Timeline of women's rights (other than voting)

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Laura Bassi. The first female professor in Europe
Dorothea Erxleben. The first female doctor in Germany
Portrait of Elizabeth Blackwell by Joseph Stanley Kozlowski, 1905. Syracuse University Medical School collection.

The timeline signifies the major events in the development of women's rights and issues of gender inequality other than the right to vote. For those rights, see Timeline of women's suffrage.

Before the 19th century[edit]

1707
  • The efforts of Dorothea von Velen—mistress of Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine—led to the abolition of couverture in the Electoral Palatinate in 1707, making it an early beacon of women's rights. The Palatinate was the first German state to abolish couverture, but it was briefly re-instated by Karl III Philipp, Johann Wilhelm's successor. Dorothea protested from exile in Amsterdam. She published her memoirs, A Life for Reform, which were highly critical of Karl III Philipp's government. To avoid a scandal, Karl III Philipp yielded to Dorothea's demands, and couverture was once again abolished.[1]
1718
  • Russia: Gender segregation is banned[2]
  • Sweden: Female taxpaying members of the cities' guilds are allowed to vote and stand for election during the age of liberty; this right is banned (for local elections) in 1758 and (general elections) in 1771[3]
  • Province of Pennsylvania (now U.S. state of Pennsylvania): Married women allowed to own and manage property in their own name during the incapacity of their spouse[4]
1722
  • Russia: Ban against forced marriages [2]
1734
  • Sweden: In the Civil Code of 1734, men are banned from selling the property of their wife without her consent, and both spouses regardless of gender are secured the right to divorce upon adultery, while the innocent party are secured custody of the children.[5]
  • Sweden: Unmarried women, normally under the guardianship of their closest male relative, are granted the right to be declared of legal majority by dispensation from the monarch.[6]
1741
  • Sweden: The profession of innkeeper are no longer to require the guild-membership, which effectively open the profession for women.[7]
1749
  • Sweden: Women are secured the rights to manage the street trade of knick-knacks, a permit which was normally to be given women unable to support themselves, and which became a very common profession for destitute women in Stockholm.[8]
1753
  • Russia: Married women granted separate economy [9]
1754
1774
  • Sweden: Women allowed to participate in the Tobacco trade.[8]
1776
1778
  • Sweden: Barnamordsplakatet; unmarried women are allowed to leave their home town to give birth anonymously and have the birth registered anonymously, to refrain from answering any questions about the birth and, if they choose to keep their child, to have their unmarried status not mentioned in official documents to avoid social embarrassment.
1779
  • Spain: The guild restrictions which prevented females from holding certain professions are abolished.[11]
1784
  • Spain: Women are by royal decree allowed to accept any profession compatible with her "sex, dignity and strength".[11]
1786
  • Russia: Primary and high schools for females [2]
1791
  • France: Equal inheritance rights (abolished in 1804) [12]
1792
  • France: Divorce is legalized for both sexes[12] (abolished for women in 1804)
  • France: Local women-units of the defense army are founded in several cities; although the military was never officially open to women, about eight thousand women were estimated to have served openly in the French armée in local troops (but not in the battle fields) between 1792 and 1794, but women were officially barred from the armée in 1795[13]
  • Kingdom of Great Britain: Mary Wollstonecraft, a British feminist, writer and philosopher, publishes A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, one of the earliest works of feminist philosophy.
1793
  • France: The question of women's right to vote is discussed in the Parliament of France; women's right to vote is acknowledged as a principle, but it is still put aside with the explanation that the time is not right to make this a reality and is therefore postponed.[13]

19th century[edit]

1800–1849[edit]

1810
  • Sweden: The right of an unmarried woman to be declared of legal majority by royal dispensation are officially confirmed by parliament[14]
1811
  • Austria: Married women are granted separate economy and the right to choose profession[15]
  • Sweden: Married businesswomen are granted the right to make decisions about their own affairs without their husband's consent [16]
1817
  • England: Public whipping of women abolished (public whipping of men followed in 1868).[17]
1818
  • India: Western Christian missionaries open the first schools open to girls.[18]
1821
  • US, Maine: Married women allowed to own and manage property in their own name during the incapacity of their spouse[4]
1822
  • Serbia: Girls are allowed to attend elementary schools with boys up until the fourth grade.[19]
1823
  • Argentina: The charitable Beneficial Society is charged by the government to establish and control (private) elementary schools for girls (they retain the control of the schools for girls until 1876).[20]
1827
  • Brazil: The first elementary schools for girls and the profession of school teacher are open[21]
1829
  • India: The Bengal Sati Regulation, 1829 banns the practice of Sati in British Bengal (the ban is extended to Madras and Bobay the following year).
  • Sweden: Midwives are allowed to use surgical instruments, which are unique in Europe at the time and gives them surgical status[22]
1832
  • Egypt: A school for the education of medical assistants is founded: the same decade, Christian missionaries are allowed to open elementary schools for girls.[23]
1833
1834
  • Greece: Compulsory prime education for both boys and girls, in parallel with the foundation of the first private secondary educational schools for girls such as the Arsakeio.[25]
1835
  • US, Arkansas: Married women allowed to own (but not control) property in their own name[4]
  • US, Massachusetts: Married women allowed to own and manage property in their own name during the incapacity of their spouse[4]
  • US, Tennessee: Married women allowed to own and manage property in their own name during the incapacity of their spouse[4]
  • Iran, Urmia: First modern school for girls opened.[26]
1839
1840
  • Republic of Texas: Married women allowed to own property in their own name[28]
  • US, Maine: Married women allowed to own (but not control) property in their own name[4]
1841
  • Bulgaria: The first secular girls school makes education and the profession of teacher available for women[29]
  • US, Maryland: Married women allowed to own (but not control) property in their own name.[4]
1842
  • Sweden: Compulsory Elementary school for both sexes [30]
  • US, New Hampshire: Married women allowed to own and manage property in their own name during the incapacity of their spouse[4]
1843
  • US, Kentucky: Married women allowed to own and manage property in their own name during the incapacity of their spouse[4]
1844
  • US, Maine: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • US, Maine: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • US, Massachusetts: Married Women granted separate economy [31]
1845
  • Sweden: Equal inheritance for sons and daughters (in the absence of a will)[32]
  • US, New York: Married women granted patent rights[4]
  • US, Florida: Married women allowed to own (but not control) property in their own name[4]
1846
  • Sweden: Trade- and crafts works professions are opened to all unmarried women[33]
  • US, Alabama: Married women allowed to own (but not control) property in their own name[4]
  • US, Kentucky: Married women allowed to own (but not control) property in their own name[4]
  • US, Ohio: Married women allowed to own (but not control) property in their own name[4]
  • US, Michigan: Married women allowed to own and manage property in their own name during the incapacity of their spouse[4]
1847
  • Belgium: Elementary school for both genders
  • Costa Rica: The first high school for girls, and the profession of teacher is open to women[34]
1848
  • US, State of New York: Married Women's Property Act grant married women separate economy[35]
  • US, Pennsylvania: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • US, Rhode Island: Married women granted separate economy[4]
1849
  • India: Secondary education is made available by the foundation of the Bethune School.[36]
  • US, Alabama: Married women allowed to own and manage property in their own name during the incapacity of their spouse[4]
  • US, Connecticut: Married women allowed to own and manage property in their own name during the incapacity of their spouse[4]
  • USA: Elizabeth Blackwell becomes the first female medical doctor (1858 also in Great Britain).
  • US, Missouri: Married women allowed to own (but not control) property in their own name[4]
  • US, South Carolina: Married women allowed to own (but not control) property in their own name[4]

