declared himself independent of the Sultan of Constantinople. His son, Abraim Pacha, moved suddenly with a large force towards Palestine, and took without almost any resistance on the part of the adherents of the Sultan, Jaffa, Jerusalem, Nablus, and Chaifa, and placed Egyptian soldiers as garrisons in the same, and appeared next before Akko, which was occupied by Abd Alla Pacha, and besieged it a long time, and took it finally by storm, carrying away the Pacha as prisoner to Egypt. He gradually now occupied all Palestine, Syria, Arabia, and Nubia.[283]
  • 1856: James Redhouse, An English and Turkish dictionary: Regarded as the original and authoritative Ottoman-English dictionary, translates Holy Land as dari-filastin (House of Palestine)[284]
  • 1858: Josias Leslie Porter, A handbook for travellers in Syria and Palestine: The modern inhabitants of Southern Palestine may be divided into two classes —the Bedawin, or wandering tribes who dwell in tents, and the Fellahin, who reside in villages.[285] [...] The plain of Akka is one of the richest in Palestine —producing alike the most luxuriant crops and the rankest weeds in the country. It is more moist than any of the other plains; and large sections of it become marshy during winter.[286]
  • 1859: Samuel Augustus Mitchell, map: Turkey in Asia and Geographicus - Arabia
  • 1859: David Kay (FRGS),[287] ed. Thomas Stewart Traill, Palestine, Encyclopædia Britannica:[288] [Palestine] ...was finally subdued in 1517 by Selim I., the sultan of the Turks, under whom it has continued for more than 300 years. ...until the memorable invasion of Egypt by the French army in 1798. Bonaparte being apprised that preparations were making in the pashalic of Acre for attacking him in Egypt, resolved, according to his usual tactics, to anticipate the movements of his enemies. He accordingly marched across the desert which divides Egypt from Palestine, and invaded the country at the head of 10,000 troops. After taking several towns, and among the rest Jaffa, where he stained his character by the atrocious massacre of 4000 prisoners. (Kay 1859, p. 198, XVII at Google Books)
  • 1860: Josias Leslie Porter,[289] ed. Thomas Stewart Traill, Syria, Encyclopædia Britannica:[290] The modern inhabitants of Syria and Palestine are a mixed race, made up of the descendants of the ancient Syrians who occupied the country in the early days of Christianity and of the Arabians who came in with the armies of the khalifs and settled in the cities and villages. The number of the latter being comparatively small, the mixture of blood did not visibly change the type of the ancient people. This may be seen by comparing the Christians with the Muslems. The former are undoubtedly of pure Syrian descent, while the latter are more or less mixed, and yet there is no visible distinction between the two save what dress makes. (Porter 1860, p. 907, XX at Google Books)
  • 1860: 36th United States Congress, The Massacres in Syria: a Faithful Account of the Cruelties and Outrages Suffered by the Christians of Mount Lebanon, During the Late Persecutions in Syria: With a Succinct History of Mahometanism and the Rise of the Maronites, Druses ... and Other Oriental Sects ...:[291] EARLY CHRISTIANITY IN SYRIA. I.—Hermits and Pilgrims. [...] II.—Origin of Monks. The hermits and anchorets, as they were called, were held in high esteem, and thousands of pilgrims, from all parts, sought their cells to obtain the benefit of their prayers. In the fourth century, the ancient lands of Syria and Palestine were full of such "holy men," and soon after they began to form societies and live together, as brethren, under oaths and regulations. This was the origin of religious houses or convents of monks; and the beginning of that monastic system which afterward extended throughout all Christendom. (36th U.S. Congress 1860, p. 11 at Google Books)
  • 1865: William 'Corky' Norton, How I Got My Cork Legs, The St. James's Magazine: I was then at Malta, serving on board the [HMS] Powerful, 80-gun ship, Captain Charles Napier; ...This was in 1840 ...England, inspired by Lord Palmerston, had determined, in defiance of France, to put down the Pacha of Egypt, Mohammed Ali, and his equally miscreant son. ...I was consequently present at the bombardment of Beirût —Queen City of Palestine— at the landing, witnessed the panic-flight of the much-boasted Egyptians at the bare sight of our fellows, and was present at the fall of Acre. I never estimated very highly the glory of that Syrian campaign. What real resistance could a multitude of Egyptian soldiers offer to a well-organized British force? It signifies little to the wolves how numerous the sheep may be.[292]
  • 1867: Titus Tobler, Bibliographica Geographica Palaestinae.[293]
  • 1872-1917: The Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem was commonly referred to at the time as "Palestine".[294][295]
  • 1875: Isabel Burton, The Inner Life of Syria, Palestine, and the Holy Land: From My Private Journal: We rode to Dayr el Kamar, a large village in the territory of El Manásíf. Then we went to B'teddin, now the palace of Franco Pasha, Governor of the Lebanon. ...he meets every case with liberality and civilization; he was a religious man, and Allah and the Sultan were his only thoughts. Everything he did for the natives' good, he told them that it came from his Master and theirs, so that "May Allah prolong the days of our Sultan" was ever in the people's mouth. It would have been happy if a few more Franco Pashas were distributed about Syria and Palestine.[296]
  • 1879: Nu'man ibn 'Abdu al-Qasatli: al-Rawda al-Numaniyya in the travelogue to Palestine and some Syrian Towns[297]
  • 1880s: The Ottoman government issues a number of decrees to foreign governments, intended to limit Zionist immigration, land purchases and settlement. The decrees refer to "Palestine", but the term is not defined.[298]
  • 1890: Reinhold Röhricht, Bibliotheca Geographica Palestine, from the year A.D. 333 to A.D. 1878:[299][300] among the books on Palestine. Bibliotheca Geographica Palestinae, (Berlin, 1890), enumerates 3515 books, issued between 333 A.D. and 1878 A.D.[301] Bibliotheca Geographica Palestine. Chronologisches Verzeichniss der auf die Geographic des heiligen Landes beziiglichen Literatur von 333 bis 1878 und Versuch einer Cartographic. Herausgegeben von Reinhold Rohricht. (Berlin: H. Reuther's Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1890.) The title indicates clearly enough the general character of this book. It professes to give a list of all the books relating to the geography of Palestine from the year A.D. 333 to A.D. 1878 and also a chronological list of maps relating to Palestine. But the title does not give any idea of the exhaustive method in which the subject has been treated ; the completeness is such that the book, which has rightly been described as 'indispensable' to students of Palestinian geography, will be found of great service in many other fields. (The Church Quarterly Review 1891, p.259, at Google Books) (Bibliotheca Geographica Palestinae, (Berlin, 1890), at openlibrary.org)
  • 1897: First Zionist Congress: the Basel program sets out the goals of the Zionist movement: "Zionism aims at establishing for the Jewish people a publicly and legally assured home in Palestine"
  • c.1900-10: Ottoman Governors: According to Haim Gerber "The remnants of the correspondence of the Ottoman governors with their superiors in the first decade of the twentieth century quite often relate to the Zionist question and the resistance to it among local inhabitants. The country is referred to throughout as Palestine."[302]
  • 1902: The Anglo-Palestine bank: A subsidiary of the Bank Leumi, the financial instrument of the Zionist Organization
  • 1911: Filastin (newspaper)[303]
  • 1913: Al-Karmil (newspaper): "We hoped that they [the Ottoman Party for Administrative Decentralization] would rid us of Zionist threats and dangers. We comprised a group of people who had hoped the best for their leaders. This team possessed tremendous power; not to ignore that Palestine, their country, was part of the Ottoman Empire."[304]
  • c.1913: Ruhi Khalidi, Zionism or the Zionist Question, according to Haim Gerber "It is noteworthy that whenever the name of the country appears, it is always Palestine, never southern Syria or anything else."[305]
  • 1914: Four days after Britain's declaration of war on the Ottoman Empire at a British Cabinet meeting on 9 November 1914, David Lloyd George, Chancellor of the Exchequer, "referred to the ultimate destiny of Palestine."[306][307]
  • 1915: VIII Corps (Ottoman Empire), Filastin Risalesi ("Palestine Document"), an Ottoman army country survey which formally identified Palestine as including the sanjaqs of Akka (the Galilee), the Sanjaq of Nablus, and the Sanjaq of Jerusalem (Kudus Sherif).[308]

Formation of the British Mandate[edit]

Further information: History of Zionism and History of Israel
Passport, coin and stamp from Mandatory Palestine. When written in English all show "Palestine", with the latter two also showing Arabic: فلسطينFilasţīn and Hebrew: פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י) Palestína (EY)[309]
  • 1918: House of Commons of the United Kingdom: Minutes: "Major Earl Winterton asked the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs what facilities have been given to the Palestinian and Syrian political leaders now in Egypt to visit Palestine?"[310] An early use of the word Palestinian in British politics, which was used often in following years in the British government[311]
  • 1919: Zionist Organization, Statement on Palestine at the Paris Peace Conference: "The boundaries of Palestine shall follow the general lines set out below: Starting on the North at a point on the Mediterranean Sea in the vicinity south of Sidon and following the watersheds of the foothills of the Lebanon as far as Jisr El-Karaon thence to El-Bire, following the dividing line between the two basins of the Wadi El-Korn and the Wadi Et-Teim, thence in a southerly direction following the dividing line between the Eastern and Western slopes of the Hermon, to the vicinity west of Beit Jenn, then eastward following the northern watersheds of the Nahr Mughaniye close to and west of the Hedjaz Railway. In the east a line close to and west of the Hedjaz Railway terminating in the Gulf of Akaba. In the south a frontier to be agreed upon with the Egyptian Government. In the west the Mediterranean Sea."[312][313]
  • 1919: Syrian National Congress: "We ask that there be no separation of the southern part of Syria, known as Palestine, nor of the littoral western zone, which includes Lebanon, from the Syrian country." [314]
  • 1920: Franco-British boundary agreement - the framework agreement in which the borders of the Mandate of Palestine were established, being finally approved on 7 March 1923[315][316]
  • 1920: Herbert Samuel during an Advisory Council meeting: "He was aware that there was no other name in the Hebrew language for this land except 'Eretz-Israel'. At the same time he thought that if 'Eretz-Israel' only were used, it might not be regarded by the outside world as a correct rendering of the word 'Palestine', and in the case of passports or certificates of nationality, it might perhaps give rise to passports or certificates of nationality, it might perhaps give rise to difficulties, so it was decided to print 'Palestine' in Hebrew letters and to add after it the letters 'Aleph' 'Yod', which constitute a recognised abbreviation of the Hebrew name. His Excellency still thought that this was a good compromise. Dr. Salem wanted to omit 'Aleph' 'Yod' and Mr. Yellin wanted to omit 'Palestine'. The right solution would be to retain both."[317][309]
  • 1921: Syrian-Palestinian Congress
  • 1923: British Mandate for Palestine is ratified
  • 1926: Permanent Mandates Commission: "M. Palacios [Spanish representative], returning to the concrete questions of a general character of which the Arabs complained, recalled those concerning the national title, the national hymn and the flag.... As regards the first point, the Arabs claimed that it was not in conformity with Article 22 of the Mandate to print the initials and even the words "Eretz Israel" after the name "Palestine" while refusing the Arabs the title "Surial Janonbiah" ("Southern Syria"). The British Government had not accepted the use of this Arab title, but gave the place of honour to the Hebrew word used for 2,000 years and decided that the official name in Hebrew was "Palestina" followed by the initials signifying "Aleph Jod", the regular Hebrew name. Was the question still under discussion and could the accredited representative give the Commission any further information? Colonel Symes explained that the country was described as "Palestine" by Europeans and as "Falestin" by the Arabs. The Hebrew name for the country was the designation "Land of Israel", and the Government, to meet Jewish wishes, had agreed that the word "Palestine" in Hebrew characters should be followed in all official documents by the initials which stood for that designation. As a set-off to this, certain of the Arab politicians suggested that the country should be called "Southern Syria" in order to emphasise its close relation with another Arab State."[318]
  • 1936: Peel Commission Report: "[Jewish nationalism] claims, for example, that, though Palestine is not an Arab word and might therefore fairly serve for Jews as well as Arabs, Eretz Israel (Land of Israel) should be also accepted as the official translation of "Palestine", and protests that the printing of the Hebrew initials "E. I." after "Palestine" on every stamp and coin is not enough."[319][309]

Biblical references[edit]

The Philistine Pentopolis

Palaistinê (whence Palaestina, from which Palestine is derived)[320] is generally accepted to have a correspondence within the Sacred texts of Judaism such that Palaistinê is a translation of the name Peleshet (פלשת Pəlésheth, usually transliterated as Philistia). Peleshet and its derivates are used more than 250 times in Masoretic-derived versions of the Hebrew Bible,[321] of which 10 uses are in the Torah, with undefined boundaries, and almost 200 of the remaining references are in the Book of Judges and the Books of Samuel.[4][20][322] The term is rarely used in the Septuagint, who used a transliteration Land of Phylistieim (Γη των Φυλιστιειμ) different from the contemporary Greek place name Palaistínē (Παλαιστίνη).[8] The Septuagint instead used the term "allophuloi" (Αλλόφυλοι, "other nations") throughout the Books of Judges and Samuel,[323][324] such that the term "Philistines" has been interpreted to mean "non-Israelites of the Promised Land" when used in the context of Samson, Saul and David,[325] and Rabbinic sources explain that these peoples were different from the Philistines of the Book of Genesis.[323]