1850–1874[edit]

1850
  • France: Elementary education for both sexes, but girls are only allowed to be tutored by teachers from the church[15]
  • Haiti: The first permanent school for girls[37]
  • Iceland: Equal inheritance.[38]
  • US, California: Married Women's Property Act grant married women separate economy[39]
  • US, Wisconsin: Married Women's Property Act grant married women separate economy[39]
  • US, Oregon: Unmarried women are allowed to own land[15]
1851
  • Guatemala: Full citizenship are granted economically independent women (rescinded in 1879)[40]
  • Canada, New Brunswick : Married women granted separate economy[41]
1852
  • Nicaragua: Josefa Vega are granted dispensation to attend lectures at university, after which women are given the right to apply for permission to attend lectures at university (though not to an actual full university education).[42]
  • US, New Jersey: Married Women granted separate economy [31]
  • US, Indiana: Married women allowed to own (but not control) property in their own name[4]
  • US, Wisconsin: Married women allowed to own and manage property in their own name during the incapacity of their spouse[4]
1853
  • Colombia: Divorce is legalized (rescinded in 1856 and reintroduced in 1992) [24]
  • Egypt: The first Egyptian school for females is opened by the Copts minority.[43]
  • Serbia: The first secondary educational school for females is inaugurated (public schools for girls having opened in 1845-46).[44]
  • Sweden: The profession of teacher at public primary and elementary schools are opened to both sexes[45]
1854
  • Norway: Equal inheritance[15]
  • US, Massachusetts: grant married women separate economy[39]
  • Chile: The first public elementary school for girls[46]
1855
  • Ottoman Empire: Factory work are open to both sexes when the first women are employed at the textile factory at Bursa, at the same time allowing them to mix unveiled with men.[47]
  • US, Iowa: University of Iowa becomes the first coeducational public or state university in the United States[48]
  • US, Michigan: Married women granted separate economy[29]
1856
  • US, Connecticut: Married women granted patent rights[4]
1857
  • Denmark: Legal majority for unmarried women[15]
  • Denmark: Trades and crafts professions are opened to unmarried women[49]
  • Great Britain: Matrimonial Causes Act 1857 makes divorce possible for both sexes.
  • Netherlands: Elementary education compulsory for both girls and boys [50]
  • Spain: Elementary education compulsory for both girls and boys [51]
  • US, Maine: Married women granted the right to control their own earnings [31]
  • US, Oregon: Married women allowed to own (but not control) property in their own name[4]
  • US, Oregon: Married women allowed to own and manage property in their own name during the incapacity of their spouse[4]
1858
  • Ottoman Empire: The first state school for girls is opened; several others schools for girls are opened during the following decades.[52]
  • Russia: gymnasiums for girls[2]
  • Sweden: Legal majority for unmarried women (if applied for; automatic legal majority in 1863)[32]
1859
  • Canada West: Married women granted separate economy [41]
  • Denmark: The post of teacher at public schools are opened to women[49]
  • Russia: Women allowed to audit university lectures (retracted in 1863)[2]
  • Sweden: The post of college teacher and lower official at public institutions are open to women [53]
  • US, Kansas: Married Women's Property Act grant married women separate economy [39]
1860
  • US, New York: Married women granted the right to control their own earnings[31]
  • US, Maryland: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • US, Maryland: Married women granted the right to control their earnings[4]
  • US, Maryland: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • New Zealand: Married women allowed to own property (extended in 1870)[15]
  • US, Massachusetts: Married women granted trade licenses[4]
1861
  • France: Julie-Victoire Daubié becomes the first female student.
  • Iceland: Legal majority for unmarried women[38]
  • India: Sati is banned in the entire India.[54]
  • Russia: The Scientific- and Medical Surgery Academy open laboratories for women (retracted in 1864)[2]
  • Sweden: The first public institution of higher academic learning for women, Högre lärarinneseminariet, is opened.
  • Sweden: The dentist profession is opened to women[55]
  • USA: Lucy Hobbs Taylor becomes the first female dentist.
  • US, Illinois: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • US, Ohio: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • US, Illinois: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • US, Ohio: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
1863
  • Denmark: Colleges open to women[33]
  • Norway: Legal majority for unmarried women (at the same age as men in 1869)[32]
  • Serbia: The inauguration of the Women's High School in Belgrade, first high school open to women in Serbia (and the entire Balkans).[56]
  • Sweden: The Post- and telegraph professions are opened to women[57]
1864
  • Belgium: The first official secondary education school open to females in Belgium.[58]
  • Bohemia: Taxpaying women and women in "learned profession" eligible to the legislative body[59]
  • Finland: Legal majority for unmarried women.[32]
  • Haiti: Elementary schools for girls are founded[37]
  • Serbia: The University of Belgrade is founded: females are theoretically allowed from the start, though the first two female students did not graduate until 1891.[19]
  • Sweden: Unmarried women are granted the same rights within trade and commerce as men.[16]
  • Sweden: Husbands are forbidden to abuse their wives.[60]
  • Sweden: The gymnastics profession is open to women.[57]
1865
  • Ireland: Married Women's Property (Ireland) Act 1865
  • Italy: Legal majority for unmarried women[61]
  • Italy: Equal inheritance[61]
  • Italy: A married woman is allowed to become the legal guardian of her children and their property if abandoned by her husband[61]
  • Romania: The educational reform grant all Romanians access to education, which, at least formally, gave also females the right to attend school from elementary education to the university.[62]
  • US, Louisiana: Married women allowed to own and manage property in their own name during the incapacity of their spouse[4]
1867
  • Portugal: The Civil Code of 1867 secure legal majority and freedom from guardianship for unmarried, legally separated or widowed women, allows for civil marriage and give married women the option to secure their right to separate economy by agreement prior to marriage.[63]
  • Switzerland: Zürich University formally open to women, though they had already been allowed to attend lectures a few years prior[64]
  • US, Alabama: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • US, New Hampshire: Married women granted separate economy[4]
1868
  • Croatia: The first high school open to females[65]
  • US, North Carolina: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • US, Arkansas: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • US, Kansas: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • US, Kansas: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • US, Kansas: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • US, South Carolina: Married women allowed to own (but not control) property in their own name[4]
  • US, Georgia: Married women allowed to own (but not control) property in their own name[4]
1869
  • Austria-Hungary: The profession of public school teacher is open to women[15]
  • Costa Rica: Elementary education compulsory for both girls and boys[34]
  • Great Britain: Girton College, Cambridge.
  • Ottoman Empire: The law formally introduce compulsory elementary education for both boys and girls.[52]
  • Russia: University Courses for women are opened, which opens the profession of teacher, law assistant and similar lower academic professions for women (in 1876, the courses are no longer allowed to give exams, and in 1883, all outside of the capital is closed).[15]
  • Sweden: Women allowed to work in the railway office.[57]
  • USA: Arabella Mansfield becomes the first woman to enter the practice of law.
  • US, Minnesota: Married women granted separate economy[4]
1870
  • Argentina: The 1870 Civil Code secure legal majority for unmarried women and widows, though it confirms married women as minors.[66]
  • Finland: Women allowed to study at the universities by dispensation (dispensation demand dropped in 1901) [67]
  • Great Britain: Married Women's Property Act 1870
  • India: Female Infanticide Prevention Act, 1870
  • Mexico: Married women granted separate economy[68]
  • Ottoman Empire: The Teachers College for Girls are opened in Constantinople to educate women to professional teachers for girls school; the profession of teacher becomes accessible for women and education accessible to girls.[52]
  • Spain: The Asociación para la Enseñanza de la Mujer is founded: promoting education for women, it establishes secondary schools and training colleges all over Spain, which makes secondary and higher education open to females for the first time.[69]
  • Sweden: Universities open to women (at the same terms as men 1873).[32] The first female student is Betty Pettersson.
  • US, Georgia: Married women granted separate economy [70]
  • US, South Carolina: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • US, South Carolina: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • US, Tennessee: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • US, Iowa: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
1871
  • India: First training school for woman teachers.[71]
  • Japan: Women are allowed to study in the USA (though not yet in Japan itself)[72]
  • New Zealand: Universities open to women[73]
  • US, Mississippi: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • US, Mississippi: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • US, Mississippi: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • US, Arizona: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • US, Arizona: Married women granted trade license[4]
1872
  • Austria-Hungary: Women allowed to work in the post- and telegraph office[15]
  • Canada: Dominion Lands Act grant mothers without husbands homestead land.
  • Japan: Geisha and prostitutes are freed from guardianship and granted legal majority and the right to change profession[74]
  • Japan: Compulsory elementary education for both girls and boys.[75]
  • Ottoman Empire: The first government primary school for open to both genders.[76]
  • Spain: María Elena Maseras are allowed to enlist as a university student with special dispensation: having been formally admitted to a class in 1875, she was finally allowed to graduate 1882, which created a Precedent allowing females to enroll at universities from this point on.[77]
  • Sweden: Women are granted unlimited right to choose marriage partner without the need of any permission from her family, and arranged marriages are thereby banned (women of the nobility, however, are not granted the same right until 1882).[78]
  • Switzerland: The universities of Bern and Geneva open to women (Lausanne follow in 1876 and Basel in 1890)[64]
  • US, Pennsylvania: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • US, California: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • US, Montana: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • US, California: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • US, California: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • US, Wisconsin: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
1873
  • Egypt: The first public Egyptian primary school open to females: two years later, there are 32 primary schools for females in Egypt, three of whom also offered secondary education.[79]
  • Great Britain: Custody of Infants Act 1873; Mothers granted guardianship for children at divorce.
  • US, Arkansas: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • US, Kentucky: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • US, North Carolina: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • US, Kentucky: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • US, Arkansas: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • US, Delaware: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • US, Iowa: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • US, Nevada: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • US, Iowa: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • US, Nevada: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • US, Nevada: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
1874
  • France: First trade union open to women.
  • Iran: The first school for girls is founded by American missionaries (only non-Muslims attend until 1891).[80]
  • Japan: The profession of public school teacher is opened to women [81]
  • Netherlands: Aletta Jacobs becomes the first woman allowed to study medicine.
  • Sweden: Married women granted control over their own income.[32]
  • US, Massachusetts: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • US, New Jersey: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • US, Rhode Island: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • US, New Jersey: Married women granted trade licenses[4]
  • US, Colorado: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • US, Illinois: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • US, Minnesota: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • US, Montana: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • US, Montana: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • US, Colorado: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • US, Colorado: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]