The Philistines and Philistia are mentioned more than 250 times in the Hebrew Bible.[326][327][28] The Hebrew word Peleshet (פלשת Pəlésheth) - usually translated as Philistia in English, is used in the Bible to denote the southern coastal region that was inhabited by the Philistines ("Plištim" (פְּלִשְׁתִּים Pəlištîm)[322] The Philistines first appear in a listing of the Hamitic branch of Noah's descendants.[328] The word Philistia is generally accepted to be a cognate of the word Palestine. However, the terms for biblical Philistia and geographical Palestine have been different since at least the second century BCE. As early as the LXX, thought to have been completed in 132 BCE, the biblical term for Philistines in Greek (Philistieim) was different from the contemporary Greek name for the region (Palaistine)[43]

The five books of the Pentateuch / Torah include a total of 10 references, including:[326][327]

  • Genesis 10:14: (first reference) "And Pathrusim, and Casluhim, (out of whom came Philistim,) and Caphtorim."
  • Genesis 21:32-34: "Thus they made a covenant at Beersheba: then Abimelech rose up, and Phichol the chief captain of his host, and they returned into the land of the Philistines. And Abraham planted a grove in Beersheba, and called there on the name of the LORD, the everlasting God. And Abraham sojourned in the Philistines' land many days."
  • Exodus 13:17: "And it came to pass, when Pharaoh had let the people go, that God led them not through the way of the land of the Philistines, although that was near; for God said, Lest peradventure the people repent when they see war, and they return to Egypt"
  • Exodus 23:31: "And I will set thy bounds from the Red sea even unto the sea of the Philistines, and from the desert unto the river: for I will deliver the inhabitants of the land into your hand; and thou shalt drive them out before thee."

The Historical books (see Deuteronomistic history) include over 250 references, almost 200 of which are in the Book of Judges and the Books of Samuel, including:[326][327]

  • Joshua 13:1-3: "Now Joshua was old and stricken in years; and the LORD said unto him, Thou art old and stricken in years, and there remaineth yet very much land to be possessed. This is the land that yet remaineth: all the borders of the Philistines, and all Geshuri, from Sihor, which is before Egypt, even unto the borders of Ekron northward, which is counted to the Canaanite: five lords of the Philistines; the Gazathites, and the Ashdothites, the Eshkalonites, the Gittites, and the Ekronites; also the Avites"
  • 1Kings 4:21: "And Solomon reigned over all kingdoms from the river unto the land of the Philistines, and unto the border of Egypt: they brought presents, and served Solomon all the days of his life."

Wisdom books include only 6 references, all in the Psalms, including:[326][327]

  • Psalm 87:4: "I will make mention of Rahab and Babylon to them that know me: behold Philistia, and Tyre, with Ethiopia; this man was born there."

Books of the Major prophets and Minor prophets include around 20 references, including:[326][327]

  • Zephaniah 2:5: "Woe unto the inhabitants of the sea coast, the nation of the Cherethites! the word of the LORD is against you; O Canaan, the land of the Philistines, I will even destroy thee, that there shall be no inhabitant."
  • Amos 9:7: "Are ye not as children of the Ethiopians unto me, O children of Israel? saith the LORD. Have not I brought up Israel out of the land of Egypt? and the Philistines from Caphtor, and the Syrians from Kir?"

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

External web links[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b †Coele-Syria
  2. ^ a b †Syria Palaestina
  3. ^ a b †Achaemenid Empire

a. †Coele-Syria

During the Roman period "Palestine" was not the only geographical term for the region. For example, Strabo, in his description of Jerusalem and Judea, uses the term "Coele-Syria" ("all Syria"), and Pliny (as above) uses both terms.[49][22][332]
Nomenclatures of Syria given by Strabo[333]
Primary Cœlê-Syria & Seleucis-Syria & Phœnicia &c. &c. Cœlê-Syria ≠ Cœlo-Syrians
Alternate Cœlo-Syrians & Syrians & Phœnicians Similar to nomenclature given by Herodotus
Coele-Syria (332-064 BCE), Greek writers used the term Palestine to refer to the region during this period, such as Polemon of Athens and Pausanias.[82][83][334]

b. †Syria Palaestina

After crushing Bar Kochba's revolt in 132-135, the Roman Emperor Hadrian applied the name Syria Palestina to the entire region that had formerly included Iudaea Province.[335] There is circumstantial evidence linking Hadrian with the name change,[21] although the precise date is not certain,[21] and the assertion of some scholars that the name change was intended "to suppress Jewish national feelings"[85][336] is disputed.[8] after they combined Iudaea Province with Galilee and the Paralia to form "Syria Palaestina". There is circumstantial evidence linking Hadrian with the name change,[21] but the precise date is not certain[21] and the assertion of some scholars that the name change was intended "to complete the dissociation with Judaea"[85][337][citation not found][336] is disputed.[8][citation needed]

c. †Achaemenid Empire

Catalogues of Satrapies of the Achaemenid empire.[338]
  • Darius' Behistun inscription
  • Histories of the Greek researcher Herodotus
the tribute list
the list of Persian armed forces
  • the inscription on Darius' tomb at Naqš-i Rustam
  • the Daiva inscription of Xerxes.
There are many satrapies mentioned in a book about Alexander the Great, the Anabasis by Arrian of Nicomedia.
Darius, Behistun
(521 BCE)
Herodotus, Histories 3.90-94
(Tribute list)
Darius, Naqš-i Rustam
(492 BCE?)
Herodotus, Histories 7.61-96
(Army list) (480/481 BCE)
Xerxes, XPh
(daiva inscription)
Arrian, Anabasis
(on history of the 4th century BCE)
Cappadocia district III/c:
Syrians, Phrygians
Cappadocia Syrians
(= Cappadocians)
Cappadocia Cappadocia
  district IV:
Cilicians
  Cilicia   Cilicia
Beyond the river district V:
Phoenicia; Palestina; Cyprus
  Phoenicia; Palestina; Cyprus    Syria; Palestina
 Egypt district VI/a:
Egypt
Egypt Egypt Egypt Egypt