1875–1899[edit]

1875
  • Denmark: Universities open to women[32]
  • India: First women admitted to college courses, although with special permission (at Madras Medical College).[82]
  • US, Delaware: Married women granted separate economy[4]
1876
  • Argentina: Girls are included in the national school system by the transference of the control of the private girls schools from the charitable Beneficent Society to the provincial government.[83]
  • Great Britain: Universities open to women [84]
  • India: Women allowed to attend university exams at the Calcutta University.[85]
  • Italy: Universities open to women.[86]
  • Netherlands:Universities open to women [86]
  • US, New Hampshire: Married women granted trade licenses[4]
  • US, Wyoming: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • US, Wyoming: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • US, Wyoming: Married women granted trade license[4]
1877
  • Chile: Universities open to women [87]
  • Italy: Women can serve as witnesses to legal acts[61]
  • Scotland: Married Women's Property (Scotland) Act 1877.
  • US, Connecticut: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • US, Connecticut: Married women granted trade licenses[4]
  • US, Dakota: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • US, Dakota: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • US, Dakota: Married women granted trade license[4]
1878
  • Austria-Hungary: Women allowed to attend university lectures as guest auditors [88]
  • Bulgaria: Elementary education for both sexes.[89]
  • Finland: Equal inheritance.[32]
  • Great Britain: Women can secure a separation on the grounds of cruelty, claim custody of their children and demand spousal and child support. Abused wives granted separation orders[90]
  • Great Britain: Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford
  • US, Virginia: Married women granted separate economy[4]
1879
  • Brazil: Universities open to women[21]
  • France: Colleges and secondary education open to women.[15]
  • India: The first college open to women: Bethune College (the first female graduate in 1883).[91]
  • US, Indiana: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • US, Indiana: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
1880
  • Australia : Universities open to women.[92]
  • Belgium: The university of Brussels open to women[86]
  • Canada: Universities open to women.[citation needed]
  • Denmark: Married women granted the right to control their own income[93]
  • France: Universities open to women.[15]
  • France: Free public secondary education to women.[94]
  • France: Public teachers training schools open to women.[95]
  • US, Oregon: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • US, Oregon: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
1881
  • France: Women allowed to open a bank account in their own name.[15]
  • Scotland: Married Women's Property (Scotland) Act 1881
  • US, Vermont: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • US, Vermont: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • US, Nebraska: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • US, Nebraska: Married women granted trade license[4]
  • US, Nebraska: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • US, Florida: Married women allowed to own and manage property in their own name during the incapacity of their spouse.[4]
1882
  • Great Britain: Married Women's Property Act 1882
  • France: Compulsory elementary education for both genders.[96]
  • Norway: Women allowed to study at the university.[97]
  • Nicaragua: The first public secular education institution for women, Colegio de Senoritas, open[98]
  • Poland: The Flying University provides academic education for women.
  • Serbia: Compulsory education for both sexes.[19]
1883
  • Belgium: Universities open to women.[86]
  • India: Bombay University open to women.[99]
  • Romania: Universities open to women [100]
  • Victoria, Australia: Married women granted separate economy [92]
1884
  • France: Equal divorce legalized for women and men.[101]
  • Switzerland: Legal majority for unmarried women (including widows)[102]
  • Norway: Universities open to women[32]
  • Germany: Legal majority for unmarried women[15]
  • Mexico: Legal majority for unmarried women and separate economy granted for married women [103]
  • Ontario: Married women granted separate economy [104]
  • Great Britain: Married Women's Property Act 1884
1886
  • Costa Rica: A public academic educational institution open to women[34]
  • France: Married allowed to open a bank account without the consent of her husband.[105]
  • France: Women eligible to public education boards.[106]
  • Great Britain: Guardianship of Infants Act 1886
  • Great Britain: Josephine Butler puts a stop to the prostitution reglement.
  • Guatemala: Married women granted separate economy[68]
  • Korea: The first educational institution for women, Ewha Womans University
1887
  • Albania: The first Albanian language elementary school open to female pupils.[107]
  • Costa Rica: Legal majority for married women[68]
  • Costa Rica: Married women granted separate economy[68]
  • Mexico: Universities open to women [108]
  • US, Idaho: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • US, Idaho: Married women granted trade license[4]
1888
  • Costa Rica: Married women are allowed to be guardians and execute wills[34]
  • Denmark: Fathers are forced to pay support to illegitimate children[93]
  • Serbia: Universities open to women,[67] the first two women graduating in 1891.[19]
  • Spain: Women are allowed to private university degrees by dispensation (Universities fully open to women in 1910).[109]
  • Norway: Legal majority for married women[38]
  • Montenegro: Legal majority for unmarried women [65]
1889
  • Argentina: Cecilia Grierson become the first female in Argentina to earn a medical university degree.
  • Egypt: The first teacher training college for women.[110]
  • Palestine: The first school open to girls founded by missionaries.[111]
  • Sweden: Women eligible to boards of public authority such as public school boards, public hospital boards, inspectors, poor care boards and similar positions[32]
  • US, State of Washington: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • US, State of Washington: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • US, State of Washington: Married women granted trade license[4]
1890
1891
  • Albania: The first school of higher education for women is opened.[113]
  • Germany: Women are allowed to attend university lectures, which makes it possible for individual professors to accept female students if they wish[88]
  • Portugal: The first medical university degree is granted to a woman [114]
  • Switzerland: Secondary schools open to women[64]
  • Switzerland: Trade unions open to women[50]
  • USA: Marie Owens hired as a police officer in Chicago.
1893
  • France: Legal majority for unmarried, divorced and separated women.[115]
  • Ottoman Empire: Women are permitted to attend medical lectures at Istanbul University.[116]
  • Great Britain: Married Women's Property Act 1893 grants married women control of property acquired during marriage.
1894
  • Poland: Kraków University open to women [117]
  • US, Louisiana: Married women granted trade license[4]
1895
  • Austria-Hungary : Universities open to women[15]
  • Egypt: A public school system for girls is organized.[118]
  • France: Women eligible as administrators of public charity boards.[119]
  • Upper Canada: Women allowed to work as barristers.[citation needed]
  • Russia: A Women's medical university are opened, which opens the profession of physician for women[15]
  • South Carolina in the United States: Separate economy allowed for married women.
  • US, Utah: Married women granted separate economy[4]
  • US, State of Washington: Married women granted control over their earnings[4]
  • US, State of Washington: Married women granted trade license[4]
1896
  • USA : The profession of lawyer opened to both sexes – already in 1869, however, the first American state allowed women to practice law.
1897
  • France: Women (regardless of marital status) eligible as witnesses in civil action.[120]
1898
  • France: Women eligible as administrators of commercial boards and mutual aid societies.[121]
  • Haiti: The Medical University accept female students in obstetrics.[37]
  • Serbia: Co-education, banned since the 1850s, are re-introduced, equalizing the schooling of males and females.[19]
1899
  • Denmark: Legal majority for married women[93]
  • Iceland: Legal majority for married women.[15]