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Fahlbusch et al., 2005, p. 185.
  2. ^ a b Ancient Records of Egypt: The first through the seventeenth dynasties, James Henry Breasted, page 24
  3. ^ People of the sea: the search for the Philistines, Trude Krakauer Dothan, Moshe Dothan, Macmillan, 1992, p22-23. Jean-François Champollion, in 1822, was the first to make this connection.
  4. ^ a b c Sharon, 1988, p. 4.
  5. ^ Carl S. Ehrlich "Philistines" The Oxford Guide to People and Places of the Bible. Ed. Bruce M. Metzger and Michael D. Coogan. Oxford University Press, 2001.
  6. ^ Eberhard Schrader wrote in his seminal "Keilinschriften und Geschichtsforschung" ("KGF", in English "Cuneiform inscriptions and Historical Research") that the Assyrian term "Pilistu" referred to "the East" in general. See KGF p123-124 and Tiglath Pileser III by Abraham Samuel Anspacher, p48
  7. ^ Fahlbusch & Bromiley 2005, "Philistines", p. 185.
  8. ^ a b c d e Jacobson 1999: "The earliest occurrence of this name in a Greek text is in the mid-fifth century b.c., Histories of Herodotus, where it is applied to the area of the Levant between Phoenicia and Egypt."..."The first known occurrence of the Greek word Palaistine is in the Histories of Herodotus, written near the mid-fifth century B.C. Palaistine Syria, or simply Palaistine, is applied to what may be identified as the southern part of Syria, comprising the region between Phoenicia and Egypt. Although some of Herodotus' references to Palestine are compatible with a narrow definition of the coastal strip of the Land of Israel, it is clear that Herodotus does call the "whole land by the name of the coastal strip."..."It is believed that Herodotus visited Palestine in the fifth decade of the fifth century B.C."..."In the earliest Classical literature references to Palestine generally applied to the Land of Israel in the wider sense."
  9. ^ Jacobson 2001: "As early as the Histories of Herodotus, written in the second half of the fifth century B.C.E., the term Palaistinê is used to describe not just the geographical area where the Philistines lived, but the entire area between Phoenicia and Egypt—in other words, the Land of Israel. Herodotus, who had traveled through the area, would have had firsthand knowledge of the land and its people. Yet he used Palaistinê to refer not to the Land of the Philistines, but to the Land of Israel
  10. ^ a b The Southern and Eastern Borders of Abar-Nahara Steven S. Tuell Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 284 (Nov., 1991), pp. 51–57
  11. ^ Herodotus' Description of the East Mediterranean Coast Anson F. Rainey Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 321 (Feb., 2001), pp. 57–63
  12. ^ In his work, Herodotus referred to the practice of male circumcision associated with the Hebrew people: "the Colchians, the Egyptians, and the Ethiopians, are the only nations who have practised circumcision from the earliest times. The Phoenicians and the Syrians of Palestine themselves confess that they learnt the custom of the Egyptians.... Now these are the only nations who use circumcision." The History of Herodotus
  13. ^ Beloe, W., Rev., Herodotus, (tr. from Greek), with notes, Vol.II, London, 1821, p.269 "It should be remembered that Syria is always regarded by Herodotus as synonymous with Assyria. What the Greeks called Palestine the Arabs call Falastin, which is the Philistines of Scripture."
  14. ^ Elyahu Green, Geographic names of places in Israel in Herodotos This is confirmed by George Rawlinson in the third book (Thalia) of The Histories where Palaestinian Syrians are part of the fifth tax district spanning the territory from Phoenicia to the borders of Egypt, but excludes the kingdom of Arabs who were exempt from tax for providing the Assyrian army with water on its march to Egypt. These people had a large city called Cadytis, identified as Jerusalem.
  15. ^ Again if, as is fabled, there is a lake in Palestine, such that if you bind a man or beast and throw it in it floats and does not sink (Aristotle, Webster ed. 2004, p. 38)
  16. ^ a b "Meteorology By Aristotle". Classics.mit.edu. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  17. ^ a b Aristotle (1 January 2004). E. W. Webster, ed. Meteorology. Digireads.com Publishing. pp. 38–. ISBN 978-1-4209-0042-2. etvHt-bBafMC. Again if, as is fabled, there is a lake in Palestine, such that if you bind a man or beast and throw it in it floats and does not sink (Aristotle, Webster ed. 2004, p. 38) 
  18. ^ a b Aristotle, Meteorology 1.8, trans. E.W. Webster, rev. J. Barnes.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g Schmidt 2001, p. 29.
  20. ^ a b Robinson, Edward, Physical geography of the Holy Land, Crocker & Brewster, Boston, 1865, p.15. Robinson, writing in 1865 when travel by Europeans to the Ottoman Empire became common asserts that, "Palestine, or Palestina, now the most common name for the Holy Land, occurs three times in the English version of the Old Testament; and is there put for the Hebrew name פלשת, elsewhere rendered Philistia. As thus used, it refers strictly and only to the country of the Philistines, in the southwest corner of the land. So, too, in the Greek form, Παλαςτίνη), it is used by Josephus. But both Josephus and Philo apply the name to the whole land of the Hebrews ; and Greek and Roman writers employed it in the like extent."
  21. ^ a b c d e f g Feldman 1996
  22. ^ a b The Hellenistic settlements in Syria, the Red Sea Basin, and North Africa, 2006, Getzel M. Cohen, p36-37, ""Palestine" did not come into official use until the early second century ad, when the emperor Hadrian decided to rename the province of Judaea; for its new name he chose "Syria Palaestina." The new name took hold. It is found thereafter in inscriptions, on coins, and in numerous literary texts. Thus Arrian (7.9.8, Indica 43.1) and Appian (Syr. 50), who lived in the second century ad, and Cassius Dio (e.g., 38.38.4, 39.56.6), who lived in the third, referred to the region as "Palestine." And in the rabbinic literature "Palestine" was used as the name of the Roman province.
  23. ^ a b Kaegi, 1995, p. 41.
  24. ^ Marshall Cavendish, 2007, p. 559.
  25. ^ Gudrun Krämer (2008) A History of Palestine: From the Ottoman Conquest to the Founding of the State of Israel Translated by Gudrun Krämer and Graham Harman Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-11897-3 p.16
  26. ^ The British Mandate over Palestine
  27. ^ 'State Of Palestine' Name Change Ordered By Palestinian Authority President Abbas
  28. ^ a b Killebrew 2005, p. 202.
  29. ^ "Text of the Papyrus Harris". Specialtyinterests.net. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  30. ^ a b Killebrew 2005, p. 204.
  31. ^ Bernard Bruyère, Mert Seger à Deir el Médineh, 1929, page 32-37
  32. ^ Alan Gardiner, Ancient Egyptian Onomastica, Volume 1, Oxford, 1947, no. 270, pages 200-205
  33. ^ Ehrlich 1996, p. 65.
  34. ^ Ehrlich 1996, p. 168.
  35. ^ Ehrlich 1996, p. 171.
  36. ^ ND 2715 ( = XII; IM 64130; Plate 31), Re-edited in TCAE, pp. 390-3 and Fales, CLNA, pp. 90-95, 128-132,11.2 Translation in "The Nimrud Letters", 1952, H.W.F. Saggs, Volume: VI, 2001, page 156-157
  37. ^ Ehrlich 1996, p. 190.
  38. ^ COS, p. 2.118i and ANET, p. 287
  39. ^ COS, p. 2.119D
  40. ^ Daniel David Luckenbill, The Annals of Sennacherib, Oriental Institute Publications 2, University of Chicago Press, 1924, p104
  41. ^ COS, p. 2.120 and ANET, p. 533
  42. ^ Rabinowitz, Nick. "Herodotus Timemap". Timemap.js - Open Source Javascript library. nickrabinowitz.com. Retrieved 12 December 2014. Book 1, Ch.105: From there they marched against Egypt: and when they were in the part of Syria called Palestine, Psammetichus king of Egypt met them and persuaded them with gifts and prayers to come no further. So they turned back, and when they came on their way to the city of Ascalon in Syria, most of the Scythians passed by and did no harm, but a few remained behind and plundered the temple of Heavenly Aphrodite. ἐνθευ̂τεν δὲ ἤισαν ἐπ᾽ Αἴγυπτον. καὶ ἐπείτε ἐγένοντο ἐν τῃ̂ Παλαιστίνῃ Συρίῃ, Ψαμμήτιχος σφέας Αἰγύπτου βασιλεὺς ἀντιάσας δώροισί τε καὶ λιτῃ̂σι ἀποτράπει τὸ προσωτέρω μὴ πορεύεσθαι.οἳ δὲ ἐπείτε ἀναχωρέοντες ὀπίσω ἐγένοντο τη̂ς Συρίης ἐν Ἀσκάλωνι πόλι, τω̂ν πλεόνων Σκυθέων παρεξελθόντων ἀσινέων, ὀλίγοι τινὲς αὐτω̂ν ὑπολειφθέντες ἐσύλησαν τη̂ς οὐρανίης Ἀφροδίτης 
  43. ^ a b Jacobson 1999, p. 65.
  44. ^ Herodotus' Description of the East Mediterranean Coast, Anson F. Rainey, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 321 (Feb., 2001), pp. 57–63
  45. ^ Rabinowitz, Nick. "Herodotus Timemap". Timemap.js - Open Source Javascript library. nickrabinowitz.com. Retrieved 12 December 2014. Book 3, Ch.5: Now the only apparent way of entry into Egypt is this. The road runs from Phoenicia as far as the borders of the city of Cadytis, which belongs to the so-called Syrians of Palestine. From Cadytis (which, as I judge, is a city not much smaller than Sardis) to the city of Ienysus the seaports belong to the Arabians; then they are Syrian again from Ienysus as far as the Serbonian marsh, beside which the Casian promontory stretches seawards;from this Serbonian marsh, where Typho is supposed to have been hidden, the country is Egypt. Now between Ienysus and the Casian mountain and the Serbonian marsh there lies a wide territory for as much as three days journey, terribly arid. μούνῃ δὲ ταύτῃ εἰσὶ φανεραὶ ἐσβολαὶ ἐς Αἴγυπτον. ἀπὸ γὰρ Φοινίκης μέχρι οὔρων τω̂ν Καδύτιος πόλιος ἐστὶ Σύρων τω̂ν Παλαιστίνων καλεομένων·ἀπὸ δὲ Καδύτιος ἐούσης πόλιος, ὡς ἐμοὶ δοκέει, Σαρδίων οὐ πολλῳ̂ ἐλάσσονος, ἀπὸ ταύτης τὰ ἐμπόρια τὰ ἐπὶ θαλάσσης μέχρι Ἰηνύσου πόλιος ἐστὶ του̂ Ἀραβίου, ἀπὸ δὲ Ἰηνύσου αὐ̂τις Σύρων μέχρι Σερβωνίδος λίμνης, παρ᾽ ἣν δὴ τὸ Κάσιον ὄρος τείνει ἐς θάλασσαν·ἀπὸ δὲ Σερβωνίδος λίμνης, ἐν τῃ̂ δὴ λόγος τὸν Τυφω̂ κεκρύφθαι, ἀπὸ ταύτης ἤδη Αἴγυπτος. τὸ δὴ μεταξὺ Ἰηνύσου πόλιος καὶ Κασίου τε ὄρεος καὶ τη̂ς Σερβωνίδος λίμνης, ἐὸν του̂το οὐκ ὀλίγον χωρίον ἀλλὰ ὅσον τε ἐπὶ τρει̂ς ἡμέρας ὁδόν, ἄνυδρον ἐστὶ δεινω̂ς. 
  46. ^ Rabinowitz, Nick. "Herodotus Timemap". Timemap.js - Open Source Javascript library. nickrabinowitz.com. Retrieved 12 December 2014. Book 7, Ch.89: The number of the triremes was twelve hundred and seven, and they were furnished by the following: the Phoenicians with the Syrians of Palestine furnished three hundred; for their equipment, they had on their heads helmets very close to the Greek in style; they wore linen breastplates, and carried shields without rims, and javelins.These Phoenicians formerly dwelt, as they themselves say, by the Red Sea; they crossed from there and now inhabit the seacoast of Syria. This part of Syria as far as Egypt is all called Palestine. τω̂ν δὲ τριηρέων ἀριθμὸς μὲν ἐγένετο ἑπτὰ καὶ διηκόσιαι καὶ χίλιαι, παρείχοντο δὲ αὐτὰς οἵδε, Φοίνικες μὲν σὺν Σύροισι τοι̂σι ἐν τῃ̂ Παλαιστίνῃ τριηκοσίας, ὡ̂δε ἐσκευασμένοι· περὶ μὲν τῃ̂σι κεφαλῃ̂σι κυνέας εἰ̂χον ἀγχοτάτω πεποιημένας τρόπον τὸν Ἑλληνικόν, ἐνδεδυκότες δὲ θώρηκας λινέους, ἀσπίδας δὲ ἴτυς οὐκ ἐχούσας εἰ̂χον καὶ ἀκόντια.οὑ̂τοι δὲ οἱ Φοίνικες τὸ παλαιὸν οἴκεον, ὡς αὐτοὶ λέγουσι, ἐπὶ τῃ̂ Ἐρυθρῃ̂ θαλάσσῃ, ἐνθευ̂τεν δὲ ὑπερβάντες τη̂ς Συρίης οἰκέουσι τὸ παρὰ θάλασσαν· τη̂ς δὲ Συρίης του̂το τὸ χωρίον καὶ τὸ μέχρι Αἰγύπτου πα̂ν Παλαιστίνη καλέεται. 
  47. ^ wikisource:History of Herodotus and "The History of Herodotus". Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  48. ^ Studies in Josephus and the varieties of ancient Judaism: Louis H. Feldman. BRILL. p. 113. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  49. ^ a b Feldman 1996, p. 558.
  50. ^ Grotius, Hugo; John CLARKE (Dean of Salisbury.) (1809). The Truth of the Christian Religion ... Corrected and illustrated with notes by Mr. Le Clerc. To which is added, a seventh book, concerning this question, What Christian church we ought to join ourselves to? By the said Mr. Le Clerc. The ninth edition, with additions. Particularly one whole book of Mr. Le Clerc's against indifference of what religion a man is of. Done into English by John Clarke. p. 64. Polemon, &c.] He seems to have lived in the Time of Ptolemy Epiphanes; concerning which, see that very useful Book of the famous Gerrard Vossius, of the Greek Historians. Africanus says, the Greek Histories were wrote by him; which is the same Book Athenæus calls, ???. His Words are these: "In the Reign of Apis the Son of Phoroneus, Part of the Egyptian Army went out of Egypt, and dwelt in Syria called Palestine, not far from Arabia." As Africanus preserved the Place of Polemon, so Eusebius in his Chronology preserved that of Africanus. (p. 64 at Google Books) 
  51. ^ The Arabs in Antiquity: Their History from the Assyrians to the Umayyads, Jan Retso, Routledge, 4 Jul 2013
  52. ^ Men on the Rocks: The Formation of Nabataean Petra, Michel Mouton, Stephan G. Schmid, Logos Verlag Berlin GmbH, 2013
  53. ^ Diodorus of Sicily, with an English translation by C.H. Oldfather
  54. ^ Noth 1939, p. 139.
  55. ^ Diodorus (Siculus.) (1814). The Historical Library of Diodorus the Sicilian: In Fifteen Books. To which are Added the Fragments of Diodorus, and Those Published by H. Valesius, I. Rhodomannus, and F. Ursinus. W. MʻDowall. pp. 183–. "The mariner passing by this country of palms, arrives at an island near to a promontory of the continent, which is called the Island of Sea-calves, from the great multitudes of those creatures that frequent this place. The sea here so abounds with them that it is to the admiration of the beholders. The promontory that shoots out towards this island lies over against Petra in Arabia and Palestine. It is said that the Gerrheans and Mineans bring out of the higher Arabia frankincense and other oderiferous gums into this island (Tiran Island)." p. 183 at Google Books 
  56. ^ Strabo (1889). The Geography of Strabo. H. G. Bohn. p. 204. Next is the island of Phocae (Seals), (Sheduan. The "Saspirene insula" of Ptolemy) which has its name from those animals, which abound there. Near it is a promontory which extends towards Petra, of the Arabians called Nabataei, and to the country of Palestine, (The meaning of Strabo seems to be, that this cape is in a direction due south of Petra and Palestine) to this [island] the Minaei, Gerrhaei, and all the neighbouring nations repair with loads of aromatics. (p. 204 at Google Books) 
  57. ^ "Tibullus and Sulpicia: The Poems, Translated by A. S. Kline". Poetryintranslation.com. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  58. ^ Feldman 1996, p. 566.
  59. ^ "Latin quote: Quaque die redeunt, rebus minus apta gerendis, culta Palaestino septima festa Syro". Thelatinlibrary.com. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  60. ^ a b c d e f g Feldman 1996, p. 565.
  61. ^ Book IV, 45-46 "...Babylonia, narret, Derceti, quam versa squamis velantibus artus stagna Palaestini credunt motasse figura an magis, ut sumptis illius filia pennis extremes albis in turribus egerit annos, nais an ut cantu nimiumque potentibus herbis verteritin tacitos iuvenalia corpora pisces"
  62. ^ Book V, 144-145 "occidit et Celadon Mendesius, occidit Astreus matre Palaestina dubio genitore creatus"
  63. ^ "Ovid: Fasti, Book Two". Poetryintranslation.com. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  64. ^ "Philo: Every Good Man is Free". Earlychristianwritings.com. 2006-02-02. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  65. ^ "Philo: On the Life of Moses, Book I". Earlychristianwritings.com. 2006-02-02. Retrieved 2012-09-16. 
  66. ^ Philo (of Alexandria) (1855). "On the Life of Moses". The works of Philo Judaeus, the contemporary of Josephus. H. G. Bohn. p. 37. When then [Moses] he received the supreme authority, with the good will of all his subjects, God himself being the regulator and approver of all his actions, he conducted his people as a colony into Phoenicia, and into the hollow Syria (Coele-syria), and Palestine, which was at that time called the land of the Canaanites, the borders of which country were three days' journey distant from Egypt. (p. 37 at Google Books) 
  67. ^ "Philo: On Abraham". Earlychristianwritings.com. 2006-02-02. Retrieved 2012-09-16. 
  68. ^ Pomponius Mela (1998). Frank E. Romer, ed. Pomponius Mela's Description of the World. University of Michigan Press. p. 52. ISBN 0-472-08452-6. 62. Syria holds a broad expanse of the littoral, as well as lands that extend rather broadly into the interior, and it is designated by different names in different places. For example, it is called Coele, Mesopotamia, Judaea, Commagene, and Sophene. 63. It is Palestine at the point where Syria abuts the Arabs, then Phoenicia, and then—where it reaches Cilicia—Antiochia. [...] 64. In Palestine, however, is Gaza, a mighty and well fortified city. 
  69. ^ "Pomponius Mela, De Chorographia Liber Primus". Thelatinlibrary.com. Retrieved 2011-12-11. Syria late litora tenet, terrasque etiam latius introrsus, aliis aliisque nuncupata nominibus: nam et Coele dicitur et Mesopotamia et Damascene et Adiabene et Babylonia et Iudaea et Commagene et Sophene. Hic Palaestine est qua tangit Arabas, tum Phoenice; et ubi se Ciliciae committit Antiochia, olim ac diu potens, sed cum eam regno Semiramis tenuit longe potentissima. Operibus certe eius insignia multa sunt; duo maxime excellunt; constituta urbs mirae magnitudinis Babylon, ac siccis olim regionibus Euphrates et Tigris immissi. 
  70. ^ Pliny's Natural History. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  71. ^ Pliny, Book 12, Chapter 40
  72. ^ "Idumaeas autem palmas ab Idumaeorum gente, id est ludaeorum, quae regio est in Syria Palaestina" In Vergilii Bucolica et Georgica commentarius, accedunt scholiorum Veronensium et aspri quaestionum Vergilianarum fragmenta, editor: Henricus Keil (1848)
  73. ^ Punica, Volume III, 605-607
  74. ^ Reland 1714, p. 40.
  75. ^ Feldman 1996, p. 567.
  76. ^ s:Against Apion/Book I
  77. ^ s:The Antiquities of the Jews/Book XX
  78. ^ Publius Papinius Statius; Gustave Queck (1854). "Silvae". Publius Papinius Statius. B.G. Teubneri. p. 58. Isis, ...gently with thine own hand lead the peerless youth, on whom the Latian prince hath bestowed the standards of the East and the bridling of the cohorts of Palestine, (i.e., a command on the Syrian front) through festal gate and sacred haven and the cities of thy land. (p. 58 at Google Books & p. 163 at archive.org) 
  79. ^ (Statius. Silvae. Ed. J. H. Mozley. London, New York: William Heinemann Ltd., G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1928.) p. 163 at archive.org
  80. ^ "Lucullus, By Plutarch". Classics.mit.edu. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  81. ^ Book 1 Chapter 14
  82. ^ a b "Pausanias, Description of Greece, 9. 1 - 22". Theoi.com. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  83. ^ a b Parke, Herbert William. Sibyls and sibylline prophecy in classical antiquity. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-05-28. 
  84. ^
    • Schürer, Emil (2014). "The Sibylline Oracles". The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ: Volume 3. A&C Black. p. 620. ISBN 9780567604521. Unique and noteworthy is also the discussion in Pausanias, who mentions four: (1) the Libyan Sibyl, (2) the Herophile of Marpessos or Erythrae, i.e. from Asia Minor, who also prophesied in Delphi, (3) the Demo in Cumae and (4) the Sabbe of the Hebrews in Palestine, who was also called the Babylonian or Egyptian, i.e. the Oriental. It seems that Pausanias has noted that the traditions relating to the Sibyls suggest four different categories of prophecy, and that he has simply assigned a geographical location to each. 
      *Buitenwerf, Rieuwerd (2010). "The identity of the prophetess Sibyl in "Sibylline Oracles" III.". Prophets and Prophecy in Jewish and Early Christian Literature. Coronet Books Incorporated. p. 44. ISBN 9783161503382. Pausanias (X 12.9) mentions the tradition of a Hebrew Sibyl in Palestine called Sabbe, daughter of Berossus and Erymanthe. 
      *Martin Goodman (1998). Jews in a Graeco-Roman World. Oxford University Press. p. 35. ISBN 9780191518362. By the second century CE Pausanias could make specific reference to a Sibyl of the Hebrews in Palestine alongside the Erythraean, Libyan, and Cumaean Sibyls. 
      *Collins, John Joseph (2001). Seers, Sibyls, and Sages in Hellenistic-Roman Judaism. BRILL. p. 185. ISBN 9780391041103. Pausanias concludes his list of sibyls with reference to a prophetess who was: "brought up in Palestine named Sabbe, whose father was Berosus and her mother Erymanthe. Some say she was a Babylonian, while others call her an Egyptian Sibyl. 
  85. ^ a b c Lehmann, Clayton Miles (Summer 1998). "Palestine: History: 135–337: Syria Palaestina and the Tetrarchy". The On-line Encyclopedia of the Roman Provinces. University of South Dakota. Archived from the original on 2009-08-11. Retrieved 2014-08-24. 
  86. ^ Appian of Alexandria. "Preface of the Roman History". Livius.org. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  87. ^ Lucian (of Samosata.) (1888). Howard Williams, ed. Lucian's Dialogues: Namely, The Dialogues of the Gods, of the Sea-gods, & of the Dead; Zeus the Tragedian, the Ferry-boat, Etc. George Bell & Sons. pp. 18–. MTYOLns5pAcC. Lucian, WILLIAMS ed. 1888, p. 18 at Google Books 
  88. ^ Pearse, Roger. "Lucian of Samosata : THE PASSING OF PEREGRINUS". The Tertullian Project. tertullian.org. Retrieved 19 December 2014. 
  89. ^ "Anabasis Alexandri". Archive.org. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  90. ^ Karl Friedrich August Nobbe, Geography, Book 5, Chapter 15
  91. ^ "Historia Romana, The Destruction of Jerusalem by Titus in 70CE". Homepages.luc.edu. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  92. ^ Itinerarium Antonini Avgvsti et Hierosolymitanvm: ex libris manvscriptis, By Gustav Parthey, p276
  93. ^ Röhricht 1890, p. 1.
  94. ^ Roger Pearse (2002-09-06). "Eusebius' History of the Martyrs in Palestine, translated by William Cureton". Ccel.org. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  95. ^ Professor Robert Louis Wilken (2009). The Land Called Holy: Palestine in Christian History and Thought. ISBN 0-300-06083-1. 
  96. ^ Röhricht 1890, p. 7.
  97. ^ a b Reland 1714, p. 45.
  98. ^ Exodus 6. 6.
  99. ^ Judges 2. 16.
  100. ^ "Book I:209". Against the Galileans. Translated by Wilmer Cave Wright, 1923, at Wikisource
  101. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus. "Ammianus Marcellinus, Book XIV, 8, 11". Tertullian.org. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  102. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus (1894). The Roman History of Ammianus Marcellinus: During the Reigns of the Emperors Constantius, Julian, Jovianus, Valentinian, and Valens. G. Bell. p. 29. 11. The last province of the Syrias is Palestine, a district of great extent, abounding in well-cultivated and beautiful land, and having several magnificent cities, all of equal importance, and rivalling one another as it were in parallel lines. For instance, Caesarea, which Herod built in honour of the Prince Octavianus, and Eleutheropolis, and Neapolis, and also Ascalon, and Gaza, cities built in bygone ages. (p. 29 at Google Books) 
  103. ^ "Letters of St. Jerome, Letter 33". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  104. ^ Thomas A. Idniopulos (1998). "Weathered by Miracles: A History of Palestine From Bonaparte and Muhammad Ali to Ben-Gurion and the Mufti". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-08-11. 
  105. ^ Le Strange 1890, p. 26.
  106. ^ "Roman Arabia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2007-08-11. 
  107. ^ Synecdemus, E. Weber, 1840, page 398
  108. ^ Georgii Cyprii descripto orbis Romani, edidit praefatus est commentario instruxit Henricus Gelzer, 1890, page XLVI
  109. ^ "Midrash Rabbah Genesis Volume I at Internet Archive". Archive.org. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  110. ^ Sir William Smith (1880). A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology: Earinus-Nyx. J. Murray. pp. 465–. 7. Commenturii in Ezechielem, in fourteen books, written at intervals during the years A.D. 411-414, the task having been begun immediately after the commentaries upon Isaiah, but repeatedly broken off. See Prolegg. and Ep. 126 ad Marcellin. et Anapsych. (Ed. Bened. vol. iii. p. 698.) (p. 465 at Google Books) 
  111. ^ "St. Jerome on Ezekiel Pt. 1- Latin". Aquinas Study Bible - Ezekiel. Google Sites. Retrieved 20 June 2015. iuda et terra israel ipsi institores tui in frumento primo; balsamum et mel et oleum et resinam proposuerunt in nundinis tuis. (lxx: iudas et filii israel isti negotiatores tui in frumenti commercio et unguentis; primum mel et oleum et resinam dederunt in nundinis tuis). uerbum hebraicum 'phanag' aquila, symmachus et theodotio ita ut apud hebraeos positum est transtulerunt, pro quo septuaginta 'unguenta', nos 'balsamum' uertimus. dicitur autem quibus terra iudaea, quae nunc appellatur palaestina, abundet copiis frumento, balsamo, melle et oleo et resina, quae a iuda et israel ad tyri nundinas deferuntur. 
  112. ^ Sainte Bible expliquée et commentée, contenant le texte de la Vulgate. Bibl. Ecclésiastique. 1837. p. 41. Quod si objeceris terram repromissionis dici, quae in Numerorum volumine continetur (Cap. 34), a meridie maris Salinarum per Sina et Cades-Barne, usque ad torrentem Aegypti, qui juxta Rhinocoruram mari magno influit; et ab occidente ipsum mare, quod Palaestinae, Phoenici, Syriae Coeles, Ciliciaeque pertenditur; ab aquilone Taurum montem et Zephyrium usque Emath, quae appellatur Epiphania Syriae; ad orientem vero per Antiochiam et lacum Cenereth, quae nunc Tiberias appellatur, et Jordanem, qui mari influit Salinarum, quod nunc Mortuum dicitur; (Image of p. 41 at Google Books) 