20th century[edit]

1900–1939[edit]

1900
  • Belgium: Legal majority for unmarried women[122]
  • Egypt: A school for female teachers is founded in Cairo.[123]
  • France: Women allowed to practice law.[124]
  • Korea: The post office profession is open to women and thereby open the public work market for women [125]
  • Tunisia: The first public elementary school for girls[123]
  • Japan: The first Women's University [126]
  • Baden, Germany: Universities open to women[127]
  • Sri Lanka: Secondary education open to females.[128]
  • Sweden: Maternity leave for female industrial workers[33]
1901
  • Bulgaria: Universities open to women[89]
  • China: Girls are included in the education system.[129]
  • Cuba: Universities open to women.[108]
  • Denmark: Maternity leave for all women[93]
  • Sweden: Women are given four weeks maternity leave.[60]
1902
  • China: Foot binding is abolished.
  • El Salvador: Married women granted separate economy[68]
  • El Salvador: Legal majority for married women[68]
1903
  • Bavaria, Germany: Universities open to women[127]
  • Sweden: Public medical offices open to women[130]
1904
  • Mexico: Divorce is legalized.
  • Nicaragua: Married women granted separate economy.[68]
  • Nicaragua: Legal majority for married women.[68]
  • Württemberg, Germany: Universities open to women.[127]
1905
  • Argentina: University preparatory secondary education open to females.[131]
  • Iceland: Educational institutions open to women.[15]
  • Russia: Universities open to women.[15]
  • Serbia: Female university students are fully integrated in to the university system.[19]
1906
  • Finland (to stand for election).
  • Honduras: Married women granted separate economy[68]
  • Honduras: Legal majority for married women[68]
  • Honduras: Divorce is legalized [24]
  • Korea: The profession of nurse is allowed for women[125]
  • Nicaragua: Divorce is legalized [24]
  • Sweden : Municipal suffrage, since 1862 granted to unmarried women, granted to married women [132]
  • Saxony, Germany: Universities open to women[127]
1907
  • Finland (first female Members of Parliament).
  • France: Married women given control of their income.[133]
  • France: Women allowed guardianship of children[124]
  • Great Britain: Matrimonial Causes Act 1907
  • Iran: Compulsory primary education for females.[134]
  • Iran: The first Iranian school for girls is established by Tuba Azmudeh, followed by others in the following years.[135]
  • Japan: Tohoku University, the first (private) coeducational university.
  • Norway (to stand for election).
  • Sudan: The first school open to Muslim girls.[136]
  • Uruguay: Divorce is legalized.[137]
1908
  • Belgium: Women may act as legal witnesses in court[15]
  • Denmark: Juridical professions of lower rank open to women[49]
  • Denmark: Unmarried women are made legal guardian of their children[93]
  • Korea: Secondary education for females through the foundation of the Capital School for Girl's Higher Education.[138]
  • Ottoman Empire: The Young Turks introduce several reform in favor of gender equality: the professions of doctor, lawyer, and civil servant as well as public places such as restaurants, theatres and lecture halls open to both genders.[52]
  • Peru: Universities open to women[139]
  • Prussia, Alsace-Lorraine and Hesse, Germany: Universities open to women[127]
1909
  • France: Married women are given the legal right to be consulted by husband's before he dispose of family property, and to press charges against the economic mismanagement of the husband.[140]
  • Sweden: Women granted eligibility to municipal councils [132]
  • Sweden: The phrase "Swedish man" are removed from the application forms to public offices and women are thereby approved as applicants to most public professions[130]
  • Mecklenburg, Germany: Universities open to women[127]
1910
1911
  • Luxembourg: A new educational law give women access to higher education, and two secondary education schools open to females.[141]
  • Portugal: Civil offices open to women[114]
  • Portugal: Legal majority for married women [114] (rescinded in 1933)[142]
  • Portugal: Divorce legalized[142]
1912
  • France: Women allowed to bring paternity suits.[143]
1913
  • Japan: Public universities open to women[81]
  • Portugal: The first university law degree is granted to a woman[114]
1914
  • Russia: Married women allowed their own internal passport[2]
1915
  • Ottoman Empire: Women are permitted to unveil during office hours.[144]
1917
  • Cuba: Married women granted separate economy[68]
  • Cuba: Legal majority for married women[68]
  • Greece: The first public secondary educational school for girls open.[145]
  • Netherlands (to stand for election)
  • Mexico: Legal majority for married women[68]
  • Mexico: Divorce legalized[68]
  • Uruguay: University education open to women.[146]
1918
  • New South Wales, Australia: The Women's Legal Status Act 1918 formally legalize all professions for females.[147]
  • Czechoslovakia: Females are given the same rights as males in the new constitution and divorce is legalized for both sexes.[148]
  • Cuba: Divorce is legalized.[24]
  • Iran: Public schools for girls are opened in order to enforce the law of compulsory education for girls in practice.[149]
  • Nicaragua: The first female obtains a university degree[98]
  • Soviet Russia: The first Soviet Constitution explicitly declares the equal rights of men and women.