  113. ^ Hieronymus (1910). "Epistola CXXIX Ad Dardanum de Terra promissionis (al. 129; scripta circa annum 414ce)". Epistularum Pars III —Eusebius Hieronymus epistulae 121-154, p. 171 (The fifty-sixth volume of Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum also known as the Vienna Corpus: Letters Part 3, Containing letters 121-154 of St. Jerome.) Image of p. 171 at Archive.org
  114. ^ Migne, Jacques-Paul (1864). Patrologiæ cursus completus: seu, Bibliotheca universalis, integra, uniformis, commoda, oeconomica omnium SS. patrum, doctorum, scriptorumque ecclesiasticorum. Series græca 80. J.-P. Migne. pp. 1911–1912. INTERPR. PSALMI CXXXII. Vers. 3. Sicut rus Hermonis. qui descendit in montem Sion. Rurus ad aliam similitudinem transit, concordiae utilitatem docens: et hane dixit similem es e rori, qui ab Hermon in Sionem defertur. Tantus autem hic est, ut tegulae stillas emittant. Hermon autem mons est Palaestinae, e terra: Israelis tantum non contiguus. Quoniam illic mandavit Dominus benedictionem et vitam usque in saeculum. Non in Hermone, sed in Sione. In qua vitalis ros sancti Spiritus in sacros apostolos missus fuit, per quem fideles omnes sempiternam gratiam percipiunt. ΕΡΜΗΝ. ΤΟΥ ΡΛΒʹ ΨΑΛΜΟΥ. γʹ. Ὡς δρόσος Ἀερμὼν ἡ καταβαίνουσα ἐπὶ τὰ ὄρη Σιών. Πάλιν εἰς ἑτέραν εἰκόνα μετέβη, τῆς συμφωνίας διδάσκων τὸ χρήσιμον· καὶ ταύτην ἔφη σεν ἐοικέναι τῇ δρόσῳ, τῇ ἀπὸ τοῦ Ἀερμὼν τῇ Σιὼν ἐπιφερομένῃ. Τοσαύτη δὲ αὕτη, ὡς καὶ στα γόνας τοὺς κεράμους ἐκπέμπειν. Τὸ δὲ Ἀερμὼν· ὄρος ἐστὶ, καὶ αὐτὸ τῆς Παλαιστίνης, τῇ γῇ διαφέ ρων τοῦ Ἰσραήλ. Ὅτι ἐκεῖ ἐνετείλατο Κύριος τὴν εὐλογίαν, ζωὴν ἕως τοῦ αἰῶνος. Οὐκ ἐν Ἀερμὼν, ἀλλ' ἐν τῇ Σιὼν, ἐν ᾗ καὶ τοῦ παναγίου Πνεύματος ἐπὶ τοὺς ἱεροὺς ἀποστόλους ἡ ζωοποιὸς κατεπέμφθη δρόσος, δι' ἧς ἅπαντες οἱ πιστεύοντες τὴν αἰώνιον εὐλογίαν καρποῦνται. (Image of p. 1911 & p. 1912 at Google Books) 
  115. ^ Young's Literal Translation (1863). The holy Bible, tr. by R. Young. p. 394. PSALMS. CXXXIII. A Song of the Ascents, by David. v.1 Lo, how good and how pleasant The dwelling of brethren —even together! v.2 As the good oil on the head, Coming down on the beard, the beard of Aaron, That cometh down on the skirt of his robes, v.3 As dew of Hermon —That cometh down on hills of Zion, For there Jehovah commanded the blessing —Life unto the age! (Image of p. 394 at Google Books) 
  116. ^ Theodoret of Cyrus; Hill, Robert C. (1 February 2001). Theodoret of Cyrus: Commentary on the Psalms, 73-150. CUA Press. p. 312. ISBN 978-0-8132-0102-3. note 2. Geography is one area where Theodoret feels he has some competence. as we have seen. Perhaps he could have adverted to passages like Deut 4.48 that put Mount Hermon on Israel’s northern border. An observation on geography is felt pertinent by him —but nothing of a general nature on the value of harmony in the Christian community from the psalm, which has much to offer on the theme. 
  117. ^ Theodoret, Ecclesiastical History
  118. ^ Spicilegium Romanum, LXXXVIII, Angelo Mai
  119. ^ Zosimus New History, Book I
  120. ^ Extract from the Life of St Saba
  121. ^ "History of the Wars, Books I and II (of 8), by Procopius". Gutenberg.org. 2005-09-27. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  122. ^ "The History of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon. Book, page 89 / 1165". Knowledgerush.com. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  123. ^ Röhricht 1890, p. 10.
  124. ^ Antiochus Strategos, monk of Mar Saba c. 650 (1991). Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium, ed. Antiochus Strategos of Mar Saba., Capture of Jerusalem - Orientalia Christiana Periodica 57. Pont. institutum orientalium studiorum. p. 77. xxvZAAAAMAAJ. Palestinian monk Antiochus Strategos of Mar Saba. in his Capture of Jerusalem, the Georgian text of which fills 66 large octavo pages of 33 lines each. Strategos devoted particular attention to the massacre perpetrated by the Jews in "the reservoir of Mamel" (Abrahamson et al., p. 55, The Persian conquest of Jerusalem in 614 compared with Islamic conquest of 638) 
  125. ^ Abu Salih the Armenian; Abu al-Makarim (1895). Basil Thomas Alfred Evetts, ed. "History of Churches and Monasteries", Abu Salih the Armenian c. 1266 - Part 7 of Anecdota Oxoniensia: Semitic series Anecdota oxoniensia. [Semitic series--pt. VII]. Clarendon Press. pp. 39–. the emperor Heraclius, on his way to Jerusalem, promised his protection to the Jews of Palestine. (Abu Salih the Armenian, Abu al-Makarim, ed. Evetts 1895, p. 39, Part 7 of Anecdota Oxoniensia: Semitic series Anecdota oxoniensia. Semitic series--pt. VII) (Abu Salih the Armenian was just the Book's owner, the author is actually Abu al-Makarim.) 
  126. ^ Arculfi relatio de locis sanctis scripta ab Adamnano, p.30, Latin
  127. ^ The pilgrimage of Arculfus, Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society (1897), page 66
  128. ^ Röhricht 1890, p. 12.
  129. ^ "Jerusalem for the Three Monotheistic Religions. A Theological Synthesis, Alviero Niccacci" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  130. ^ The Ḥaram of Jerusalem, 324-1099: temple, Friday Mosque, area of spiritual power, by Andreas Kaplony. Books.google.co.uk. 2002-03-27. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  131. ^ Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society (1891): The hodæporicon of Saint Willibald, page 48
  132. ^ Röhricht 1890, p. 14.
  133. ^ The Chronicle of Theophanes: An English Translation, Harry Turtledove
  134. ^ Theophanes (the Confessor) (1 September 1982). Harry Turtledove, ed. The Chronicle of Theophanes: Anni Mundi 6095-6305 (A.D. 602-813). University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 35–. ISBN 0-8122-1128-6. lK5wIPb4Vi4C. Since Muhammad was a helpless orphan, he thought it good to go to a rich woman named Khadija ...to manage her camels and conduct her business in Egypt and Palestine... When he [Muhammad] went to Palestine he lived with both Jews and Christians, and hunted for certain writings among them. (Theophanes 1982, p. 35, The Chronicle of Theophanes) 
  135. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Le Strange 1890
  136. ^ a b Röhricht 1890, p. 17.
  137. ^ a b c Röhricht 1890, p. 18.
  138. ^ Eutychii Annales
  139. ^ Eutychius (Patriarch of Alexandria) (1863). J.P. Migne, ed. Epistolai, Volume 111 of Patrologiæ cursus completus: Series Græca 111. PmJ7zGaz9D4C. (Pocoke, Annals) from this (Migne 1863, Patrlogie, Series Graeca iii.) 
  140. ^ Mosheim, Johann Lorenz (1847). Institutes of Ecclesiastical History, Ancient and Modern: In Four Books, Much Corrected, Enlarged, and Improved from the Primary Authorities. Harper & Brothers. pp. 426–. pg0QAAAAYAAJ. CHAPTER II: ADVERSITIES OF THE CHURCH.: 1 Persecutions of the Christians.: ...The Christians suffered less in this than in the preceding centuries. ...In the East especially in Syria and Palestine the Jews sometimes rose upon the Christians with great violence (Eutyrhius, Annales tom ii., p. 236, &c. Jo. Henr. Hottinger, Historia Orientalis, lib. i., c. id., p. 129, &c.) yet so unsuccessfully as to suffer severely for their temerity. (Mosheim 1847, p. 426) 
  141. ^ "Meadows of gold and mines of gems" (translation as of 1841)
  142. ^ Le Strange 1890, p. 16.
  143. ^ Suda on line
  144. ^ Moseh Gill, "The Political History of Jerusalem During the Early Muslim Period", in Joshua Prawer and Haggai Ben-Shammai (eds), The History of Jerusalem, the Early Muslim Period, 638-1099, New York University Press and Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi, 1996
  145. ^ Diary of a Journey through Syria and Palestine
  146. ^ Röhricht 1890, p. 19.
  147. ^ Reland, Adrien (1714). Hadriani Relandi Palaestina ex monumentis veteribus illustrata: tomus I [-II]. ex libraria Guilielmi Broedelet. p. 39. R. Nathan in Lexico Aruch dicto ad vocem  פלסטיני‎ Παλαιστίνη [Palestine] notat in Bereschit Raba, antiquissimo in Genesin commentario, eam inveniri. (Image of p. 39 at Google Books) 
  148. ^ The Oxford History of the Crusades, Jonathan Simon Christopher Riley-Smith
  149. ^ p. 1
  150. ^ Röhricht 1890, p. 36.
  151. ^ [archive.org/stream/cu31924028534331#page/n12/mode/1up/ A Brief Description, by Joannes Phocas, of the Castles and Cities, from the City of Antioch even unto Jerusalem; also of Syria and Phoenicia, and of the Holy Places in Palestine] Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society
  152. ^ Röhricht 1890, p. 41.
  153. ^ Histoire de la guerre saincte, dite proprement la Franciade orientale, 1573. Books.google.co.uk. 2011-01-13. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  154. ^ History of Jerusalem Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society
  155. ^ Abu al-Makarim (1895). B.T.A. Evetts, ed. Ta'rīḫ Aš-šaiḫ Abī-Ṣaliḥ Al-Armanī Tuḏkaru Fīhi Aḫbār Min Nawāḥi Miṣr Wa-iqṭaihā. [Semitic series--pt. VII]. Johann Michael Vansleb. Clarendon Press. pp. 73–. RCJiAAAAMAAJ. At the beginning of the caliphate [of Umar] George was appointed patriarch of Alexandria. He remained four years in possession of the see. Then when he heard that the Muslims had conquered the Romans, and had vanquished Palestine, and were advancing upon Egypt, he took ship and fled from Alexandria to Constantinople; and after his time the see of Alexandria remained without a Melkite patriarch for-ninety seven years. (Abu al-Makarim 1895, p. 73) 
  156. ^ Röhricht 1890, p. 72.
  157. ^ "Palestine Pilgrims Text Society, Guidebook to Palestine". faculty.csupueblo.edu. Retrieved 2011-12-11. [dead link]
  158. ^ The Travels of Ibn Battuta, ed. H.A.R. Gibb (Cambridge University Press, 1954), 1:71-82
  159. ^ Liber Peregrinationis, Chapter V, p.59
  160. ^ Georgia in the reign of Giorgi the Brilliant : 1314-1346
  161. ^ John Poloner Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society
  162. ^ [1] Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society
  163. ^ Gerber 2008, p. 49.
  164. ^ Syriae Descriptio, numerous references on pages 2-10
  165. ^ a b Gerber 1998.
  166. ^ Richard Hakluyt, The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, and Discoveries of the English Nation
  167. ^ A treatise of continual fevers: in four parts by Jodocus Lommius, English translation of 1732. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  168. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  169. ^ Terræ Sanctæ, qua Promissionis terra, est Syriæ pars ea, quæ Palæstina uocatur
  170. ^ Ortelius, Abraham; Hogenberg (1570). Theatrum orbis terrarum [Ded. Philippo II. Carmen A. Mekerchi. De Mona druidum insula per H. Lhuyd]. Auctoris aere et cura impressum absolutumque apud Aegid. Coppenium Diesth. pp. 3–. L0mV9Lv4oX8C. p.3: Title image at Google Books 
  171. ^ Theatrum Orbis Terrarum
  172. ^ Holinshed's Chronicles page 224 and Holinshed's Chronicles at Perseus
  173. ^ Historiae Musulmanae Turcorum, de monumentis ipsorum exscriptae, libri XVIII. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  174. ^ Le relationi vniversali
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  177. ^ "Palaestina, vel Terra Sancta" by Magini, From the "Geography" of Claudius Ptolemy, edited by Magini, first printed in Padua in 1596
  178. ^ "King John: Entire Play". Shakespeare.mit.edu. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  179. ^ "shakespeare.mit.edu". shakespeare.mit.edu. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  180. ^ Petri della Valle, eines vornehmen Römischen patritii, Reiss-Beschreibung in unterschiedliche Theile der Welt : nemlich in Türckey, Egypten, Palestina, Persien, Ost-Indien, und andere weit entlegene Landschafften, samt einer aussführlichen Erzehlung aller Denck- und Merckwürdigster Sachen, so darinnen zu finden und anzutreffen
  181. ^ s:New Atlantis
  182. ^ Hakluytus Posthumus, volume 1, p.262
  183. ^ File:Frontispiece of "Introductio in Universam Geographiam" by Philipp Clüver, 1686.jpg
  184. ^ File:Philip Clüver00.jpg
  185. ^ Cluverius, Philippus (1672). Introductionis in universam geographiam tam vetiram quam novam, Libri VI: tabulis aeneis illustrati. Ex officina Elzeviriana. pp. 5–. 5ee9nDT4Pq0C. p.5: Title image at Google Books 
  186. ^ Fuller, Thomas (1639). The Historie of the Holy Warre. Buck. 
  187. ^ Fuller, Thomas (1869). A Pisgah sight of Palestine. pp. 17–. 
  188. ^ Fuller, Thomas (1840). The history of the worthies of England. pp. 13–. p.13: He spent that and the following year betwixt London and Waltham employing some engravers to adorn his copious prospect or view of the Holy Land as from Mount Pisgah therefore called his Pisgah sight of Palestine and the confines thereof with the history of the Old and New Testament acted thereon which he published in 1650 It is a handsome folio embellished with a frontispiece and many other copper plates and divided into five books. 
  189. ^ Pisgah sight of Palestine
  190. ^ The Geographical Works of Sadik Isfahani, 1832 translation. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  191. ^ trans. St. H. Stephan (Ariel Publishing, 1980), p63).
  192. ^ Alsted, Johann Heinrich (1649). Scientiarum Omnium Encyclopaedia. J. A. Huguetan filii et M. A. Ravaud. pp. 560–. KQ9TAAAAcAAJ. XI. Palestina lacus tres sunt, è quibus duo posteriores natissimi sum historia sacra (11. Palestine has three lakes, the later two of these I relate to Biblical history) (Alsted 1649, p. 560 at Google Books) 
  193. ^ Gerber 2008, p. 50.
  194. ^ Gerber 2008, p. 51:"Another Palestinian writer of the seventeenth century who used Filastin to name his country was Salih b. Ahmad al-Timurtashi, who wrote a fadail (Merits) book titled "The Complete Knowledge of the Limits of the Holy Land and Palestine and Syria (Sham)." [Footnote]: Ghalib Anabsi, From the "Merits of the Holy Land" Literature, MA thesis, Tel Aviv University, 1992."
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  196. ^ Olfert Dapper; Jacob van Meurs (1689). Asia, Oder Genaue und Gründliche Beschreibung des gantzen Syrien und Palestins, oder Gelobten Landes: Worinnen Die Landschafften Phoenicien, Celesyrien, Commagene, Pierien, Cyrestica, Seleucis, Cassiotis, Chalibonitis, Chalcis, Abilene, Apamene, Laodicis, Palmyrene, etc. : Neben denen Ländern Perea oder Ober-Jordan, Galiläa, das absonderliche Palestina, Judäa und Idumea, begriffen sind. Genaue und gründliche Beschreibung des gantzen Palestins, Oder Gelobten Landes 2. Hofmann. pp. 1–. p. 1 at Google Books 
  197. ^ "Zucker Holy Land Travel Manuscript". Schoenberg Institute for Manuscript Studies. University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 28 April 2015. 
  198. ^ Mallet, Alain Manesson (1683). "De l'Asie". Description De l'Univers (in French) 2. Paris: Denys Thierry. p. 245. Retrieved 17 June 2015. 
  199. ^ Milner, John (1688). A Collection of the Church-history of Palestine: From Birth of Christ ... Dring. pp. 19–. bjQBAAAAcAAJ. Hitherto of Places, now follows an account of the Persons concerned in the Church-History of Palestine. (Milner 1688, p. 19) 
  200. ^ Bohun, Edmund (1688). A Geographical Dictionary, Representing the Present and Ancient Names of All the Countries, Provinces, Remarkable Cities ...: And Rivers of the Whole World: Their Distances, Longitudes and Latitudes. C. Brome. pp. 353–. U3lMAAAAMAAJ. Jerusalem, Hierosolyma, the Capital City of Palestine, and for a long time of the whole Earth; taken notice of by Pliny, Strabo, and many of the Ancients. (Bohun 1688, p. 353 ) 
  201. ^ Gordon, Patrick (1704) [1702]. Geography anatomiz'd: or, the geographical grammar. Being a short and exact analysis of the whole body of modern geography after a new and curious method. comprehending, I. A general view of the terraqueous globe. Being a compendious system of the true fundamentals of geography; digested into various definitions, problems, theorems, and paradoxes: with a transient survey of the surface of the earthly ball, as it consists of land and water. II. A particular view of the terraqueous globe. Being a clear and pleasant prospect of all remarkable countries upon the face of the whole earth; shewing their situation, extent, division, subdivision, cities, chief towns, name, air, soil, commodities, rarities, archbishopricks, bishopricks, universities, manners, languages, government, arms, religion. collected from the best authors, and illustrated with divers maps. The fourth edition corrected, and somewhat enlarg'd. by Pat. Gordon, M.A., F.R.S. (4 ed.). S. and J. Sprint, John Nicholson, Sam Burrows in Little Britain, and Andrew Bell and R. Smith in Cornhill. pp. 1 vol., xxvi + 431pp. OMEwAAAAYAAJ. This Country ...is term'd by the Italians and Spaniards, Palestina; by the French, Palestine; by the Germans Palestinen, or das Gelobte Land; by the English, Palestine, or the Holy Land. (Gordon 1704, p. 290) 
  202. ^ Life of James Ferguson, F.R.S.: In a Brief Autobiographical Account, and Further Extended Memoir. A. Fullarton. 1867. pp. 20–. hItnAAAAMAAJ. Geography Anatomiz d or the Geographical Grammar by Patrick Gordon MA FRS ...In some old catalogues of books in our possession we observe that editions of it were issued in 1693 and in 1722 (p. 20, at Google Books @ http://books.google.com/books?id=hItnAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA20&img=1&zoom=3&hl=en&sig=ACfU3U2EDy7lgav9J5b5uMApPtsA1KhX0Q&ci=154%2C1248%2C721%2C183&edge=0 ) 
  203. ^ Baumgarten, Martin (1704). A Collection of Voyages and Travels: Some Now First Printed from Original Manuscripts 1. Awnsham and John Churchill. pp. 458–. p. 425 & p. 458 at Google Books 
  204. ^ Reland, Adrien (1714). "CAPUT VII. DE NOMINE PALAESTINAE". Hadriani Relandi Palaestina ex monumentis veteribus illustrata: tomus I [-II] (in Latin) 1. ex libraria Guilielmi Broedelet. pp. 37, 42. CAPUT VII. DE NOMINE PALAESTINAE. [i.]Regio omnis quam Judaei incoluerunt nomen Palaestinae habuit. [ii.]Hebraeorum scriptores, Philo, Josephus, & alii hoc nomine usi. [iii.] פלסטיני‎ in antiquissimis Judaeorum scriptis. (Chapter 7. Palestine. [i.]The country that the Jews inhabited was called Palestine. [ii.]The Hebrew Scriptures, Philo, Josephus, and the others who have used this name. [iii.] פלסטיני‎ [Palestinian] in ancient Jewish writings.) [...] Chapter 8. Syria-Palaestina, Syria, and Coelesyria. Herodotus described Syria-Palaestina. The Palestinian southern boundary is lake Serbonian. Jenysus & Jerusalem are cities of Palestine, as is Ashdod and Ashkelon. Palestine is different from Phoenice. (p. 37 & p. 42 at Google Books) 
  205. ^ Beausobre, Isaac de; Lenfant, David (1718). Le Nouveau Testament de notre seigneur Jesus-Christ. Humbert. pp. 169–. rmRAAAAAcAAJ. p:169 On a déja eu occasion de parler des divers noms, que portoit autrefois la Terre d Israël, ,,,Ici nous désignerons sous le nom de Palestine qui est le plus commun. (We previously spoke of the various names for the Land of Israel, ...Now we will refer to the Land of Israel by the name of Palestine which is the most common) 
  206. ^ Beausobre, Isaac de; Lenfant, Jacques (1806). An Introduction to the Reading of the Holy Scriptures: Intended Chiefly for Young Students in Divinity ; Written Originally in French. J. and E. Hudson. pp. 252–. 
  207. ^ Toland, John (1718). Nazarenus: Or Jewish, Gentile, and Mahometan Christianity. pp. 8–. XA5PAAAAcAAJ. (Toland 1718, p. 8 at Google Books) 
  208. ^ Sanchuniathon; Cumberland, Richard; Payne, Squier; Eratosthenes (1720). Sanchoniatho's Phoenician History: Translated from the First Book of Eusebius De Praeparatione Evangelica : with a Continuation of Sanchoniatho's History by Eratosthenes Cyrenaeus's Canon, which Dicaearchus Connects with the First Olympiad ... W.B. pp. 482–483. That the Philistines who were of Mizraim's family, were the first planters of Crete. ...I observe that in the Scripture language the Philistines are call'd Cerethites, Sam. xxx. 14, 16. Ezek. xxv. 16. Zeph. ii. 5. And in the two last of these places the Septuagint translates that word Cretes. The name signifies archers, men that in war were noted for skill in using bows and arrows. ...[I] believe that both the people and the religion, (which commonly go together) settled in Crete, came from these Philistines who are originally of Ægyptian race. (Image of p. 482 & p. 483 at Google Books) 
  209. ^ or Regnum Persicum Imperium Turcicum in Asia Russorum Provinciae and Mare Caspium
  210. ^ or Turkey in Asia Minor
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  212. ^ Korten, Jonas (1741). Jonas Kortens Reise nach dem weiland Gelobten nun aber seit 1700 Jahren unter dem Fluche ligenden Lande, wie auch nach Egypten, dem Berg Libanon, Syrien und Mesopotamien, von ihm selbst aufrichtig beschrieben und durchgehends mit Anmerckungen begleitet. 
  213. ^ Charles Thompson (fict. name.) (1744). The travels of the late Charles Thompson esq; 3 vols 3. p. 99. I shall henceforwards, without Regard to geographical Niceties and Criticisms, consider myself as in the Holy Land, Palestine or Judea; which Names I find used indifferently, though perhaps with some Impropriety, to signify the same Country. (Image of Title page & p. 99 at Google Books) 
  214. ^ HARENBERG, Johann Christoph (1744). La Palestine ou la Terre Sainte. Palaestina seu Terra olim sancta ... dessinée par J.C. Harenberg. 
  215. ^ Salmon, Thomas (1744). Modern History Or the Present State of All Nations. 
  216. ^ The modern Gazetteer or, a short view of the several nations of the world, Thomas Salmon
  217. ^ The London Magazine, and Monthly Chronologer. 1741. 
  218. ^ Johannes Aegidius van Egmont; Heyman, John (1759). Travels Through Part of Europe, Asia Minor, the Islands of the Archipelago, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Mount Sinai, &c: Giving a Particular Account of the Most Remarkable Places .. 2. L. Davis and C. Reymers. pp. 389–. zMkGAAAAQAAJ. Retrieved 13 January 2015. p.389 The Jews of Jerusalem are divided into three sects, the Karaites, who adhere to the letter of the Scripture, without admitting any comments, or glosses; the Rabbinists, who receive for indubitable truths, all the comments and traditions so well known in the world, and are hence much more superstitious than the former; the third are the Askenites, who come from Germany, and are known among their brethren by the name of new converts; not being descended from the twelve tribes. [...] p.390 Besides these three sects, there is in the country of Palestine a fourth sort of Jews, but sworn enemies to the others, I mean the Samaritans; these have frequently endeavoured by the arts of bribery to obtain the privilege of living in Jerusalem, and in order to accomplish this design, have lavished away above five hundred purses. 
  219. ^ Voltaire; Smollett, Tobias George; Francklin, Thomas (1763). The Works of M. de Voltaire: Additions to the essay on general history. v. 32-33. Miscellaneous poems. J. Newbery, R. Baldwin, W. Johnston, S. Crowder, T. Davies, J. Coote, G. Kearsley, and B. Collins, at Salisbury. pp. 42–. KDcLAAAAQAAJ. (Voltaire, ed. Smollett and Francklin 1763, p. 42 at Google Books) 
  220. ^ Schrader, Christophorus; Meierus, Gebh. Theodorus; Harenberg, Johann Christoph (1765). Tabulae chronologicae a prima rerum origine et inde ad nostra tempora. Haered. L. Schröderi. p. 33. 225 A.C. Judæis in Palæstina degere permissum. (Image of p. 33 at Google Books) 
  221. ^ Diderot, Denis; Vaugondy (1778). "Palestine". Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers...par une Société de gens de lettres... mis en ordre et publié par M. Diderot ; et quant à la partie mathématique par M. d' Alembert 25. chez Pellet imprimeur-libraire. p. 315. Image of p. 315 at Google Books] 
  222. ^ Ancient Part of Universal History. C. Bathurst, J.F. and C. Rivington, A. Hamilton, T. Payne, T. Longman, S. Crowder, B. Lawe, T. Becket, J. Robson, F. Newbery, G. Robinson, T. Cadell, J. and T. Bowles, S. Bladon, J. Murray, and W. Fox. 1779. p. 51. How Judæa came to be called also Phœnice, or Phœnicia, we have already shewn in the history of that nation. At present, the name of Palestine is that which has most prevailed among the Christian doctors, Mahommedan and other writers. (See Reland Palestin. illustrat.) (Image of p. 51 at Google Books) 
  223. ^ Struve, Burkhard Gotthelf; Buder, Christian Gottlieb; Meusel, Johann Georg (1782). "CAPUT IV. Scriptores de rebus Hebraeorum et Iudaeorum". Bibliotheca historica. Voluminis I Pars II. apud heredes Weidmanni et Reichium. p. 390. Image of p. 390 at Google Books 
  224. ^ Volney, Constantin-François (1788). Travels through Syria and Egypt, in the years 1783, 1784, and 1785: Containing the present natural and political state of those countries, their productions, arts, manufactures, and commerce; with observations on the manners,customs, and government of the Turks and Arabs. Illustrated with copper plates 1. printed for G.G.J. and J. Robinson. 
  225. ^ Volney, Constantin-François (1788). Travels Through Syria and Egypt, in the Years 1783, 1784, and 1785: Containing the Present Natural and Political State of Those Countries, Their Productions, Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce; with Observations on the Manners,customs, and Government of the Turks and Arabs. Illustrated with Copper Plates 2. G.G.J. and J. Robinson. 
  226. ^ Volney, Constantin-François (1805). Travels Through Syria and Egypt, in the Years 1783, 1784, and 1785: Containing the Present Natural and Political State of Those Countries, Their Productions, Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce : with Observations on the Manners, Customs, and Government of the Turks and Arabs 1. G. Robinson. pp. 294–. Image of p. 295 & p. 296 at Google Books 
  227. ^ Travels Through Cyprus, Syria, and Palestine; with a General History of the Levant
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  229. ^ or Geographicus - Turkey in Asia