  • Thailand: Universities open to women [150]
1919
1920
  • China: The first female students are accepted in the Peking University, soon followed by universities all over China.[151]
  • Canada (to stand for election, with some restrictions/conditions).
  • Haiti: The apothecary profession open to women[37]
  • Korea: The profession of telephone operator, as well as several other professions, such as store clerks, are open to women[125]
  • Nepal: Sati (practice) is banned.[152]
  • Portugal: Secondary school open to women[114]
  • Sweden: Legal majority for married women and equal marriage rights[32]
1921
  • Belgium (to stand for election).
  • Belgium: The position of mayor, several lower public offices, such as financial adviser, open to women at local level.[122]
  • Nepal: Sati (practice) is abolished.
  • Thailand: Compulsory elementary education for both girls and boys [150]
1922
  • Belgium: The profession of lawyer is open to women[15]
  • Iraq: The first woman university student in Iraq.[153]
  • Japan: Women are allowed to be present and political meetings and form political organizations [154]
  • Peru: Women are allowed to serve in public welfare boards.[155]
  • Syria: Muslim women appear unveiled for the first time in public.[156]
1923
  • Egypt: Veiling is discarded: unveiling is supported by a fatwa in 1937.[157]
  • Egypt: Compulsory education for both sexes.[158]
1924
  • Argentina: Women are secured the right to maternity leave and daycare and employers are banned from firing women because of pregnancy.[159]
  • Denmark: The first ever female minister in Western Europe is appointed, when Nina Bang is appointed Minister of Education by Thorvald Stauning.
1925
1926
  • Argentina: Married women granted separate economy [68] legal majority and the right to employment.[160]
  • Lebanon: The University of Beirut is open to women.[161]
  • Romania: Married women allowed to manage their own income.[162]
  • Turkey: The Civil Code of 1926 secures equal rights to women in inheritance, marriage (thereby abolishing polygamy and harems) and divorce.[163][164]
1927
  • Afghanistan: The monarch introduces compulsory education for the daughters of officials.[165]
  • Luxembourg: Women are explicitly approved to function as a witness in court.[166]
  • Mexico: Legal majority for married women [24]
1928
  • Afghanistan: The first women are sent abroad to study (women banned from studying abroad in 1929).[167] Compulsory veiling, polygamy and forced concubinage is abolished (rescinded in 1929).[168]
  • Albania: The Civil Code of 1928 bans forced marriages and gives married women the right to divorce and equal inheritance.[113]
  • Bahrain: The first public primary school for girls.[169]
  • Egypt: The first Women students is admitted to Cairo University.[170]
  • Mexico: Equal marriage law.[68]
  • Southern Rhodesia: the marital power was abolished in 1928 by the Married Persons' Property Act, which also abolished community of property.[171]
1929
  • Greece: Secondary education for females in made equal to that of males.[172]
  • Haiti: The lawyer profession open to women[37]
1930
  • Peru: Divorce is legalized [24]
  • Turkey: Equal right to university education for both men and women.[173]
1931
  • China: The new Civil Code grant equal inheritance rights, the right for women to choose marriage partner, equal right to divorce and right to control their own property after divorce[46]
  • Spain: Legal majority for married women (rescinded in 1939)[174]
  • Spain: Equal right to profession (rescinded in 1939)[174]
  • Spain: Divorce is legalized(rescinded in 1939)[174]
1932
  • Bolivia: Divorce is legalized [24]
  • Colombia: Legal majority for married women[68]
  • Colombia: Married women granted separate economy[68]
  • Romania: Married women granted legal majority.[62]
1933
  • Colombia: Universities open to women [175]
  • Luxembourg: A ban against firing women teachers after marriage.[176]
1934
  • Brazil: The constitution of 1934 grants all women quality before the law, maternity leave, access to all public professions.[177]
  • Haiti: The physician profession open to women.[37]
  • Iran: In order to prepare for an abolition of the veil and social gender segregation, women teachers and students are encouraged to appear unveiled: this is followed the next year by an order to male politicians to introduce their wives to representational gender mixed social life.[178]
  • Turkey (to stand for election)
1935
  • Iran: Women are admitted to Tehran University.[179] The access of university education to females is, in fact, also a reform regarding women's access to professions, as it open numerous professions to women.[180]
  • Luxembourg: The profession of nurse and social worker, though de facto already in existence, are formally legalized and regulated for women.[181]
  • Thailand: Polygamy is banned and women are entitled to an equal share of common property after divorce.[182]
1936
  • Colombia: The national University open to women.[183]
  • Iran: Reza Shah Pahlavi set the mandatory unveiling of women—a highly controversial policy which nonetheless was significant for the desegregation of women.[179] In order to enforce the abolition of gender segregation, male civil servants were ordered to bring their wives to official ceremonies.[184]
  • Peru: Married women granted separate economy[68]
1937
1938
1939
  • Sweden: Ban against firing a woman for marrying or having children.[60]