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  231. ^ Thomas ROBERTS (Toxophilite.) (1801). The English Bowman, Or Tracts on Archery: to which is Added the Second Part of the Bowman's Glory [by W. M., I.e. William Wood]. Egerton. pp. 130, note 4. The Philistines, indeed, are frequently noticed in sacred history, as men very skilful in the use of the bow. And to this ancient people, who appear to have been a very warlike nation, the invention of the bow and arrow has been ascribed. Universal Hist. (anc. part) vol. 2. p. 220. 
  232. ^ Lant Carpenter (1811). An Introduction to the Geography of the New Testament, Comprising a Summary Chronological and Geographical View of the Events Recorded Respecting the Ministry of Our Saviour: Accompanied with Maps, Questions for Examination, and an Accented Index: Principally Designed for the Use of Young Persons, and for the Sunday-employment of Schools. William Hilliard. 
  233. ^ Carpenter, Lant (1807). An Introduction to the Geography of the New Testament, Comprising a Summary Chronological and Geographical View of the Events Recorded Respecting the Ministry of Our Saviour: Accompanied with Maps, with Questions for Examination, and an Accented Index : Principally Designed for the Use of Young Persons, and for the Sunday-employment of Schools. Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme, Pater-noster-Row. 
  234. ^ "Carpenter, Lant (DNB00)". Wikisource. Retrieved 23 November 2014. 
  235. ^ Itinéraire de Paris à Jérusalem (1884 edition)
  236. ^ Horne, Thomas Hartwell (1839). A Manual of Biblical Bibliography: Comprising a Catalogue Metodically Arranged of the Principal Editions and Versions of the Holy Scriptures ; Together with Notices of the Principal Philologers, Critics, and Interpreters of the Bible. T. Cadell. pp. 391–. 
  237. ^ Paxton, George (1842). Illustrations of Scripture (3 ed.). Retrieved 22 November 2014. 
  238. ^ Paxton, George (1822). Chase, Ira, ed. Volume 1 of Illustrations of the Holy Scriptures: In Three Parts, Rev. Ira Chase. J. E. Moore ; J. Harding, printer. Retrieved 22 November 2014. 
  239. ^ a b Paxton, George (1822). Chase, Irah, ed. Illustrations of the Holy Scriptures: In Three Parts. Volume 2. J. E. Moore ; J. Harding, printer. Retrieved 22 November 2014. 
  240. ^ Paxton, George (1822). "Part 3, Chap. 1". Illustrations of the Holy Scriptures: In Three Parts ... 2. J. E. Moore ; J. Harding, printer. pp. 158–. qY9HAAAAYAAJ. Retrieved 30 November 2014. Females of distinction in Palestine, and even in Mesopotamia, are not only beautiful and well-shaped, but, in consequence of being always kept from the rays of the sun, are very fair. 
  241. ^ Rees, Abraham (1819). The Cyclopædia: Or, Universal Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Literature. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown [etc. ]. pp. 84–. p. 84 at Google Books 
  242. ^ Rees, Abraham (1819). Syria, The Cyclopædia: Or, Universal Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Literature. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown [etc. ]. pp. 708–. p. 708 at Google Books 
  243. ^ Malte-Brun, Conrad (1822). Universal Geography, Or, a Description of All the Parts of the World, on a New Plan: According to the Great Natural Divisions of the Globe; Accompanied with Analytical, Synoptical, and Elementary Tables. A. Black. p. 98. Image of p. 98 & p. 166 & p. 167 at Google Books 
  244. ^ (Malte-Brun 1822, pp. 166–167)
  245. ^ Buckingham, James Silk (1822). Travels in Palestine, through the countries of Bashan and Gilead, east of the river Jordan: incl. a visit to the cities of Geraza and Gamala, in the Decapolis. Longman. pp. 261–. yX9CAAAAcAAJ. (Buckingham 1822, p. 261 at Google Books) 
  246. ^ Richardson, Robert (1822). Travels Along the Mediterranean and Parts Adjacent: In Company with the Earl of Belmore, During the Years 1816-17-18: Extending as Far as the Second Cataract of the Nile, Jerusalem, Damascus, Balbec, &c. ... T. Cadell. pp. 201, 266. p. 201 & p. 266 at Google Books] 
  247. ^ Irby, Charles Leonard; Mangles, James (1823). Travels in Egypt and Nubia, Syria, and Asia Minor; During the Years 1817 and 1818. pp. 406–. p. 406 and p. 407 at Google Books 
  248. ^ Rosenmüller, Ernst Friedrich Karl (1823). "Geographie von Palästina". Handbuch der biblischen Altertumskunde: Biblische Geographie 2. Baumgärtner. 
  249. ^ Rosenmüller, Ernst Friedrich Karl (1827). "Vierzehntes Hauptstück (Fourteenth main point): Palästina oder das Land der Hebräer (Palestine or the land of the Hebrews)". Handbuch der biblischen Alterthumskunde. Baumgartner. p. 7. Image of p. 7 at Google Books 
  250. ^ "Bibliotheca Britannica ; or, A general index to ... v.4. Watt, Robert, 1774-1819.". HathiTrust’s digital library. HathiTrust. Retrieved 26 April 2015. 
  251. ^ Watt, Robert (1824). Bibliotheca Britannica; Or, A General Index to British and Foreign Literature 4. Constable. pp. 794–. Image of p. 794 at Google Books 
  252. ^ Brockhaus' Konversations-Lexikon (1827). Allgemeine deutsche Real-Encyklopädie für die gebildeten Stände: Conversations-Lexikon. F.A. Brockhaus. pp. 204–. p. 204 at Google Books 
  253. ^ Conder, Josiah (1830). "Palestine". The Modern Traveller 1. J. Duncan. 
  254. ^ THE LANGUAGE OF PALESTINE IN THE AGE OF CHRIST AND THE APOSTLES. By De Rossi and Heinrich Friedrich Pfannkuche, translated and printed in Philological Tracts, London 1833. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  255. ^ Annals of Palestine, 1821-1841, S.N. Spyridon, in: Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society, Volume 18, 1938
  256. ^ Raumer, Karl Georg (1867). Palestina. Kemink. p. 17. Image of p. 17 at Google Books 
  257. ^ Carl von RAUMER (Professor at the University of Erlangen.) (1835). Palästina ... Mit einem Plan von Jerusalem, etc. 
  258. ^ Berghaus, Heinrich (1832). Asia, Sammlung von Denkschriften in Beziehung auf die Geo- und Hydrographie dieses Erdtheils; zur Erklärung und Erläuterung seines Karten-Atlas zusammengetragen. No. 5 Syrien. Geographisches Memoir zur Erklärung und Erläuterung der Karte von Syrien. (No. 5 von Berghaus’ Atlas von Asia.). Gotha: Justus Perthes. p. 17. †Berghaus, Map = Heinrich Berghaus, Karte von Syrien, den Manen Jacotin's und Burckhardt's gewidmet (Berghaus' Atlas von Asien, 5), Gotha: Justus Perthes, 1835. — ‡Berghaus, Memoir = Heinrich Berghaus, Geographisches Memoir zur Erklärung und Erläuterung der Karte von Syrien (No. 5. von Berghaus’ Atlas von Asia), Gotha: Justus Perthes, 1835. (Image of p. 17 at Google Books) 
  259. ^ "Letters on Egypt, Edom and the Holy Land". Archive.org. 2001-03-10. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  260. ^ Addison, Charles Greenstreet (1838). Damascus and Palmyra: a journey to the East. E.L. Carey & A. Hart. p. 252. p. 252 at Google Books 
  261. ^ Ferdinand de Géramb (1840). A pilgrimage to Palestine, Egypt and Syria. p. 152. Image of p. 152 at Google Books 
  262. ^ George Long (scholar), ed. (1840). Palestine, The Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. Charles Knight (publisher). pp. 163–. p. 163 at Google Books 
  263. ^ George Long (scholar), ed. (1842). Syria, The Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. Charles Knight (publisher). pp. 475–. p. 475 & p. 476 at Google Books 
  264. ^ Kitto, John (1844). The Pictorial History of Palestine and the Holy Land, Including a Complete History of the Jews, Volume 1. C. Knight. Retrieved 11 November 2014. 
  265. ^ Kitto, John (1844). The Pictorial History of Palestine and the Holy Land, Including a Complete History of the Jews, Volume 2. C. Knight. Retrieved 21 November 2014. 
  266. ^ Kitto, John (1841). Palestine: the Physical Geography and Natural History of the Holy Land, Illustrated with Woodcuts. - London, Knight 1841. CHARLES KNIGHT AND CO., LUDGATE STREET. 
  267. ^ Palestine: the Bible history of the ... - John Kitto - Google Books. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  268. ^ ROBINSON, Edward (1841). Biblical researches in Palestine, mount Sinai and Arabia Petrea. J.Murray. pp. 332, note 2. Image of p. 332 at Google Books 
  269. ^ Balbi, Adriano (1842). System of universal geography, founded on the works of Malte-Burn and Balbi: embracing a historical sketch of the progress of geographical discovery, the principles of mathematical and physical geography, and a complete description from the most recent sources, of the political and social condition of the world ... Adam and Charles Black. pp. 651–654. 
  270. ^ Keith, Alexander (1843). The Land of Israel, According to the Covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob. William Whyte. pp. 186–. p. 186 at Google Books 
  271. ^ Keith, Alexander (1843). The Land of Israel, According to the Covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob. William Whyte. pp. 467–. p. 467 & p. 468 at Google Books 
  272. ^ Olin, Stephen (1843). Travels in Egypt, Arabia Petræa, and the Holy land. Harper & brothers. pp. 434–. p. 434 at Google Books 
  273. ^ Röhr, Johann Friedrich; Eli, Smith; Wolcott, Samuel (1843). Röhr's Historico-geographical account of Palestine: Researches in Palestine. T. Clark. p. 185. p. 185 at Google Books 
  274. ^ J. T. Bannister (1844). A Survey of the Holy Land... Binns and Goodwin. pp. 148–149. Images of p. 148 & p. 149 at Google Books 
  275. ^ Smedley, Edw (1845). "Syria". Encyclopaedia Metropolitana; or, universal dictionary of knowledge, on an original plan: comprising the twofold advantage of a philosophical and an alphabetical arrangement, with appropriate engravings: Edited by Edw. Smedley, Hugh Jam. Rose, and H. John Rose. (Text: voll. XXVI. Plates: voll. III. Index 25. B. Fellowes, Rivington, Ducan, Malcolm, Suttaby, Hodgson. p. 383. Image of p. 383 at Google Books 
  276. ^ Munk, Salomon (1845). Palestine: Description géographique, historique et archéologique (in French). F. Didot. pp. 2–3. Sous le nom de Palestine, nous comprenons le petit pays habité autrefois par les Israélites, et qui aujourd'hui fait partie des pachalics d'Acre et de Damas. Il s'étendait entre le 31 et 33° degré latitude N. et entre le 32 et 35° degré longitude E., sur une superficie d'environ 1300 lieues carrées. Quelques écrivains jaloux de donner au pays des Hébreux une certaine importance politique, ont exagéré l'étendue de la Palestine; mais nous avons pour nous une autorité que l'on ne saurait récuser. Saint Jérôme, qui avait longtemps voyagé dans cette contrée, dit dans sa lettre à Dardanus (ep. 129) que de la limite du nord jusqu'à celle du midi il n'y avait qu'une distance de 160 milles romains, ce qui fait environ 55 lieues. Il rend cet hommage à la vérité bien qu'il craigne, comme il le dit lui-même de livrer par la terre promise aux sarcasmes païens. (Pudet dicere latitudinem terrae repromissionis, ne ethnicis occasionem blasphemandi dedisse uideamur) 
  277. ^ Munk, Salomon; Levy, Moritz A. (1871). Palästina: geographische, historische und archäologische Beschreibung dieses Landes und kurze Geschichte seiner hebräischen und jüdischen Bewohner (in German). Leiner. p. 1. Image of p. 1 at Google Books 
  278. ^ McLeod, Walter (1847). The geography of Palestine. pp. 51–52. MODERN DIVISIONS. 8. Palestine is now divided into pashalicks, the most important of which are Akka and Damascus. The country is under the dominion of the Turks, and is governed by Mehemet Pasha, who has been recently appointed the governor-general of Palestine. 
  279. ^ Arculf; Willibald (1848). THOMAS WRIGHT, ed. Early travels in Palestine: comprising the narratives of Arculf, Willibald, [and others]. Henry G. Bohn. p. 1. Image of p. 1 at Google Books 
  280. ^ RITTER, Carl (1866). The comparative geographie of Palestine and the Sinaitic Peninsula. T. & T. Clark. p. 22. CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF THE AUTHORITIES ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF PALESTINE. ...the lists of authorities given by Reland, Pococke, Meusel, Bellermann, Rosenmüller, Berghaus, Hammer-Purgstall, and more especially by von Raumer and Robinson. ...Others which we have from the English and the French ...John Kitto, Munk. (Image of p. 22 at Google Books) 
  281. ^ Ritter, Carl (1848). Vergleichende Erdkunde der Sinai-Halbinsel, von Palaestina und Syrien. G. Reiner. 
  282. ^ Lynch, William Francis (1849). Narrative of the United States' Expedition to the River Jordan and the Dead Sea. Lea and Blanchard. pp. 425–. p. 425 at Google Books 
  283. ^ Schwarz, Yehoseph (1850). A Descriptive Geography and Brief Historical Sketch of Palestine. A. Hart. p. 378. p. 378 at Google Books 
  284. ^ James Redhouse (1856). An English and Turkish dictionary. 
  285. ^ Porter, Josias Leslie (1868). John Murray (Firm), ed. A Handbook for Travellers in Syria and Palestine ... 1. J. Murray. pp. 177–. p. 177 at Google Books 
  286. ^ Porter, Josias Leslie (1858). A handbook for travellers in Syria and Palestine 2. Murray. pp. 374–. p. 374 at Google Books 
  287. ^ Traill, Thomas Stewart (1860). The Encyclopaedia Britannica: Or, Dictionary of Arts, Sciences and General Literature. A. and C. Black. pp. 36–. David Kay published articles on various subjects and was one of the sub-editors on the eighth edition of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Geographical Articles from the Encyclopaedia Britannica 4to David Kay Esq frgs  