1940–1969[edit]

1942
  • Russia: Women formally accepted into the military[2]
  • Venezuela: Legal majority for married women[68]
  • Venezuela: Married women granted separate economy[68]
1943
  • Iran: Compulsory primary education for both males and females.[187]
1945
  • 'British Guiana'-Guyana (to stand for election)
1946
  • Burma: Myanmar (to stand for election)
  • Uruguay: Legal majority for married women[68]
  • Uruguay: Married women granted separate economy[68]
1947
  • Sweden: Equal salary for both sexes.[60]
1948
  • Sweden: Maternity pay.[60]
1949
  • Ecuador: Legal majority for married women[68]
1950
  • China: Statute grants women equal right to property, to seek divorce and to inheritance.
1951
  • Bahrain: First Secondary education school open to females.[188]
1953
  • Afghanistan: The age of marriage for women are raised to sixteen, dowries are made the property of the wife, females are appointed judges in family courts and numerous professions, such as flight attendants, police officers, telephone operators and receptionists, are opened to women.[189]
  • Mexico (to stand for election)
  • South Africa: The Matrimonial Affairs Act in 1953, restricts but did not abolish the marital power.[190]
1955
  • Qatar: First public school for girls.[191]
1958
  • Sweden: Women allowed to become priests.[32]
1959
  • Afghanistan: Veiling is not banned but the compulsory veiling is abolished and women in official positions, as well as the wives and daughters of male officials, are asked to discard the veil in public.[192]
  • Iraq: The new personal status law provide equal inheritance rights, raise women's age of marriage to 18, prohibit men's right to divorce unilaterally and virtually abolish polygamy.[193]
1960
  • Afghanistan: The University of Kabul open to women.[194]
  • Canada (to stand for election, with no restrictions/conditions)
1961
  • El Salvador (to stand for election)
  • Kuwait: Mandatory veiling is abolished for female public servants.[195]
1962
  • Brazil: Legal majority for married women[196]
  • Kuwait: The right to education and employment are secured to all citizens regardless of gender.[197]
1963
  • Guatemala: Legal majority for married women[68]
  • Indonesia: abolition of the requirement that married women must have their husbands' permission to initiate judicial proceedings [198]
  • Papua New Guinea (to stand for election)
1964
  • Afghanistan: The 1964 constitution state the equal right of women to education, employment and rights within marriage.[199]
1965
  • France: Married women obtained the right to work without their husbands' consent.[200]
  • Kuwait: Compulsory education for both boys and girls.[201]
1966
  • Kuwait: University education open to women.[202]
1967
1968
  • Argentina: Legal majority for married women[68]
1969
  • Portugal: Legal majority for married women[142]

1970–1999[edit]

1970
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo (to stand for election)
  • Ecuador: Married women granted separate economy[68]
  • France: The paternal authority of a man over his family was ended in 1970 (before that parental responsibilities belonged solely to the father who made all legal decisions concerning the children).[204]
1971
  • Egypt: The new constitution confirm equality before the law and women's right to inheritance, property, education, employment and divorce.[205]
  • Switzerland: Women allowed to stand for election at federal level[206]
  • USA: Barring women from practicing law was prohibited in the U.S. in 1971.[207]
1972
  • Bolivia: Married women granted separate economy.[68]
  • Bolivia: Legal majority for married women.[68]
  • Luxembourg: Legal majority for married women.[208]
1973
  • Andorra, San Marino (to stand for election)
  • USA: Roe v. Wade, right to abortion secured
1975
  • Great Britain: Sex Discrimination Act 1975
  • Sweden: The right to abortion is secured[32]
  • Spain: abolition of the permiso marital (which required married women to have their husbands' consent for nearly all economic activities, including employment, ownership of property and traveling away from home)[209]
  • France: The Veil Law legalizes abortion.[203]
  • Austria: abolition of the requirement that married women must have their husbands' permission to initiate judicial proceeding[210]
  • Italy: Law no 151/1975 provides for gender equality within marriage, abolishing the legal dominance of the husband.[211][212]
1977
  • Afghanistan: Full equality of men and women before the law.[213]
1978
  • Afghanistan: Mandatory literacy and education of all females.[214]
  • Dominican Republic: Abolition of the requirement that married women must have their husbands' permission to initiate judicial proceedings[210]
  • 'Rhodesia'-Zimbabwe (to stand for election)
1979
  • Chile: Legal majority for married women[68]
1980
  • Sweden: Gender discrimination forbidden by law.[60]
1981
  • Spain: Abolition of the requirement that married women must have their husbands' permission to initiate judicial proceedings[210]
  • Italy: repeal of the law which provided for mitigated punishment in case of honor killings; prior to 1981, the law read: Art. 587: He who causes the death of a spouse, daughter, or sister upon discovering her in illegitimate carnal relations and in the heat of passion caused by the offence to his honour or that of his family will be sentenced to three to seven years. The same sentence shall apply to whom, in the above circumstances, causes the death of the person involved in illegitimate carnal relations with his spouse, daughter, or sister.[215][216]
  • United States: the full end of the legal subordination of a wife to her husband: Kirchberg v. Feenstra, 450 U.S. 455 (1981), a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held a Louisiana Head and Master law, which gave sole control of marital property to the husband, unconstitutional.[217]
1982
  • Zimbabwe: Abolition of the requirement that married women must have their husbands' permission to initiate judicial proceedings[210]
1983
1984
  • Peru: Legal majority for married women[68]
  • South Africa: The Matrimonial Property Act of 1984 abolished it prospectively (i.e. for marriages contracted after the act came into force) but not for marriages between black people.
  • Switzerland: Abolition of the requirement that married women must have their husbands' permission to initiate judicial proceedings[210]
  • Australia: Sex Discrimination Act 1984
1985
1986
  • Djibouti (to stand for election)
1987
  • Argentina: divorce is legalized; the new law also provides for gender equality between the wife and husband.[220]
  • Paraguay: Abolition of the requirement that married women must have their husbands' permission to initiate judicial proceedings[210]
1988
  • Switzerland: legal reforms providing gender equality in marriage, abolishing the legal authority of the husband, come into force (these reforms had been approved in 1985 by voters in a referendum) [221][222][223]
  • South Africa: Marital power is abolished prospectively for marriages of black people under the civil law, but not for marriages contracted under customary law.
  • Brazil: husband no longer "head of the household" (which gave him certain legal powers over his wife)[210]
  • Rwanda: Abolition of the requirement that married women must have their husbands' permission to initiate judicial proceedings[210]
1991
1993
  • South Africa: Marital power is repealed for all civil marriages, whenever they were contracted.[190] The marital power persisted, however, in the Transkei (which was nominally independent from 1976 to 1994) but it was held to be unconstitutional for civil marriages by the High Court in 1999.[190]
1994
1996
  • Namibia: The marital power is abolished in 1996 by the Married Persons Equality Act.
  • Angola: Abolition of the requirement that married women must have their husbands' permission to initiate judicial proceedings[210]
  • Guatemala: the Guatemalan Constitutional Court struck down the adultery law, which was gendered, based both on the Constitution’s gender equality clause and on human rights treaties including CEDAW[225]
1997
  • Germany: marital rape is criminalized [226]
  • United States: enacts the Federal Prohibition of Female Genital Mutilation Act[227]
1998