  288. ^ Traill, Thomas Stewart (1859). 'Palestine', The Encyclopaedia Britannica 17 (8 ed.). A. and C. Black. pp. 198–. Djk6AQAAMAAJ. [Palestine] ...was finally subdued in 1517 by Selim I., the sultan of the Turks, under whom it has continued for more than 300 years. ...until the memorable invasion of Egypt by the French army in 1798. Bonaparte being apprised that preparations were making in the pashalic of Acre for attacking him in Egypt, resolved, according to his usual tactics, to anticipate the movements of his enemies. He accordingly marched across the desert which divides Egypt from Palestine, and invaded the country at the head of 10,000 troops. After taking several towns, and among the rest Jaffa, where he stained his character by the atrocious massacre of 4000 prisoners. (Traill 1859, p. 198, 'Palestine', The Encyclopaedia Britannica, 17) 
  289. ^ Traill, Thomas Stewart (1860). The Encyclopaedia Britannica: Or, Dictionary of Arts, Sciences and General Literature. A. and C. Black. pp. 38–. J.L.P. —Porter, Rev. J. L., Author of the "Handbook to Syria and Palestine". (p. 38 at Google Books) 
  290. ^ 'Syria', Encyclopaedia Britannica 20 (8 ed.). Little, Brown, & Company. 1860. pp. 907–. 1TI7AQAAMAAJ. The modern inhabitants of Syria and Palestine are a mixed race, made up of the descendants of the ancient Syrians who occupied the country in the early days of Christianity and of the Arabians who came in with the armies of the khalifs and settled in the cities and villages. The number of the latter being comparatively small, the mixture of blood did not visibly change the type of the ancient people. This may be seen by comparing the Christians with the Muslems. The former are undoubtedly of pure Syrian descent, while the latter are more or less mixed, and yet there is no visible distinction between the two save what dress makes. (1860, p. 907, 'Syria', The Encyclopaedia Britannica, 20) 
  291. ^ 36th United States Congress (1860). The Massacres in Syria: a Faithful Account of the Cruelties and Outrages Suffered by the Christians of Mount Lebanon, During the Late Persecutions in Syria: With a Succinct History of Mahometanism and the Rise of the Maronites, Druses ... and Other Oriental Sects ... R.M. De Witt. pp. 11–. -mKObB86PUMC. (36th U.S. Congress 1860, p. 11 at Google Books) 
  292. ^ Norton, William (1865). S. C. Hall, ed. How I Got My Cork Legs, The St. James's Magazine. W. Kent. p. 225. p. 225 at Google Books 
  293. ^ Tobler, Titus (1867). Bibliographica Geographica Palaestinae. Leipzig: Verlag Von S. Hirzel. Retrieved 19 June 2015. Cover image at Archive.org] 
  294. ^ Hamidian Palestine: Politics and Society in the District of Jerusalem 1872-1908, By Johann Büssow, p5
  295. ^ Khalidi 1997, p. 151.
  296. ^ Burton, Lady Isabel (1875). The Inner Life of Syria, Palestine, and the Holy Land: From My Private Journal. H. S. King and Company. pp. 349–. p. 349 ay Google Books 
  297. ^ Gerber 2008, p. 51: "Abdul Karim Rafeq, who wrote an extensive study on Ottoman Palestine, came across the term a number of times [Footnote]: Abdul-Karim Rafeq, "Filastin fi Ahd al-Uthmaniyin", al-Mawsua al-Filistiniyya, Part 2, Special Studies, Vol. 2, Historical Studies, Beirut: Hay’at al-Mawsua al-Filistiniyya, 1990, pp. 695–990." "Among his sources for the late-nineteenth century was a travelogue of a Damascene traveler, Nu`man al-Qasatli. This book, still in manuscript, is called "al-Rawda al-Numaniyya in the travelogue to Palestine and some Syrian Towns.""
    [see also]: Nu`man ibn `Abdu al-Qasatli, The Forgotten Surveyor of Western Palestine, Journal of Palestinian Archaeology 1 (2000): 28-29
  298. ^ The Boundaries of Modern Palestine, 1840-1947, Gideon Biger, p15
  299. ^ Röhricht, Reinhold (1890). Reinhold Röhricht, Bibliotheca Geographica Palestine, from the year A.D. 333 to A.D. 1878. H. Reuther. pp. 1–. YY_bk3Jf-9QC. Google Books title image @ http://books.google.com/books?id=YY_bk3Jf-9QC&pg=PR1&img=1&zoom=3&hl=en&sig=ACfU3U21AQl8wuT1bmaYDcYjnpmrNG_zEQ&ci=73%2C174%2C793%2C1213&edge=0 
  300. ^ The Church Quarterly Review. S.P.C.K. 1891. pp. 259–. VJE3AAAAMAAJ. Bibliotheca Geographica Palestine. Chronologisches Verzeichniss der auf die Geographic des heiligen Landes beziiglichen Literatur von 333 bis 1878 und Versuch einer Cartographic. Herausgegeben von Reinhold Rohricht. (Berlin: H. Reuther's Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1890.) The title indicates clearly enough the general character of this book. It professes to give a list of all the books relating to the geography of Palestine from the year A.D. 333 to A.D. 1878 and also a chronological list of maps relating to Palestine. (The Church Quarterly Review 1891, p. 259) 
  301. ^ A History of Civilization in Palestine. CUP Archive. pp. 130–. GGKEY:5CEENZCZEW9. p. 130: Bibliography: Only a small selection can be mentioned from among the books on Palestine. Bibliotheca Geographica Palestinae, (Berlin, 1890), enumerates 3515 books, issued between 333 A.D. and 1878 A.D. 
  302. ^ Gerber 2008, p. 51: "Perhaps the clearest indication that it was not the British who invented the term Palestine is its usage by the Ottoman authorities. The remnants of the correspondence of the Ottoman governors with their superiors in the first decade of the twentieth century quite often relate to the Zionist question and the resistance to it among local inhabitants. The country is referred to throughout as Palestine."
  303. ^ Gerber 2008, p. 48.
  304. ^ "Arab nationalism and the Palestinians, 1850-1939, ʻAbd al-ʻAzīz ʻAyyād". Passia.org. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  305. ^ Gerber 2008, p. 51: "An important source shedding light on the question is Ruhi al-Khalidi’s book on the history of Zionism, written in the first decade of the twentieth century. It is noteworthy that whenever the name of the country appears, it is always Palestine, never southern Syria or anything else. Al-Khalidi does not seem to be inventing it, otherwise it would be difficult to see why he does not try to explain what he is doing, or where he found this "bizarre" name. He is simply using what his language and his knowledge have imparted to him. [Footnote: Walid Khalidi, "Kitab al-Sionism, aw al-Mas’ala al-Sahyiuniyya li-Muhammad Ruhi al-Khalidi al-mutwaffa sanat 1913," in Hisham Nashshabe, ed., Dirasat Filastiniyya, Beirut: Muassasat al-Dirasat al-Filistiniyya, 1988, pp. 37–82.]"
  306. ^ Grooves Of Change: A Book Of Memoirs, Herbert Samuel
  307. ^ Britain's Moment in the Middle East, 1914-1956, Elizabeth Monroe, p26
  308. ^ Shifting Ottoman Conceptions of Palestine-Part 2: Ethnography and Cartography, Salim Tamari
  309. ^ a b c Grief 2008, p. 473.
  310. ^ "Hansard ARAB POLITICAL REPRESENTATIVES (VISIT TO PALESTINE). HC Deb 25 June 1918 vol 107 c903W". Hansard.millbanksystems.com. 1918-06-25. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  311. ^ "Hansard search "Palestinian"". Hansard.millbanksystems.com. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  312. ^ "Zionist Organization Statement on Palestine, Paris Peace Conference, February 3, 1919". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  313. ^ "Paris Peace Conference Zionist Organisation - proposed map of Palestine". Mideastweb.org. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  314. ^ Pipes, Daniel (1992). Greater Syria: The History of an Ambition. Oxford University Press US. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-19-506022-5. 
  315. ^ "Franco-British Convention on Certain Points Connected with the Mandates for Syria and the Lebanon, Palestine and Mesopotamia" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  316. ^ Lewis 1980, p. 12.
  317. ^ Meeting on November 9, 1920, quoted in: Memorandum No. 33, "Use of the Name Eretz-Israel’," in the Report by the Palestine Royal Commission, 1937, Memoranda Prepared by the Government of Palestine, C. O. No. 133.
  318. ^ "Permanent Mandates Commission, 22nd meeting, minutes of the ninth session, Geneva, June 1926". Domino.un.org. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  319. ^ Palestine: Report of the Royal Commission, 1936, CAB 24/270/8 / Former Reference: CP 163 (37), 22 June 1937
  320. ^ "Palestine and Israel", David M. Jacobson, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 313 (February 1999), pp. 65–74; "The Southern and Eastern Borders of Abar-Nahara," Steven S. Tuell, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 284 (November 1991), pp. 51–57; "Herodotus' Description of the East Mediterranean Coast", Anson F. Rainey, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 321 (February 2001), pp. 57–63; Herodotus, Histories
  321. ^ Killebrew 2005, p. 205.
  322. ^ a b Lewis 1980, p. 1.
  323. ^ a b Jobling, David; Rose, Catherine (1996), "Reading as a Philistine", in Mark G. Brett, Ethnicity and the Bible, BRILL, p. 404, ISBN 9780391041264, Rabbinic sources insist that the Philistines of Judges and Samuel were different people altogether from the Philistines of Genesis. (Midrash Tehillim on Psalm 60 (Braude: vol. 1, 513); the issue here is precisely whether Israel should have been obliged, later, to keep the Genesis treaty.) This parallels a shift in the Septuagint's translation of Hebrew pelistim. Before Judges, it uses the neutral transliteration phulistiim, but beginning with Judges it switches to the pejorative allophuloi. [To be precise, Codex Alexandrinus starts using the new translation at the beginning of Judges and uses it invariably thereafter, Vaticanus likewise switches at the beginning of Judges, but reverts to phulistiim on six occasions later in Judges, the last of which is 14:2.] 
  324. ^ Drews 1998, p. 49: "Our names ‘Philistia’ and ‘Philistines’ are unfortunate obfuscations, first introduced by the translators of the LXX and made definitive by Jerome’s Vg. When turning a Hebrew text into Greek, the translators of the LXX might simply—as Josephus was later to do—have Hellenized the Hebrew פְּלִשְׁתִּים as Παλαιστίνοι, and the toponym פְּלִשְׁתִּ as Παλαιστίνη. Instead, they avoided the toponym altogether, turning it into an ethnonym. As for the ethnonym, they chose sometimes to transliterate it (incorrectly aspirating the initial letter, perhaps to compensate for their inability to aspirate the sigma) as φυλιστιιμ, a word that looked exotic rather than familiar, and more often to translate it as άλλόφυλοι. Jerome followed the LXX’s lead in eradicating the names, ‘Palestine’ and ‘Palestinians’, from his Old Testament, a practice adopted in most modern translations of the Bible."
  325. ^ Drews 1998, p. 51: "The LXX’s regular translation of פְּלִשְׁתִּים into άλλόφυλοι is significant here. Not a proper name at all, allophyloi is a generic term, meaning something like ‘people of other stock’. If we assume, as I think we must, that with their word allophyloi the translators of the LXX tried to convey in Greek what p'lištîm had conveyed in Hebrew, we must conclude that for the worshippers of Yahweh p'lištîm and b'nê yiśrā'ēl were mutually exclusive terms, p'lištîm (or allophyloi) being tantamount to ‘non-Judaeans of the Promised Land’ when used in a context of the third century BCE, and to ‘non-Israelites of the Promised Land’ when used in a context of Samson, Saul and David. Unlike an ethnonym, the noun פְּלִשְׁתִּים normally appeared without a definite article."
  326. ^ a b c d e Richard Abbott. "The Philistines". Oldtestamentstudies.net. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  327. ^ a b c d e "All references to words beginning Philis*". Bible Gateway. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  328. ^ Smith, 1863, p. 1546.
  329. ^ A History of the Jews and Judaism in the Second Temple Period Page 174 Lester L. Grabbe - 2008 "The place of Judah in Coele-Syria was readily known in geographical writings. According to Strabo, Syria includes the following areas: We set down as parts of Syria, beginning at Cilicia and Mt. Amanus, both Commagene and the Seleucis ...
  330. ^ Strabo 16.2, Geographica
  331. ^ Studies in Josephus and the varieties of ancient Judaism: Louis H. Feldman. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  332. ^ The Bar-Kokhba Revolt (132-135 C.E.) by Shira Schoenberg, The Jewish Virtual Library
  333. ^ a b Sharon, 1998, p. 4. According to Moshe Sharon: "Eager to obliterate the name of the rebellious Judaea", the Roman authorities (General Hadrian) renamed it Palaestina or Syria Palaestina.
  334. ^ Lehmann, Clayton Miles (Summer 1998). "Palestine: History: 135–337: Syria Palaestina and the Tetrarchy". The On-line Encyclopedia of the Roman Provinces. University of South Dakota. Retrieved 2008-07-06. 
  335. ^ Lendering, Jona. "Satraps and satrapies". Livius.org. Livius. Retrieved 17 December 2014.