21st century[edit]

2002
2003
2004
  • Botswana: the marital power is abolished by the Abolition of Marital Power Act.
  • Mozambique: abolition of the requirement that married women must have their husbands' permission to initiate judicial proceeding[210]
2005
2006
  • Brazil: Brazil's Federal Law 11340, also called Maria da Penha Law (Lei Maria da Penha) - law against domestic violence against women
  • India: Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 comes into force (in October 2006)
  • Greece: Law 3500/2006 on Combating Domestic Violence, criminalizes domestic against women, including marital rape.[229]
  • Lesotho: the marital power is abolished by the The Married Persons Equality Act 2006[230]
2007
  • Costa Rica: Law on Criminal Sanctions for Violence Against Women (Ley de Penalización de la Violencia Contra las Mujeres) [231]
  • New Zealand: Human Rights (Women in Armed Forces) Amendment Act 2007
  • Egypt: FGM banned [232]
  • Venezuela: enacts Organic Law on the Right of Women to a Life Free of Violence (Ley Organica Sobre el Derecho de las Mujeres a una Vida Libre de Violencia)[233]
2008
  • Guatemala: enacts Law against Femicide and Other Forms of Violence Against Women (Ley contra el Femicidio y otras Formas de Violencia Contra la Mujer)[234]
  • Colombia: enacts Law 1257 of 2008 for establishing rules of awareness, prevention and punishment of all forms of violence and discrimination against women (Ley 1257 de 2008, por la cual se dictan normas de sensibilización, prevención y sanción de formas de violenci a y discriminación contra las mujeres)[235]
2009
  • Argentina: enacts The Comprehensive Law on the Prevention, Punishment and Elimination of Violence against Women in their Interpersonal Relations [Law 26.485] ( Ley de protección integral para prevenir, sancionar y erradicar la violencia contra las mujeres en los ámbitos en que desarrollen sus relacion es interpersonales [Ley 26.485])[236] which protects women from violence against women and domestic violence
  • Uganda: FGM banned [237]
2011
  • El Salvador: enacts Law for a Life Free of Violence against Women (Ley Especial Integral para una Vida Libre de Violencia para las Mujeres)[238]
2012
  • Ireland: the Criminal Justice (Female Genital Mutilation) Act 2012,[239] banns FGM
  • Nicaragua: enacts Law no 779- Integral Law against Violence against Women (Ley Integral contra la Violencia hacia la Mujer).[240]
2013
  • Panama: enacts Law 82 - Typifying Femicide and Violence Against Women (Ley 82 - Tipifica el Femicidio y la Violencia contra las Mujeres)[241]
  • Swaziland: marital power is restricted, but not abolished: (Sihlongonyane v Sihlongonyane (470/2013) [2013] SZHC 144 (18 July 2013) [242]).
  • Ivory Coast: legal reforms provide for gender equality in marriage.[198]
  • Bolivia: enacts Law 348 - Integral law guaranteeing women a Life Free of Violence (Ley 348 - Ley Integral para Garantizar a las Mujeres una Vida Libre de Violencia)[243]
  • United States: enacts the Transport for Female Genital Mutilation Act, which prohibits knowingly transporting a girl out of the United States for the purpose of undergoing FGM.[244]
  • Denmark: reforms its legislation on sexual offenses,[245][246][247] after having been harshly criticized by Amnesty International for lack of adequate laws in this area[248][249]
2014
2015
  • Brazil: enacts law against femicide [253]
  • Nicaragua: new Family Code [254] which provides for gender equality comes into force; replacing the old family law[198][255] which gave the husband authority
  • Nigeria: bans FGM [256][257]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj B. Zorina Khan (November 20, 2013). The Democratization of Invention: Patents and Copyrights in American Economic Development, 1790–1920. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521747202. 
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External links[edit]